WorldWideScience

Sample records for wiring board surface

  1. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  2. Parallel optical interconnect between surface-mounted devices on FR4 printed wiring board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Mikko; Alajoki, Teemu; Tanskanen, Antti; Kataja, Kari; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Karioja, Pentti; Immonen, Marika; Kivilahti, Jorma

    2006-04-01

    Technologies to design and fabricate high-bit-rate chip-to-chip optical interconnects on printed wiring boards (PWB) are studied. The aim is to interconnect surface-mounted component packages or modules using board-embedded optical waveguides. In order to demonstrate the developed technologies, a parallel optical interconnect was integrated on a standard FR4-based PWB. It consists of 4-channel BGA-mounted transmitter and receiver modules as well as of four polymer multimode waveguides fabricated on top of the PWB using lithographic patterning. The transmitters and receivers built on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates include flip-chip mounted VCSEL or photodiode array and 4x10 Gb/s driver or receiver IC. Two microlens arrays and a surface-mounted micro-mirror enable optical coupling between the optoelectronic device and the waveguide array. The optical alignment is based on the marks and structures fabricated in both the LTCC and optical waveguide processes. The structures were optimized and studied by the use of optical tolerance analyses based on ray tracing. The characterized optical alignment tolerances are in the limits of the accuracy of the surface-mount technology.

  3. Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents comparative risk, competitiveness, and resource requirements on technologies for performing the “making holes conductive” function during printed wiring board manufacturing.

  4. Gold recovery from printed wiring board using bioleaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ. (Japan); Nishikawa, H. [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka Univ. (Japan); Takemoto, T. [Joining and Welding Research Inst., Osaka Univ. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In the electronic assembly, gold is frequently used as surface plating and a bonding wire. To recover gold from waste electronics, the dissolution process using cyan is a popular method, however, the solution is highly toxic. Accordingly, the environmentally conscious substitute process is preferable. In this study the possibility of Au dissolution from printed wiring boards using bioleaching has been investigated. Chromobacterium violaceum having ability of cyanide formation was used to dissolve Au. The printed wiring boards with gold plating of 0.07nm in thickness were immersed in synthetic medium with C. violaceum. After immersion test for 480h, the gold plating was completely dissolved. The increase in cyanide concentration gave little effect on the enhancement of dissolution of gold, however, the dissolution rate of Au was increased with increasing of dissolved oxygen in the medium. Chromobacterium violaceum produced 0.8mmol/l cyanide but it also decomposed about 60% of cyanide generated, therefore, this dissolution process could be used as an environmentally conscious method. (orig.)

  5. Recycling of electronic waste: Printed wiring boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyima, Alex

    Pyrolysis and leaching are the dominant techniques applied in the recycling of waste printed wiring boards (PWBs). Waste PWB pyrolysis is a highly polluting technology and produces brominated pyrolysis oils in addition to hydrogen bromide (HBr) gas. Moreover, leaching as a treatment process of waste PWBs is not well investigated. In this work, the pyrolysis of waste PWBs has been studied with the aim of reducing the amount of brominated oils and HBr gas evolved. The effects of powder inorganic chemicals (CaO, CaCO3, Fe 2O3, Al2O3, Y-Zeolite, and ZSM-5) additions on the pyrolysis of waste PWBs has been studied through experiments using a thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyzer connected to a mass spectrometer (TG-DTA-MS) and in a tube furnace at 900 °C. It has been shown that the kinetic models by Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger are applicable to waste PWB pyrolysis at temperatures below 400 °C. Moreover, CaO, CaCO3, Fe2O3, Y-Zeolite, and ZSM-5 show a potential to reduce the amount of HBr gas evolved during pyrolysis in TG-DTA-MS. However, in the tube furnace pyrolysis experiments, CaO and CaCO3 were found to be the most effective chemical additions, with more than 90% reduction in total bromine (HBr and other brominated gases) evolved. It has also been demonstrated that the sequential leaching of waste PWBs with hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and aqua regia is capable of selective recovery of base and precious metals contained in waste PWBs.

  6. AIR EMISSIONS FROM LASER DRILLING OF PRINTED WIRING BOARD MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study to characterize gases generated during laser drilling of printed wiring board (PWB) material and identifies the pollutants and generation rates found during the drilling process. Typically found in the missions stream were trace amounts of carbo...

  7. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  8. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  9. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  10. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  11. Electrochemical cleaning of Sv-08G2S wire surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.I.; Degtyarev, V.G.; Novikov, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of industrial tests of the Sv-08G2S wire with different state of surface fwith technological lubrication, after mechanical cleaning, with electrochemically cleaned surface) are presented. Advantages of welding-technological properties of the wire with electroe chemically cleaned surface are shown. An operation principle of the electrochemical cleaning facility is described. A brief specf ification f of the facility is given [ru

  12. Hot-wiring azurin onto gold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stan, Razvan

    2010-01-01

    The growing field of bio-electronics holds many promises with regard to the integration of various organic molecules onto printed circuit-boards. These include a decrease in the cost of production, an increased sensitivity and specificity to molecular detection from various solutions (i.e. blood)

  13. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sharma, Himanshu S.; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires poses several clinical challenges. Surface modification with aesthetic/metallic/non metallic materials is therefore a recent innovation, with clinical efficacy yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods One conventional and five types of surface modified nickel titanium arch wires were surface characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy and 3D profilometry. Root mean square roughness values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests. Results Study groups demonstrated considerable reduction in roughness values from conventional in a material specific pattern: Group I; conventional (578.56 nm) > Group V; Teflon (365.33 nm) > Group III; nitride (301.51 nm) > Group VI (i); rhodium (290.64 nm) > Group VI (ii); silver (252.22 nm) > Group IV; titanium (229.51 nm) > Group II; resin (158.60 nm). It also showed the defects with aesthetic (resin/Teflon) and nitride surfaces and smooth topography achieved with metals; titanium/silver/rhodium. Conclusions Resin, Teflon, titanium, silver, rhodium and nitrides were effective in decreasing surface roughness of nickel titanium arch wires albeit; certain flaws. Findings have clinical implications, considering their potential in lessening biofilm adhesion, reducing friction, improving corrosion resistance and preventing nickel leach and allergic reactions. PMID:26843749

  14. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface texture and friction resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassy, Mona Aly

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) orthodontic wires. Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dunnett's t -test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ ( P wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ ( P wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro , P wires in situ , P wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ . The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires.

  15. A comparative study of frictional resistance and surface roughness between orthodontic bracket and arch wire

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuro, SATOH; Masaru, ISHIGAME; Yukiko, NAKAMURA; Kazushi, OGASAWARA; Shigeru, TANAKA; Hiroyuki, MIURA; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University

    2003-01-01

    The frictional resistance between an orthodontic bracket and arch wire is closely related to the efficiency of tooth movement in sliding mechanics. Frictional resistance may arise from the materials, geometrical configuration between the orthodontic bracket and arch wire, ligation system and its force, wire stiffness, direction and degree of orthodontic force, and surface roughness of bracket and wire. This study examined the relationship between the frictional resistance and surface roughnes...

  16. Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)

  17. Evolution of surface defects in platinum alloy wire under drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Pervukhin, A. E.; Babailov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The shape and chemical composition of particles polluting the surface of ultrafine wire made of the platinum Pt92.5Pd4Rh3.5 alloy has been revealed by electron microscopy and microspectral analysis. The phenomenon of the appearance of pores in the particles, which are elongated in the direction of drawing, has been discovered. The problem of calculating the stress-strain state is stated by the finite element method. After solving the problem, it is demonstrated that the appearance of additional defects is related to the proportion of stresses in the scheme of metal forming by drawing.

  18. Surface topography, hardness, and frictional properties of GFRP for esthetic orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Toshihiro; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shibata, Yo; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) made from polycarbonate and glass fiber for esthetic orthodontic wires were prepared by using pultrusion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the surface topography, hardness, and frictional properties of GFRPs. To investigate how fiber diameter affects surface properties, GFRP round wires with a diameter of 0.45 mm (0.018 in.) were prepared incorporating either 13 μm (GFRP-13) or 7 μm (GFRP-7) glass fibers. As controls, stainless steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy, β-titanium (β-Ti) alloy, and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloy were also evaluated. Under scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, the β-Ti samples exhibited greater surface roughness than the other metallic wires and the GFRP wires. The dynamic hardness and elastic modulus of GFRP wires obtained by the dynamic micro-indentation method were much lower than those of metallic wires (p wires and Ni-Ti wire were nearly half as low as those of SS, Co-Cr, and β-Ti wires. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in surface properties between GFRP-13 and GFRP-7; presumably because both share the same polycarbonate matrix. We expect that GFRP wires will deliver superior sliding mechanics with low frictional resistance between the wire and bracket during orthodontic treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  20. The application of pneumatic jigging in the recovery of metallic fraction from shredded printed wiring boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hall, Philip; Miles, Nicholas J; Wu, Tao; Lambert, Peter; Gu, Fu

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide with volumes increasing by 40% each year. WEEE has attracted increasing concern worldwide due to its high metal content and the potential environmental threat which results from uncontrolled recycling practices. Innovative physical separation techniques for WEEE recycling are preferential compared with chemical methods because of the reduction of energy and chemical consumption as well as potential environmental threats. Pneumatic jigging is a dry separation process capable of achieving good separation of coarse material within a very narrow density range, which makes it suitable as a pretreatment process for WEEE recycling. The work presented in this paper investigates the potential application of pneumatic jigging in metal recovery from WEEE. A pilot scale pneumatic jig has been developed by University of Nottingham Ningbo to separate shredded printed wiring boards into two streams: a light fraction (mainly non-metallic fraction consisting of glass fiber, fluffs, and plastic pieces) and dense fraction (metallic fraction). The novelty of work presented in this paper is the application of a dry separation technique in WEEE recycling for metal recovery. Compared with conventional wet separation processes involved in WEEE recycling industry, dry separation has the advantage of zero secondary pollution. The results of this experimental program show pneumatic jigging to be an effective and environmental friendly technique as a pretreatment process for the recovery of the metallic fraction from shredded WEEE. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Research development of surface hydrophilicity and lubrication modification of interventional guide wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Liu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Surface lubricity is one of the important performance criteria for interventional guide wire. In this paper, a review of the methods of surface hydrophilicity and lubrication modification of interventional guide wire is presented, including their fundamental principles, effects and some relative applications. These methods all have their own advantages and disadvantages, therefore, limitations of experimental conditions need to be taken into account.

  2. Surface and Electrical Characterization of Conjugated Molecular Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Abel Tesfahun

    This thesis describes the surface and electrical characterization of ultrathin organic films and interfaces. These films were synthesized on the surface of gold by utilizing layer by layer synthesis via imine condensation. Film growth by imine click (condensation) chemistry is particularly useful for molecular electronics experiments because it provides a convenient means to obtain and extend ?-conjugation in the growth direction. However, in the context of film growth from a solid substrate, the reaction yield per step has not been characterized previously, though it is critically important. To address these issues, my research focused on a comprehensive characterization of oligophenyleneimine (OPI) wires via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In addition, we had the unique opportunity of developing the first of its kind implementation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to probe the intensity of carbon atoms after each addition step. Overall the combination of various techniques indicated that film growth proceeds in a quantitative manner. Furthermore, the NRA experiment was optimized to measure the carbon content in self-assembled monolayers of alkyl thiols. The results indicated well-resolved coverage values for ultrathin films with consecutive steps of 2 carbon atoms per molecule. Another fundamental problem in molecular electronics is the vast discrepancy in the values of measured resistance per molecule between small and large area molecular junctions. In collaboration with researchers at the National University of Singapore, we addressed these issues by comparing the electrical properties of OPI wires with the eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) junction (1000 mum2), and conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) junction (50 nm2). Our results showed that intensive (i.e., area

  3. Direct write fabrication of waveguides and interconnects for optical printed wiring boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingeldein, Joseph C.

    Current copper based circuit technology is becoming a limiting factor in high speed data transfer applications as processors are improving at a faster rate than are developments to increase on board data transfer. One solution is to utilize optical waveguide technology to overcome these bandwidth and loss restrictions. The use of this technology virtually eliminates the heat and cross-talk loss seen in copper circuitry, while also operating at a higher bandwidth. Transitioning current fabrication techniques from small scale laboratory environments to large scale manufacturing presents significant challenges. Optical-to-electrical connections and out-of-plane coupling are significant hurdles in the advancement of optical interconnects. The main goals of this research are the development of direct write material deposition and patterning tools for the fabrication of waveguide systems on large substrates, and the development of out-of-plane coupler components compatible with standard fiber optic cabling. Combining these elements with standard printed circuit boards allows for the fabrication of fully functional optical-electrical-printed-wiring-boards (OEPWBs). A direct dispense tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for the repeatable dispensing of blanket waveguide layers over a range of thicknesses (25-225 μm), eliminating waste material and affording the ability to utilize large substrates. This tool was used to directly dispense multimode waveguide cores which required no UV definition or development. These cores had circular cross sections and were comparable in optical performance to lithographically fabricated square waveguides. Laser direct writing is a non-contact process that allows for the dynamic UV patterning of waveguide material on large substrates, eliminating the need for high resolution masks. A laser direct write tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for direct write patterning waveguides that were comparable in quality to those

  4. Investigation of surface treatment of conductive wire in cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Rubin; Kagohashi, Tsutomu; Zheng Wei

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene insulated electric wire was treated in He and Ar dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric pressure plasmas generated in a quartz tube wound with tubular electrodes. The wire was put penetrating through the high voltage and the grounded electrodes, improving the discharge and facilitating uniform surface treatment. In this work, the influences of conductivity of the wire on the effects of surface treatment and discharge behavior were investigated. Surface properties of the wire samples were analyzed by means of surface energy measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to reveal the mechanism for treating the conductive wire, I-V discharge waveforms were measured and time-resolved plasma images were taken. It was demonstrated that the conductive wire was involved in the discharge process, reducing the breakdown voltage significantly and enhancing the discharge. It shows that the discharge mode was strongly dependent on the conductivity of a wire. Intensive surface discharges developed along the conductive wire were found to be mainly responsible for noticeable improvement in the treatment effect.

  5. Induction of subterahertz surface waves on a metal wire by intense laser interaction with a foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Kensuke; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Nagashima, Takeshi; Mori, Kazuaki; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji

    2018-02-01

    We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5 × 1018W /c m2 . The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave. A tungsten wire is placed normal to an aluminum foil with a gap so that the wire is not irradiated and damaged by the laser pulse, thus making it possible to generate surface waves on the wire repeatedly.

  6. Effect of a dielectric coating on terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present measurements and calculations on the effect of thin dielectric coatings on the propagation of terahertz pulses along the surface of metal wires. Our measurements show that propagation over only a few centimeters of wire having a thin dielectric coating, strongly distorts the

  7. Surge-Resistant Nanocomposite Enameled Wire Using Silica Nanoparticles with Binary Chemical Compositions on the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeseung Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed polyesterimide (PEI nanocomposite enameled wires using surface-modified silica nanoparticles with binary chemical compositions on the surface. The modification was done using silanes assisted by ultrasound, which facilitated high density modification. Two different trimethoxysilanes were chosen for the modification on the basis of resemblance of chemical compositions on the silica surface to PEI varnish. The surface-modified silica was well dispersed in PEI varnish, which was confirmed by optical observation and viscosity measurement. The glass transition temperature of the silica-PEI nanocomposite increased with the silica content. The silica-dispersed PEI varnish was then used for enameled wire fabrication. The silica-PEI nanocomposite enameled wire exhibited a much longer lifetime compared to that of neat PEI enameled wire in partial discharge conditions.

  8. Wire-bonding on inkjet-printed silver pads reinforced by electroless plating for chip on flexible board packages

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Legeleux, Jacques; Malia, Thierry; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Inal, Karim; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The nanoporous nature of the inkjet printed silver nanoparticles entail low hardness and surface effective contact area for being compatible with pads that are suitable for wire-bonding in electronic packaging. Electroless nickel plating is a selective metal deposition technique which can brings the required thickness and hardness for further pads processing. Here, a 1.7 μm thick nickel layer is deposited on top of 600 nm thick printed and sintered silver nanoparticles...

  9. A comparison of titanium alloy orthodontic wires for surface roughness using a confocal optical microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu, Nakano; Akihide, Yoshida; Kazushi, Ogasawara; Akira, Sanjo; Shigeru, Tanaka; Takuya, Kamegai; Kazuro, Satoh; Hiroyuki, Miura; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the surface roughness of 31 brands of titanium alloy orthodontic wires from 13 manufacturers using a confocal optical microscope. Cobalt-chrome and stainless steel wire were also examined as a reference of comparison. The following results were obtained ; (1) Mean Ra, as determined from the lengthway axis of titanium alloy wires, was 0.296μm, and that determined from the widthway axis was 0.440μm. The modulus of Ra was 0.368μm. (2) For titanium alloy o...

  10. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, V; Ivanov, T S; Borisov, K; Angelova, T; Cros, A; Cantarero, A; Fuster, D; Shtinkov, N; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  11. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, V.; Ivanov, T. S.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borisov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2010-02-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  12. Influence of surface layer on mechanical and corrosion properties of nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Višnja; Curković, Helena Otmačić; Semenski, Damir; Baršić, Gorana; Marušić, Katarina; Spalj, Stjepan

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the effect of various coating formulations on the mechanical and corrosion properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires. Uncoated, rhodium-coated, and nitrified NiTi wires were observed with a three-point-bend test, surface roughness (Ra) measurement, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electrochemical testing (open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic polarization scan). Differences in the properties of tested wire types were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. Uncoated and nitrified NiTi wires showed similar mechanical and anticorrosive properties, while rhodium-coated NiTi wires showed the highest Ra and significantly higher modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and delivery of forces during loading but not in unloading. Rhodium-coated NiTi wires also had the highest corrosion current density and corrosion potential, lowest impedance modulus, and two time constants on Bode plot, one related to the Rh/Au coating and the other to underlying NiTi. Working properties of NiTi wires were unaffected by various coatings in unloading. Nitrification improved corrosion resistance. Rhodium coating reduced corrosion resistance and pronounced susceptibility to pitting corrosion in artificial saliva because of galvanic coupling between the noble coating and the base alloy.

  13. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  14. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  15. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt)-20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy's immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state

  16. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt){minus}20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy`s immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state.

  17. Novel recycling of nonmetal particles from waste printed wiring boards to produce porous composite for sound absorbing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Nonmetal materials take up about 70 wt% of waste printed wiring boards (WPWB), which are usually recycled as low-value fillers or even directly disposed by landfill dumping and incineration. In this research, a novel reuse ofthe nonmetals to produce porous composites for sound absorbing application was demonstrated. The manufacturing process, absorbing performance and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The results show that the high porous structure of the composites leads to an excellent sound absorption ability in broad-band frequency range. Average absorption coefficient of above 0.4 can be achievedby the composite in the frequency range from 100 to 6400 Hz. When the particle size is larger than 0.2 mm, the absorption ability of the composite is comparable to that of commercial wood-fibre board and urea-formaldehyde foam. Mechanical analysis indicates that the porous composites possess sufficient structural strength for self-sustaining applications. All the results indicate that producing sound absorbing composite with nonmetal particles from WPWB provides an efficient and profitable way for recycling this waste resource and can resolve both the environment pollution and noise pollution problems.

  18. Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the U.S. printed wiring board manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-05-15

    Modern manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) involves extensive use of various hazardous chemicals in different manufacturing steps such as board preparation, circuit design transfer, etching and plating processes. Two complementary environmental screening methods developed by the U.S. EPA, namely: (i) the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) and (ii) Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI), are used to quantify geographic and chemical environmental impacts in the U.S. PWB manufacturing industry based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data. Although the release weight percentages of industrial chemicals such as methanol, glycol ethers and dimethylformamide comprise the larger fraction of reported air and water emissions, results indicate that lead, copper and their compounds' releases correspond to the highest environmental impact from toxicity potentials and risk-screening scores. Combining these results with further knowledge of PWB manufacturing, select alternative chemical processes and materials for pollution prevention are discussed. Examples of effective pollution prevention options in the PWB industry include spent etchant recovery technologies, and process and material substitutions. In addition, geographic assessment of environmental burden highlights states where promotion of pollution prevention strategies and emissions regulations can have the greatest effect to curb the PWB industry's toxic release impacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Schmidt Dolci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots of different commercial brands. METHODS: Thirty metallic brackets (0.022 x 0.028-in and 0.022 x 0.030-in were divided in three groups: DYN/3M group = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (stainless steel, or SS; STD/MO group = Slim Morelli (SS; and Ni-Free/MO group = Slim Morelli (Ni-Free. The stainless steel wires (0.019 x 0.025in were divided into two groups: MO group = Morelli; and 3M group = 3M/Unitek. The bracket and wire measurements were done by two methods: (a Surface Electron Microscopy (SEM, and (b Profile projection. The surface analysis was done qualitatively, based on SEM images and/or by a rugosimeter. The quantitative results were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey's test (p < 0.05 and Student's t test. RESULTS: A significant difference in the dimensions of slots was observed, and the NiFree/MO group showed the greatest changes when compared to the other groups. The analysis of surface topography of the brackets indicated greater homogeneity of the metallic matrix for DYN/3M and STD/MO groups. As for the dimensions of the wires, groups showed statistically different mean heights. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that wires and brackets slots can present altered dimensions, which might directly and unintentionally affect the planned tooth movement.

  20. Surge-Resistant Nanocomposite Enameled Wire Using Silica Nanoparticles with Binary Chemical Compositions on the Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Jeseung Yoo; Yongbeom Kim; Suyong Kwon; Joohyun Lee; Young-Soo Seo

    2015-01-01

    We developed polyesterimide (PEI) nanocomposite enameled wires using surface-modified silica nanoparticles with binary chemical compositions on the surface. The modification was done using silanes assisted by ultrasound, which facilitated high density modification. Two different trimethoxysilanes were chosen for the modification on the basis of resemblance of chemical compositions on the silica surface to PEI varnish. The surface-modified silica was well dispersed in PEI varnish, which was co...

  1. Assessment of the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Gabriel Schmidt; Spohr, Ana Maria; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Marchioro, Ernani Menezes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots of different commercial brands. Thirty metallic brackets (0.022 x 0.028-in and 0.022 x 0.030-in) were divided into three groups: DYN/3M group = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (stainless steel, or SS); STD/MO group = Slim Morelli (SS); and Ni-Free/MO group = Slim Morelli (Ni-Free). The stainless steel wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) were divided into two groups: MO group = Morelli; and 3M group = 3M/Unitek. The bracket and wire measurements were done by two methods: (a) Surface Electron Microscopy (SEM), and (b) Profile Projection. The surface analysis was done qualitatively, based on SEM images and/or by a rugosimeter. The quantitative results were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey's test (p wires, groups showed statistically different mean heights. It was concluded that wires and brackets slots can present altered dimensions, which might directly and unintentionally affect the planned tooth movement.

  2. Trim cut machining and surface integrity analysis of Nimonic 80A alloy using wire cut EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.

  3. Influence of hardening and surface modification of endourological wires on corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Witold; Przondziono, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Guide wires with suitable functional characteristics are of crucial importance for proper urological treatment. This study presents an analysis of the effect of work hardening taking place in the process of wire cold drawing and the effect of surface modification by means of electrochemical polishing and chemical passivation on the resistance of wires made of X10CrNi18-8 steel used in urology. Corrosion resistance was evaluated on the grounds of the registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were made in solution simulating human urine. Anodic polarisation curves were presented for selected wire diameters. Mechanical properties were tested in a static uniaxial tensile test. The course of flow curve as well as mathematical form of flow stress function were determined. Curves presenting the relation of polarisation resistance as a function of strain applied in the drawing process are given. The tests carried out show that surface modification by means of electrochemical polishing and then chemical passivation of wires used in endourological treatment is fundamental.

  4. Mechanical properties and surface characterization of beta titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wire following topical fluoride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary P; Ries, David; Kula, Katherine; Ellis, Micheal; Fricke, Brian

    2007-03-01

    To study the effect of fluoride prophylactic agents on the loading and unloading mechanical properties and surface quality of beta titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires. Rectangular beta titanium and stainless steel wires were immersed in either an acidulated fluoride agent, a neutral fluoride agent, or distilled water (control) for 1.5 hours at 37 degrees C. After immersion, the loading and unloading elastic modulus and yield strength of the wires were measured using a 3-point bend test in a water bath at 37 degrees C. A one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post hoc, alpha = .05, were used to analyze the mechanical testing data. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to qualitatively evaluate the wire topography as a function of the fluoride treatments. Unloading mechanical properties of beta titanium and stainless steel wires were significantly decreased (P steel wire could decrease the functional unloading mechanical properties of the wires and potentially contribute to prolonged orthodontic treatment.

  5. Self-organised wires and antiwires on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Miwa, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of self-organised formation of lines of (semi)metal elements on semiconductor surfaces, together with an ab initio theoretical modelling of such quasi-one-dimensional systems. Results of calculations are presented for the atomic geometry, electronic states, and dispersion of the most tightly bound image state (IS) for a self-organised thin indium chain on the silicon surface forming the Si(1 1 1)-In(4 x 1) nanowire system. It is pointed out that strong anisotropic behaviour of the image state observed in inverse photoemission measurements originates from the anisotropy in the surface corrugation potential. Results are also presented for theoretically simulated STM images of self-organised Bi-lines on the Si(0 0 1) surface, which suggest a low density of states close to the valence band maximum localized on the Bi-lines, supporting a proposed model of a quantum antiwire system

  6. Growth of Hierarchically Structured High-Surface Area Alumina on FeCrAl Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Rallan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of metastable alumina phases due to the oxidation of commercial FeCrAl alloy wires (0.5 mm thickness at various temperatures and time periods has been examined. Samples were isothermally oxidised in air using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The morphology of the oxidised samples was analyzed using an Electronic Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM and X-ray on the surface analysis was done using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX analyzer. The technique of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD was used to characterize the phase of the oxide growth. The entire study showed that it was possible to grow high-surface area gamma alumina on the FeCrAl alloy wire surfaces when isothermally oxidised above 800°C over several hours.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of three mouthwashes on the mechanical properties and surface morphology of several orthodontic wires: Anin vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hossein; Yassaei, Sogra; Eslami, Farzaneh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in the mechanical properties and surface morphology of different orthodontic wires after immersion in three mouthwash solutions. In this in vitro study, five specimens of each of 0.016 inch nickel titanium (NiTi), coated NiTi, and stainless steel orthodontic wires were selected. The specimens were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), 0.2% chlorhexidine, Zataria multiflora extract, and distilled water (control) for 1.5 h at 37°C. After immersion, loading and unloading forces at 0.5 mm intervals and the elastic modulus (E) of the wires were measured using a three-point bending test. Surface changes were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests were used to compare the properties of the wires. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Statistically significant changes in loading and unloading forces and E of the orthodontic wires were observed after immersion in different mouthwash solutions ( P wires ( P > 0.05). SEM images showed surface changes in some types ofthe orthodontic wires. The mouthwashes used in this study seemed to change the mechanical properties and surface quality of the orthodontic wires.

  8. Influence of autoclave sterilization on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernier, C; Grosgogeat, B; Ponsonnet, L; Benay, G; Lissac, M

    2005-02-01

    Orthodontic wires are frequently packaged in individual sealed bags in order to avoid cross-contamination. The instructions on the wrapper generally advise autoclave sterilization of the package and its contents if additional protection is desired. However, sterilization can modify the surface parameters and the mechanical properties of many types of material. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of one of the most widely used sterilization processes, autoclaving (18 minutes at 134 degrees C, as recommended by the French Ministry of Health), on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six wires currently used in orthodontics (one stainless steel alloy: Tru-Chrome RMO; two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC; and three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA(R) and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). The alloys were analysed on receipt and after sterilization, using surface structure observation techniques, including optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy and profilometry. The mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. The results showed that autoclave sterilization had no adverse effects on the surface parameters or on the selected mechanical properties. This supports the possibility for practitioners to systematically sterilize wires before placing them in the oral environment.

  9. Waste management of printed wiring boards: a life cycle assessment of the metals recycling chain from liberation through refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Kendall, Alissa; Xu, Zhenming; Schoenung, Julie M

    2015-01-20

    Due to economic and societal reasons, informal activities including open burning, backyard recycling, and landfill are still the prevailing methods used for electronic waste treatment in developing countries. Great efforts have been made, especially in China, to promote formal approaches for electronic waste management by enacting laws, developing green recycling technologies, initiating pilot programs, etc. The formal recycling process can, however, engender environmental impact and resource consumption, although information on the environmental loads and resource consumption is currently limited. To quantitatively assess the environmental impact of the processes in a formal printed wiring board (PWB) recycling chain, life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a formal recycling chain that includes the steps from waste liberation through materials refining. The metal leaching in the refining stage was identified as a critical process, posing most of the environmental impact in the recycling chain. Global warming potential was the most significant environmental impact category after normalization and weighting, followed by fossil abiotic depletion potential, and marine aquatic eco-toxicity potential. Scenario modeling results showed that variations in the power source and chemical reagents consumption had the greatest influence on the environmental performance. The environmental impact from transportation used for PWB collection was also evaluated. The results were further compared to conventional primary metals production processes, highlighting the environmental benefit of metal recycling from waste PWBs. Optimizing the collection mode, increasing the precious metals recovery efficiency in the beneficiation stage and decreasing the chemical reagents consumption in the refining stage by effective materials liberation and separation are proposed as potential improvement strategies to make the recycling chain more environmentally friendly. The LCA results provide

  10. Optimisation of wire-cut EDM process parameter by Grey-based response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Soota, Tarun; Kumar, Jitendra

    2018-03-01

    Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is one of the advanced machining processes. Response surface methodology coupled with Grey relation analysis method has been proposed and used to optimise the machining parameters of WEDM. A face centred cubic design is used for conducting experiments on high speed steel (HSS) M2 grade workpiece material. The regression model of significant factors such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current, and wire feed is considered for optimising the responses variables material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness and Kerf width. The optimal condition of the machining parameter was obtained using the Grey relation grade. ANOVA is applied to determine significance of the input parameters for optimising the Grey relation grade.

  11. Effects of Intraoral Ageing on Ultimate Tensile Strength and Surface Topography of Superelastic NiTi Wires from Two Different Manufacturers: A Comparative in vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pravin Devaprasad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Super elastic NiTi wires from 3M Unitek were found to be superior to the wires from American orthodontics in as received condition, after 3 months of clinical use and 6 months of clinical use. The surface topography of 3M Unitek wires was found to have less pitting and indentations than American orthodontic wires of comparable use. Wires from both manufactures were found to undergo degradation after clinical use. During the study, it was found that 3M Unitek NiTi superelastic wires had better ultimate tensile strength and surface topography than superelastic NiTi from American orthodontics.

  12. Evaluation of multilayer printed wiring boards by metallographic techniques: An illustrated guide to the preparation and inspection of plated-through hole test coupons based on the requirements of Mil-P-55110D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellison, J.

    1986-01-01

    This work is an illustrated handbook containing the rationale and procedure for the evaluation of multilayer printed wiring board construction integrity with respect to plated-through holes in accordance with the requirements of MIL-P-55110D, Printed Wiring Boards. It is intended as a practical aid for those concerned with determining the construction integrity of multilayer boards for high reliability applications. Photomicrographs of cross sectioned holes illustrate defect types, acceptable and unacceptable conditions, and methods of measurement. A procedure for specimen preparation is given, and appropriate paragraphs of the military specification are included and explained.

  13. Optical spectroscopy study of c(4 x 2) Ge (001)-surfaces, covered with atomic Au wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Utz; Meyer, Sebastian; Schaefer, Joerg; Geurts, Jean [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Speiser, Eugen; Esser, Norbert [ISAS, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Novel quasi-1D systems like e.g. atomic gold chains on a c(4x2) reconstructed Ge(001)-surfaces enable the investigation of 1D-effects like the possible occurrence of the Luttinger- to Fermi liquid transition. As there is a crucial interplay of the lattice vibrations and the electrical and structural properties on such sensitive systems, phonon dynamics are in the focus of this work. The phonons were addressed by Raman spectroscopy and reveal a clear change from the Ge-oxide layer to the final surface with Au-nano wires. Thermally deoxidizing the Ge-surface under UHV leads to a distinct low-frequency vibration around 65cm-1. Its frequency range and its persistence after Gold deposition in the submonolayer range indicate that this signal is surface related. Additionally, the surface-induced anisotropy of the optical reflectance was complementary investigated by Reflectance-Anisotropy-Spectroscopy (RAS) and IR-ellipsometry.

  14. MOST: Modeling of SpaceWire & SpaceFibre Traffic- Applications and Operations: On-Board Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellandrea, Brice; Gouin, Baptiste; Parkes, Steve; Jameux, David

    2014-08-01

    MOST(Modeling of SpaceWire Traffic) is a representative and powerful SpaceWire traffic simulator designed to support conception, development and validation of SpaceWire networks. MOST is developed by Thales Alenia Space France (TAS-F) for the European Space Agency (ESA) and for the benefits of the SpaceWire communityThis tool was already presented in DASIA 2011 [6] and DASIA 2012 [7] as Thales Alenia Space was finishing its first step of development. Since then, the software has reached a TRL mature enough to start distributing MOST v2.2r2 to the SpaceWire community under ESA license. This released version will be presented in this paperMoreover, TAS-F is currently developing a major extension of the MOST library targeting the inclusion of S paceFibre [5] components under an University of Du ndee sub-contract. These new features will be also presented in this document.

  15. Evaluation of tensile strength and surface topography of orthodontic wires after infection control procedures: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, M; Kumaran, N Kurunji; Rajasigamani, K

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate, the influence of four types of sterilization/disinfection procedures (autoclave, hot air oven, glutaraldehyde, and ultraviolet [UV] light) on the tensile strength and surface topography of three orthodontic wires (stainless steel (SS), titanium - molybdenum alloy [TMA], and cobalt chromium (CoCr)). Sample comprised of three types of 8 inches straight length segments of orthodontic wires. They were divided into three groups according to wire composition comprising of 50 samples each. Totally 50 samples of each group were then equally divided into five subgroups according to sterilization method. After sterilization and disinfection of the experimental group, surface topography was examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tensile strength was tested using universal testing machine. The results of this study show that the mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of SS wire after four sterilization procedures were similar to the control group (1845.815 ± 142.29 MPa). The mean UTS of TMA wire increases after four sterilization procedures when compared with the control group (874.107 ± 275.939 MPa). The mean UTS of CoCr wire remains same after UV light disinfection, but increases after other three sterilization procedures when compared with the control group (1449.759 ± 156.586 MPa). SEM photographs of the present study shows gross increase in pitting roughness of the surface topography of all the three types of wires after four types of sterilization. Orthodontists who want to offer maximum safety for their patients can sterilize orthodontic wires before placement, as it does not deteriorate the tensile strength and surface roughness of the alloys.

  16. Cutting a drop of water pinned by wire loops using a superhydrophobic surface and knife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yanashima

    Full Text Available A water drop on a superhydrophobic surface that is pinned by wire loops can be reproducibly cut without formation of satellite droplets. Drops placed on low-density polyethylene surfaces and Teflon-coated glass slides were cut with superhydrophobic knives of low-density polyethylene and treated copper or zinc sheets, respectively. Distortion of drop shape by the superhydrophobic knife enables a clean break. The driving force for droplet formation arises from the lower surface free energy for two separate drops, and it is modeled as a 2-D system. An estimate of the free energy change serves to guide when droplets will form based on the variation of drop volume, loop spacing and knife depth. Combining the cutting process with an electrofocusing driving force could enable a reproducible biomolecular separation without troubling satellite drop formation.

  17. Effect of surface oxidation on thermomechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ching Wei; Mahmud, Abdus Samad

    2017-12-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy is a unique alloy that exhibits special behavior that recovers fully its shape after being deformed to beyond elastic region. However, this alloy is sensitive to any changes of its composition and introduction of inclusion in its matrix. Heat treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy to above 600 °C leads to the formation of the titanium oxide (TiO2) layer. Titanium oxide is a ceramic material that does not exhibit shape memory behaviors and possess different mechanical properties than that of NiTi alloy, thus disturbs the shape memory behavior of the alloy. In this work, the effect of formation of TiO2 surface oxide layer towards the thermal phase transformation and stress-induced deformation behaviors of the NiTi alloy were studied. The NiTi wire with composition of Ti-50.6 at% Ni was subjected to thermal oxidation at 600 °C to 900 °C for 30 and 60 minutes. The formation of the surface oxide layers was characterized by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of surface oxide layers with different thickness towards the thermal phase transformation behavior was studied by using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The effect of surface oxidation towards the stress-induced deformation behavior was studied through the tensile deformation test. The stress-induced deformation behavior and the shape memory recovery of the NiTi wire under tensile deformation were found to be affected marginally by the formation of thick TiO2 layer.

  18. Surface-related reduction of photoluminescence in GaAs quantum wires and its recovery by new passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozaki, Nanako; Anantathanasarn, Sanguan; Sato, Taketomo; Hashizume, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Etched GaAs quantum wires (QWRs) and selectively grown (SG) QWRs were fabricated, and dependence of their photoluminescence (PL) properties on QWR width (W) and QWR distance to surface (d) were investigated. PL intensity greatly reduced with reduction of W and d, due to non-radiative recombination through surface states. Surface passivation by growing a Si interface control layer (Si-ICL) on group III-terminated surfaces greatly improved PL properties

  19. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  20. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Marco Abdo; Canavarro, Cristiane; Elias, Carlos Nelson; das Graças Afonso Miranda Chaves, Maria; Brunharo, Ione Helena Vieira Portella; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso Abdo

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel/Titanium (NiTi) conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek), to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27ºC and 35ºC, Ormco) after traction test. The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV) with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy). The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu). As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27ºC and 35ºC by Ormco, due to the presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi4. The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27ºC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35ºC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CuNiTi 35ºC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  1. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Marco Abdo; Canavarro, Cristiane; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Chaves, Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda; Brunharo, Ione Helena Vieira Portella; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso Abdo

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni) Titanium (Ti) conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek), to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27ºC and 35ºC, Ormco) after traction test. Methods The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV) with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy). Results The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu). As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27ºC and 35ºC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi.4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27ºC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35ºC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. Conclusion CuNiTi 35ºC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region. PMID:24713562

  2. Self-Healing Technologies for Wiring and Surfaces in Aerospace and Deep Space Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha Kay; Gibson, Tracy L.; Jolley, Scott T.; Caraccio-Meier, Anne Joan

    2017-01-01

    Self-healing technologies have been identified as critical technology gaps for future exploration. NASA and KSC have been working in this area for multiple years with established intellectual property; however, there are many challenges that remain in this area of research. How do we mimic what the body does so naturally when we as NASA have unique requirements? We have been investigating several mechanisms for self-healing: microencapsulation with a healant core to fill in voids in the case of mechanical puncture and flowable (or sealable)systems that have inherent chemical properties that allow the materials to flow back together when cut or damaged. The microcapsules containing healant have to be durable and robust, must be able to take high temperatures to meet NASA unique requirements, provide good capillary flow of the healant, and be small in diameters to fill in damage voids in thin films or surfaces. Sealable systems have to flow in a range of temperatures and yet be lightweight and chemically resistant. The systems currently being developed are based on polyimide and polyurethane matrices and have been studied for use in high performance wiring systems, inflatable systems, and habitation structures. Self-healing or self-sealing capability would significantly reduce maintenance requirements and increase the safety and reliability performance of critical systems. Advances in these self-healing technologies and some of the unique challenges needed to be overcome in order to incorporate a self-healing mechanism into wiring or thin films systems will be addressed.

  3. Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of a Hybrid Composite: Evaluation of Kerf Width and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil KUŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the machinability characteristics of Al/B4C-Gr hybrid composite were investigated using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM. In the experiments, the machining parameters of wire speed, pulse-on time and pulse-off time were varied in order to explaiın their effects on machining performance, including the width of slit (kerf and surface roughness values (Rz and Rt. According to the Taguchi quality design concept, a L18 (21×32 orthogonal array was used to determine the S/N ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA and the F-test were used to indicate the significant machining parameters affecting the machining performance. From the ANOVA and F-test results, the significant factors were determined for each of the machining performance criteria of kerf, Rz and Rt. The variations of kerf, Rz and Rt with the machining parameters were statistically modeled via the regression analysis method. The optimum levels of the control factors for kerf, Rz and Rt were specified as A1B1C1, A1B1C2 and A1B1C2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the predictive equations developed for kerf, Rz and Rt were calculated as 0.98, 0.828 and 0.855, respectively.

  4. Analysis on micro-regional characters of the resistance wires surface in electrical immersion heater by SEM/EDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haixin; Xue, Lin; Zhang, Yongfeng; Cao, Liying; Ding, Minju; Huang, Hao; Bao, Renlie

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel method for identifying the conditions of electrical resistance wires before fire basing on micro-regional characters. The morphology and elemental compositions of resistance wires surface under normally used, misused and external heating conditions were respectively studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the normally used wire has a smooth surface and stable metal composition. While the resistance wire under misused condition for the certain time could be characterized as a coarse surface covered by compacted and silica-embedded oxide layer, and the proportion of elemental compositions of different metals is also changed with higher content of Al and lower content of Fe and Cr. The external heating condition has little influence on inside wires. The mechanism of changes formed under misused condition was explained. We demonstrate that this approach is practical and functional to aid fire investigators in determining the cause of related fires. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nano-wire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nano-wires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nano-wires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nano-wires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress-strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nano-wire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nano-wire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  6. Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, J. S.; Gstrein, F.; O'Brien, K. P.; Clarke, J. S.; Gall, D.

    2011-12-01

    The electron scattering at surfaces, interfaces, and grain boundaries is investigated using polycrystalline and single-crystal Cu thin films and nanowires. The experimental data is described by a Fuchs-Sondheimer (FS) and Mayadas-Shatzkes (MS) model that is extended to account for the large variation in the specific resistivity of different grain boundaries as well as distinct top and bottom surfaces with different scattering specularity p. Textured polycrystalline Cu(111) thin films with thickness d = 25-50 nm are deposited on a stack of 7.5-nm Ta on SiO2/Si(001). Subsequent annealing results in small-grain (SG) thin films with an average grain size D¯ that increases from 90 to 120 nm with increasing d. Corresponding large-grain (LG) thin films with D¯ = 160-220 nm are obtained by depositing 100-200-nm-thick films, followed by an in-situ anneal and a subsequent etch to match the thickness of the SG samples. Nanowires are fabricated from the SG and LG thin films using a subtractive patterning process, yielding wire widths of 75-350 nm. Single-crystal and LG layers exhibit a 18-22% and 10-15% lower resistivity than SG layers, respectively. The resistivity decrease from SG to LG Cu nanowires is 7-9%. The thickness and grain size dependence of the resistivity of polycrystalline and single-crystal Cu layers is well described by an exact version of the existing FS + MS model but is distinct from the commonly used approximation, which introduces an error that increases with decreasing layer thickness from 6.5% for d = 50 nm to 17% for d = 20 nm. The case of nanowires requires the FS + MS model to be extended to account for variation in the grain boundary reflection coefficient R, which effectively increases the overall resistivity by, for example, 16% for 50 × 45 nm2 wires. The overall data from single and polycrystalline Cu layers and wires yields R = 0.25 ± 0.05, and p = 0 at Cu-air and Cu-Ta interfaces.

  7. Atom probe study on microstructure change in severely deformed pearlitic steels: application to rail surfaces and drawn wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Pearlitic steel is used as the material for high tensile steel wires, rails and wheels due to its high work hardening and wear resistance. These properties arise from a layered structure comprising deformable lamellar ferrite and hard lamellar cementite. This paper reviews the microstructural change in heavily drawn pearlitic steels wires and worn surfaces of pearlitic rails using atom probe tomography analysis. The cementite decomposition mechanism was elucidated for heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires. For pearlitic rail steels, atomic scale characterization of worn surfaces and of the white etching layer (WEL) were performed, and a mechanism for the formation of the WEL was proposed. The differences and similarities in microstructure and in the state of the cementite in these severely deformed pearlitic steels are discussed.

  8. In vitro and in vivo biofilm adhesion to esthetic coated arch wires and its correlation with surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahasen; El-Fallal, Abeer; Degla, Heba

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the in vitro ability of esthetic coated rectangular arch wires to retain oral biofilms and in vivo biofilm formation on these wires after 4 and 8 weeks of clinical use and to correlate the findings with the surface roughness of these wires. Three brands of esthetic coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) arch wires were selected. Arch wires retrieved after 4 and 8 weeks of intraoral use were obtained from 30 orthodontic patients. Surface roughness (SR) was assessed with an atomic force microscope. In vitro adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS), Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The amount of bacterial adhesion was quantified using the colony-count method. Paired t-test, analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis at the .05 level of significance. In vitro bacterial adhesion showed significant differences between wires in terms of MS adhesion (P  =  .01). All wires showed significant increases in SR (P  =  .001 after 4 weeks and .007 after 8 weeks) and biofilm adhesion (P  =  .0001 after 4 weeks and .045 after 8 weeks) after intraoral exposure. A significant positive correlation (P  =  .001 after 4 weeks and .05 after 8 weeks) was observed between these two variables in vivo, but the correlation was not significant for in vitro bacterial adhesion. SR and biofilm adhesion increased after intraoral use at all time intervals. There was a positive correlation between SR and biofilm adhesion in vivo only.

  9. Investigation of material removal rate and surface roughness during wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of Inconel 625 super alloy by cryogenic treated tool electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Goyal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses the effect of process parameters on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (Ra in wire electric discharge machining of Inconel 625. Machining was done by using a normal zinc coated wire and cryogenic treated zinc coated wire. The experiments were performed by considering different process parameters viz. tool electrode, current intensity, pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and wire tension. The thickness of work material and dia. of wire are kept constant. Taguchi L18 (21 * 35 orthogonal array of experimental design is used to perform the experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is employed to optimize the material removal rate and surface roughness. Based on analysis it is found that pulse on time, tool electrode and current intensity are the significant parameters that affect the material removal rate and surface roughness. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM are used to identify the microstructure of the machined work piece.

  10. Multilayer self-organization of InGaAs quantum wires on GaAs surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiming M.; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Xie, Yanze Z.; Schmidbauer, Martin; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-Beam Epitaxy growth of multiple In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As layers on GaAs (311)A and GaAs (331)A has been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Photoluminescence. On GaAs (311)A, uniformly distributed In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As quantum wires (QWRs) with wider lateral separation were achieved, presenting a significant improvement in comparison with the result on single layer [H. Wen, Z.M. Wang, G.J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 1756]. On GaAs (331)A, In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As QWRs were revealed to be much straighter than in the previous report on multilayer growth [Z. Gong, Z. Niu, Z. Fang, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 1140]. These observations are discussed in terms of the strain-field interaction among multilayers, enhancement of surface mobility at high temperature, and surface stability of GaAs (311)A and (331)A surfaces.

  11. SU-F-T-93: Breast Surface Dose Enhancement Using a Clinical Prone Breast Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, M; Jozsef, G [New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of specialized patient set-up devices in radiotherapy, such as prone breast boards, may have unwanted dosimetric effects. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically used prone breast board on skin dose due to buildup. Methods: GafChromic film (EBT3) was used for dose measurements on the surface of a solid water phantom shaped to mimic the curvature of the breast. We investigated two setup scenarios: the medial field border placed at the medial edge of the board and 1 cm contralaterally from that edge. A strip of film was taped to the medial surface of the phantom. Gantry angles varied from 10 to 30 degrees below the lateral gantry position, representing anterior oblique fields. The measurements were performed with and without the presence of the board; the ratio of their corresponding doses (dose enhancement) was evaluated. Results: For the cases where the field edge is at the edge of the board, the dose enhancement is negligible for all the tested angles. When the field edge is 1 cm inside the board, the maximum surface dose enhancement varies depending on the gantry angle between 2.2 for 30 degrees and 3.2 for 20 degrees. The length on the film at which the presence of the board is detectable (i.e. where there is dose enhancement) is longer for the shallower angles. Conclusion: Even the low-density, thin carbon fiber board with a thin soft foam pad on the top can produce significant dose enhancement on the skin in prone breast treatment due to loss of buildup. However, it happens only when the patient mid-sternum is over the board, i.e. the medial edge of the field traverses through the board and pad. Even then, the effect occurs only at the field edge, i.e. the penumbral region.

  12. Optically excited structural transition in atomic wires on surfaces at the quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigge, T.; Hafke, B.; Witte, T.; Krenzer, B.; Streubühr, C.; Samad Syed, A.; Mikšić Trontl, V.; Avigo, I.; Zhou, P.; Ligges, M.; von der Linde, D.; Bovensiepen, U.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Wippermann, S.; Lücke, A.; Sanna, S.; Gerstmann, U.; Schmidt, W. G.

    2017-03-01

    Transient control over the atomic potential-energy landscapes of solids could lead to new states of matter and to quantum control of nuclear motion on the timescale of lattice vibrations. Recently developed ultrafast time-resolved diffraction techniques combine ultrafast temporal manipulation with atomic-scale spatial resolution and femtosecond temporal resolution. These advances have enabled investigations of photo-induced structural changes in bulk solids that often occur on timescales as short as a few hundred femtoseconds. In contrast, experiments at surfaces and on single atomic layers such as graphene report timescales of structural changes that are orders of magnitude longer. This raises the question of whether the structural response of low-dimensional materials to femtosecond laser excitation is, in general, limited. Here we show that a photo-induced transition from the low- to high-symmetry state of a charge density wave in atomic indium (In) wires supported by a silicon (Si) surface takes place within 350 femtoseconds. The optical excitation breaks and creates In-In bonds, leading to the non-thermal excitation of soft phonon modes, and drives the structural transition in the limit of critically damped nuclear motion through coupling of these soft phonon modes to a manifold of surface and interface phonons that arise from the symmetry breaking at the silicon surface. This finding demonstrates that carefully tuned electronic excitations can create non-equilibrium potential energy surfaces that drive structural dynamics at interfaces in the quantum limit (that is, in a regime in which the nuclear motion is directed and deterministic). This technique could potentially be used to tune the dynamic response of a solid to optical excitation, and has widespread potential application, for example in ultrafast detectors.

  13. Microstructure analysis of the martensitic stainless steel surface fine-cut by the wire electrode discharge machining (WEDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.A.; Hsu, F.Y.; Yao, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this research, quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steels, AISI 440A, were subjected to multi-cutting passes by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The WEDM is widely applied to final surface shaping of harden steel. The steel was roughly machined at first cutting pass, semi-finished by two cutting passes, and then finished by one cutting passes, all machined by WEDM. The negatively polarized wire electrode (NPWE) was used for all of these four cutting passes. Some finished specimens were further extra-finished by using the positively polarized wire electrode (PPWE). Microstructures of the finished surfaces using NPWE as well as PPWE were studied with scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). Chemical composition was analyzed by an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) integrated in SEM or TEM. The study of the finished surfaces with NPWE shows that a heat-affected zone (HAZ) of about 1.5 μm thick was developed. The HAZ is composed of very fine equiaxed martensitic grains of about 200 nm with concentrated dislocations, but the temper-induced carbides were not found. A few spherical deposits of wire electrode material were also registered. Oxides with ca. 10 nm in diameter were detected around the deposits. The spherical deposits were characterized as 'bull eye' in TEM according to their appearance. For the surface finished with PPWE, no obvious HAZ was detected, but a very thin (<50 nm) and uniform amorphous layer composed of wire electrode and workpiece material was found. The structural difference between the two finished surfaces was explained based on the theory of electrical discharging and metallurgical physics

  14. Evaluating the Surface Characteristics of Stainless Steel, TMA, Timolium, and Titanium-niobium Wires: An in vivo Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Pradeep; Keerthi, V Naga; Madathody, Deepika; Prasanna, A Laxmi; Gopinath, Vidhya; Kumar, M Senthil; Kumar, A Nanda

    2016-05-01

    Recent metallurgical research and advancement in material science has benefited orthodontists in the selection of an appropriate wire size and alloy type, which is necessary to provide an optimum and predictable treatment results. The purpose of the study was to clinically evaluate and compare the surface characteristics of 16 x 22 stainless steel, Titanium molybdenum alloy, timolium, and titanium-niobium before and after placing them in a patient's mouth for 3 months using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The total sample size was 40, which were divided into four groups (group 1 - stainless steel wires, 10 samples, group 2 - TMA wires, 10 samples, group 3 - timolium wires, 10 samples, and group 4 - titanium-niobium wires, 10 samples), and these were further subdivided into 5 each. The first subgroup of five samples was placed in the patient's mouth and was evaluated under SEM, and another subgroup of five samples was directly subjected to the SEM. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of surface characteristics of unused 16 x 22 rectangular stainless steel wire under 500 x magnification showed an overall smooth surface. Stainless steel wire samples placed in the patient's mouth showed black hazy patches, which may be interoperated as areas of stress. TMA unused wires showed multiple small voids of areas and small craters with fewer elevated regions. The TMA wire samples placed in the patient's mouth showed black hazy patches and prominent ridges, making the wire rougher. Timolium unused archwires showed heavy roughness and voids, whereas wires tested in the patient's mouth showed homogeneous distribution of deep cracks and craters. Unused titanium-niobium archwires showed uniform prominent striations and ridges with occasional voids, whereas wires used in the patient's mouth showed prominent huge voids that could be interpreted as maximum stress areas. Stainless steel (group 1) used and unused wires showed smooth surface characteristics when compared with

  15. O método de fio quente: técnica em paralelo e técnica de superfície The hot wire method: the hot wire parallel technique and the hot wire surface technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. dos Santos

    2002-06-01

    are made when two different techniques for the transient temperature detection are employed: in one of them, the temperature is detected and recorded at the surface of the hot wire (hot wire surface technique, while in the other, the measuring point is located at a fixed distance from the hot wire (hot wire parallel technique. Experimental results show a great advantage when using the hot wire surface technique for materials with thermal conductivity higher than 10 W/mK. The time interval which is taken into account in calculations is bigger than that one that would be employed in the hot wire parallel technique in the same experimental conditions, proportioning in this case higher accuracy and reliability in the experimental results obtained.

  16. Surface impedance tensor in amorphous wires with helical anisotropy: Magnetic hysteresis and asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Panina, L. V.; Mapps, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    This article concerns the investigation of the magnetic behavior of the surface impedance tensor cflx var-sigma in CoSiB amorphous wires having a residual torsion stress and a helical anisotropy. The full tensor cflx var-sigma involving three different components is found by measuring the S 21 parameter at a required excitation with a Hewlett-Packard network/spectrum analyzer at MHz frequencies. In general, the impedance plots versus axial magnetic field H ex exhibit a hysteresis related to that for the case of static magnetization. The diagonal components of cflx var-sigma (longitudinal var-sigma zz and circular var-sigma v ar-phi v ar-phi) show a sharp peak in a narrow field interval where the domain walls form and contribute to the ac magnetization dynamics. This peak is not seen for the off-diagonal component var-sigma zv ar-phi (var-sigma v ar-phi z ) since the existence of the domain structure suppresses it. Applying a dc bias current results in a gradual transition to a nonhysteretic asymmetrical behavior with an enhanced sensitivity. The portions of the experimental plots associated with the rotational dynamic process are in qualitative agreement with the theory based on a single-domain model. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  18. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique.

  19. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of corrosion resistance and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires immersed in different mouthwashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantgil, Didem; Ulkur, Feyza; Kardas, Gulfeza; Culha, Mustafa

    2016-11-25

    Patients use mouthwashes in addition to mechanical cleaning during orthodontic treatment. The effects of mouthwashes on the archwires have not been examined yet. To compare the corrosion resistance of four different arch wires and corrosion effects of different mouthwashes to formulate a biocompatible and mechanically useful arch wire and mouthwash combination. Each group comprised of 4 wire samples of 2 cm 0.016 × 0.022 inch. 1st group: ion implanted nickel titanium (INT), 2nd group: nickel titanium, without ion implantation (NT), 3rd group: micro layered esthetic nickel titanium (ENT), 4th group: stainless steel (SS) wires. They were immersed inside 2 ml of artificial saliva solutions (AS) for the control, or AS (9%) combined with 1 of the 3 mouthwashes (91%) for study groups, for 24 hours. These mouthwashes were essential oil (EO), chlorhexidine (CHX), sodium-fluoride (NaF). An electrochemical analyzer was used for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. High corrosion resistance was obtained for ENT than the other wires. The corrosion potentials are 0.007, -0.042, 0.074 and -0.015 V (Ag/AgCl) for ENT, INT, SS and NT in the artificial salivary, respectively. In NaF containing mouthwash Rp value of ENT is significantly high in comparison to others. The impedance responses of all materials increased significantly in the presence of NaF mouthwash as well as in the CHX mouthwash. Low frequencies are seen at all materials in EO mouthwash. Diameters of loops are 22, 5.9, 5.9 and 3.7 MΩ at ENT, INT, SS and NT. In this study, micro layered esthetic nickel titanium wires are found biocompatible among other wires and NaF and CHX mouthwashes can be recommend for their good corrosion resistance during fixed orthodontic therapy.

  1. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  2. Modelling and analysis of material removal rate and surface roughness in wire-cut EDM of armour materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents a comparative study of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of armour materials such as aluminium alloy 7017 and rolled homogeneous armour (RHA steel using buckingham pi theorem to model the input variables and thermo-physical characteristics of WEDM on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (Ra of Al 7017 and RHA steel. The parameters of the model such as pulse-on time, flushing pressure, input power, thermal diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization have been determined through design of experiment methodology. Wear rate of brass wire increases with rise in input energy in machining Al 7017. The dependence of thermo-physical properties and machining variables on mechanism of MRR and Ra has been described by performing scanning electron microscope (SEM study. The rise in pulse-on time from 0.85μs to 1.25μs causes improvement in MRR and deterioration of surface finish. The machined surface has revealed that craters are found on the machined surface. The propensity of formation of craters increases during WEDM with a higher current and larger pulse-on time.

  3. A custom-made guide-wire positioning device for Hip Surface Replacement Arthroplasty: description and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clijmans Tim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA can be an alternative for total hip arthroplasty. The short and long-term outcome of hip surface replacement arthroplasty mainly relies on the optimal size and position of the femoral component. This can be defined before surgery with pre-operative templating. Reproducing the optimal, templated femoral implant position during surgery relies on guide wire positioning devices in combination with visual inspection and experience of the surgeon. Another method of transferring the templated position into surgery is by navigation or Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS. Though CAS is documented to increase accurate placement particularly in case of normal hip anatomy, it requires bulky equipment that is not readily available in each centre. Methods A custom made neck jig device is presented as well as the results of a pilot study. The device is produced based on data pre-operatively acquired with CT-scan. The position of the guide wire is chosen as the anatomical axis of the femoral neck. Adjustments to the design of the jig are made based on the orthopedic surgeon's recommendations for the drill direction. The SRA jig is designed as a slightly more-than-hemispherical cage to fit the anterior part of the femoral head. The cage is connected to an anterior neck support. Four knifes are attached on the central arch of the cage. A drill guide cylinder is attached to the cage, thus allowing guide wire positioning as pre-operatively planned. Custom made devices were tested in 5 patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty. The orthopedic surgeons reported the practical aspects of the use of the neck-jig device. The retrieved femoral heads were analyzed to assess the achieved drill place in mm deviation from the predefined location and orientation compared to the predefined orientation. Results The orthopedic surgeons rated the passive stability, full contact with neck portion of the jig and knife

  4. Effects of Intraoral Ageing on Ultimate Tensile Strength and Surface Topography of Superelastic NiTi Wires from Two Different Manufacturers: A Comparative in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Pravin Devaprasad; T R Chandrasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the ultimate tensile strength/fracture resistance of superelastic NiTi wires from two manufacturers 3M Unitek and American orthodontics in as received condition, after 3 months and 6 months of intraoral use. The wires would also be evaluated for surface characteristics under a scanning electron microscope. Materials and methods: Superelastic NiTi wires of 0.016" from 3M Unitek were categorized as group I and from American orthodon...

  5. Preparation of plasmonic platforms of silver wires on gold mirrors and their application to surface enhanced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Raut, Sangram; Rich, Ryan M; Sronce, Randy J; Fudala, Rafal; Mason, Rachel N; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a preparation of silver wires (SWs) on gold mirrors and its application to surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) using a new methodology. Silica protected gold mirrors were drop-coated with a solution of silver triangular nanoprisms. The triangular nanoprisms were slowly air-dried to get silver wires that self-assembled on the gold mirrors. Fluorescence enhancement was studied using methyl azadioxatriangulenium chloride (Me-ADOTA · Cl) dye in PVA spin-coated on a clean glass coverslip. New Plasmonic Platforms (PPs) were assembled by placing a mirror with SWs in contact with a glass coverslip spin-coated with a uniform Me-ADOTA · Cl film. It was shown that surface enhanced fluorescence is a real phenomenon, not just an enhancement of the fluorescence signal due to an accumulation of the fluorophore on rough nanostructure surfaces. The average fluorescence enhancement was found to be about 15-fold. The lifetime of Me-ADOTA · Cl dye was significantly reduced (∼ 4 times) in the presence of SWs. Moreover, fluorescence enhancement and lifetime did not show any dependence on the excitation light polarization.

  6. Effect of wobble board training on movement strategies to maintain equilibrium on unstable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Priscila de Brito; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Oliveira, Anderson Souza

    2018-01-01

    Standing on unstable surfaces requires more complex motor control mechanisms to sustain balance when compared to firm surfaces. Surface instability enhances the demand to maintain equilibrium and is often used to challenge balance, but little is known about how balance training affects movement...... strategies to control posture while standing on unstable surfaces. This study aimed at assessing the effects of isolated wobble board (WB) training on movement strategies to maintain balance during single-leg standing on a WB. Twenty healthy men were randomly assigned to either a control or a training group....... The training group took part in four weeks of WB training and both groups were tested pre and post the intervention. Electromyography from the supporting lower limb muscles, full-body kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded during firm surface (FS) and WB single-leg standing. WB training did...

  7. PECULIAR FEATURES OF MACHINING MARKS FORMATION ON SURFACE ОF TITANIUM SPECIMEN WITH SINGLE ELECTRO CONTACT ACTION OF WIRE ELECTRODE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of shape and geometry parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen with a single electro contact action of a wire electrode-tool. A description of the developed unit and methodology for execution of experimental investigations has been given in the paper. The paper provides and analyzes experimentally obtained data showing the effect of conditions and modes of single electro contact action of wire tool-electrode on the shape and geometrical parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen. It is shown that the formation of these traces occurs in the context of joint action of both the electrical erosion and mechanical action of the working part of the wire electrode-tool on the surface of the titanium specimen that expands technological capabilities of electro contact treatment while  solving problems associated with targeted modification of the original work-piece surfaces.

  8. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  9. Influence of surface position along the working range of conoscopic holography sensors on dimensional verification of AISI 316 wire EDM machined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

    2014-03-06

    Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM.

  10. Influence of Surface Position along the Working Range of Conoscopic Holography Sensors on Dimensional Verification of AISI 316 Wire EDM Machined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conoscopic holography (CH is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F and power (P until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR and signal envelope (Total meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR. Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP on a CMM.

  11. Formation of InN atomic-size wires by simple N adsorption on the In/Si(111)–(4 × 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J.; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N atoms on the surface form bonds with two In atoms and one Si atom. • Surface formation energy calculations show two stable structures with formation of InN atomic-size wires. • Projected density of states shows a tendency to form In−N and Si−N bonds on the surface. • Charge density corroborates the covalent character of the In−N bonds. - Abstract: We have carried out first principles total energy calculations to study the formation of InN atomic-size wires on the In/Si(111)–(4 × 1) surface. In its most favorable adsorption site, a single N atom forms InN arrangements. The deposit of 0.25 monolayers (MLs) of N atoms, result in the breaking of one of the original In chains and the formation of an InN atomic size wire. Increasing the coverage up to 0.5 ML of N atoms results in the formation of two of those wires. Calculated surface formation energies show that for N-poor conditions the most stable configuration is the original In/Si(111)–(4 × 1) surface with no N atoms. Increasing the N content, and in a reduced range of chemical potential, the formation of an InN wire is energetically favorable. Instead, from intermediate to N-rich conditions, two InN atomic wires are more stable. Projected density of states calculations have shown a trend to form covalent bonds between the In−p and N−p orbitals in these stable models.

  12. The hypothesis of formation of the structure of surfaced metal at the surfacing based on the application of the prognostic algorithm of control the electrode wire speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of a drop in the process of surfacing by a consumable electrode is characterized by a linear dependence of the current change on time. A hypothesis has been put forward, according to which a reduction in the feed rate of the electrode wire to zero in this time interval will substantially reduce the spraying loss and improve the formation of the surfacing roller. For the implementation of which, the use of regulators with a typical law of regulation is proposed, but not according to the current value of the arc current, but according to the forecast. A key feature of these researches is a realization given surfacing process with the imposition of external mechanical oscillations with specified amplitude-frequency characteristics on the welding bath. Analytical calculation of the transfer function for the prognostic PID regulator with the simplest linear prediction taking into account the oscillation of the weld pool is given.

  13. Low temperature back-surface-field contacts deposited by hot-wire CVD for heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)], E-mail: delfina@eel.upc.edu; Voz, C.; Martin, I.; Orpella, A.; Alcubilla, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Villar, F.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J. [CeRMAE-Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Roca-i-Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2008-08-30

    The growing interest in using thinner wafers (< 200 {mu}m) requires the development of low temperature passivation strategies for the back contact of heterojunction solar cells. In this work, we investigate low temperature deposited back contacts based on boron-doped amorphous silicon films obtained by Hot-Wire CVD. The influence of the deposition parameters and the use of an intrinsic buffer layer have been considered. The microstructure of the deposited thin films has been comprehensively studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV-visible range. The effective recombination velocity at the back surface has been measured by the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance technique. Complete double-side heterojunction solar cells (1 cm{sup 2}) have been fabricated and characterized by External Quantum Efficiency and current-voltage measurements. Total-area conversion efficiencies up to 14.5% were achieved in a fully low temperature process (< 200 deg. C)

  14. Characterisation of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires by surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Ts; Donchev, V; Angelova, T; Cros, A; Cantarero, A; Shtinkov, N; Borissov, K; Fuster, D; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires (QWRs) with two different spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, combined with empirical tight binding electronic structure calculations and structural data. The SPV and PL spectra reveal several features, which energy positions are in good agreement. They have been ascribed to excitonic transitions, which take place in the QWR families with heights differing by an integer number of monolayers. Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we have estimated the QWR family heights and the average atomic concentration of phosphorus in the QWRs. From the simultaneous analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, based on our vector model for SPV signal representation, a deeper understanding of the SPV results and of the mechanisms of carrier separation in the sample is obtained.

  15. Characterisation of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires by surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ts; Donchev, V.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borissov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2010-11-01

    The optical properties of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires (QWRs) with two different spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, combined with empirical tight binding electronic structure calculations and structural data. The SPV and PL spectra reveal several features, which energy positions are in good agreement. They have been ascribed to excitonic transitions, which take place in the QWR families with heights differing by an integer number of monolayers. Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we have estimated the QWR family heights and the average atomic concentration of phosphorus in the QWRs. From the simultaneous analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, based on our vector model for SPV signal representation, a deeper understanding of the SPV results and of the mechanisms of carrier separation in the sample is obtained.

  16. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  17. Surface evolution during crystalline silicon film growth by low-temperature hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Christine Esber; Park, Young-Bae; Atwater, Harry A.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the low-temperature growth of crystalline thin silicon films: epitaxial, twinned, and polycrystalline, by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Using Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, we find the relationship between surface roughness evolution and (i) the substrate temperature (230-350°C) and (ii) the hydrogen dilution ratio (H2/SiH4=0-480) . The absolute silicon film thickness for fully crystalline films is found to be the most important parameter in determining surface roughness, hydrogen being the second most important. Higher hydrogen dilution increases the surface roughness as expected. However, surface roughness increases with increasing substrate-temperature, in contrast to previous studies of crystalline Si growth. We suggest that the temperature-dependent roughness evolution is due to the role of hydrogen during the HWCVD process, which in this high hydrogen dilution regime allows for epitaxial growth on the rms roughest films through a kinetic growth regime of shadow-dominated etch and desorption and redeposition of growth species.

  18. MODELING OF QUALITY FORMATION OF PIG IRON BILLET SURFACE AT WIRE BRUSH MILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Barshaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of topography, geometrical structure and micro-hardness of pig iron billet surface is considered in the paper. Mathematical models pertaining to formation of the above-mentioned characteristics of surface quality according to parameters of machining regime have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations.

  19. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  2. Iridium Oxide pH Sensor Based on Stainless Steel Wire for pH Mapping on Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, S.; Ismail, M. C.; Kakooei, S.; Beheshti, M.; Zabihiazadboni, M.; Zavareh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple technique to fabricate the iridium oxide pH sensor is useful in several applications such as medical, food processing and engineering material where it is able to detect the changes of pH. Generally, the fabrication technique can be classified into three types: electro-deposition iridium oxide film (EIrOF), activated iridium oxide film (AIROF) and sputtering iridium oxide film (SIROF). This study focuses on fabricating electrode, calibration and test. Electro-deposition iridium oxide film is a simple and effective method of fabricating this kind of sensor via cyclic voltammetry process. The iridium oxide thick film was successfully electrodeposited on the surface of stainless steel wire with 500 cycles of sweep potential. A further analysis under FESEM shows detailed image of iridium oxide film which has cauliflower-liked microstructure. EDX analysis shows the highest element present are iridium and oxygen which concluded that the process is successful. The iridium oxide based pH sensor has shown a good performance in comparison to conventional glass pH sensor when it is being calibrated in buffer solutions with 2, 4, 7 and 9 pH values. The iridium oxide pH sensor is specifically designed to measure the pH on the surface of metal plate.

  3. Impact of microcrystalline silicon carbide growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on crystalline silicon surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaska, M.; Beyer, W.; Neumann, E.; Finger, F.; Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly crystalline microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) with excellent optoelectronic material properties is a promising candidate as highly transparent doped layer in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. These high quality materials are usually produced using hot wire chemical vapor deposition under aggressive growth conditions giving rise to the removal of the underlying passivation layer and thus the deterioration of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. In this work, we introduced the n-type μc-SiC:H/n-type μc-SiO x :H/intrinsic a-SiO x :H stack as a front layer configuration for p-type SHJ solar cells with the μc-SiO x :H layer acting as an etch-resistant layer against the reactive deposition conditions during the μc-SiC:H growth. We observed that the unfavorable expansion of micro-voids at the c-Si interface due to the in-diffusion of hydrogen atoms through the layer stack might be responsible for the deterioration of surface passivation. Excellent lifetime values were achieved under deposition conditions which are needed to grow high quality μc-SiC:H layers for SHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • High surface passivation quality was preserved after μc-SiC:H deposition. • μc-SiC:H/μc-SiO x :H/a-SiO x :H stack a promising front layer configuration • Void expansion at a-SiO x :H/c-Si interface for deteriorated surface passivation • μc-SiC:H provides a high transparency and electrical conductivity.

  4. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  5. A comparison of surface and fine wire EMG recordings of gluteus medius during selected maximum isometric voluntary contractions of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semciw, Adam I; Neate, Rachel; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-12-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) studies into gluteus medius (GMed) typically involve surface EMG electrodes. Previous comparisons of surface and fine wire electrode recordings in other muscles during high load isometric tasks suggest that recordings between electrodes are comparable when the muscle is contracting at a high intensity, however, surface electrodes record additional activity when the muscle is contracting at a low intensity. The purpose of this study was to compare surface and fine wire recordings of GMed at high and low intensities of muscle contractions, under high load conditions (maximum voluntary isometric contractions, MVICs). Mann-Whitney U tests compared median electrode recordings during three MVIC hip actions; abduction, internal rotation and external rotation, in nine healthy adults. There were no significant differences between electrode recordings in positions that evoked a high intensity contraction (internal rotation and abduction, fine wire activity >77% MVIC; effect size, ES0.277). During external rotation, the intensity of muscle activity was low (4.2% MVIC), and surface electrodes recorded additional myoelectric activity (ES=0.67, p=0.002). At low levels of muscle activity during high load isometric tasks, the use of surface electrodes may result in additional myoelectric recordings of GMed, potentially reflective of cross-talk from surrounding muscles. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of wobble board training on movement strategies to maintain equilibrium on unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila de Brito; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2018-04-01

    Standing on unstable surfaces requires more complex motor control mechanisms to sustain balance when compared to firm surfaces. Surface instability enhances the demand to maintain equilibrium and is often used to challenge balance, but little is known about how balance training affects movement strategies to control posture while standing on unstable surfaces. This study aimed at assessing the effects of isolated wobble board (WB) training on movement strategies to maintain balance during single-leg standing on a WB. Twenty healthy men were randomly assigned to either a control or a training group. The training group took part in four weeks of WB training and both groups were tested pre and post the intervention. Electromyography from the supporting lower limb muscles, full-body kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded during firm surface (FS) and WB single-leg standing. WB training did not affect FS performance (p = 0.865), but tripled WB standing time (p < 0.002). Moreover, training decreased lower leg muscle activation (29-59%), leg and trunk velocities (30% and 34%, respectively), and supporting limb angular velocity (24-47% across all planes for the ankle, knee and hip joints). Post intervention standing time was significantly correlated with angular velocities at the hip (r = 0.79) and knee (r = -0.83) for controls, while it correlated significantly with contra-lateral leg (r ∼ 0.70) and trunk velocity (r = -0.74) for trained participants. These results support the assumption that WB training enhances the ability to control counter-rotation mechanisms for balance maintenance on unstable surfaces, which may be a crucial protective factor against sports injuries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Measured surface magnetic field attenuation of shielded windows and wire mesh over an electrically small enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, L.O.; Hofstra, J.S.; Karaskiewicz, R.J.; Wiser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The surface magnetic field attenuation of five types of shielded transparency (window) material was measured over the frequency range 10 kHz to 100 MHz by installing them on an .61 m x .61 m x .2 m enclosure, placing the enclosure on the wall of a TEM cell and measuring the surface and interior magnetic fields using a computer-controlled network analyzer system. The samples included two thicknesses of conductive grids on acrylic, hardware, cloth with 1/8 and 1/4-inch mesh, and a fine mesh laminated optical display window. These measurements are indicative of an enclosure with aperture coupling; namely, they become frequency-independent at high frequencies. Coarse mesh samples (1/8-1/4-inch mesh) were able to provide 50 to 60 dB of magnetic field reduction at tens of MHz, whereas the finer mesh did slightly better. This behavior is consistent with magnetic polarizability theory. Material thickness did not have an appreciable effect for frequencies above a MHz

  12. Surface defects characterization in a quantum wire by coherent phonons scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabia, M. S. [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Structures et Energétique, Faculté du Génie de la Construction, Université. Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, BP 17 RP Hasnaoua II, Tizi-Ouzou 15000, Algérie m2msr@yahoo.fr (Algeria)

    2015-03-30

    The influence of surface defects on the scattering properties of elastic waves in a quasi-planar crystallographic waveguide is studied in the harmonic approximation using the matching method formalism. The structural model is based on three infinite atomic chains forming a perfect lattice surmounted by an atomic surface defect. Following the Landauer approach, we solve directly the Newton dynamical equation with scattering boundary conditions and taking into account the next nearest neighbour’s interaction. A detailed study of the defect-induced fluctuations in the transmission spectra is presented for different adatom masses. As in the electronic case, the presence of localized defect-induced states leads to Fano-like resonances. In the language of mechanical vibrations, these are called continuum resonances. Numerical results reveal the intimate relation between transmission spectra and localized defect states and provide a basis for the understanding of conductance spectroscopy experiments in disordered mesoscopic systems. The results could be useful for the design of phononic devices.

  13. Surface defects characterization in a quantum wire by coherent phonons scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabia, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of surface defects on the scattering properties of elastic waves in a quasi-planar crystallographic waveguide is studied in the harmonic approximation using the matching method formalism. The structural model is based on three infinite atomic chains forming a perfect lattice surmounted by an atomic surface defect. Following the Landauer approach, we solve directly the Newton dynamical equation with scattering boundary conditions and taking into account the next nearest neighbour’s interaction. A detailed study of the defect-induced fluctuations in the transmission spectra is presented for different adatom masses. As in the electronic case, the presence of localized defect-induced states leads to Fano-like resonances. In the language of mechanical vibrations, these are called continuum resonances. Numerical results reveal the intimate relation between transmission spectra and localized defect states and provide a basis for the understanding of conductance spectroscopy experiments in disordered mesoscopic systems. The results could be useful for the design of phononic devices

  14. Characteristics of Polysilicon Wire Glucose Sensors with a Surface Modified by Silica Nanoparticles/γ-APTES Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jheng-Jia Jhuang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This report investigates the sensing characteristics of polysilicon wire (PSW glucose biosensors, including thickness characteristics and line-width effects on detection limits, linear range and interference immunity with membranes coated by micropipette/spin-coating and focus-ion-beam (FIB processed capillary atomic-force-microscopy (C-AFM tip scan/coating methods. The PSW surface was modified with a mixture of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (γ-APTES and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-treated hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles (NPs. We found that the thickness of the γ-APTES+NPs nonocomposite could be controlled well at about 22 nm with small relative standard deviation (RSD with repeated C-AFM tip scan/coatings. The detection limit increased and linear range decreased with the line width of the PSW through the tip-coating process. Interestingly, the interference immunity ability improves as the line width increases. For a 500 nm-wide PSW, the percentage changes of the channel current density changes (ΔJ caused by acetaminophen (AP can be kept below 3.5% at an ultra-high AP-to-glucose concentration ratio of 600:1. Simulation results showed that the line width dependence of interference immunity was strongly correlated with the channel electrical field of the PSW biosensor.

  15. Monatomic Fe and Co wires at the Pt surface step edge: theory of the unconventional magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shick, Alexander B.; Maca, Frantisek; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    We report a first-principles investigation of the anomalous magnetic anisotropy of quasi-one-dimensional ferromagnetic Fe and Co chains decorating the Pt(111) step edge. Our calculations for both Fe and Co wires show that the easy magnetization is always confined in the plane perpendicular to the wire. The symmetry breaking at the step leads to an easy magnetization axis of the Co wire at an odd angle of ∼ 20 deg. towards the Pt step, in agreement with the experiment. This canting becomes more pronounced for the Fe wire, for which we obtain an easy axis at 30 deg. towards the Pt step. Also, the Fe and Co spin and orbital moments become noncollinear, even in the case of a collinear ferromagnetic spin arrangement

  16. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  17. 46 CFR 28.370 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.370 Section 28.370... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.370 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable and... not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in a high risk fire area such as...

  18. Diamond functionalization with light-harvesting molecular wires: improved surface coverage by optimized Suzuki cross-coupling conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yeap, W. S.; Bevk, D.; Liu, X.; Krýsová, Hana; Pasquarelli, A.; Vanderzande, D.; Lutsen, L.; Kavan, Ladislav; Fahlman, M.; Maes, W.; Haenen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 42044-42053 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Functionalizations * Light- harvesting * Molecular wires Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  19. The wire optical test: a thorough analytical study in and out of caustic surface, and advantages of a dynamical adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Ortega-Vidals, Paula

    2018-03-01

    Among the best known non-interferometric optical tests are the wire test, the Foucault test and Ronchi test with a low frequency grating. Since the wire test is the seed to understand the other ones, the aim of the present work is to do a thorough study of this test for a lens with symmetry of revolution and to do this study for any configuration of the object and detection planes where both planes could intersect: two, one or no branches of the caustic region (including the marginal and paraxial foci). To this end, we calculated the vectorial representation for the caustic region, and we found the analytical expression for the pattern; we report that the analytical pattern explicitly depends on the magnitude of a branch of the caustic. With the analytical pattern we computed a set of simulations of a dynamical adaptation of the optical wire test. From those simulations, we have done a thorough analysis of the topological structure of the pattern; so we explain how the multiple image formation process and the image collapse process take place for each configuration, in particular, when both the wire and the detection planes are placed inside the caustic region, which has not been studied before. For the first time, we remark that not only the intersections of the object and detection planes with the caustic are important in the change of pattern topology; but also the projection of the intersection between the caustic and the object plane mapped onto the detection plane; and the virtual projection of the intersection between the caustic and the detection plane mapped onto the object plane. We present that for the new configurations of the optical system, the wire image is curves of the Tschirnhausen’s cubic, the piriform and the deformed eight-curve types.

  20. Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish and Effects of Chloride Contamination, Electric Field, and Humidity on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion reliability is a serious issue today for electronic devices, components, and printed circuit boards (PCBs) due to factors such as miniaturization, globalized manufacturing practices which can lead to process-related residues, and global usage effects such as bias voltage and unpredictable...... probability under condensing conditions. Leakage currents were measured on interdigitated comb test patterns with three different types of surface finish typically used in the electronics industry, namely gold, copper, and tin. Susceptibility to electrochemical migration was studied under droplet conditions...

  1. Influence of various fluoride agents on working properties and surface characteristics of uncoated, rhodium coated and nitrified nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Višnja; Mandić, Vilko; Ježek, Damir; Baršić, Gorana; Špalj, Stjepan

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the effect of various fluoride formulations in commercially available agents on working properties of various nickel-titanium orthodontic wires. Uncoated (NiTi), rhodium coated (RhNiTi) and nitrified (NNiTi) wires were immersed to dH2O, MiPaste, Elmex and Mirafluor for 1 h. Unloading slope characteristics (average force, bending action of the force and average plateau length) and the percentage of useable constant force during unloading were observed. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured. SEM and EDS were used for observation of the surface. NiTi had decreased loading and unloading elastic modulus (E) and yield strength (YS) after immersion to MIPaste and Mirafluor. The unloading YS decreased in the RhNiTi by the MIPaste. The loading and unloading YS of the NNiTi increased in Elmex and increased average plateau force. RhNiTi showed higher average plateau length and the percentage of useful constant force during unloading in Mirafluor and the average plateau force lowered after immersion to MIPaste. The unloading slope characteristics for NiTi were affected by all three prophylactic agents, mostly by Mirafluor, and produced significantly lower forces during both loading and unloading, similarly to the NNiTi wires. The RhNiTi had the lowest forces during both loading and unloading in MIPaste. All results were at significance; pwires lose less working force when combined with Elmex. The RhNiTi improve their working properties with Mirafluor and deteriorate when combined with MiPaste.

  2. Boron doping: B/H/C/O gas-phase chemistry; H atom density dependences on pressure and wire temperature; puzzles regarding the gas-surface mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankelevich, Yuri A.; Ashfold, Michael N.R.; Comerford, Dane W.; Ma Jie; Richley, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies of the gas-phase chemistry occurring in dilute, hot filament (HF) activated B 2 H 6 /CH 4 /H 2 gas mixtures appropriate for growth of boron-doped diamond are reported. The results of two-dimensional modeling of heat and mass transfer processes and the B/H/C chemistry prevailing in such HF activated gas mixtures (supplemented by reactions involving trace O 2 present as air impurity in the process gas mixture) are discussed and compared with measurements of B atom densities as functions of the hot wire temperature T w and distance from the wire. Most of the B 2 H 6 molecules that diffuse from the cool, near-wall regions into the hot, near wire region are thermally decomposed (yielding two BH 3 molecules as primary products) and then converted into various 'active' B-containing species like B, BH and BH 2 - some of which are able to accommodate into the growing diamond film. H-shifting reactions BH x + H ↔ BH x-1 + H 2 enable rapid inter-conversion between the various BH x (x = 0-3) species and the BH x source is limited by diffusional transfer of B 2 H 6 . H atoms play several key roles - e.g. activating the process gas mixture, and driving inter-conversions between the various H x B y C z O z' species. We show that the T w and gas pressure dependences of the H atom production rate (by H 2 dissociation on the HF surface) can be accommodated by a simple gas-surface reaction model.

  3. Preparation of a polyacrylonitrile/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on a stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Isabelle; Hevesi, Laszlo; Azenha, Manuel; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2010-04-23

    We report on the fabrication and performances of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on a stainless steel wire coated with a covalently attached polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite. This new coating is obtained by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylonitrile mixed with MWCNTs. ATRP is initiated from 11-(2-bromo-2-methylpropionyloxy)-undecyl-phosphonic acid molecules grafted on the wire surface via the phosphonic acid group. The extraction performances of the fibers are assessed on different classes of compounds (polar, non-polar, aromatic, etc.) from water solutions by headspace extraction. The optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target compounds was studied as well as the reproducibility and the repeatability of the fiber. The fibers sustain more than 200 extractions during which they remain chemically stable and maintain good performances (detection limits lower than 2 microg/l, repeatability, etc.). Considering their robustness together with their easy and inexpensive fabrication, these fibers could constitute promising alternatives to existing products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  5. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  6. Fabrication of shape-controllable polyaniline micro/nanostructures on organic polymer surfaces: obtaining spherical particles, wires, and ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenbin; Wang, Yongxin; Yan, Yan; Sun, Yufeng; Deng, Jianping; Yang, Wantai

    2007-04-19

    A novel strategy was developed in order to prepare various micro/nanostructured polyanilines (PANI) on polymer substrates. The strategy involved two main steps, i.e., a grafting polymerization of acrylate acid (AA) onto the surface of a polypropylene (PP) film and subsequently an oxidative polymerization of aniline on the grafted surface. By tuning the conformation of the surface-grafted poly acrylate acid (PAA) brushes, as well as the ratio of AA to aniline, the shape of the PANIs fixated onto the surfaces of the polymer substrate could be controlled to go from spherical particles to nanowires and eventually to nanoribbons. In these structures, the PAA brushes not only acted as templates but also as dopants of PANI, and thereby, the nanostructured PANIs could be strongly bonded with the substrate. In addition, the surface of the PP films grafted with polyaniline nanowires and nanoribbons displayed superhydrophobicity with contact angles for water of approxiamtely 145 and 151 degrees , respectively.

  7. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall be...

  8. Enhanced THz guiding properties of curved two-wire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jingshu; Kim, Geun Ju; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-03-21

    We present experimental and simulation studies of enhanced terahertz (THz) guiding properties of curved two-wire lines for several surface conditions. When a THz-wave propagates through curved two-wire lines, a rough wire surface with dielectric coating contributes to a lower bending loss compared to a smooth or rough wire surface without coating. Dielectric coating and rough surface confine the THz field to the wire surface making the bending loss low. The guiding property at a curve depth of 30 mm of a rough wire surface with 25-μm-thick coating is improved by 34% compared to that of a smooth wire without coating. Furthermore, computer simulation technology (CST) software visually shows the bending loss as same as the experimental studies.

  9. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  10. Automatic inspection of railway overhead wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, C.; Valkenburg, A.L.G. van

    1988-01-01

    For the Netherlands railway company a system for inspection of the degree of wear of the contact wires is being developed. With an active sensor the reflective under-surface of the overhead wire is illuminated with a laserbeam and reflected radiation is detected by fast CCD detectors. With the

  11. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  12. Structuring of Functional Spider Silk Wires, Coatings, and Sheets by Self-Assembly on Superhydrophobic Pillar Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Linnea; Jansson, Ronnie; Hedhammar, My; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Spider silk has recently become a material of high interest for a large number of biomedical applications. Previous work on structuring of silk has resulted in particles (0D), fibers (1D), films (2D), and foams, gels, capsules, or microspheres (3D). However, the manufacturing process of these structures is complex and involves posttreatment of chemicals unsuitable for biological applications. In this work, the self-assembly of recombinant spider silk on micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces is studied. For the first time, structuring of recombinant spider silk is achieved using superhydrophobic surfaces under conditions that retain the bioactivity of the functionalized silk. By tuning the superhydrophobic surface geometry and the silk solution handling parameters, this approach allows controlled generation of silk coatings, nanowires, and sheets. The underlying mechanisms and governing parameters are discussed. It is believed that the results of this work pave the way for fabrication of silk formations for applications including vehicles for drug delivery, optical sensing, antimicrobial coatings, and cell culture scaffolds. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Milk-run kanban system for raw printed circuit board withdrawal to surface-mounted equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Li Chee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The paper aims to present a case study and later simulation analysis on a kanban system that incorporating milk-run operation to draw in raw material to the process. Design/methodology/approach:  Data collection at the case study company for ten weeks followed by a process study called value stream mapping. The proposed kanban model is simulated to test its various performances including total output, average flow time, average work-in-process, SME utilization, and average waiting time. Response surface methodology is adopted to generate suitable representative regression models.  Findings: For all performance measures, simulation results showed that the proposed system consistently outperforms the push system currently practiced. Second, the system indicates the advantages of leveling, particularly in the event of machine failure and blockage. Third, operator in the proposed kanban system has a lower utilization, even with the additional material handling task.   Research limitations/implications: This study only begins to reveal the implication of leveling for production control on multi-machine scenario. The simulation of the system is solely based only the case study. The control parameters critical to the case study, were naturally used. The furtherance of the research should include generalizing the system and devising the respective methodology to facilitate wider applications. Practical implications: Originality/value:  The kanban system is proposed in the light of conflicting interests in handling the surface mounting and the related upstream processes. Such aspect is common to electronics assembly industry.

  14. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D'Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  15. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  16. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  17. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  18. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 in food cutting board surfaces. Removal E. coli using different sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEZAR AUGUSTO BELTRAME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate Escherichia coli adhesion on new and used polyethylene cutting board surface and evaluate it’s removal using different sanitizer (peracetic acid,chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and organic acids. Results indicated that the number of adherent cells increased with time in both surfaces evaluated. Evaluating the sanitizer action, 0.5%peracetic acid was more effective in removal E. coli than chlorhexidine and organic acids at same concentration in both surfaces. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite also showed effectiveness at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% on new surfaces, respectively. 0.8% of chlorhexidine and 2.0% of organic acids showed similar effectiveness in the removal E. coli on new and used surfaces, respectively.These results suggest that peracetic acid is considerable promise sanitizer for application in surfaces of the food processing industry.

  19. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  20. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  2. Are chronic neck pain, scapular dyskinesis and altered scapulothoracic muscle activity interrelated?: A case-control study with surface and fine-wire EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The function of the scapula is important in normal neck function and might be disturbed in patients with neck pain. The surrounding muscular system is important for the function of the scapula. To date, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of these scapulothoracic muscles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate differences in deeper and superficial lying scapulothoracic muscle activity between patients with idiopathic neck pain and healthy controls during arm elevation, and to identify the influence of scapular dyskinesis on muscle activity. Scapular dyskinesis was rated with the yes/no method. The deeper lying (Levator Scapulae, Pectoralis Minor (Pm) and Rhomboid major) and superficial lying (Trapezius and Serratus Anterior) scapulothoracic muscles' activity was investigated with fine-wire and surface EMG, respectively, in 19 female subjects with idiopathic neck pain (age 28.3±10.1years, average duration of neck pain 45.6±36.3months) and 19 female healthy control subjects (age 29.3±11.7years) while performing scaption and towel wall slide. Possible interactions or differences between subject groups, scapular dyskinesis groups or phases of the task were studied with a linear mixed model. Higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide (p=0.024, mean difference 8.8±3.3% MVIC) was shown in patients with idiopathic neck pain in comparison with healthy controls. For the MT, a significant group∗dyskinesis interaction effect was found during scaption which revealed that patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower Middle Trapezius (MT) activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis (p=0.029, mean difference 5.1±2.2% MVIC). In the presence of idiopathic neck pain, higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide was found. Patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower MT activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis during scaption

  3. A new wire chamber front-end system, based on the ASD-8 B chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruesemann, B.A.M. E-mail: kruesemann@kvi.nl; Bassini, R.; Ellinghaus, F.; Frekers, D.; Hagemann, M.; Hannen, V.M.; Heynitz, H. von; Heyse, J.; Rakers, S.; Sohlbach, H.; Woertche, H.J

    1999-07-11

    The Focal-Plane Polarimeter (FPP) for the Big-Bite Spectrometer van den Berg (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 99 (1995) 637ff) at the KVI requires the read-out of four large-area MWPCs and two VDCs with 3872 wires in total. The EUROSUPERNOVA collaboration (SNOVA) developed a digital 16 channel preamplifier front-end board, housing two amplifier-shaper-discriminatorchips ASD-8 B. The main features of this board are a fast single-wire readout, a high integration density, a low power consumption and compatibility to common instrumentation standards. The board represents the first successfully running application of the ASD-8 for wire chamber readout. (author)

  4. A new wire chamber front-end system, based on the ASD-8 B chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kruesemann, B A M; Ellinghaus, F; Frekers, D; Hagemann, M; Hannen, V M; Heynitz, H V; Heyse, J; Rakers, S; Sohlbach, H; Wörtche, H J

    1999-01-01

    The Focal-Plane Polarimeter (FPP) for the Big-Bite Spectrometer van den Berg (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 99 (1995) 637ff) at the KVI requires the read-out of four large-area MWPCs and two VDCs with 3872 wires in total. The EUROSUPERNOVA collaboration (SNOVA) developed a digital 16 channel preamplifier front-end board, housing two amplifier-shaper-discriminatorchips ASD-8 B. The main features of this board are a fast single-wire readout, a high integration density, a low power consumption and compatibility to common instrumentation standards. The board represents the first successfully running application of the ASD-8 for wire chamber readout. (author)

  5. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  6. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  7. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  8. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Board Charter

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TEST

    Senior Centre Staff participate in meetings and make presentations to allow. Governors to gain ... assist individual governors, part of the Board evaluation includes self-assessment. The Board. Evaluation ... oversee the Board's evaluation and self-assessment exercises and implementing change and improvements, as ...

  10. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  11. Construction and assembly of the wire planes for the MicroBooNE Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Danaher, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Gardner, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Raaf, J. L.; Soderberg, M.; John, J. St.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Yu, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we describe how the readout planes for the MicroBooNE Time Projection Chamber were constructed, assembled and installed. We present the individual wire preparation using semi-automatic winding machines and the assembly of wire carrier boards. The details of the wire installation on the detector frame and the tensioning of the wires are given. A strict quality assurance plan ensured the integrity of the readout planes. The different tests performed at all stages of construction and installation provided crucial information to achieve the successful realization of the MicroBooNE wire planes.

  12. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  13. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  14. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  15. Reduction of friction during wire drawing by electrode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-Y.; Marek, M.

    1995-04-01

    In wire drawing, the wire is drawn through a series of dies sprayed with or immersed in an emulsion lubricant. The surface conditions of the wire play a vital part in the mechanism of lubrication, and the conditions can be affected by electrochemical parameters. The electrochemical behavior of copper in selected emulsions was studied, and laboratory friction as well as pilot plant tests were performed. Reduction of friction was detected at various potentials depending on the lubricant composition. Surface quality of the wire was improved by the electrode control.

  16. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  17. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  18. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  19. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schubert

    Full Text Available Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water. The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin. The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA, the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  20. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  1. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima JABER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control. CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3 and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3, respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  2. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  3. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Laura Cavalcante Lima; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  4. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Di Gioacchino, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Marini, P.; Di Stefano, V.; Nakamura, M. [EURESYS, Rome (Italy); Pace, S. [Salerno Univ., Salerno (Italy). Dept. of Physics, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia; Mancini, A. [ORIM S.r.l., Piediripa, MC (Italy); Tripodi, P. [Stanford Research Institut International, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA).

  5. Board game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A board game comprises a board, a number of counters and two dice. The board is marked to provide a central area, representing the nucleus of an atom, and six or more annular rings extending concentrically around the central area, the rings being divided into 2,8,18,32,48 and 72 squares. Each ring represents an electron shell, and some of the squares are numbered, the number representing the atomic number of different elements. (author)

  6. Method for reuse of wafers for growth of vertically-aligned wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua M; Plass, Katherine E; Lewis, Nathan S; Atwater, Harry A

    2013-06-04

    Reusing a Si wafer for the formation of wire arrays by transferring the wire arrays to a polymer matrix, reusing a patterned oxide for several array growths, and finally polishing and reoxidizing the wafer surface and reapplying the patterned oxide.

  7. High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Amplification Factor Obtained with Silver Printed Circuit Boards and the Influence of Phenolic Resins for the Characterization of the Pesticide Thiram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Almeida, Francylaine; Bussler, Larissa; Marcio Lima, Sandro; Fiorucci, Antonio Rogério; da Cunha Andrade, Luis Humberto

    2016-07-01

    In this work, low-cost substrates with rough silver surfaces were prepared from commercial copper foil-covered phenolic board (CPB) and an aqueous solution of AgNO3, and were used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) measurements. A maximum SERS amplification factor of 1.2 × 10(7) was obtained for Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and use of the CPB resulted in a detection limit for Thiram pesticide of 0.5 µmol L(-1) The minimum detection level was limited by residual traces of phenolic groups that originated from the substrate resin, which became solubilized in the aqueous Ag(+) solution. It was found that the bands corresponding to the impurities had less influence in the Thiram analysis, which could be explained by the high affinity of sulfur for Ag surfaces. The influence of impurities in the SERS analyses therefore depended on the linkage between the rough silver surface and the analyte. The findings demonstrated the ease and effectiveness of using CPB to prepare a nanostructured surface for SERS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  9. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  10. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

  13. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm 2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h −1 and 1.40 g h −1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning. (paper)

  14. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  15. A new design of wire locators for drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    Every position-sensitive wire detector needs to solve the problem of wire positioning with a defined accuracy all over its sensitive volume. In particular, thin-walled drift tubes ("straws"), which are currently being attached to large detector units of several tens of square meters of surface, need to be equipped with wire locators along their signal wires. A wire locator has been developed together with an insertion device, especially for medium-sized drift tube systems, which significantly reduces the production time and avoids the danger of applying epoxy glue to the signal wire. The wire locator is being inserted in one single time-saving production step together with the signal wire itself. The proposed design is being compared to the rigid wire locators in use in the COMPASS straw tracking system at CERN. The investigation comprises both wire- centering capability and influence on the efficiency of adjacent detector regions, demonstrating the competitive performance of the proposed new system. Its suff...

  16. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  17. Successful removal of an intravesical electrical wire cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Son, Hwancheol

    2014-08-01

    A few previous reports have described cases wherein electrical wire cables were inserted into the male urethra and bladder. Electrical wire cables are available at home and are easy to insert. However, after they coil in the patient's bladder, they are difficult to remove. In February 2013, a 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room of SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center with a urethral foreign body. He had inserted an electrical wire cable into his urethra for the purpose of masturbation, despite having a regular sex partner and no underlying disease. A kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed a tangled wire in his bladder and urethra. On the next day, we tried to remove the wire cystoscopically, but this proved to be impossible because of complex coiling and the slippery surface of the wire. A Pfannenstiel incision was made to remove the foreign body. No postoperative complications were noted.

  18. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  19. Packaging Reliability Effect of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes in Board Level Thermal Test under Long-Term Aging and Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaobo; Hai, Zhou; Zhao, Cong; Zhang, Jiawei; Evans, John L; Bozack, Michael J; Suhling, Jeffrey C

    2017-04-26

    This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on the package side compared with ImAg plating on both sides. The resulting degradation data suggests that the main concern for 0.4 mm pitch 10 mm package size BGA is package side surface finish, not board side. That is, ENIG performs better than immersion Ag for applications involving long-term isothermal aging. SAC305, with a higher relative fraction of Ag₃Sn IMC within the solder, performs better than SAC105. SEM and polarized light microscope analysis show cracks propagated from the corners to the center or even to solder bulk, which eventually causes fatigue failure. Three factors are discussed: IMC, grain structure, and Ag₃Sn particle. The continuous growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) and grains increase the risk of failure, while Ag₃Sn particles seem helpful in blocking the crack propagation.

  20. A low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for a black bisphenol A polycarbonate board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suhuan; Liu, Jianguo; Lv, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for polymer materials was achieved at high laser scanning speeds (600-1000 mm s-1) and using an all-solid state, Q-switched, high-average power, and nanosecond pulse ultraviolet (355 nm wavelength) laser. During the surface modification of a very important engineering plastic, i.e., black bisphenol A polycarbonate (BAPC) board, it was found that different laser parameters (e.g., laser fluence and pulse frequency) were able to result in different surface microstructures (e.g., many tiny protuberances or a porous microstructure with periodical V-type grooves). After the modification, although the total relative content of the oxygen-containing groups (e.g., Csbnd O and COO-) on the BAPC surface increased, however, the special microstructures played a deciding role in the surface properties (e.g., contact angle and surface energy) of the BAPC. The change trend of the water contact angle on the BAPC surface was with an obvious increase, that of the diiodomethane contact angle was with a most decrease, and that of the ethylene glycol contact angle was between the above two. It showed that the wetting properties of the three liquids on the modified BAPC surface were different. Basing on the measurements of the contact angles of the three liquids, and according to the Young equation and the Lifshitz van der Waals and Lewis acid-base theory, the BAPC surface energy after the modification was calculated. The results were that, in a broad range of laser fluences, pulse frequencies and scanning speeds, the surface energy had a significant increase (e.g., from the original of about 44 mJ m-2 to the maximum of about 70 mJ m-2), and the higher the laser pulse frequency, the more significant the increase. This would be very advantageous to fabricate the high-quality micro-devices and micro-systems on the modified surface.

  1. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  2. SU-F-I-73: Surface Dose from KV Diagnostic Beams From An On-Board Imager On a Linac Machine Using Different Imaging Techniques and Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, I; Hossain, S; Syzek, E; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively investigate the surface dose deposited in patients imaged with a kV on-board-imager mounted on a radiotherapy machine using different clinical imaging techniques and filters. Methods: A high sensitivity photon diode is used to measure the surface dose on central-axis and at an off-axis-point which is mounted on the top of a phantom setup. The dose is measured for different imaging techniques that include: AP-Pelvis, AP-Head, AP-Abdomen, AP-Thorax, and Extremity. The dose measurements from these imaging techniques are combined with various filtering techniques that include: no-filter (open-field), half-fan bowtie (HF), full-fan bowtie (FF) and Cu-plate filters. The relative surface dose for different imaging and filtering techniques is evaluated quantiatively by the ratio of the dose relative to the Cu-plate filter. Results: The lowest surface dose is deposited with the Cu-plate filter. The highest surface dose deposited results from open fields without filter and it is nearly a factor of 8–30 larger than the corresponding imaging technique with the Cu-plate filter. The AP-Abdomen technique delivers the largest surface dose that is nearly 2.7 times larger than the AP-Head technique. The smallest surface dose is obtained from the Extremity imaging technique. Imaging with bowtie filters decreases the surface dose by nearly 33% in comparison with the open field. The surface doses deposited with the HF or FF-bowtie filters are within few percentages. Image-quality of the radiographic images obtained from the different filtering techniques is similar because the Cu-plate eliminates low-energy photons. The HF- and FF-bowtie filters generate intensity-gradients in the radiographs which affects image-quality in the different imaging technique. Conclusion: Surface dose from kV-imaging decreases significantly with the Cu-plate and bowtie-filters compared to imaging without filters using open-field beams. The use of Cu-plate filter does not affect

  3. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  4. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  5. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  6. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  7. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  8. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  9. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  10. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  11. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  12. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  13. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  14. Studies of IBL wire bonds operation in a ATLAS-like magnetic field.

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Feito, D; Mandelli, B

    2015-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, most of silicon detectors use wire bonds to connect front-end chips and sensors to circuit boards for the data and service trans- missions. These wire bonds are operated in strong magnetic field environments and if time varying currents pass through them with frequencies close to their mechanical resonance frequency, strong resonant oscillations may occur. Under certain conditions, this effect can lead to fatigue stress and eventually breakage of wire bonds. During the first LHC Long Shutdown, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been upgraded with the addition of a fourth innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), which has more than 50000 wire bonds operated in the ATLAS 2 T magnetic field. The results of systematic studies of operating wire bonds under IBL-like conditions are presented. Two different solutions have been investigated to minimize the oscillation amplitude of wire bonds.

  15. Use of beam deflection to control an electron beam wire deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for controlling an electron beam process wherein a wire is melted and deposited on a substrate as a molten pool comprises generating the electron beam with a complex raster pattern, and directing the beam onto an outer surface of the wire to thereby control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool. Directing the beam selectively heats the outer surface of the wire and maintains the position of the wire with respect to the molten pool. An apparatus for controlling an electron beam process includes a beam gun adapted for generating the electron beam, and a controller adapted for providing the electron beam with a complex raster pattern and for directing the electron beam onto an outer surface of the wire to control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool.

  16. Self-impedances of finite and infinite wires with earth-return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koglin, H.J.; Meyer, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The electromagnetic field for a thin wire of finite length, embedded in a homogeneous earth of infinite extent in all directions, is given. The distribution of the electric field intensity close to the wire is examined. The mathematical model for the finite wire is expanded by substituting a spheroidal earth-electrode at each end. The external self-impedance of the wire between the earth-electrodes is calculated by integrating the electric field intensity along a presupposed radius. Especially in the case of short wires the results show considerable deviations to the known depth of current penetration as compared to that of an infinitely long wire. By considering the approximations used for short wires in this model, one can draw conclusions on the external self-impedance for short wires above, on and under the earth's surface. (orig.) [de

  17. 49 CFR 1151.4 - Board determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board determination. 1151.4 Section 1151.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE FEEDER RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 1151.4 Board determination...

  18. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  19. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  20. The role of temperature in copper wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Corrado

    Wire is produced by drawing, which consists of pulling a rod of the material to be processed through a series of funnel-shaped holes, or dies, of decreasing size. Drawing involves plastic deformation and friction within the contact zone between the wire and the die. These occurrences contribute to the generation of heat in the wire, which may affect its final properties. High drawing speeds and the use of several dies in one production line---to improve productivity---may accentuate heating to a point where recrystallization of the wire material sets in and its properties are affected. Also, excessive temperatures may lead to an accelerated deterioration of the lubricants used, to the point that the optimum lubrication mechanism is no longer prevailing, with consequent negative effects on the surface quality of the processed wire. A number of analytical models estimating the temperature increase in drawn wires, due to the dissipation of plastic deformation energy and to the friction between wire and die, were reviewed. While all models agree on the contribution of plastic deformation to heating, some discrepancies exist as to the effect of friction. The original treatment, developed in Germany in 1943, provided slightly higher peak temperature values than other models for the parameters used in the calculations, which are simulative of commercial practice on copper wire. A finite element study conducted in the framework of this research showed that the axial heat flow within the wire, which was assumed to be negligible in the reviewed analytical theories, could, in fact, not be disregarded. It also showed that a purely isothermal process cannot be obtained in practice, whatever adjustment of the process parameters is undertaken. In order to unequivocally correlate the effects of heating on the properties of wire and the temperature it experiences during commercial drawing, electrolytic tough pitch copper wire was drawn under independently controlled, quasi

  1. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  2. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  3. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  4. New technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.

    1985-01-01

    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns has heretofore been confined exclusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  5. A new technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.

    1985-01-01

    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns, has heretofore been confined excusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  6. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  7. Investigation of Constant Temperature Hot-wire System Response using Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffa, Nicholas; Morris, Scott; Cameron, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Constant temperature hot-wire systems use a Wheatstone bridge and feedback amplifier circuit to maintain a constant average temperature across the wire yielding frequency responses of order 100 kHz. This high frequency response allows hot-wires to be used extensively for aerodynamic measurements in high speed flows and uncertainty at these high frequencies can be difficult to diagnose. The standard frequency response check for constant temperature hot-wires uses an electronic pulse across the circuit to check the electronic feedback circuit response time, but does not account for the impact of the heat transfer along the wire. In order to investigate the frequency response of the entire constant temperature hot-wire system, including the heat transfer along the wire, a novel method was developed using a pulsed PIV laser focused to illuminate only the hot-wire. The laser pulse duration was effectively an instantaneous change in wire surface temperature through radiation. A hot-wire was placed in a uniform open calibration jet for a range of flow conditions. The response of the entire hot-wire system was observed across a range of conditions including changes in flow, wire temperature, and thermal boundary conditions and compared with the electronic pulse test.

  8. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  9. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  10. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  11. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  12. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Młynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  13. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag Solder Interconnects With and Without Board-Side Ni Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Duh, Jeng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects on long-term reliability of isothermal aging and chemically balanced or unbalanced surface finish have been investigated for fine-pitch ball grid array packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) (wt.%) and Sn-3.5Ag (SnAg) (wt.%) solder ball interconnects. Two different printed circuit board surface finishes were selected to compare the effects of chemically balanced and unbalanced structure interconnects with and without board-side Ni surface finish. NiAu/solder/Cu and NiAu/solder/NiAu interconnects were isothermally aged and thermally cycled to evaluate long-term thermal fatigue reliability. Weibull plots of the combined effects of each aging condition and each surface finish revealed lifetime for NiAu/SAC305/Cu was reduced by approximately 40% by aging at 150°C; less degradation was observed for NiAu/SAC305/NiAu. Further reduction of characteristic life-cycle number was observed for NiAu/SnAg/NiAu joints. Microstructure was studied, focusing on its evolution near the board and package-side interfaces. Different mechanisms of aging were apparent under the different joint configurations. Their effects on the fatigue life of solder joints are discussed.

  14. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  15. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  16. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  17. Analytical thermal modelling of multilayered active embedded chips into high density electronic board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier-Vinard Eric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent Printed Wiring Board embedding technology is an attractive packaging alternative that allows a very high degree of miniaturization by stacking multiple layers of embedded chips. This disruptive technology will further increase the thermal management challenges by concentrating heat dissipation at the heart of the organic substrate structure. In order to allow the electronic designer to early analyze the limits of the power dissipation, depending on the embedded chip location inside the board, as well as the thermal interactions with other buried chips or surface mounted electronic components, an analytical thermal modelling approach was established. The presented work describes the comparison of the analytical model results with the numerical models of various embedded chips configurations. The thermal behaviour predictions of the analytical model, found to be within ±10% of relative error, demonstrate its relevance for modelling high density electronic board. Besides the approach promotes a practical solution to study the potential gain to conduct a part of heat flow from the components towards a set of localized cooled board pads.

  18. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Parameter design for a phase change material board installed on the inner surface of building exterior envelopes for cooling in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Quan; Medina, Mario A.; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Liao, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change material (PCM) boards were simulated in building envelopes. • The buildings were located in four cities with different climatic conditions. • Energy and mass efficiency was proposed to evaluate utilization of PCM board. • The optimal melting temperature increased with increasing mean air temperature. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used for building envelope thermal management and for energy conservation because of their potential to absorb and release large amounts of heat with small wall temperature variations. In this paper, the heat transfer theory of a PCM board used for building envelopes is presented, together with a mathematical model based on the moving heat-source method. It was found that the model accurately predicted the position of the solid–liquid interface in time and space, comparing with the published data. Energy and mass efficiency (EME) was proposed to evaluate the energy efficiency of PCM boards in office buildings located in various climatic regions in China for cooling. The influences on EME of parameters, including melting temperature of PCM, PCM board thickness and the heat transfer coefficient of building envelope, were analyzed. The optimal melting temperatures of PCM board, which resulted in the peak EME, in office building were 24.1 °C in Shenyang, 25.0 °C in Kunming, 25.3 °C in Zhengzhou and 25.5 °C Changsha, respectively. The EME increased with the increasing heat transfer coefficient of building envelope. For the city of Changsha with higher outdoor air temperature, none of the PCM boards modeled contributed effectively.

  20. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structure of gold monoatomic wires connected to two electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoubkoff, Remi [Centre de Recherche en Matiere Condensee et Nanosciences, CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: zoubkoff@crmcn.univ-mrs.fr; Vega, L. de la [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada C-V, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Rodero, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada C-V, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Levy Yeyati, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada C-V, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Saul, Andres [Centre de Recherche en Matiere Condensee et Nanosciences, CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we present calculations concerning the stability of infinite monoatomic Au wires and finite Au wires between electrodes. For the systems with the electrodes, that we represent by FCC slabs with (0 0 1) surfaces, the total energy calculations have been performed with a spd non-orthogonal tight-binding Hamiltonian. For the infinite wires, the calculations were also compared to semi-empirical and first principle ones. For the infinite wires and small enough inter-atomic distances, we find that a zig-zag structure is most stable than the linear one, in agreement with previous calculations. For the system between electrodes, one gets an almost concave or a symmetric broken edges structure depending on the inter-atomic distance.

  2. Torsion-induced magnetoimpedance in nanocrystalline Fe-based wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.D.; Olivera, J.; Alvarez, P.; Sanchez, T.; Perez, M.J.; Sanchez, M.L.; Gorria, P.; Hernando, B.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic field influence on the real and imaginary parts of axial-diagonal (ζ zz ) and off-diagonal (ζ φz ) components of the surface magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor has been studied in amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe 73.5 Si 13.5 B 9 Cu 1 Nb 3 wires. Twisted and untwisted wires were annealed at a temperature near to that of primary crystallization. The MI response has been measured at 1MHz and 5mA rms drive current in all the samples. Even though the higher values for both components of the MI tensor are achieved for the untwisted annealed wire, the most interesting features are observed in the torsion annealed wire

  3. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TENSION BAND WIRING OF PATELLAR FRACTURES WITH KIRSCHNER WIRES AND CANNULATED SCREWS IN TERMS OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AND COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Chettiar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various treatment modalities are described for the treatment of displaced transverse fractures of patella. As patella is very important biomechanically, open reduction and internal fixation with maximal preservation of patella is the standard treatment. Most commonly used method is modified tension band wiring with Kirschner wires. In a modification, cannulated screws are used instead of K wires and wire is passed through the cannulation of the screw and anterior surface of the patella. The aim of our study was to compare the complications and functional outcomes after surgical treatment of patellar fractures using modified tension band wiring with Kirschner wires and with cannulated screws. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Department of Orthopaedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, during the period 2014- 2015. Total sample size was 36. They were randomised into two groups. Among them, 17 had undergone tension band wiring with cannulated screws and 19 with Kirschner wires. They were evaluated in postoperative period at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months by looking for complications like postoperative infection, postoperative loss of reduction, skin irritation by prominent hardware. Functional outcome was assessed by knee pain score and Good Fellows grading of range of motion. RESULTS According to this study while comparing these two surgical techniques, there are no statistically significant differences in terms of complications and functional outcome. We observed that cannulated screw with tension band wiring has better patient tolerance, less complications like skin irritation by prominent hardware, loss of fixation and knee pain. We found that tension band wiring through cannulated screws is technically more difficult than using Kirschner wires. CONCLUSION Although, the statistical analysis showed no significant differences regarding the union and final outcome, cannulated screw with tension band wiring has

  5. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  6. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (pWire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (porthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  7. Nanoline templates for single atom wires on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, Sigrun A.; Owen, James H.G.; Bianco, Francois; Mazur, Daniel; Renner, Chrisoph [Universite de Geneve, Section Physique/DPMC, Geneve (Switzerland); Rodriguez-Prieto, Alvaro; Bowler, David R. [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), University College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Low dimensional structures are of wide scientific and technological interest. The physics of single atom metallic wires is already described in detail by theory, but a more systematic experimental verification is still desirable. The experimental problems are mainly caused by the difficulties of growing electronically isolated wires which is necessary to test the expected properties from existing theories. Here we introduce templates on a Si(001) surface which enable the growth of self-assembled single atom wires on top of them. The main template consists of a Si reconstruction called the Haiku structure which develops underneath self-assembled Bi nanowires. By hydrogenation the Si surface can be passivated and additionally the Bi dimers are stripped off while the underlying reconstruction of the Si surface remains intact. In addition the Bi nanowire by itself can be considered as a template.

  8. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.

    2018-02-01

    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  9. Electrochemistry of surface wired cytochrome c and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mixed self-assembled monolayer; pyrazine; cytochrome c; superoxide sensing; amperometry. 1. Introduction. Superoxide (O. −. 2 ) is one of the reactive oxygen species produced in vivo, involved in various physiological and pathological procedures.1–3 Superoxide is implicated in the pathology of many human diseases.

  10. Electrochemistry of surface wired cytochrome c and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyt-c has been immobilized on monolayer modified electrodes by electrostatic, covalent and specific inter- actions.19–23 Reversible electron transfer for the redox reaction of Cyt-c have been observed on these mono- layer modified electrodes. Facile electron transfer for the redox reaction of Cyt-c in homogeneous solution.

  11. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  12. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  13. X-ray backlighting density measurements of tungsten and aluminum wire and wire array z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B.; Mingaleev, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    Calibrated density measurements in both the coronal plasmas and dense cores of exploding W wire and wire array Z-pinches, powered by the ∼450 kA, 100 ns XP-pulser at Cornell University, have been made using two-frame x-ray backlighting in conjunction with known thickness W step wedges. The backlighting images are made by Mo wire X-pinch radiation filtered by 12.5 microm Ti impinging upon a sandwich of films (Micrat VR, Kodak GWL, Kodak DEF) which have different sensitivities to increase the dynamic range of the method. A W step wedge filter is placed in front of the films, giving absolute line density calibration of each exposure with estimated errors ranging from 20 to 50%. Assuming x-ray absorption by the W plasma is the same as for the solid material, the authors are able to measure W areal densities from 3.2 x 10 19 to 2 x 10 17 /cm 2 . These can be converted to number density assuming azimuthal symmetry. For example, for an exploded 7.5 microm wire with a 15--20 microm diameter dense core and a 1 mm corona diameter, the implied W volume density ranges from 2x10 18 to over 10 22 /cm 3 . Integration of the line density gives an estimate of the fraction of the wire mass in the corona and core. For example, with 100 kA peak current in a single 7.5 microm W wire, ∼70% (>90%) of the W mass is in the corona after 53 ns (61 ns). The authors also observe that the corona has large, roughly axisymmetric axial nonuniformity both in radius and in mass density. In addition, the coronal plasma contains more of the W mass, expands faster and is more uniform when the wire is surface-cleaned by preheating. In arrays of 2--8 wires with the same 100 kA total current, detectable coronal plasma appears after 25--35 ns, and much of it is swept toward the center of the array, forming a dense channel. The portion of the initial wire mass in the coronal plasma increases with smaller wire diameter and decreases with greater wire number: 15% for 4 x 13.5 microm, 35% for 4 x 7

  14. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  15. Modelling of drawing and rolling of high carbon flat wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobadilla, C.; Persem, N.; Foissey, S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet customer requirements, it is necessary to develop new flat wires with a high tensile strength and a high width/thickness ratio. These products are manufactured from wire rod. The first step is to draw the wire until we have the required mechanical properties and required surface area of the section. After this, the wire is rolled from a round to a rectangular section. During the flat rolling process it can be reduced by more than 50%. Then the wire is exposed to a high level of stress during this process. Modelling allows us to predetermine this stress level, taking into account the final dimensions and the mechanical properties, thus optimising both rolling and drawing process. Forge2005 was used in order to simulate these processes. The aim of this study is to determine the value of residual stresses after drawing and so to optimise rolling. Indeed, the highest stress values are reached at this step of the process by changing the section of the wire from a round to a rectangular one. In order to evaluate the stress value accuracy for high strain levels, a behaviour law has been identified. This is a result of tensile tests carried out at each step of the drawing process. Finally, a multi-axial damage criterion was implemented using Forge2005. The optimisation of the rolling is directly linked to the minimisation of this criterion

  16. Synthesis of chemical vapor deposition graphene on tantalum wire for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Guo, Wenlong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xu, Sheng [School of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The capacitance of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wire electrodes is firstly reported. • Graphene was grown on the Ta surface by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. • Graphene/Ta wire structure is favorable for fast ion and electron transfer. • The graphene/Ta wire electrode shows high capacitive properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wires as high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Graphene on Ta wires is prepared by the thermal decomposition of methane under various conditions. The graphene nanosheets on the Ta wire surface have an average thickness of 1.3–3.4 nm and consist typically of a few graphene monolayers, and TaC buffer layers form between the graphene and Ta wire. A capacitor structure is fabricated using graphene/Ta wire with a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 0.6 mm as the anode and Pt wire of the same size as the cathode. The electrochemical behavior of the graphene/Ta wires as supercapacitor electrodes is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The as-prepared graphene/Ta electrode has highest capacitance of 345.5 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. The capacitance remains at about 84% after 1000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. The good electrochemical performance of the graphene/Ta wire electrode is attributed to the unique nanostructural configuration, high electrical conductivity, and large specific surface area of the graphene layer. This suggests that graphene/Ta wire electrode materials have potential applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  17. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  18. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  20. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  1. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  2. Mechanical behavior of M-Wire and conventional NiTi wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erika S J; Gomes, Renata O; Leroy, Agnès M F; Singh, Rupinderpal; Peters, Ove A; Bahia, Maria G A; Buono, Vicente T L

    2013-12-01

    Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and a new NiTi wire, which had received an additional thermomechanical treatment. Specimens of both conventional (NiTi) and the new type of wire, called M-Wire (MW), were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests, Vickers microhardness measurements, and to rotating-bending fatigue tests at a strain-controlled level of 6%. Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the non-deformed microstructures by transmission electron microscopy. The thermomechanical treatment applied to produce the M-Wire apparently increased the tensile strength and Vickers microhardness of the material, but its apparent Young modulus was smaller than that of conventionally treated NiTi. The three-point bending tests showed a higher flexibility for MW which also exhibited a significantly higher number of cycles to failure. M-Wire presented mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  4. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  5. Effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuyu; Wang, Dongyue; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon (DLC) coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel archwires. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology was applied to coat DLC films onto the surface of austenitic stainless steel wires, and salt-bath nitrocarburizing technology was employed to achieve surface hardening of other wires. Surface and cross-sectional characteristics, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, friction resistance, corrosion resistance, and cell toxicity of the modified and control wires were analyzed. The surfaces of the DLC-coated and nitrocarburized wires were both smooth and even. Compared with the control, the DLC-coated wires were increased in surface hardness 1.46 times, decreased in elastic modulus, reduced in kinetic friction coefficient by 40.71%, and decreased in corrosion current density by two orders of magnitude. The nitrocarburized wire was increased in surface hardness 2.39 times, exhibited an unchanged elastic modulus, demonstrated a decrease in maximum static friction force of 22.2%, and rose in corrosion current density two orders of magnitude. Cytotoxicity tests revealed no significant toxicity associated with the modified wires. DLC coating and nitrocarburizing significantly improved the surface hardness of the wires, reduced friction, and exhibited good biocompatibility. The nanostructured DLC coating provided excellent corrosion resistance and good elasticity, and while the nitrocarburizing technique substantially improved frictional properties, it reduced the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel wires to a lesser extent.

  6. 30 CFR 57.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and... AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and... exposed to lightning shall be equipped with suitable lightning arrestors of approved type within 100 feet...

  7. Effects of short-time heat treatment and subsequent chemical surface treatment on the mechanical properties, low-cycle fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance of a Ni-Ti (50.9 at.% Ni) biomedical alloy wire used for the manufacture of stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, D.; Voderova, M.; Kubasek, J.; Novak, P.; Seda, P.; Michalcova, A.; Fojt, J.; Hanus, J.; Mestek, O.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Effect of short-time heat treatments on functional properties of a NiTi alloy. → Negative effect of heat treatments on corrosion resistance. → Positive effect of heat treatments on fatigue life. → Positive influence of chemical treatment on both fatigue and corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Cold-drawn and straight-annealed NiTi wires (50.9% Ni) with a tensile strength of 1650 MPa were subjected to heat treatments at 450, 510 and 600 deg. C for 10 min in air to simulate the shape-setting process in the manufacture of stents. Afterwards, the wires were chemically etched in acidic baths containing HF, HNO 3 and H 2 O, followed by boiling in water. Variations in the internal structure, surface state and chemistry and transformation behavior of the wires due to these treatments were examined in detail by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry, glow discharge spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests, and low-cycle fatigue behavior was measured by bend-type cyclic loading tests. Corrosion behavior was assessed by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements. A high tensile strength of the wire was shown to be attributable to a very fine-grained structure and work hardening. Heat treatment at 450-510 deg. C/10 min did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the wire. At 600 deg. C/10 min, the strength decreased by about 600 MPa due to recrystallization. The transformation temperatures first slightly increased after heat treatment at 450 deg. C and then reduced after treatments at higher temperatures due to changes in the composition of the B2 phase. The fatigue life was observed to prolong with both heat treatment and chemical etching. In contrast, the corrosion resistance worsened with heat treatment, but it improved significantly upon chemical etching. The observed behaviors are discussed in

  8. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B.; Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2012-01-01

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  9. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  10. Prediction of multi performance characteristics of wire EDM process using grey ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanan, Somasundaram; Nair, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Super alloys are used to fabricate components in ultra-supercritical power plants. These hard to machine materials are processed using non-traditional machining methods like Wire cut electrical discharge machining and needs attention. This paper details about multi performance optimization of wire EDM process using Grey ANFIS. Experiments are designed to establish the performance characteristics of wire EDM such as surface roughness, material removal rate, wire wear rate and geometric tolerances. The control parameters are pulse on time, pulse off time, current, voltage, flushing pressure, wire tension, table feed and wire speed. Grey relational analysis is employed to optimise the multi objectives. Analysis of variance of the grey grades is used to identify the critical parameters. A regression model is developed and used to generate datasets for the training of proposed adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The developed prediction model is tested for its prediction ability.

  11. Investigation of exploding wire in different experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Gennady; Struve, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Stephen; Sasorov, Pavel

    2001-10-01

    The initial stage of electrical explosion of thin metal wires in different experimental conditions has been investigated. A pulser (3kA, 120kV) with fast (150A/ns) and slow (20A/ns) operational modes has been used. Current, voltage, laser-streaked images on 905nm, visible light emission have been monitored during the experiment. Two-wavelengths laser shadowgraphy and interferometry with 150ps pulse duration have been used to get information about shape and electron density. Different substances, diameters, lengths, target configurations, vacuum or air environment, surface conditions, cold or hot start and influence of pulser polarity have been investigated. Energy deposition is dramatically dependent from current rate and voltage polarity. Increasing of the current rate allows more energy deposition before surface breakdown. Changing polarity of the pulser from positive to negative in vacuum results in decrease of energy deposition into the wire and change of its structure. Direction of radial electric field becomes important for initial stage of wire explosion. These results can be understood in terms of influence of electronic emissions on triggering the plasma shell around the wire. The structure of radial electric field surrounding the wire has been simulated using 2D electrostatic code. Results of experiments have been compared with 2D MHD simulations.

  12. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  13. Losses of new type HTS wires with transposed Bi-2223 filaments; Fuiramento ten'igata Bi-2223 tashin senzai no sonshitsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, K.; Yamashita, K.; Sumiyoshi, F. [Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan); Hayashi, H.; Irie, F. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    In Bi-2223 multifilamentary wire, large hysteresis loss occurs by 'self-magnetic field effect' where transport current flows on the surface. To prevent from this, uniformity of transport current distribution by filament transposition is effective. Round wire with two layers of helical coil around Ag core material by four Bi-2223 multifilamentary wires was fabricated as trial. Uniform condition of current distribution was explored and twist angle was found to be an important parameter. Hysteresis loss of wound wire in a reverse direction was reduced by 1/3 compared with one of wound wire in a same direction and known wire. (NEDO)

  14. Practical steady-state temperature prediction of active embedded chips into high density electronic board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Vinard, Eric; Rogie, Brice; Bissuel, Valentin; Daniel, Olivier; Nguyen, Nhat-Minh; Laraqi, Najib

    2016-01-01

    Printed Wiring Board die embedding technology is an innovative packaging alternative to address a very high degree of integration by stacking multiple core layers housing active chips. Nevertheless this increases the thermal management challenges by concentrating heat dissipation at the heart of the substrate and exacerbates the need of adequate cooling. In order to allow the electronic designers to early analyse the limits of the in-layer power dissipation, depending on the chip location inside the board, various analytical thermal modelling approaches were investigated. Therefore the buried active chips can be represented using surface or volumetric heating sources according with the expected accuracy. Moreover the current work describes the comparison of the volumetric heating source analytical model with the state-of-art numerical detailed models of several embedded chips configurations, and debates about the need or not to simulate in full details the embedded chips as well as the surrounding layers and micro-via structures of the substrate. The results highlight that the thermal behaviour predictions of the analytical model are found to be within ±5% of relative error and so demonstrate their relevance to model an embedded chip and its neighbouring heating chips or components. Further this predictive model proves to be in good agreement with an experimental characterization performed on a thermal test vehicle. To summarize, the developed analytical approach promotes several practical solutions to achieve a more efficient design and to early identify the potential issues of board cooling. (paper)

  15. Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Buzzoni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trabalho foi quanto à possibilidade dos braquetes autoligados ativos serem suscetíveis à elevação da força de atrito com o aumento e alteração da secção transversal dos fios ortodônticos. Os ensaios foram realizados com tração de 30s em fios de aço inoxidável 0,020" e 0,019"X0,025" na máquina de ensaios Emic DL 10000, com uma célula de carga de 20 newtons. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando 120 leituras. As comparações entre as médias foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one way ANOVA com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os braquetes autoligados apresentaram maior força de atrito do que os braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. O grupo Smartclip foi o mais efetivo no controle do atrito (pOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the surface friction produced by self-ligating stainless steel brackets equipped with a resilient closure system and compare the friction generated during traction of round and rectangular orthodontic wires made from the same material. METHODS: Thirty maxillary canine brackets were divided into six groups comprising SmartClip and In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets, and conventional Gemini brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. This investigation tested the hypothesis that self-ligating brackets are susceptible to increases in friction that are commensurate with increases and changes in the

  16. An evaluation of two types of nickel-titanium wires in terms of micromorphology and nickel ions' release following oral environment exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Abdul Razzak A; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Al-Sabbagh, Rabab; Alghoraibi, Ibrahim; Aldiry, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare superelastic and heat-activated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface morphology and potential release of nickel ions following exposure to oral environment conditions. Twenty-four 20-mm-length distal cuts of superelastic (NiTi Force I®) and 24 20-mm-length distal cuts of heat-activated (Therma-Ti Lite®) nickel-titanium wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) were divided into two equal groups: 12 wire segments left unused and 12 segments passively exposed to oral environment for 1 month. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology of the wires which were then immersed in artificial saliva for 1 month to determine potential nickel ions' release by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heat-activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires were rougher than superelastic wires, and both types of wires released almost the same amount of Ni ions. After clinical exposure, more surface roughness was recorded for superelastic NiTi wires and heat-activated NiTi wires. However, retrieved superelastic NiTi wires released less Ni ions in artificial saliva after clinical exposure, and the same result was recorded regarding heat-activated wires. Both types of NiTi wires were obviously affected by oral environment conditions; their surface roughness significantly increased while the amount of the released Ni ions significantly declined.

  17. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2015-06-29

    We exploited the combination of dry deposition of monolayer of 2D (two dimensional) templates, lift-up transfer of 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography [1] to fabricate gold micro- and submicron size wire networks. The approach relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D latex crystal on glass substrate. Subsequently, a small amount of AuNP-suspension is doped on top of the transferred crystal; the suspension is allowed to spread instantaneously and dried at low temperature. The liquid evaporates uniformly to the direction perpendicular to glass substrate. During evaporation, AuNPs are de-wetted along with the movement of liquid to self-assemble in-between the inter-particle spaces and therefore, giving rise to liquid-bridge networks which upon delayed evaporation, transforms into wire networks. The approach is used to fabricate both micro- and submicron wire-networks by simply changing the template dimensions. One of the prime motives behind this study is to down-scale the existing particle array template-based evaporation lithography process to fabricate connected gold wire networks at both micro- and submicron scale. Secondly, the idea of combining the patterned silicon wafer with lifted latex particle template creates an opportunity to clean and res-use the patterned wafer more often and thereby, saving fabrication time and resources. Finally, we illustrated the validity of this approach by creating an easy and high-speed approach to develop gold wire networks on a flexible substrate with a thin deposited adhesive. These advances will not only serve as a platform to scale up the production, but also demonstrated that the fabrication method can produce metallic wire networks of different scale and onto a variety of substrates.

  18. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  19. Thermite welding of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visniakov, Nikolaj; Mikalauskas, Gediminas; Lukauskaite, Raimonda; Cernasejus, Olegas; Rudzinskas, Vitalijus [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. (Lithuania). Faculty of Mechanics; Skamat, Jelena; Boris, Renata [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. (Lithuania). Inst. of Thermal Insulation

    2017-10-15

    Thermite welding of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires was investigated. Suitable compositions of thermite material and slag were determined from the equation of the exothermic combustion synthesis reaction. The phase compositions of the thermite mixture and slag determined by X-ray diffraction analysis correspond to those assessed from the equation. According to non-destructive radiographic testing, the joint structure does not have welding defects. Microstructural examination of the joint cross-section with scanning electron microscopy showed that the Cu-Nb wire retained its shape and microstructure and only a thin surface layer of wire was melted during welding. The difference in electrical resistances of the conductor and welded joint was below 20 %. The thermite joint can withstand a maximum load equal to 62.5 % of the load-bearing capacity of microcomposite conductor.

  20. Creep behaviour of near-equiatomic nickel-titanium wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eker, Aysegul Akdogan; Kucukyildirim, Bedri Onur [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Sonmez, Deniz

    2013-02-01

    The creep behaviour of near-equiatomic (50.8 at.-% Ni) NiTi wire with a diameter of 0.49 mm is studied between 82 MPa and 127 MPa tensile stress as well as in a temperature range of 575 C to 650 C. For 600 C and between 82-107 MPa a stress exponent of n = 4.5 as well as for 82 MPa between 600-625 C an activation energy of Q = 300 kJ mol-1 have been found, these results have been compared with previous creep studies. In contrast to previous studies, this investigation has been performed with high stresses for thin NiTi wires. Moreover, fracture surfaces and ductility of wires have been investigated. The main reasons for the various results are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Experimental study on titanium wire drawing with ultrasonic vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Shan, Xiaobiao; Guo, Kai; Yang, Yuancai; Xie, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries, however, they are classified as difficult-to-machine materials. In this paper, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the die to overcome the difficulties during conventional titanium wire drawing processes at the room temperature. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the variation of axial stress within the contacting region and study the change of the drawing stress with several factors in terms of the longitudinal amplitude and frequency of the applied ultrasonic vibration, the diameter reduction ratio, and the drawing force. An experimental testing equipment was established to measure the drawing torque and rotational velocity of the coiler drum during the wire drawing process. The result indicates the drawing force increases with the growth of the drawing velocity and the reduction ratio, whether with or without vibrations. Application of either form of ultrasonic vibrations contributes to the further decrease of the drawing force, especially the longitudinal vibration with larger amplitude. SEM was employed to detect the surface morphology of the processed wires drawn under the three circumstances. The surface quality of the drawn wires with ultrasonic vibrations was apparently improved compared with those using conventional method. In addition, the longitudinal and torsional composite vibration was more effective for surface quality improvement than pure longitudinal vibration, however, at the cost of weakened drawing force reduction effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina ARGALJI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p < 0.0001. In average, the most recently launched wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346 when the latest launched wire (13.27% was compared to the control (29.63%. In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  3. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Methods Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.2. Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. Results The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Conclusions Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  4. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Nucci, Francesca; Kamali, Zinat; Hosseinikhoo, Nima; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi) arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.(2). Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  5. Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M., E-mail: ogata@rtri.or.j [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I{sub c} measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I{sub c} characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  6. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken, E-mail: ogata@rtri.or.j [Railway Technical Research Institute, Hikari-cho 2-8-38, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I{sub c} measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I{sub c} characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  7. Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

    2010-11-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  8. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-06-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the Ic measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of Ic characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  9. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I c measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I c characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  10. Influences of Corrosive Sulfur on Copper Wires and Oil-Paper Insulation in Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil-impregnated paper is widely used in power transmission equipment as a reliable insulation. However, copper sulphide deposition on oil-paper insulation can lead to insulation failures in power transformers. This paper presents the influences of copper sulfur corrosion and copper sulphide deposition on copper wires and oil-paper insulation in power transformers. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper wires and bare copper wires in insulating oil were carried out at 130 °C and 150 °C in laboratory. The corrosive characteristics of paper-wrapped copper wires and bare copper wires were analyzed. Dielectric properties of insulation paper and insulating oil were also analyzed at different stages of the thermal aging tests using a broadband dielectric spectrometer. Experiments and analysis results show that copper sulfide deposition on surfaces of copper wires and insulation paper changes the surface structures of copper wires and insulation paper. Copper sulfur corrosion changes the dielectric properties of oil-paper insulation, and the copper sulfide deposition greatly reduces the electrical breakdown strength of oil-paper insulation. Metal passivator is capable of preventing copper wires from sulfur corrosion. The experimental results are helpful for investigations for fault diagnosis of internal insulation in power transformers.

  11. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  12. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  13. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  14. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  15. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  16. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  17. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  18. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  19. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  20. Health care's 100 most wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  1. Scrum Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stefan; van de Goor, Wim

    The Scrum Board Game is a workshop for beginners. It is for people with any role (customer, developer, tester, etc.), who don’t exactly know what a Scrum Board is, or how to create one themselves. The workshop teaches the benefits of a Scrum Board, how to use it, and how to introduce it in projects.

  2. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  3. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  4. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  6. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the United...

  7. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control...... over the management board, including its appointment and dismissal. The article considers which companies a two-tier structure may be relevant for, and reviews the consequences for the composition, election and functioning of the company organs....

  8. Low power consumption mini rotary actuator with SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Luigi; Huan, Yu; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are smart materials widely used as actuators for their high power to weight ratio despite their well-known low energy efficiency and limited mechanical bandwidth. For robotic applications, SMAs exhibit limitations due to high power consumption and limited stroke, varying from 4% to 7% of the total length. Hysteresis, during the contraction and extension cycle, requires a complex control algorithm. On the positive side, the small size and low weight are eminently suited for the design of mini actuators for robotic platforms. This paper describes the design and construction of a light weight and low power consuming mini rotary actuator with on-board contact-less position and force sensors. The design is specifically intended to reduce (i) energy consumption, (ii) dimensions of the sensory system, and (iii) provide a simple control without any need for SMA characterisation. The torque produced is controlled by on-board force sensors. Experiments were performed to investigate the energy consumption and performance (step and sinusoidal angle profiles with a frequency varying from 0.5 to 10 Hz and maximal amplitude of {15}\\circ ). We describe a transient capacitor effect related to the SMA wires during the sinusoidal profile when the active SMA wire is powered and the antagonist one switched-off, resulting in a transient current time varying from 300 to 400 ms.

  9. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  10. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  11. Proportional counters aged anode wire recovering using an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Gennady; Conti, Richard; Fetisov, Andrey; Maysuzenko, Dmitry; Shvecova, Natalia; Vakhtel, Victor

    2011-01-01

    A technique to recover a gas proportional counter having an aged anode wire using a glow discharge in an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture has been developed and tested. Studies of aging effects were carried out under sustained irradiation by an intense 90Sr -source of the straw proportional counters operated with a 60%Ar + 30%CO2 + 10%CF4 gas mixture. Special attention was paid to the aging mechanism of the anode wires. Our experience showed that using a given gas mixture the swelling of the anode wires is a typical mode of aging that leads to degradation of the gas gain. The proposed method of recovery provided a complete restoration of the gas gain and the signal amplitude in the damaged zone of the wire. SEM/XEM analysis confirmed successful cleaning WOx deposits from the wire surface. The application of this method to recover the aged gaseous detectors in real experimental conditions is discussed.

  12. The Strengthening Effect of Phase Boundaries in a Severely Plastically Deformed Ti-Al Composite Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Marr

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to prepare composite wires made of Ti and an Al alloy. These wires show reasonable higher yield stresses than expected from the pure material flow curves. The additional strengthening in the composite is analyzed using nanoindentation measurements, tensile testings and investigations of the microstructure. In addition, these properties are analyzed in relation to the fracture surface of the mechanically tested wires. Additional strengthening due to the presence of phase boundaries could be verified. Indications for residual stresses are found that cause a global hardness gradient from the center to the wire rim. Finally, the yield stress of the wires are calculated based on local hardness measurements.

  13. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Palladium-Coated Copper Wires with Flash Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yun; Hung, Fei-Yi; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Palladium-coated copper wire with flash gold (PCA) is a fine wire with an oxidation resistance layer. A new sulfidation test has been assessed in this work, confirming that PCA wires show better sulfidation corrosion resistance than either palladium-coated or bare copper wires. The sulfided surface of PCA was analyzed, along with its bonding strength and electrical properties. The metallurgic mechanism for formation of free air balls during the electric flame-off (EFO) process was identified. The flash gold layer of PCA wires can improve certain shortcomings, including: (1) efficiently promoting sulfidation corrosion resistance, (2) solving the problem of palladium segregation during the EFO process, (3) reducing the starting voltage, and (4) stabilizing the electrical resistivity of the bonding interface.

  14. Reduction of tensile residual stresses during the drawing process of tungsten wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ripoll, Manel; Weygand, Sabine M.; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten wires are commonly used in the lighting industry as filaments for lamps. During the drawing process, the inhomogeneous deformation imparted by the drawing die causes tensile residual stresses at the wire surface in circumferential direction. These stresses have a detrimental effect for the wire because they are responsible for driving longitudinal cracks, known as splits. This work proposes two methods for reducing the residual stresses during wire drawing, namely applying an advanced die geometry and performing an inexpensive post-drawing treatment based on targeted bending operations. These two methods are analyzed with finite element simulations using material parameters obtained by mechanical tests on tungsten wires at different temperatures as input data. The computed results predict a substantial reduction of the circumferential residual stresses, thus reducing the risk of splitting.

  15. Epitaxially aligned cuprous oxide nanowires for all-oxide, single-wire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittman, Sarah; Yoo, Youngdong; Dasgupta, Neil P; Kim, Si-in; Kim, Bongsoo; Yang, Peidong

    2014-08-13

    As a p-type semiconducting oxide that can absorb visible light, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for solar energy conversion. This work introduces a high-temperature, vapor-phase synthesis that produces faceted Cu2O nanowires that grow epitaxially along the surface of a lattice-matched, single-crystal MgO substrate. Individual wires were then fabricated into single-wire, all-oxide diodes and solar cells using low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 and ZnO films to form the heterojunction. The performance of devices made from pristine Cu2O wires and chlorine-exposed Cu2O wires was investigated under one-sun and laser illumination. These faceted wires allow the fabrication of well-controlled heterojunctions that can be used to investigate the interfacial properties of all-oxide solar cells.

  16. [Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires by electrochemical measures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, André El; Klein, Lorena; Frateur, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires made of different alloys (stainless steel, chrome-cobalt, nickel-titanium and β-titanium) and for the same alloy from different vendors (GAC(®), RMO(®), 3M(®) and ORMCO(®)). Different electrochemical techniques (corrosion potential monitoring as a function of immersion time, current-potential curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) were used. The wires' resistance to corrosion was measured and compared with the surface condition, assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the recorded data, a rating system based on the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires was developed. The comparison of these data with the results of SEM shows that the surface chemical composition plays a primary role in the electrochemical behavior of the orthodontic wires and, unlike surface defects, is a key parameter for the corrosion resistance of the alloy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2013.

  17. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  18. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  19. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argalji, Nina; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana; Mattos, Claudia Trindade

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure) were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346) when the latest launched wire (13.27%) was compared to the control (29.63%). In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  20. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  1. The HayWired earthquake scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  2. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okawa Atsushi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided.

  3. Relativistic electron transport in wire and foil targets driven by intense short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Hill, J.; van Woerkom, L. D.

    2006-10-01

    We model intense laser driven electron transport in wires and foils with the new implicit hybrid code e-PLAS. We focus on background plasma heating for Fast Ignitor applications. The model tracks collisional relativistic PIC electrons undergoing scatter and drag in a background plasma of colliding cold electron and ion Eulerian fluids. Application to 10 μm diameter, 250 μm long, fully ionized carbon wires with an attached cone [Kodama et al. Nature 432 1005 (2004)], exposed to 1 ps, 10^19 W/cm^2 pulses in a 30 μm centered spot, directly calculates resistive Joule heating of the background electrons in the wire to 1.7 KeV. 150 MG magnetic fields arise at the wire surfaces corresponding to hot electron flow outside the wire and a return electron flow just within it. Shorter wires (25 μm) exhibit hot electron recycling. Preliminary simulations indicate that reduction of the cone to a 30 μm diameter nail head produces little change in these results. We also report on tapered wires, wires attached to foils, and the modifying effects of pre-plasma on electron transport into the foils.

  4. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  5. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  6. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  7. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  8. APPLICATION OF THE X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCES- SES OF WIRE PRODUCTION AT BMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diffraction methods of qualitative and quantative analysis of phase composition of the brass coating, scale on the surface of brass wire, rod, patented wire, methods of determining the characteristics of the microstrains the lattice ferritic matrix pearlitic high-carbon steel, are explored.

  9. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...

  10. Comparison between optical techniques and confocal microscopy for defect detection on thin wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmann, Philip; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Martinez-Anton, Juan Carlos; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2004-11-15

    Conventional microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CM) are not suitable for on-line surface inspection of fine metallic wires. In the recent years, some optical techniques have been developed to be used for those tasks. However, they need a rigorous validation. In this work, we have used confocal microscopy to obtain the topography z(x,y) of wires with longitudinal defects, such as dielines. The topography has been used to predict the light scattered by the wire. These simulations have been compared with experimental results, showing a good agreement.

  11. Comparison between optical techniques and confocal microscopy for defect detection on thin wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, Philip; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Martinez-Anton, Juan Carlos; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2004-01-01

    Conventional microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CM) are not suitable for on-line surface inspection of fine metallic wires. In the recent years, some optical techniques have been developed to be used for those tasks. However, they need a rigorous validation. In this work, we have used confocal microscopy to obtain the topography z(x,y) of wires with longitudinal defects, such as dielines. The topography has been used to predict the light scattered by the wire. These simulations have been compared with experimental results, showing a good agreement

  12. Correlated electron phenomena in ultra-low disorder quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.J.; Facer, G.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Kane, B.E.; Clark, R.G.; Lumpkin, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Quantum point contacts in the lowest disorder HEMTs display structure at 0.7 x 2e 2 /h, which cannot be interpreted within a single particle Landauer model. This structure has been attributed to a spontaneous spin polarisation at zero B field. We have developed novel GaAs/AlGaAs enhancement mode FETs, which avoid the random impurity potential present in conventional MODFET devices by using epitaxially grown gates to produce ultra-low-disorder QPCs and quantum wires using electron beam lithography. The ballistic mean free path within these devices exceeds 160 μm 2 . Quantum wires of 5 μm in length show up to 15 conductance plateaux, indicating that these may be the lowest-disorder quantum wires fabricated using conventional surface patterning techniques. These structures are ideal for the study of correlation effects in QPCs and quantum wires as a function of electron density. Our data provides strong evidence that correlation effects are enhanced as the length of the 1D region is increased and also that additional structure moves close to 0.5 x 2e 2 /h, the value expected for an ideal spin-split 1D level

  13. PEDOT:PSS "Wires" Printed on Textile for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Otley, Michael T; Li, Mengfang; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Sinha, Sneh K; Treich, Gregory M; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2016-10-03

    Herein, the fabrication of all-organic conductive wires is demonstrated by utilizing patterning techniques such as inkjet printing and sponge stencil to apply poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) onto nonwoven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. The coating of the conducting polymer is only present on the surface of the substrate (penetration depth ∼ 200 μm) to retain the functionality and wearability of the textile. The wires fabricated by different patterning techniques provide a wide range of resistance, i.e., tens of kΩ/□ to less than 2 Ω/□ that allows the resistance to be tailored to a specific application. The sheet resistance is measured to be as low as 1.6 Ω/□, and the breakdown current is as high as 0.37 A for a 1 mm wide line. The specific breakdown current exceeds the previously reported values of macroscopic carbon nanotube based materials. Simple circuits composed of the printed wires are demonstrated, and resistance of the circuit from the measurement agrees with the calculated value based on Kirchhoff's rules. Additionally, the printed PEDOT:PSS wires show less than 6.2% change in sheet resistance after three washing and drying cycles using detergent.

  14. Ferroelectric and photocatalytic behavior of bismuth ferrite nano wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. V.; Marikani, A.; Madhavan, D.

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanowires are prepared through polyol method with an average diameter of 35 nm with a narrow size distribution. The band gap was determined to be 2.10 eV, indicating their potential application as visible-light-response photo catalyst. The magnificent photocatalytic behaviors of BiFeO3 nanowires are understood from the methyl violet degradation under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the nano-wire takes only a lesser time for the diffusion of electron-hole pair from the surface of the sample. Further the BiFeO3 nano-wire was characterized using XRD, SEM, and U-V. The ferroelectric studies of BiFeO3 nano-wire show a frequency dependent property and maximum coercivity of 2.7 V/cm were achieved with a remanent polarization at 0.5 µC/cm2 at the frequency 4 kHz. The coercivity of BiFeO3 nano wire changes with variation of frequency from 1 kHz to 4 kHz.

  15. Ferroelectric and photocatalytic behavior of bismuth ferrite nano wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William, R. V.; Marikani, A., E-mail: amari@mepcoeng.ac.in [Department of Physics, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi – 626 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhavan, D. [Department of Chemistry, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi – 626 005, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanowires are prepared through polyol method with an average diameter of 35 nm with a narrow size distribution. The band gap was determined to be 2.10 eV, indicating their potential application as visible-light-response photo catalyst. The magnificent photocatalytic behaviors of BiFeO{sub 3} nanowires are understood from the methyl violet degradation under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the nano-wire takes only a lesser time for the diffusion of electron-hole pair from the surface of the sample. Further the BiFeO{sub 3} nano-wire was characterized using XRD, SEM, and U-V. The ferroelectric studies of BiFeO{sub 3} nano-wire show a frequency dependent property and maximum coercivity of 2.7 V/cm were achieved with a remanent polarization at 0.5 µC/cm{sup 2} at the frequency 4 kHz. The coercivity of BiFeO{sub 3} nano wire changes with variation of frequency from 1 kHz to 4 kHz.

  16. Pattern Generator for Bench Test of Digital Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Andrew C.; Chu, Anhua J.

    2012-01-01

    All efforts to develop electronic equipment reach a stage where they need a board test station for each board. The SMAP digital system consists of three board types that interact with each other using interfaces with critical timing. Each board needs to be tested individually before combining into the integrated digital electronics system. Each board needs critical timing signals from the others to be able to operate. A bench test system was developed to support test of each board. The test system produces all the outputs of the control and timing unit, and is delivered much earlier than the timing unit. Timing signals are treated as data. A large file is generated containing the state of every timing signal at any instant. This file is streamed out to an IO card, which is wired directly to the device-under-test (DUT) input pins. This provides a flexible test environment that can be adapted to any of the boards required to test in a standalone configuration. The problem of generating the critical timing signals is then transferred from a hardware problem to a software problem where it is more easily dealt with.

  17. Spin transport in dangling-bond wires on doped H-passivated Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Lorente, Nicolás; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    New advances in single-atom manipulation are leading to the creation of atomic structures on H-passivated Si surfaces with functionalities important for the development of atomic and molecular based technologies. We perform total-energy and electron-transport calculations to reveal the properties and understand the features of atomic wires crafted by H removal from the surface. The presence of dopants radically change the wire properties. Our calculations show that dopants have a tendency to approach the dangling-bond wires, and in these conditions, transport is enhanced and spin selective. These results have important implications in the development of atomic-scale spintronics showing that boron, and to a lesser extent phosphorous, convert the wires in high-quality spin filters. (paper)

  18. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  19. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or other designatory term adopted by such Board, with the approval of the Secretary, means the administrative body...

  20. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one.

  1. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  2. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  3. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  4. Tunable plasmonic enhancement of light scattering and absorption in graphene-coated subwavelength wires

    OpenAIRE

    Riso, Máximo; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of subwavelength wires coated with a graphene monolayer illuminated by a linearly polarized plane waves is investigated. The results show that the scattering and extintion cross-sections of the coated wire can be dramatically enhanced when the incident radiation resonantly excites localized surface plasmons. The enhancements occur for p--polarized incident waves and for excitation frequencies that correspond to complex poles in the coefficients of the multipole ex...

  5. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  6. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  7. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  8. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  9. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  10. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  11. Residual stress characteristics in a non-circular drawing sequence of pearlitic steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Moo; Hwang, Sun Kwang; Son, Il-Heon; Im, Yong-Taek

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, characteristics of residual stress in pearlitic steel wire drawn by a non-circular drawing (NCD) sequence with two processing routes, NCDA and NCDB, were experimentally and numerically investigated up to the 12th pass in comparison with conventional wire drawing (WD). For experimental investigation of the axial residual stress at the surface of the drawn wire, destructive (deflection) and non-destructive methods were employed. According to the experimental results, axial surface residual stress of the drawn wire by the NCD sequence was lower and more homogeneous compared to the conventional WD. Based on the elasto-plastic numerical simulation results from the surface to the center of the drawn wire using a commercial DEFORM-3D, an empirical relationship between residual stress and reduction of area was determined to predict the residual stress evolution in the multi-pass WD, NCDA, and NCDB, in that order. From the results of this investigation, it can be construed that the NCD sequence, especially the NCDB, might be helpful in improving the residual stress characteristics of pearlitic steel wire to improve its mechanical behavior and service life.

  12. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  13. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  14. New constructions of wire ropes for the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŠŠaderová Jana

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The wire ropes are used in different industrial fields. Their construction depends on the type of equipment and its purpose. Most frequently we meet with ropes at different transport and hoisting equipments and very freqently in the civil industry. For users characteristics are important which must meet requirements of the individual regulations and standards of the selection of wire ropes for the concrete equipment. The most important is the factor of safety being safeguarded by the corresponding bearing capacity of the rope. The service life of rope is interesting for the user, too, because of having an influence on the economy of the equipment on which the rope is working. These problems are solved by the grant project at our department . We are aimed at questions of the optimization of construction of wire rope with regard to their geometric construction and service life. Respectively on the basis of elaborated computer software eightstrand ropes of parallel construction were disigned and produced at the Drôtov ň a Hlohovec. The results of the fatigue tests confirmed their better qualitative properties, longer service life and economy advantages for users, too. Their using is possible and suitable on the new hoisting eguipment on the surface, in the undeground and in the hole drilling industry. By the application of the computer technique is also possible to improve the parametres of six-strands` construction of rope, the classic and parallel constructions, especially their bearing capacity. This fact follows from the knowledge that for the production of rope we use calculated diameters of wires, which secure better utilization of the metal cross-section of the wire ropes.

  15. A Physically Based Correction for Hot Wires in Wall Proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, F.; Zanoun, E.-S.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2003-11-01

    It is common practice to calibrate hot wires in a freestream of constant and known velocity. When wires of this kind are utilized for near-wall measurements, the additional heat losses to the wall and other factors that have not been accounted for in the calibration have the potential for introducing significant errors. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find a generally applicable correction to thermal-probe measurements near walls. Following on our presentation at a previous meeting (Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, no. 9, p. 141, 2000), we present herein a physically based correction for hot wires in wall proximity. As a standard, a laser Doppler velocimeter is used to provide accurate near-wall measurements of the mean velocity profile. Here the error due to the finite measuring volume of the laser is proportional to the curvature of the velocity profile, and hence is negligible in the linear and quasi-linear regions of that profile. For the flow around a hot wire near highly and moderately conducting walls, we show that the Grashof number is at least one order of magnitude less than the cube of the Reynolds number, and thus that diffusion not convection dominates the heat transfer to the wall. The universal correction curve we derive takes into account the effect of wire diameter, overheat ratio, wall thermal conductivity, wall distance, and wall thickness. In the experiments we conducted with a horizontal flat plate centrally mounted in a wind tunnel, perceptible heat loss was observed due to the shear flow on the other side of the working surface. The resulting error is caused by the change of the thermal boundary condition, and helps explain the wide scatter observed between channel flow and boundary layer experiments, particularly when using walls of poorly conducting materials.

  16. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  17. The Installation for Fatigue and Destruction Tests of Thin Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Prosvirin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue strength of high-strength materials such as wire is, essentially, dependent on the surface state, stress concentrators, non-metal inclusions, etc. Multifactorial process of damage accumulation and fracture under cyclic loading makes it difficult to predict the durability of structural materials. So fatigue tests, taking into account the operating conditions of stress exposure as much as possible, are of special importance.A feature of the wire fatigue tests is that it is complicated to secure the samples and create the alternate stresses. Currently, there is no equipment to study the fatigue strength of the wire in accordance with GOST 1579-93. Partly the problem of the wire fatigue tests was solved owing to using the installation developed in IMET RAS and considered as the base case. However, the installation has significant disadvantages, namely: a complicated for implementing in practice method to control stresses in the sample; an imperfect system to count cycles; an incapability to change the engine speed of the motor and thus, the frequency of loading.In developing the new design all the basic blocks of installation were upgraded such as drive unit; unit to control stress in the sample; unit for determining the number of cycles to failure.To change the stresses in the sample the paper offers to use the platform from polymethylmethacrylate with slotted curved channels of different radii. The stresses in the sample are dependent on the channel radius R, the wire diameter d and the modulus of elasticity E of the material and may vary in the range of 200 - 1200 MPa. The use of CNC machines in cutting the channels allows stress adjustment within ± 0,1 MPa.The developed design is used to drive the rotation of the wire and makes it possible to change the frequency of loading in the range of 0 - 100 Hz. It is shown that the use of the closing relay in drive design and the transition to an electronic system of determining the number of

  18. Scintillation counter and wire chamber front end modules for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, Boris; DalMonte, Lou

    2011-01-01

    This document describes two front-end modules developed for the proposed MIPP upgrade (P-960) experiment at Fermilab. The scintillation counter module was developed for the Plastic Ball detector time and charge measurements. The module has eight LEMO 00 input connectors terminated with 50 ohms and accepts negative photomultiplier signals in the range 0.25...1000 pC with the maximum input voltage of 4.0 V. Each input has a passive splitter with integration and differentiation times of ∼20 ns. The integrated portion of the signal is digitized at 26.55 MHz by Analog Devices AD9229 12-bit pipelined 4-channel ADC. The differentiated signal is discriminated for time measurement and sent to one of the four TMC304 inputs. The 4-channel TMC304 chip allows high precision time measurement of rising and falling edges with ∼100 ps resolution and has internal digital pipeline. The ADC data is also pipelined which allows deadtime-less operation with trigger decision times of ∼4 (micro)s. The wire chamber module was developed for MIPP EMCal detector charge measurements. The 32-channel digitizer accepts differential analog signals from four 8-channel integrating wire amplifiers. The connection between wire amplifier and digitizer is provided via 26-wire twist-n-flat cable. The wire amplifier integrates input wire current and has sensitivity of 275 mV/pC and the noise level of ∼0.013 pC. The digitizer uses the same 12-bit AD9229 ADC chip as the scintillator counter module. The wire amplifier has a built-in test pulser with a mask register to provide testing of the individual channels. Both modules are implemented as a 6Ux220 mm VME size board with 48-pin power connector. A custom europack (VME) 21-slot crate is developed for housing these front-end modules.

  19. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  20. In-vitro evaluation of the material characteristics of stainless steel and beta-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstrynge, Astrid; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Willems, Guy

    2006-10-01

    The exact composition and material properties of the metal alloys used in orthodontics are usually not identified by or even available from manufacturers. This makes meaningful comparisons between wires impossible and is unacceptable with regard to biocompatibility issues. The aim of this study was to investigate the material characteristics of contemporary stainless steel (SS) and beta-titanium (beta-Ti) wires, also known as titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA), for comparison. Twenty-two different SS and beta-Ti wires, preferably straight wires sized 0.43 x 0.64 mm, (0.017 x 0.025 in) were tested blindly for wire dimensions, chemical compositions, bending and tensile properties, and surface characteristics. Four chemical compositions were found for the beta-Ti wires: titanium-11.5, molybdenum-6, zirconium-4.5 tin; titanium-3, aluminum-8, vanadium-6, chromium-4, molybdenum-4, zirconium; titanium-6, aluminum-4, vanadium, and titanium-45 niobium. The SS wires were of AISI type 304 or the nickel-free variant BioDur 108. All beta-Ti wires showed high surface roughness values. TMA 02 significantly had the highest E-modulus, TMA 02 and TMA 11 had the highest 0.2% yield strength, TMA 02 had the highest hardness, and TMA 12 was the most ductile wire of the beta-Ti wires. All SS wires showed high 0.2% yield strength, SS 10 significantly had the lowest E-modulus and was the most ductile wire, and SS 08 significantly showed the lowest hardness values of all SS wires. Significant differences were found between SS and beta-Ti wires, but there was little or no difference between the mechanical and physical characteristics tested in each subgroup. However, the morphological analysis clearly demonstrated that the finishing phase (annealing, polishing) of the wires' production process lacks the quality one would expect with regard to good mechanical properties and biocompatibility issues. Accurate specifications are urgently needed concerning the quality of orthodontic wires on the

  1. A compact multi-wire-layered secondary winding for Tesla transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Jian-cang; Li, Rui; Wu, Xiao-long; Xu, Xiu-dong; Qiu, Xu-dong; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Peng-cheng

    2017-05-01

    A compact multi-wire-layered (MWL) secondary winding for a Tesla transformer is put forward. The basic principle of this winding is to wind the metal wire on a polymeric base tube in a multi-layer manner. The tube is tapered and has high electrical strength and high mechanical strength. Concentric-circle grooves perpendicular to the axis of the tube are carved on the surface of the tube to wind the wire. The width of the groove is basically equal to the diameter of the wire so that the metal wire can be fixed in the groove without glue. The depth of the groove is n times of the diameter of the wire to realize the n-layer winding manner. All the concentric-circle grooves are connected via a spiral groove on the surface of the tube to let the wire go through. Compared with the traditional one-wire-layered (OWL) secondary winding for the Tesla transformer, the most conspicuous advantage of the MWL secondary winding is that the latter is compact with only a length of 2/n of the OWL. In addition, the MWL winding has the following advantages: high electrical strength since voids are precluded from the surface of the winding, high mechanical strength because polymer is used as the material of the base tube, and reliable fixation in the Tesla transformer as special mechanical connections are designed. A 2000-turn MWL secondary winding is fabricated with a winding layer of 3 and a total length of 1.0 m. Experiments to test the performance of this winding on a Tesla-type pulse generator are conducted. The results show that this winding can boost the voltage to 1 MV at a repetition rate of 50 Hz reliably for a lifetime longer than 104 pulses, which proves the feasibility of the MWL secondary winding.

  2. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  3. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Board Effectiveness in Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Söderqvist, Anette; Wägar, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates boards of directors in small firms and explores the link between board effectiveness and the composition, roles and working styles of the boards. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyses data from a telephone survey of boards in 45 small firms. The survey included both the CEO and the chairperson of the board. Findings: The study identifies three groups of small firms: ‘paperboards’, ‘professional boards’, and ‘management lead’ boards. Results show that...

  5. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  9. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  10. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  13. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  14. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  15. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  16. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  17. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements. In...

  18. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  19. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  20. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  1. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  2. Bioactivity and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel and titanium wires used for intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Arnold V; Gorbach, Elena N; Kononovich, Natalia A; Popkov, Dmitry A; Tverdokhlebov, Sergey I; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V

    2017-08-01

    A lot of research was conducted on the use of various biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. Our study investigated the effects of nanostructured calcium-phosphate coating on metallic implants introduced into the bone marrow canal. Stainless steel or titanium 2-mm wires (groups 1 and 2, respectively), and hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel or titanium wires of the same diameter (groups 3 and 4, respectively) were introduced into the tibial bone marrow canal of 20 dogs (each group = 5 dogs). Hydroxyapatite coating was deposited on the wires with the method of microarc oxidation. Light microscopy to study histological diaphyseal transverse sections, scanning electron microscopy to study the bone marrow area around the implant and an X-ray electron probe analyzer to study the content of calcium and phosphorus were used to investigate bioactivity and osteointegration after a four weeks period. Osteointegration was also assessed by measuring wires' pull-off strength with a sensor dynamometer. Bone formation was observed round the wires in the bone marrow canal in all the groups. Its intensity depended upon the features of wire surfaces and implant materials. Maximum percentage volume of trabecular bone was present in the bone marrow canals of group 4 dogs that corresponded to a mean of 27.1 ± 0.14%, while it was only 6.7% in group 1. The coating in groups 3 and 4 provided better bioactivity and osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium wires showed the highest degree of bone formation around them and greater pull-off strength. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating of metallic wires induces an expressed bone formation and provides osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated wires could be used along with external fixation for bone repair enhancement in diaphyseal fractures, management of osteogenesis imperfecta and correction of bone deformities in phosphate diabetes.

  3. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  4. CMS Collaboration Board Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The first CMS Collaboration Board meeting of the year (2013) provided an opportunity to thank Teresa Rodrigo, Matthias Kasemann and Randy Ruchti, the 2011-12 CB Chair, Deputy Chair and Secretary, respectively.

  5. Boat boarding ladder placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...

  6. New On-board Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  7. Boarding school rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-04

    Ofsted inspects and regulates services that care for children and young people, including boarding facilities. Medication management is an integral part of caring for children in boarding schools, and robust systems must be in place to pass inspection. These systems must cover how medicines are dispensed, administered and stored at the facility, risk assessments, identifying which pupils can manage their own medicines and the individual health needs of boarders, so that care plans can be put in place for children with specific needs.

  8. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  9. COLLABORATION BOARD (CB55)

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Cousins

    Open Access Publication Policy ATLAS had recently issued a short statement in support of open access publishing. The mood of the discussions in the December CMS Collaboration Board had appeared to be in favour and so it was being proposed that CMS issue the same statement as that made by ATLAS (the statement is attached to the agenda of this meeting). The Collaboration Board agreed. Election of the Chair of the Collaboration Board Following the agreement to shorten the terms of both the Spokesperson and the Collaboration Board Chair, and to introduce a longer overlap period between the election and the start of the term, the election for the next Collaboration Board Chair was due in December 2007. If the old standard schedule specified in the Constitution were adapted to this date, then the Board should be informed at the present meeting that the election was being prepared. However, it was felt that the experience of the previous year's election of the Spokesperson had shown that it would be desirable to...

  10. Board certification in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, B S; Weaver, J L; Amos, J F; Hendrix, W G; Lewis, T L; Locke, J C; McCall, J A; Walls, L L

    2000-04-01

    In keeping with current expectations in the health care community, the purpose of the American Board of Optometric Practice (ABOP) is to enhance the quality of optometric care available to the public by fostering continued competence for practitioners through administering education and examinations for certification and re-certification. The formation of ABOP makes possible for the first time a board certification process for optometrists. The optometry model for board certification and recertification emphasizes the breadth of the profession. ABOP certification will be accomplished through a combination of examinations and high-quality, tested Board Certified Continuing Education (BCCE). Specific requirements for practitioners at various stages of their careers are presented. Board certification provides one important mechanism for an optometrist to demonstrate commitment to quality, professionalism, and ongoing clinical competence. The optometrist benefits from high-quality continuing education designed for timeliness, importance, and breadth. The public benefits by the enhancement of continued competence within the optometric profession. Health care agencies benefit by being able to recognize providers who have elected to demonstrate their qualifications through certification. Through board certification, optometrists will be able to demonstrate their commitment to maintaining clinical competence through a nationally uniform program, and they will be able to comply with standards that are generally recognized and required throughout the health care community.

  11. French Board of Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Beltrao, Paulo Augusto

    2010-09-01

    A. February 2001 (15.11 y). Molar Class I, skeletal Class I, normodivergent, anterior deficiency: -17 mm, bimaxillary protrusion. Preparation of arches (alignment, levelling, canine retraction). Correction of arches (space closure). Occlusal finishing (artistic bends). B. POSTTREATMENT RECORDS: February 2003 (17.11 y). Maxillary Hawley plate for nighttime use and bonded lingual wire from 33 to 43. C. POSTRETENTION RECORDS: December 2003 (18.9 y). Copyright © 2010 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Board diversity and sustainability performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    of a trend analysis to compare the differences in board composition between a sample of ... 15Key words: sustainability, sustainability performance, boards of directors, board diversity, corporate governance, SRI index, director background, King Report, integrative model of board performance, corporate social responsibility.

  13. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  14. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  15. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of NiTi dental wires: a comparison of laboratory experiments and clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, S M; Canadinc, D

    2014-07-01

    Effects of intraoral environment on the surface degradation of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy orthodontic wires was simulated through ex situ static immersion experiments in artificial saliva. The tested wires were compared to companion wires retrieved from patients in terms of chemical changes and formation of new structures on the surface. Results of the ex situ experiments revealed that the acidic erosion effective at the earlier stages of immersion led to the formation of new structures as the immersion period approached 30 days. Moreover, comparison of these results with the analysis of wires utilized in clinical treatment evidenced that ex situ experiments are reliable in terms predicting C-rich structure formation on the wire surfaces. However, the formation of C pileups at the contact sites of arch wires and brackets could not be simulated with the aid of static immersion experiments, warranting the simulation of the intraoral environment in terms of both chemical and physical conditions, including mechanical loading, when evaluating the biocompatibility of NiTi orthodontic arch wires. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  17. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  18. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  19. Shear wire flange joint for a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammel, L.P. Jr.

    1993-06-15

    A gas turbine engine shear wire flange assembly for use in an axial flow gas turbine engine including a turbine frame is described, comprising: an aft center body having a forward section and an aft section along a common axis; the forward section and the aft section having a substantially continuous external aerodynamic surface; the forward section including a forward end attached to the turbine frame and an aft end; an outer ring flange formed along the aft end of the forward section of the aft center body and including a circumferential groove facing radially inward; the aft section including a forward end and a closed, aft end; an inner ring flange formed in the forward end of the aft section adapted to matingly engage the outer ring flange, having a circumferential groove facing radially outward for being axially and circumferentially aligned with the groove in the outer ring flange, and having a similar cross-sectional size and shape, forming a substantially uniformly sized and shaped cross-sectional space therebetween when aligned; a removable wire having a first end, a second end, and a cross-sectional size and shape substantially matching the cross-sectional size and shape of the space; and means for removeably installing the wire into the space so as to lock the inner flange to the outer flange.

  20. Low cycle fatigue life improvement of AISI 304 by initial and intermittent wire brush hammering

    OpenAIRE

    MAKHLOUF, Kamel; SIDHOM, Naziha; KHLIFI, Ammar; SIDHOM, Habib; BRAHAM, Chedly

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hammering by wire brush as a method of improving low cycle fatigue life of highly ductile austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 have been investigated through an experimental study combining imposed strain fatigue tests and assessment of surface characteristic changes under cyclic loading by SEM examinations and XRD analysis. It has been shown that the fatigue life of wire brush hammered surface was increased by 307% at an imposed strain rate of 0.2% and only 17% at an imposed st...

  1. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of the Bi-15 at%Sb wires in weak magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: At concentration Sb (0.08 1-x Sb x is the semiconductor with inverted - band specter. In such nanowires with the inverted spectrum, can be realized of a topological insulator (TI) state. Long individual single-crystal Bi-15at%Sb nanowires in glass capillary with diameters 0.1mkm-2mkm were fabricated by liquid phase casting. Multiple horizontal zone recrystallization of the nanowires was used for the homogenization of wires and to improve their structural perfection. The measurement the angular rotation diagrams transverse [H perpendicular I] magnetoresistance in a weak magnetic field at 300 K and 77 K have allowed to conclude that Bi 1-x Sb x wires all composition and diameter had same orientation (1011)- along the wire axis. In this case value the energy gap is approximately 25 meV. As it has been shown at realization of quantum dimensional effect, in semiconductor Bi-Sb wires, the gap should increase. In thin Bi-15at%Sb wires we observed adverse effect. It is visible, that at temperatures T 2 σ depending on diameter of wires, structure, temperature and a magnetic field is calculated. In connection with topological insulators, we will discuss the effect of the surface state in the thermoelectric properties. (author)

  3. Explosion symmetry improvement of polyimide-coated tungsten wire in vacuum on negative discharge facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Li, Xingwen; Li, Yang; Qiu, Mengtong

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten wire explosion is very asymmetric when fast current rate and insulated coatings are both applied on negative discharge facility using a 24-mm-diameter cathode geometry, which is commonly used on mega-ampere facilities. It is inferred, based on an analytical treatment of the guiding center drift and COMSOL simulations, that the large negative radial electric field causes early voltage breakdown and terminates energy deposition into the wire core on the anode side of the wire. After the anode side is short circuited, the radial electric field along the wire surface on the cathode side will change its polarity and thus leading to additional energy deposition into the wire core. This change causes ˜10 times larger energy deposition and ˜14 times faster explosion velocity in the cathode side than the anode side. In order to reduce this asymmetry, a hollow cylindrical cathode geometry was used to reverse the polarity of radial electric field and was optimized to use on multi-MA facilities. In this case, fully vaporized polyimide-coated tungsten wire with great symmetry improvement was achieved with energy deposition of ˜8.8 eV/atom. The atomic and electronic density distributions for the two different load geometries were obtained by the double-wavelength measurement.

  4. Structure and Properties of Coatings Made with Self Shielded Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucwa M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The welding technologies are widely used for design of protection layer against wear and corrosion. Hardfacing, which is destined for obtaining coatings with high hardness, takes special place in these technologies. One of the most effective way of hardfacing is using self shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-S. Chemical composition obtained in flux cored wire is much more rich in comparison to this obtained in solid wire. The filling in flux cored wires can be enriched for example with the mixture of hard particles or phases with specified ratio, which is not possible for solid wires. This is the reason why flux cored wires give various possibilities of application of this kind of filler material for improving surface in mining industry, processing of minerals, energetic etc. In the present paper the high chromium and niobium flux cored wire was used for hardfacing process with similar heat input. The work presents studies of microstructures of obtained coatings and hardness and geometric properties of them. The structural studies were made with using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction that allowed for identification of carbides and other phases obtained in the structures of deposited materials. Investigated samples exhibit differences in coating structures made with the same heat input 4,08 kJ/mm. There are differences in size, shape and distribution of primary and eutectic carbides in structure. These differences cause significant changes in hardness of investigated coatings.

  5. WeaselBoard :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, John C.; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Berg, Michael J.; Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Urrea, Jorge Mario; King, Michael Aaron; Clements, Abraham Anthony; Jacob, Joshua A.

    2013-10-01

    Critical infrastructures, such as electrical power plants and oil refineries, rely on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to control essential processes. State of the art security cannot detect attacks on PLCs at the hardware or firmware level. This renders critical infrastructure control systems vulnerable to costly and dangerous attacks. WeaselBoard is a PLC backplane analysis system that connects directly to the PLC backplane to capture backplane communications between modules. WeaselBoard forwards inter-module traffic to an external analysis system that detects changes to process control settings, sensor values, module configuration information, firmware updates, and process control program (logic) updates. WeaselBoard provides zero-day exploit detection for PLCs by detecting changes in the PLC and the process. This approach to PLC monitoring is protected under U.S. Patent Application 13/947,887.

  6. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Neil Calder, Mrs Sudeshna Datta Cockerill, Mrs Andrée Fontbonne, Mrs Moniek Laurent and Mr Ulrich Liptow with regard to membership in the Pension Fund under the period with a Paid Associate contract, appeals dealt with on a collective basis. As the appellants have not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 10 to 31 August 2001.

  7. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  8. Initial Stages of GaAs/Au Eutectic Alloy Formation for the Growth of GaAs Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnita, M.; Yussof, W.; Zuhairi, I.; Zulkafli, O.; Samsudi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Annealing temperature plays an important role in the formation of an Au-Ga eutectic alloy. The effects of the annealing temperature on gold nanoparticles colloid and substrate surface were studied using AFM, FE-SEM and TEM. At 600 degree Celsius, the layer of gold colloids particle formed an island in the state of molten eutectic alloy and absorbed evaporated metal-organics to formed nano wire (NW) underneath the alloy. Pit formed on the substrate surface due to the chemical reactions during the annealing process have an impact on the direction of growth of the NW. Without annealing, the NW formed vertically on the GaAs (100) surface. The growth direction depends on the original nucleation facets and surface energy when annealed. When annealed, the wire base is large and curved due to the migration of Ga atoms on the substrate surface towards the tip of the wire and the line tension between the substrate surface and gold particle. (author)

  9. Reduction of AC losses in ultra-fine multifilamentary NbTi wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, J.R.; Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T.; Lacaze, A.; Laumond, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The use of superconducting multifilamentary wires in 50/60 Hz AC applications is now possible due to advances in the new technology of ultra-fine filamentary wires (filaments 100 nm). While previous wires have shown very low losses, 1.5 10/sup -5/ W/(Am) and 5 10/sup -5/ W/(Am) at peak 50 Hz inductions of 0.5 T and 1 T respectively, (the unity W/(Am) = (losses in W/m/sup 3/)/(overall Jc in A/m/sup 2/) being a measure of the wire performance), the authors have shown that such wires are susceptible to proximity effects between neighboring filaments. In this article, they present AC loss measurements for a new series of wires where this proximity effect has been greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the filaments whilst retaining high values of the overall critical current density, typically 3000 A/mm/sup 2/ at 0.5 T. For the most performant wires 50 Hz AC losses in W/(Am) for small test coils are a factor of 10 lower for 0.5 T peak field and a factor of 3 lower at 1 T peak field. For wires with negligible proximity coupling there is a benefit from a reduction of losses at low fields as compared to that calculated by the Bean model, due to the small number of flux lines that thread across the width of each filament (increased entry field, surface currents, and reversible flux line motion)

  10. Differences in the Microbial Colonization Among Arch Wire Types, Gauges and Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Rafeeq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of orthodontic materials in the oral cavity represent a unique surface that can interact with bacteria, leading to pathogenic plaque formation and subsequent enamel demineralization, Streptococcus mutans play an important role in the initiation and progression of dental caries and they are considered the primary cause of bacteriological caries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple factors including the type of arch wire, salivary coating, cross section, and wire thickness on the levels of mutans streptococci adherence. Materials and Methods: Two types of arch wire stainless steel and nickel titanium were selected using the following criteria: round and rectangular with gauges 0.014, 0.018, 0.016 × 0.022 and 0.019 × 0.0 25 inches which were subdivided into eight groups. Bacterial adhesion was quantified by a microbial culture technique and the number of adhesive bacteria were analyzed and counted after growth in culture for each group with and without saliva coating at 15 and 60 minutes. Detection of mutans streptococci by saliva-check Mutans test. Results: There was a significant difference between arch wire types in each time interval and the highest bacterial adhesion on the NiTi arch wires with rectangular cross section in the absence of saliva with extended incubation time. Conclusions: The adherence of mutans streptococci in saliva coated wires seems to be low. At increased incubation time, rectangular cross section arch wire showed an increased number of adhering bacteria with less effect on different gauges of the arch wire.

  11. Using a wire coil insert for biodiesel production enhancement in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghel, Babak; Rahimi, Masoud; Sepahvand, Arash; Alitabar, Mohammad; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic view of microreactor system. - Highlights: • A wire coil insert was used to promote mixing in a biodiesel microreactor. • Advantages of using the wire coil in the microreactor over plain one are shown. • A yield of 99% was obtained in the modified microreactor after 180 s. • RSM and the Box–Behnken method were used to optimize the biodiesel production. • Advantages of using this system over other conventional reactors are illustrated. - Abstract: In the present work, the application of wire coil to promote mixing in a microreactor during continuous production of biodiesel was studied. For this aim, soybean oil as a feedstock and potassium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyzed were used. The influences of the various parameters such as geometric and operational conditions on the performance of biodiesel production were experimentally examined. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the Box–Behnken method was used to statistically analyze and optimize the biodiesel production process. The comparison between two types of reactors (with and without wire coil) shows a significant enhancement in mixing during transesterification. The impacts of different wire coil lengths and wire coil pitchs on methyl ester conversion were also investigated. A reaction yield of 99% at the residence time of 180 s was obtained in the modified microreactor. However, the measured pressure drop show that the microreactor equipped with wire coil consumed more energy. Therefore, performance ratio was defined to evaluate energy efficiency and the results show the advantage of using the wire coil insert in lower feed flow rates

  12. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring... cable operator shall not remove the cable home wiring unless it gives the subscriber the opportunity to...

  13. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  14. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  15. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  16. New Service Status Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On Monday 14 October, the Service Status Board for GS and IT will change. The new Status Board will be integrated with the CERN Service Portal and with the CERN Service Catalogue.   As of today, the SSB will display “Service Incidents”, “Planned Interventions” and “Service Changes”. References valid from 14 October: CERN SSB at https://cern.ch/ssb Computing SSB (previously IT SSB) at https://cern.ch/itssb   Nicole Cremel, IT and GS Service Management Support

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  18. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  19. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  20. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  1. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  2. Tensosensitivity of the Hot-Wire Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pak, A

    2002-01-01

    ...., on the anemometer type. In a constant current anemometer, it is possible to measure and separate out the noise moving to the electric circuit of the anemometer, it is not the case with hot-wire anemometers of other types...

  3. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  4. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  5. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  6. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  7. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  8. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  9. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  10. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le controle...be identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  11. A comparative evaluation of the tensile strength of silver soldered joints of stainless steel and cobalt chromium orthodontic wires with band material--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, R; Nandlal, B

    2004-03-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the tensile strength of silver soldered joints of stainless steel and cobalt-chromium orthodontic wires with band material. An attempt was made to observe the effect of joint site preparation by incorporation of tack welding and increasing metal to metal surface contact area by flattening an end of the wire prior to soldering along with the regularly used round wires without tack welding. A total of 180 wire specimens were soldered to 180 band specimens. Fifteen samples according to joint site preparation were included for each of the wire groups i.e. Gloria (S.S.), Remanium (S.S.) and Remaloy (Co-Cr) wires of 0.036" in diameter. The findings of the study were suggestive that all three wires may be used for preparing silver soldered joints irrespective of the quality of the wire. However, when subjecting the wire to joint site preparation, Gloria (S.S.) wire showed less tensile strength as compared to Remanium and Remaloy.

  12. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  13. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  14. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  15. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  16. Effect of Emergency Department Mattress Compressibility on Chest Compression Depth Using a Standardized Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Board, a Slider Transfer Board, and a Flat Spine Board: A Simulation-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Belanger, Claudia; Wan, Brandi; Davidson, Jennifer; Lin, Yiqun

    2017-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on a mattress decreases effective chest compression depth. Using a CPR board partially attenuates mattress compressibility. We aimed to determine the effect of a CPR board, a slider transfer board, a CPR board with a slider transfer board, and a flat spine board on chest compression depth with a mannequin placed on an emergency department mattress. The study used a cross-over study design. The CPR-certified healthcare providers performed 2 minutes of compressions on a mannequin in five conditions, an emergency department mattress with: (a) no hard surface, (b) a CPR board, (c) a slider transfer board, (d) a CPR board and slider transfer board, and (e) a flat spine board. Compression depths were measured from two sources for each condition: (a) an internal device measuring sternum-to-spine compression and (b) an external device measuring sternum-to-spine compression plus mattress compression. The difference of the two measures (ie, depleted compression depth) was summarized and compared between conditions. A total of 10,203 individual compressions from 10 participants were analyzed. The mean depleted compression depths (percentage depletion) secondary to mattress effect were the following: 23.6 mm (29.7%) on a mattress only, 13.7 mm (19.5%) on a CPR board, 16.9 mm (23.1%) on a slider transfer board, 11.9 mm (17.3%) on a slider transfer board plus backboard, and 10.3 mm (15.4%) on a flat spine board. The differences in percentage depletion across conditions were statistically significant. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation providers should use a CPR board and slider transfer board or a flat spine board alone because these conditions are associated with the smallest amount of mattress compressibility.

  17. Exploration on Wire Discharge Machining Added Powder for Metal-Based Diamond Grinding Wheel on Wire EDM Dressing and Truing of Grinding Tungsten Carbide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, H. M.; Yang, L. D.; Lin, Y. C.; Lin, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of material removal rate and abrasive grain protrusion on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel were studied to find the optimal parameters for adding powder and wire discharge. In addition, this kind of electric discharge method to add powder on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel on line after dressing and truing will be applied on tungsten carbide to study the grinding material removal rate, grinding wheel wear, surface roughness, and surface micro-hardness.

  18. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  19. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of a Polyimide-Coated Ultrafine Gilt Molybdenum Wire and Its Knitted Mesh Used for Electromagnetic Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqi Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polyimide (PI was coated onto an ultrafine gilt molybdenum wire in order to protect the gilt surface and prepare an electrically stable wire mesh material which can be widely used in space. The surface of the PI-coated gilt molybdenum wires was characterized using FTIR, SEM, and EDS. Factors such as temperature stability of the PI coating, mechanical properties of the PI-coated gilt molybdenum wires, contact resistance stability, and electromagnetic microwave reflectivity of the their knitted meshes were also investigated. The results indicate that the PI coating conformed uniformly to the surface of the gilt molybdenum wires. The prepared PI coating exhibited excellent temperature stability in the −196 to 300 °C range and could efficiently protect the gilt surface and improve the stability of contact resistance, while the reflection of its wire meshes showed only a slight decrease of 1.4% with the PI coating thickness of 3 μm for electromagnetic microwaves in the S band.

  1. Transport of energy by ultraintense laser-generated electrons in nail-wire targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T.; Key, M. H.; Mason, R. J.; Akli, K. U.; Daskalova, R. L.; Freeman, R. R.; Green, J. S.; Highbarger, K.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; King, J. A.; Lancaster, K. L.; Hatchett, S. P.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Norreys, P. A.; Patel, P. K.; Stephens, R. B.; Theobald, W.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Wei, M. S.; Wilks, S. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2009-11-01

    Nail-wire targets (20 μm diameter copper wires with 80 μm hemispherical head) were used to investigate energy transport by relativistic fast electrons generated in intense laser-plasma interactions. The targets were irradiated using the 300 J, 1 ps, and 2×1020 Wṡcm-2 Vulcan laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. A spherically bent crystal imager, a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite spectrometer, and single photon counting charge-coupled device gave absolute Cu Kα measurements. Results show a concentration of energy deposition in the head and an approximately exponential fall-off along the wire with about 60 μm 1/e decay length due to resistive inhibition. The coupling efficiency to the wire was 3.3±1.7% with an average hot electron temperature of 620±125 keV. Extreme ultraviolet images (68 and 256 eV) indicate additional heating of a thin surface layer of the wire. Modeling using the hybrid E-PLAS code has been compared with the experimental data, showing evidence of resistive heating, magnetic trapping, and surface transport.

  2. The effect of ZnO nanoparticle coating on the frictional resistance between orthodontic wires and ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Any decrease in friction between orthodontic wire and bracket can accelerate tooth movement in the sliding technique and result in better control of anchorage. This study was carried out to evaluate frictional forces by coating orthodontic wires and porcelain brackets with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO. Methods. In this in vitro study, we evaluated a combination of 120 samples of 0.019×0.025 stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires and 22 mil system edgewise porcelain brackets with and without spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles were deposited on wires and brackets by immersing them in ethanol solution and SEM (scanning electron microscope evaluation confirmed the presence of the ZnO coating. The frictional forces were calculated between the wires and brackets in four groups: group ZZ (coated wire and bracket, group OO (uncoated wire and bracket, group ZO (coated wire and uncoated bracket and group OZ (uncoated wire and coated bracket. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. Results. The frictional force in ZZ (3.07±0.4 N was the highest (P <0.05, and OZ (2.18±0.5 N had the lowest amount of friction (P <0.05 among the groups. There was no significant difference in frictional forces between the ZO and OO groups (2.65±0.2 and 2.70±0.2 N, respectively. Conclusion. Coating of porcelain bracket surfaces with ZnO nanoparticles can decrease friction in the sliding technique, and wire coating combined with bracket coating is not recommended due to its effect on friction.

  3. Mixed and dynamic response of hot wires and cold wires and measurements of turbulence statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen; Fairall, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Hot wires respond to temperature as well as to velocity, whereas cold wires respond to velocity as well as to temperature. The static and dynamic response characteristics are summarized and it is shown that the frequency transfer functions for the four different responses in general are different...

  4. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  5. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-haghi, Ali; Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-02-27

    A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol-gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME-GC-MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L(-1) and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L(-1) with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280°C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. APPLICATION OF EXCEL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS ON OPTIMIZATION OF WIRE BRUSHING PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Romanchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an application of  Excel  information technologies for optimization of parameters concerning of wire brushing process  depending on the requirements to quality of parts’ surface and that ensures their required operational characteristics.

  7. Investigation on cold-drawn gold bonding wire with serial and reverse-direction drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Hyung; Rollett, A.D.; Cho, J.-S.; Park, Y.-J.; Park, S.-H.; Oh, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gold bonding wires have been manufactured through multiple drawing steps with serial and reverse-direction drawing. The texture and microstructure of the gold bonding wires were characterized with X-ray diffraction and EBSD and compared with the predictions of finite element (FE) simulation. Initial fiber decreases during drawing and is replaced by fiber. The oriented grains are concentrated in the center and surface regions, whereas the oriented grains are located throughout the cross-section of the wire. Regions near the surface often exhibit the complex textures. A simplified forward and backward drawing process was modeled by FE analysis with ABAQUS/Standard TM . The simple two-step drawing process results in severe variation in shear strain under the surface and displays the opposite behavior in the shear components of the deformation gradient. The texture evolution was predicted using the deformation gradient calculated in the FE simulations together with a model of polycrystal plasticity. The and fibers are predicted to develop in the center part of the wire where homogeneous deformation occurs. The regions near the surface that experience repeated shear strain exhibit complex textures that deviate from the standard and fibers. The {1 1 2} and {1 1 1} components are prevalent in the higher shear strain regions. The variations of the anisotropic elastic directional moduli with position were also calculated

  8. Radiation excited by a charged-particle bunch on a planar periodic wire structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Tyukhtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field of a bunch moving in the presence of a plane grid composed of thin parallel wires is considered by using the averaged boundary conditions method. Two different cases of motion are examined. In the first one, the bunch moves at a constant distance from the grid orthogonally to the wires. The excited surface wave is presented in the form of a spectral integral for a thin bunch with an arbitrary longitudinal profile. The wave propagates along the wires and does not decay with distance (if dissipation is negligible. Energy losses of the bunch over a unit path are obtained. In the second case, the bunch orthogonally crosses the wire grid. The volume and surface waves are separately analyzed. Properties of the spectral angular density of energy of volume radiation in the far-field zone are described. The energy losses due to the volume and surface radiation are determined. It is demonstrated that the structure of the surface waves in both cases allows determination of the length of the bunch.

  9. Autonomous and rapid deployment of a compact taut-wire mooring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, T.; van Heerwaarden, J.; Laan, M.; Bakker, R.; Groenewegen, R.; van Haren, H.

    2011-01-01

    The deployment time of a taut-wire mooring is reduced to the time any transportation/hoisting device needs to put a payload at the sea surface. This is a matter of minutes rather than hours needed for deployment of long deep-ocean moorings in the regular way. It is achieved by extending the basic

  10. Tandem solar cells deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.K. van

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique for the deposition of silicon thin films is described. The HWCVD technique is based on the dissociation of silicon-containing gasses at the catalytic surface of a hot filament. Advantages of this technique

  11. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are adequately...

  12. Latex particle template lift-up guided gold wire-networks via evaporation lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2014-01-01

    We describe a hybrid methodology that combines a two dimensional (2D) monolayer of latex particles (with a pitch size down to 1 μm) prepared by horizontal dry deposition, lift-up of a 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography to fabricate metal micro- and nano wire-networks. This journal is

  13. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  14. Models of printed boards for solderless mounting of electronic components by foil perforation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimenko A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents models of printed circuit boards for an improved foil perforation method. The density of electrical connections of such printed circuit boards is estimated in comparison with circuit boards obtained using the methods of mounting in holes and surface mounting. The technological differences in the manufacture of printed circuit boards for the foil perforation method and the traditional method are considered.

  15. On-Board Imager-based MammoSite treatment verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicka, Jadwiga; Yankelevich, Rafael; Iorio, Stephen; Tinger, Alfred

    2007-11-01

    Contemporary radiation oncology departments are often lacking a conventional simulator due to common use of virtual simulation and recent implementation of image guided radiation therapy. A protocol based on MammoSite method was developed using CT based planning, a Source Position Simulator (SPS) with a Simulator Wire and a linear accelerator based On-Board Imager (OBI) for daily verification. After MammoSite balloon implantation, the patient undergoes a CT study. The images are evaluated for tissue conformance, balloon symmetry, and balloon surface to skin distance according to the departmental procedure. Prior to the CT study the SPS is attached to the transfer tube that in turn is attached to the balloon catheter. The length from the indexer to the first dwell position is measured using the simulator wire with X-ray markers. After the CT study is performed, the data set is sent to the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and to the Nucletron PLATO brachytherapy planning system. The reference digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of anterior and lateral setup fields are created using Eclipse TPS and are immediately available on the OBI console via the Varian Vision integrated system. The source dwell position coinciding with the balloon center is identified in the CT dataset, followed by the offset calculation, catheter reconstruction, dose points placement and dwell time calculation. OBI fluoroscopy images are acquired and marked as initial. Prior to each treatment fraction balloon diameter and symmetry are evaluated using OBI fluoroscopy and tools available on the OBI console. Acquired images are compared with reference DRRs and/or initial OBI images. The whole process from initial evaluation to daily verification is filmless and does not undermine the precision of the procedure. This verification time does not exceed 10 min. The balloon diameter correlates well (within 1 mm) between initial CT and OBI verification images. The balloon symmetry is

  16. Mechanical properties of different esthetic and conventional orthodontic wires in bending tests : An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobeid, Ahmad; Dirk, Cornelius; Reimann, Susanne; El-Bialy, Tarek; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanical properties of different esthetic and conventional orthodontic wires in three-point and four-point bending tests, and in a biomechanical test employing three bracket systems. The behavior of round wires with a diameter of 0.46 mm (0.018″) were investigated: uncoated nickel titanium (NiTi) wires, surface modified NiTi wires; FLI ® Orthonol Wire ® and glass fiber reinforced plastic wires. The biomechanical bending test was performed using the following bracket types: metal brackets (Discovery ® , Dentaurum), ceramic brackets (Fascination ® , Dentaurum), and plastic brackets (Elegance ® , Dentaurum). All bending tests were performed in the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS) at a temperature of 37 °C. The classical three-point bending test was performed according to an ISO standard (DIN EN ISO 15841:2007) using the appropriate thrust die and supports with a predefined span of 10 mm. In the other tests the supports or interbracket distances were chosen such that the free wire length was also 10 mm (5 mm between adjacent brackets). All wires were loaded centrally to a maximum of 3.1 and 3.3 mm in the biomechanical test, respectively. The force was measured upon unloading with a loading velocity of 1 mm/min. Each specimen was loaded twice and a total of 10 specimens tested for each product. Weighted means and the error of the weighted mean were calculated for each product. Fiber reinforced wires displayed lowest forces in three-point bending with values of 0.4 N at a displacement of 1 mm and 0.7 N at a 2 mm displacement. In four-point bending the forces were 0.9 N and 1.4 N, respectively, at the same displacements. Almost all of the translucent wires showed fracture upon bending at displacements greater than 3 mm, independent of the bending test and bracket type. The different investigated NiTi wires, surface modified or conventional, only showed minor variation, e.g., 2.2 N for

  17. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  18. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  19. Percutaneous tension band wiring for patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Akhilesh; Swamy, M K S; Prasantha, I; Consul, Ashu; Bansal, Abhishek; Bahl, Vibhu

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate outcome of percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella. 16 men and 7 women aged 27 to 65 (mean, 40) years underwent percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella with a displacement of >3 mm. Pain, operating time, mobility, functional score, and complications were evaluated. 20 patients underwent successful percutaneous tension band wiring. The remaining 3 patients in whom closed reduction failed underwent open reduction and tension band wiring. The mean operating time was 46 (range, 28-62) minutes. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range, 15-30) months. At the latest follow-up, all patients had regained full extension. The objective score was excellent in 20 patients and good in 3, whereas the subjective score was excellent in 17, good in 5, and fair in one. All patients had radiological union at week 8. One patient had patellofemoral arthritis (secondary to a postoperative articular step). Two patients developed superficial infections, which resolved after antibiotic therapy. Mean thigh muscle wasting was 0.7 (range, 0.4-1) cm. Three patients encountered hardware problems (impingement/irritation of the skin over the knee) necessitating implant removal. Percutaneous tension band wiring is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella.

  20. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  1. Effect of Size on Tensile Strength of Fine Polycrystalline Nickel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, Lester

    1966-01-01

    .... The tensile strength of recrystallized wires was diameter independent. The proportional limit stress of recrystallized wires was inversely related to power functions of wire diameter and grain size...

  2. Models of the plasma corona formation and stratification of exploding micro-wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.B.; Sarkisov, G.S.; Struve, K.W.; McDaniel, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    There are proposed the models pf plasma corona formation and stratification of a gas-plasma core of exploding micro-wire. The opportunity of use for the description of physical processes in a formed plasma corona of an electronic magnetohydrodynamics is generalized in view of change of particle number as a result of evaporation, ionization and a leaving of electrons on a wire surface. Necessity of the account of influence of a hot plasma corona on stratification of a gas-plasma core was grounded [ru

  3. Optimal Modes for the Fabrication of Aluminum Nanopowders by the Electrical Explosion of Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Pustovalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at studying the impact of initial conditions of electrical explosion of wires on energy characteristics of the explosion and some other properties of the obtained aluminum powders. Explosion modes where the energy input into the wire has the maximal level were found. These modes are optimal for fabrication of powders with the best properties. The powders have the highest value of the specific surface of 14.5 m2/g, a narrow histogram of the particle size distribution, and a narrow distribution histogram with a high polydispersity coefficient of 0.7.

  4. Microstructure, mechanical behaviour and fracture of pure tungsten wire after different heat treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, P.; Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.

    2017-01-01

    treatments in terms of microstructure, mechanical behaviour and fracture mode. Recrystallization is already observed at a relatively low temperature of 1273 K due to the large driving force caused by a high dislocation density. Annealing for 30 min at 1900 K also leads to recrystallization, but causes......-edge-necking of individual grains on the fracture surface. While the wire recrystallized at 1900 K displays large, almost equiaxed grains with low aspect ratios as well as distinct brittle properties. Therefore, it is suggested that a high aspect ratio of the grains is important for the ductile behaviour of tungsten wire...

  5. Effect of TMAH Etching Duration on the Formation of Silicon Nano wire Transistor Patterned by AFM Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Lew, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography was applied to produce nano scale pattern for silicon nano wire transistor fabrication. This technique takes advantage of imaging facility of AFM and the ability of probe movement controlling over the sample surface to create nano patterns. A conductive AFM tip was used to grow the silicon oxide nano patterns on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. The applied tip-sample voltage and writing speed were well controlled in order to form pre-designed silicon oxide nano wire transistor structures. The effect of tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching duration on the oxide covered silicon nano wire transistor structure has been investigated. A completed silicon nano wire transistor was obtained by removing the oxide layer via hydrofluoric acid etching process. The fabricated silicon nano wire transistor consists of a silicon nano wire that acts as a channel with source and drain pads. A lateral gate pad with a nano wire head was fabricated very close to the channel in the formation of transistor structures. (author)

  6. Magnetic wires in MEMS and bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbic, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic wires of appropriate design have special features making them useful to micro-electromechanical systems and bio-medical applications. Several applications that exploit the properties of magnetic wires are reviewed including: (a) a magnetic micro-manipulation technique that utilizes integrated micro-coils and magnetic micro-wires for localized positioning of micron-sized magnetic objects, (b) integrated micro-coil/micro-wire system operating as a micro-fluidic micro-motor, (c) mechanical tweezers using magneto-static interaction between two magnetic micro-wires, and (d) ultra-high gradient magnetic separation system based on porous membranes partially filled with magnetic wires

  7. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  8. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  9. Synergistic responses of superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium created by wire-type electric discharge machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yu; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Wire-type electric discharge machining has been applied to the manufacture of endosseous titanium implants as this computer associated technique allows extremely accurate complex sample shaping with an optimal micro textured surface during the processing. Since the titanium oxide layer is sensitively altered by each processing, the authors hypothesized that this technique also up-regulates biological responses through the synergistic effects of the superficial chemistry and micro topography. To evaluate the respective in vitro cellular responses on the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge, we used titanium-coated epoxy resin replica of the surface. An oxide layer on the titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge activated the initial responses of osteoblastic cells through an integrin-mediated mechanism. Since the mRNA expression of ALP on those replicas was up-regulated compared to smooth titanium samples, the micro topography of a titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge promotes the osteogenic potential of cells. The synergistic response of the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge was demonstrated in this study.

  10. Use of Kirschner wires with eyelets for tension band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Sang Lim; Lee, Sang Ki; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of tension band wiring of displaced olecranon fractures treated using Kirschner wires with eyelets to assess their clinical performance with respect to complications such as backing out of the K-wires, restriction of forearm rotation, and neurovascular injury. The authors retrospectively reviewed 44 patients treated for an isolated, displaced olecranon fracture and checked range of motion, postoperative pain, complications, and incidence of hardware removal. The mean follow-up period was 41 months (range, 26-73 mo). All fractures united, and anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases at final follow-up. Mean elbow flexion was 135° (range, 115° to 140°), and mean elbow extension was 4° (range, 0° to 15°). No pin migration, restriction of forearm rotation, or neurovascular injury occurred. Hardware removal was performed in 8 cases (18%). Compared to previous results with conventional Kirschner wires, no meaningful improvement in postoperative pain level or in the rate of hardware removal was observed. Tension band wiring using the pin studied produced excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes for the treatment of isolated, displaced Mayo type IIA and some type IIB olecranon fractures. The pin was effective in preventing the backing out of Kirschner wires and avoiding the complications associated with anterior cortical engagement of Kirschner wires, such as neurovascular injury or restriction of forearm rotation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of Service-Drop Wires and Interior-Wiring Cables for Lightning Overvoltage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Susumu; Noda, Taku; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    As the information society progresses, a variety of electronic appliances have come into wide use in common houses. If a lightning stroke causes faults or incorrect operations of these electronic appliances, a social economic loss is considered to be large. For this reason, the focus of lightning protection measures for distribution lines in Japan has expanded to include the low-voltage side of the distribution line in addition to the high-voltage side. In order to calculate lightning overvoltages at the low-voltage side, the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables have to be modeled accurately. First, this paper describes test results of the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables. The modal surge impedances and the propagation velocities of various service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables are obtained by the test. Based on the test results obtained, this paper proposes a modeling methodology of these wires and cables for accurate EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) lightning overvoltage simulations. The proposed model is validated by comparing EMTP simulation results with field test results.

  12. Ab-initio study of encapsulated and functionalized silicon nanotube with a monoatomically thin Cu wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandel, Surjeet Kumar; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, Raman [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171005 (India); Kumar, Arun, E-mail: arun242493@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Govt. College Banjar, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh-175123 (India)

    2015-06-24

    First principle calculations based on DFT have been performed to study the interaction of monoatomically thin Cu wire with silicon nanotube in armchair configuration having chirality (6, 6) both by placing it inside (encapsulation) and outside (functionalisation) the tube. The lowest energy for positioning monoatomically thin Cu wire inside and outside surfaces of SiNT were found to possess cohesive energies of 4.03 eV and 4.02 eV respectively and hence the stability of both SiNTs is found to be almost same. However, From the electronic band structures study, the conductance in case of SiNT for the encapsulated and functionalized positioning of the Cu wire have been found to be 2G{sub 0} and 4G{sub 0} respectively showing enhanced conductance for the functionalized SiNT.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...... is made with the results of a simulation that models the heat conduction in the metal head by means of a Biot boundary condition. The influence of the wire velocity, inlet temperature and power-law index will be examined....

  14. Patients overwhelmingly prefer inpatient boarding to emergency department boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccellio, Peter; Zito, Joseph A; Sayage, Valerie; Chohan, Jasmine; Garra, Gregory; Santora, Carolyn; Singer, Adam J

    2013-12-01

    Boarding of admitted patients in the emergency department (ED) is a major cause of crowding. One alternative to boarding in the ED, a full-capacity protocol where boarded patients are redeployed to inpatient units, can reduce crowding and improve overall flow. Our aim was to compare patient satisfaction with boarding in the ED vs. inpatient hallways. We performed a structured telephone survey regarding patient experiences and preferences for boarding among admitted ED patients who experienced boarding in the ED hallway and then were subsequently transferred to inpatient hallways. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patient preferences, including items related to patient comfort and safety using a 5-point scale, were recorded and descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Of 110 patients contacted, 105 consented to participate. Mean age was 57 ± 16 years and 52% were female. All patients were initially boarded in the ED in a hallway before their transfer to an inpatient hallway bed. The overall preferred location after admission was the inpatient hallway in 85% (95% confidence interval 75-90) of respondents. In comparing ED vs. inpatient hallway boarding, the following percentages of respondents preferred inpatient boarding with regard to the following 8 items: rest, 85%; safety, 83%; confidentiality, 82%; treatment, 78%; comfort, 79%; quiet, 84%; staff availability, 84%; and privacy, 84%. For no item was there a preference for boarding in the ED. Patients overwhelmingly preferred the inpatient hallway rather than the ED hallway when admitted to the hospital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  16. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  17. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  19. Preparation, microstructure and degradation performance of biomedical magnesium alloy fine wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new biodegradable Mg alloy implant devices, the potential applications of biomedical Mg alloy fine wires are realized and explored gradually. In this study, we prepared three kinds of Mg alloy fine wires containing 4 wt% RE(Gd/Y/Nd and 0.4 wt% Zn with the diameter less than 0.4 μm through casting, hot extruding and multi-pass cold drawing combined with intermediated annealing process. Their microstructures, mechanical and degradation properties were investigated. In comparison with the corresponding as-extruded alloy, the final fine wire has significantly refined grain with an average size of 3–4 μm, and meanwhile shows higher yield strength but lower ductility at room temperature. The degradation tests results and surface morphologies observations indicate that Mg–4Gd–0.4Zn and Mg–4Nd–0.4Zn fine wires have similar good corrosion resistance and the uniform corrosion behavior in SBF solution. By contrast, Mg–4Y–0.4Zn fine wire shows a poor corrosion resistance and the pitting corrosion behavior.

  20. Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Putnam, Morgan C.; Warren, Emily L.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-02-14

    Si wire arrays are a promising architecture for solar-energy-harvesting applications, and may offer a mechanically flexible alternative to Si wafers for photovoltaics. To achieve competitive conversion efficiencies, the wires must absorb sunlight over a broad range of wavelengths and incidence angles, despite occupying only a modest fraction of the array’s volume. Here, we show that arrays having less than 5% areal fraction of wires can achieve up to 96% peak absorption, and that they can absorb up to 85% of day-integrated, above-bandgap direct sunlight. In fact, these arrays show enhanced near-infrared absorption, which allows their overall sunlight absorption to exceed the ray-optics light-trapping absorption limit18 for an equivalent volume of randomly textured planar Si, over a broad range of incidence angles. We furthermore demonstrate that the light absorbed by Si wire arrays can be collected with a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.89, and that they show broadband, near-unity internal quantum efficiency for carrier collection through a radial semiconductor/liquid junction at the surface of each wire. The observed absorption enhancement and collection efficiency enable a cell geometry that not only uses 1/100th the material of traditional wafer-based devices, but also may offer increased photovoltaic efficiency owing to an effective optical concentration of up to 20 times.

  1. Tunable dual-band subwavelength imaging with a wire medium slab loaded with nanostructured graphene metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Forouzmand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate that a wire medium slab loaded with graphene-nanopatch metasurfaces (GNMs enables the enhancement of evanescent waves for the subwavelength imaging at terahertz (THz frequencies. The analysis is based on the nonlocal homogenization model for wire medium with the additional boundary condition at the connection of wires to graphene. The physical mechanism behind this lens can be described as the surface plasmons excitement at the lower and upper GNMs which are coupled by an array of metallic wires. The dual nature (capacitive/inductive of the GNM is utilized in order to design a dual-band lens in which the unique controllable properties of graphene and the structural parameters of wire medium (WM slab provide more degrees of freedom in controlling two operating frequency bands. The lens can support the subwavelength imaging simultaneously at two tunable distinct frequencies with the resolution better than λ/6 even if the distance between GNMs is a significant fraction of wavelength (>λ/5.5. The major future challenges in the fabrication of the lens have been demonstrated and a promising approach for the practical configuration of the lens has been proposed.

  2. Measurement of friction forces between stainless steel wires and "reduced-friction" self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Natalie; Har-Zion, Gilad; Barkana, Idit; Abed, Yossi; Redlich, Meir

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the friction forces between various self-ligating brackets and stainless steel orthodontic wires, subjected to different shear and bending forces in the buccolingual plane. Three kinds of self-ligating brackets and 2 kinds of ligated controls were tested in a newly developed in-vitro system. Friction was tested with stainless steel orthodontic wire in 3 deflection states. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied to evaluate intergroup differences (P friction resistance in response to wire deflection. In nonzero buccolingual deflections, passive self-ligating brackets developed higher friction forces, comparable with those in the conventional elastic ligation control group. The control brackets with reduced friction ligature had considerably lower friction forces than any other group. The active self-ligating bracket ranked between the self-ligating brackets and the reduced friction ligature group. A tribologic survey showed substantial surface alterations among wire samples coupled with passive self-ligating brackets. In contrast to manufacturers' claims, this study illustrates that, in certain clinical situations, a firm passive bracket clip can have a negative influence on the wire-bracket frictional characteristics. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  4. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...

  5. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 ? 0.022 in2 and 0.019 ? 0.025 in2 (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bendin...

  6. Investigation of Shielding Properties of Yarns, Twisted with Metal Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra VARNAITĖ-ŽURAVLIOVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development level of the modern techniques and information technologies creates diverse nature electromagnetic fields and electric field accumulations in the human environment. Electrically conductive textiles that protect against electromagnetic waves and electric charge accumulations can be usable as protective covers for work in computer equipment rooms, measuring stands, air and gas filters and so on. One of the methods used in increase of electrical conductivity in textiles is the development of their specific structures (including the development of threads with the metal component. In this paper, unlike the currently used in the world conductive material production method, where different metal fibres are used as an additives to the main fibre composition in order to create a variety of fibres and yarns, a spun yarn with metal wire was prototyped as samples for this research and the parameters of protective properties of these samples were investigated (such as surface resistivity, vertical resistance, etc.. The protective and shielding properties of woven network with prototyped twisted electro conductive thread with a wire (metal wire diameter of 15 microns were investigated. During the investigation the influence of the following factors, such as conductive fibre composition, electrically conductive thread distribution frequency of the longitudinal and transverse direction, on the protective shielding properties of conductive network were analyzed. The research enabled the assessment of influence of electrically conductive fibre yarn composition and its distribution in the woven mesh on protective shielding properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2492

  7. PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone)-coated nitinol wire: Film stability for biocompatibility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheiko, Nataliia; Kékicheff, Patrick; Marie, Pascal; Schmutz, Marc; Jacomine, Leandro; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thin (12 μm) homogeneous PEEK film without any defects or voids is deposited on NiTi wires. • The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release and no cytotoxicity. • Large pressure (>2 GPa) can only disrupt the coating film as shown by nanoscratch tests. • Coated spring wires sustain mechanical stress in continuous cycles of axial compression/stretching for >7 million cycles. - Abstract: High quality biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) coatings were produced on NiTi shape memory alloy wires using dipping deposition from colloidal aqueous PEEK dispersions after substrate surface treatment. The surface morphology and microstructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy at every step of the process from the as-received Nitinol substrate to the ultimate PEEK-coated NiTi wire. Nanoscratch tests were carried out to access the adhesive behavior of the polymer coated film to the NiTi. The results indicate that the optimum process conditions in cleaning, chemical etching, and electropolishing the NiTi, were the most important and determining parameters to be achieved. Thus, high quality PEEK coatings were obtained on NiTi wires, straight or curved (even with a U-shape) with a homogeneous microstructure along the wire length and a uniform thickness of 12 μm without any development of cracks or the presence of large voids. The biocompatibility of the PEEK coating film was checked in fibrobast cultured cells. The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release, no cytotoxicity, and no delamination observed with time.

  8. PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone)-coated nitinol wire: Film stability for biocompatibility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheiko, Nataliia [Institut Charles Sadron, C.N.R.S. UPR 22, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kékicheff, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.kekicheff@ics-cnrs.unistra.fr [Institut Charles Sadron, C.N.R.S. UPR 22, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Marie, Pascal; Schmutz, Marc; Jacomine, Leandro [Institut Charles Sadron, C.N.R.S. UPR 22, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne [Faculté de Médecine, INSERM, UMR-S 1121, “Biomaterials and Bioengineering”, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A thin (12 μm) homogeneous PEEK film without any defects or voids is deposited on NiTi wires. • The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release and no cytotoxicity. • Large pressure (>2 GPa) can only disrupt the coating film as shown by nanoscratch tests. • Coated spring wires sustain mechanical stress in continuous cycles of axial compression/stretching for >7 million cycles. - Abstract: High quality biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) coatings were produced on NiTi shape memory alloy wires using dipping deposition from colloidal aqueous PEEK dispersions after substrate surface treatment. The surface morphology and microstructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy at every step of the process from the as-received Nitinol substrate to the ultimate PEEK-coated NiTi wire. Nanoscratch tests were carried out to access the adhesive behavior of the polymer coated film to the NiTi. The results indicate that the optimum process conditions in cleaning, chemical etching, and electropolishing the NiTi, were the most important and determining parameters to be achieved. Thus, high quality PEEK coatings were obtained on NiTi wires, straight or curved (even with a U-shape) with a homogeneous microstructure along the wire length and a uniform thickness of 12 μm without any development of cracks or the presence of large voids. The biocompatibility of the PEEK coating film was checked in fibrobast cultured cells. The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release, no cytotoxicity, and no delamination observed with time.

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Titanium Wires using Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay K; Shukla, Gita; Sharma, Poonam; Gupta, Amit K; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Deepika

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic treatment these days is increasing in demand, and therefore, it is relatively imperative for the orthodontist to prescribe the use of fluoride-containing products, such as mouthwashes and gels, to help prevent dental caries and maintain healthy oral health. The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the effects of fluoride prophylactic agents on mechanical properties of nickel titanium (NiTi) wires during orthodontic treatment using scanning electron microscope (SEM). We used the commercially available round preformed NiTi orthodontic archwire (3M company) and three different mouthwash solutions, i.e., Phos-Flur gel (1.1% sodium acidulated phosphate fluoride, APF, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 5.1; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals) and Prevident 5000 (1.1% sodium fluoride neutral agent, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 7; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals). All the specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test on a universal testing machine. To observe the surface morphological changes, one wire from each group was randomly selected and observed under a SEM. It was observed that there was not much difference in the values of both modulus of elasticity and yield strength obtained after loading of stress on the wires in all the three experimental conditions. A significant difference in both modulus of elasticity and yield strength was observed during unloading of stress. Further, when the surface characteristics were observed for all the specimens using SEM images, it was observed that NiTi wires treated with Phos-Flur showed large surface defects which appeared as round, pitted areas depicting corrosion, numerous white inclusions, and overall damaged surface structure of the wire as compared with the control. Thus, fluoridated mouthwashes are essential to maintain good oral hygiene and decrease instance of caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The prophylactic usage of topical fluoride agents on NiTi wire seems to diminish the mechanical properties

  10. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.

  11. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  12. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  13. What makes great boards great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Jeffrey A

    2002-09-01

    In the wake of meltdowns at WorldCom, Tyco, and Enron, enormous attention has been focused on the companies' boards. It seems inconceivable that business disasters of such magnitude could happen without gross or even criminal negligence on the part of board members. And yet a close examination of those boards reveals no broad pattern of incompetence or corruption. In fact, they followed most of the accepted standards for board operations: Members showed up for meetings; they had money invested in the company; audit committees, compensation committees, and codes of ethics were in place; the boards weren't too small or too big, nor were they dominated by insiders. In other words, they passed the tests that would normally be applied to determine whether a board of directors was likely to do a good job. And that's precisely what's so scary, according to corporate governance expert Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, who suggests that it's time for some new thinking about how corporate boards operate and are evaluated. He proposes thinking not only about how to structure the board's work but also about how to manage it as a social system. Good boards are, very simply, high-functioning work groups. They're distinguished by a climate of respect, trust, and candor among board members and between the board and management. Information is shared openly and on time; emergent political factions are quickly eliminated. Members feel free to challenge one another's assumptions and conclusions, and management encourages lively discussion of strategic issues. Directors feel a responsibility to contribute meaningfully to the board's performance. In addition, good boards assess their own performance, both collectively and individually.

  14. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  15. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  16. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  17. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  18. Building Trades. Carpentry, Electrical Wiring, Plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide contains 21 units of self-paced, self-contained instructional materials in the complete building trades curriculum. It is divided into vocational areas of carpentry, electrical wiring, and plumbing. The purpose of the curriculum is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering mainstream…

  19. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  20. Selective deposition by hot wire ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A method for selectively depositing a metal nlm onto a substrate is disclosed. In particular, the method comprising nowing a metal precursor onto the substrate and nowing a non-metal precursor onto the substrate,while contacting the non-metal precursor with a hot wire. Specincally, a reaction

  1. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  2. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  3. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  4. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  5. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  6. Structured Wiring Systems: Bringing Sanity to Network Cabling!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    While most organizations, including libraries, can benefit from a structured wiring system, few likely have the expertise and resources to place, specify, and install network cabling by themselves. This article reviews common wiring plans, addresses basic concepts of structured wiring systems, and discusses the importance and benefits of such a…

  7. Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, quadratic mathematical models have been derived to represent the process behavior of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operation. Experiments have been conducted with six process parameters: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire speed, wire tension and dielectric flow ...

  8. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  9. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  10. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  11. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of... 60092-302 (clause 7) (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Wiring. Instrumentation and...

  12. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  13. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404... Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design and protection. (a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding... construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in...

  14. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than...

  15. 46 CFR 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.865 Section 28.865... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.865 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable... terminals is not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas...

  16. Interpolation Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of EM Coupling between Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasini, C.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and accurate evaluation of the EM field radiated by a current flowing along a wire is essential to solve the electromagnetic coupling between arbitrary oriented wires. In this paper, a numerically efficient algorithm for the evaluation of coupling is presented. The currents along the wires

  17. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  18. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  19. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser. Abstract. A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to ...

  20. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires. Keywords. Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser.