WorldWideScience

Sample records for wirelessly controlled intraoral

  1. Development and functional demonstration of a wireless intraoral inductive tongue computer interface for severely disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N S Andreasen Struijk, Lotte; Lontis, Eugen R; Gaihede, Michael; Caltenco, Hector A; Lund, Morten Enemark; Schioeler, Henrik; Bentsen, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with tetraplegia depend on alternative interfaces in order to control computers and other electronic equipment. Current interfaces are often limited in the number of available control commands, and may compromise the social identity of an individual due to their undesirable appearance. The purpose of this study was to implement an alternative computer interface, which was fully embedded into the oral cavity and which provided multiple control commands. The development of a wireless, intraoral, inductive tongue computer was described. The interface encompassed a 10-key keypad area and a mouse pad area. This system was embedded wirelessly into the oral cavity of the user. The functionality of the system was demonstrated in two tetraplegic individuals and two able-bodied individuals Results: The system was invisible during use and allowed the user to type on a computer using either the keypad area or the mouse pad. The maximal typing rate was 1.8 s for repetitively typing a correct character with the keypad area and 1.4 s for repetitively typing a correct character with the mouse pad area. The results suggest that this inductive tongue computer interface provides an esthetically acceptable and functionally efficient environmental control for a severely disabled user. Implications for Rehabilitation New Design, Implementation and detection methods for intra oral assistive devices. Demonstration of wireless, powering and encapsulation techniques suitable for intra oral embedment of assistive devices. Demonstration of the functionality of a rechargeable and fully embedded intra oral tongue controlled computer input device.

  2. Intra-oral pressure-based voicing control of electrolaryngeal speech with intra-oral vibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakao, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Yataro; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2008-07-01

    In normal speech, coordinated activities of intrinsic laryngeal muscles suspend a glottal sound at utterance of voiceless consonants, automatically realizing a voicing control. In electrolaryngeal speech, however, the lack of voicing control is one of the causes of unclear voice, voiceless consonants tending to be misheard as the corresponding voiced consonants. In the present work, we developed an intra-oral vibrator with an intra-oral pressure sensor that detected utterance of voiceless phonemes during the intra-oral electrolaryngeal speech, and demonstrated that an intra-oral pressure-based voicing control could improve the intelligibility of the speech. The test voices were obtained from one electrolaryngeal speaker and one normal speaker. We first investigated on the speech analysis software how a voice onset time (VOT) and first formant (F1) transition of the test consonant-vowel syllables contributed to voiceless/voiced contrasts, and developed an adequate voicing control strategy. We then compared the intelligibility of consonant-vowel syllables among the intra-oral electrolaryngeal speech with and without online voicing control. The increase of intra-oral pressure, typically with a peak ranging from 10 to 50 gf/cm2, could reliably identify utterance of voiceless consonants. The speech analysis and intelligibility test then demonstrated that a short VOT caused the misidentification of the voiced consonants due to a clear F1 transition. Finally, taking these results together, the online voicing control, which suspended the prosthetic tone while the intra-oral pressure exceeded 2.5 gf/cm2 and during the 35 milliseconds that followed, proved efficient to improve the voiceless/voiced contrast.

  3. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  4. Wireless infrared computer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George C.; He, Xiaofei

    2004-04-01

    Wireless mouse is not restricted by cable"s length and has advantage over its wired counterpart. However, all the mice available in the market have detection range less than 2 meters and angular coverage less than 180 degrees. Furthermore, commercial infrared mice are based on track ball and rollers to detect movements. This restricts them to be used in those occasions where users want to have dynamic movement, such as presentations and meetings etc. This paper presents our newly developed infrared wireless mouse, which has a detection range of 6 meters and angular coverage of 180 degrees. This new mouse uses buttons instead of traditional track ball and is developed to be a hand-held device like remote controller. It enables users to control cursor with a distance closed to computer and the mouse to be free from computer operation.

  5. Wireless, intraoral hybrid electronics for real-time quantification of sodium intake toward hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Howe, Connor; Mishra, Saswat; Lee, Dong Sup; Mahmood, Musa; Piper, Matthew; Kim, Youngbin; Tieu, Katie; Byun, Hun-Soo; Coffey, James P; Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae; Costanzo, Richard M; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Recent wearable devices offer portable monitoring of biopotentials, heart rate, or physical activity, allowing for active management of human health and wellness. Such systems can be inserted in the oral cavity for measuring food intake in regard to controlling eating behavior, directly related to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, existing devices using plastic circuit boards and rigid sensors are not ideal for oral insertion. A user-comfortable system for the oral cavity requires an ultrathin, low-profile, and soft electronic platform along with miniaturized sensors. Here, we introduce a stretchable hybrid electronic system that has an exceptionally small form factor, enabling a long-range wireless monitoring of sodium intake. Computational study of flexible mechanics and soft materials provides fundamental aspects of key design factors for a tissue-friendly configuration, incorporating a stretchable circuit and sensor. Analytical calculation and experimental study enables reliable wireless circuitry that accommodates dynamic mechanical stress. Systematic in vitro modeling characterizes the functionality of a sodium sensor in the electronics. In vivo demonstration with human subjects captures the device feasibility for real-time quantification of sodium intake, which can be used to manage hypertension.

  6. Wireless sensor network topology control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, Olexandr; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Sova, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Topology control process for the wireless sensor network is considered. In this article the use of rule base for making decision on the search of optimum network topology is offered for the realization of different aims of network management.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of Shiraz General Dentists about Infection Control Principles during Preparing Intraoral Radiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolaziz Hagh Negahdar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Infection control in dental centers is affected by the persons’ attitude and knowledge about mechanisms of infection transmission. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and the attitude of Shiraz dentists about infection control during intraoral radiographies preparation. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional, and analytical research, the attitude and the knowledge of 45 male and 25 female, randomly selected dentists, were obtained through completion of a researcher- planed questioner which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using Cronbach`s alpha, one-way ANOVA, student’s t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient in SPSS (V.21. Results: The average of the dentists’ age was 40.59±10.72 and their average occupational experience was 13.49±9.75 years. The mean score obtained for knowledge about infection control during intraoral radiographic procedures was less than fifty percent of total obtainable score, and was assessed as weak knowledge. There was no significant difference in the level of knowledge between studied male and female dentists (P>0.05. In addition, no significant relationship was detected between level, age/experience, and the university of education (P>0.05. The attitude of the dentists about infection control during intraoral radiography preparation assessed as moderate to good level. Conclusions: The results showed that the main reason for the present problems is insufficient knowledge of the dentists in related subjects. Therefore, the solution, which is recommended among dentists, is to raise their awareness and to change their attitudes and culture in order to improve their performance.

  8. Establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for quality control in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Maki; Harata, Yasuo; Shiba, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Nobuhide; Ozawa, Tomonori; Takahashi, Nobutoshi; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dosage and imaging conditions for patients undergoing intraoral radiography at Meikai University Hospital and establish assurance and quality control data. Tube voltage, exposure time, and air kinetic energy released per unit mass (air kerma) of three intraoral radiography units were measured. To calculate the patient entrance dose (PED) for each radiograph using Insight film, we extracted data for 1063 patients from their exposure records. The PED was compared with the diagnostic reference level (DRL) from the European Commission and the UK. The tube voltage of the three units was maintained at 60 ± 2 kV. Differences in exposure time were less than 1.7 % for all units. The air kerma rates were well maintained within a 4.2 % error. Based on the patient data, there were no significant differences in the mean exposure times for males and females for all anatomical sites. The mean PED ranged from 1.09 ± 0.31 mGy for the mandibular incisors to 2.42 ± 0.33 mGy for the maxillary molars. The mean PED at the mandibular molars using InSight film was 1.59 ± 0.20 mGy, being less than the recommended value based on the DRL for intraoral radiography in the UK. We concluded that radiographic conditions at the hospital have been properly maintained. This basic quality control data may assist other dental radiation facilities to reduce patient dosage.

  9. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  11. Distributed medium access control in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    This brief investigates distributed medium access control (MAC) with QoS provisioning for both single- and multi-hop wireless networks including wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks. For WLANs, an efficient MAC scheme and a call admission control algorithm are presented to provide guaranteed QoS for voice traffic and, at the same time, increase the voice capacity significantly compared with the current WLAN standard. In addition, a novel token-based scheduling scheme is proposed to provide great flexibility and facility to the network servi

  12. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems. wireless networked systems for communication and control applications, the bo...

  13. Proxy SDN Controller for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of wireless networks as well as wired networks by using software-defined networking (SDN has been highlighted continually. However, control features of a wireless network differ from those of a wired network in several aspects. In this study, we identify the various inefficient points when controlling and managing wireless networks by using SDN and propose SDN-based control architecture called Proxcon to resolve these problems. Proxcon introduces the concept of a proxy SDN controller (PSC for the wireless network control, and the PSC entrusted with the role of a main controller performs control operations and provides the latest network state for a network administrator. To address the control inefficiency, Proxcon supports offloaded SDN operations for controlling wireless networks by utilizing the PSC, such as local control by each PSC, hybrid control utilizing the PSC and the main controller, and locally cooperative control utilizing the PSCs. The proposed architecture and the newly supported control operations can enhance scalability and response time when the logically centralized control plane responds to the various wireless network events. Through actual experiments, we verified that the proposed architecture could address the various control issues such as scalability, response time, and control overhead.

  14. Development of Arduino based wireless control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoxiong; Dyke, Shirley J.; Pena, Francisco; Wilbee, Alana

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few decades, considerable attention has been given to structural control systems to mitigate structural vibration under natural hazards such as earthquakes and extreme weather conditions. Traditional wired structural control systems often employ a large amount of cables for communication among sensors, controllers and actuators. In such systems, implementation of wired sensors is usually quite complicated and expensive, especially on large scale structures such as bridges and buildings. To reduce the laborious installation and maintenance cost, wireless control systems (WCSs) are considered as a novel approach for structural vibration control. In this work, a WCS is developed based on the open source Arduino platform. Low cost, low power wireless sensing and communication components are built on the Arduino platform. Structural control algorithms are embedded within the wireless sensor board for feedback control. The developed WCS is first validated through a series of tests. Next, numerical simulations are performed simulating wireless control of a 3-story shear structure equipped with a semi-active control device (MR damper). Finally, experimental studies are carried out implementing the WCS on the 3-story shear structure in the Intelligent Infrastructure Systems Lab (IISL). A hydraulic shake table is used to generate seismic ground motions. The control performance is evaluated with the impact of modeling uncertainties, measurement noises as well as time delay and data loss induced by the wireless network. The developed WCS is shown to be effective in controlling structural vibrations under several historical earthquake ground motions.

  15. Towards Controlling Latency in Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2017-04-24

    Wireless networks are undergoing an unprecedented revolution in the last decade. With the explosion of delay-sensitive applications in the Internet (i.e., online gaming and VoIP), latency becomes a major issue for the development of wireless technology. Taking advantage of the significant decline in memory prices, industrialists equip the network devices with larger buffering capacities to improve the network throughput by limiting packets drops. Over-buffering results in increasing the time that packets spend in the queues and, thus, introducing more latency in networks. This phenomenon is known as “bufferbloat”. While throughput is the dominant performance metric, latency also has a huge impact on user experience not only for real-time applications but also for common applications like web browsing, which is sensitive to latencies in order of hundreds of milliseconds. Concerns have arisen about designing sophisticated queue management schemes to mitigate the effects of such phenomenon. My thesis research aims to solve bufferbloat problem in both traditional half-duplex and cutting-edge full-duplex wireless systems by reducing delay while maximizing wireless links utilization and fairness. Our work shed lights on buffer management algorithms behavior in wireless networks and their ability to reduce latency resulting from excessive queuing delays inside oversized static network buffers without a significant loss in other network metrics. First of all, we address the problem of buffer management in wireless full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. Compared to the default case, our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases. In the second part of this thesis

  16. A controlled evaluation of oral screen effects on intra-oral pressure curve characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Jung, Klaus; Kinzinger, Gero; Bauss, Oskar; Engelke, Wilfried

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of oral screen (OS) application on intra-oral pressure characteristics in three malocclusion groups. Fifty-six randomly recruited participants (26 males and 30 females) who met the inclusion criteria of either an Angle Class I occlusal relationships or Angle Class II1 or II2 malocclusions, were assigned by dentition to group I (n = 31), group II1 (n = 12), or group II2 (n = 13). Two 3 minute periods of intra-oral pressure monitoring were conducted on each participant, using two different oral end fittings connected to a piezo-resistive relative pressure sensor: (1) a flexible OS and (2) a small-dimensioned air-permeable end cap (EC), which was placed laterally in the premolar region, thus recording intra-oral pressure independent of the influence of the OS. Pressure curve characteristics for both periods and between the malocclusion groups were evaluated with reference to the frequency of swallowing peaks, duration, and altitude of negative pressure plateau phases and the area under the pressure curve. Statistical analysis was undertaken using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test, and spearman correlation coefficient. A median number of two peaks (median height -20.9 mbar) and three plateau phases (median height of -2.3 mbar) may be regarded as normative for normal occlusion subjects during a 3 minute period, at rest. OS application raised the median average duration and height of intra-oral negative pressure plateau phases in the II1 subjects, exceeding those of group I, but less than the plateau duration in group II2. Median peak heights were distinctively lower in groups I and II1 during OS application. It is concluded that additional training for extension of intra-oral pressure phases may be a promising approach to pre-orthodontic Class II division 1 treatment.

  17. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  18. Ubiquitous Wireless Smart Sensing and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Need new technologies to reliably and safely have humans interact within sensored environments (integrated user interfaces, physical and cognitive augmentation, training, and human-systems integration tools). Areas of focus include: radio frequency identification (RFID), motion tracking, wireless communication, wearable computing, adaptive training and decision support systems, and tele-operations. The challenge is developing effective, low cost/mass/volume/power integrated monitoring systems to assess and control system, environmental, and operator health; and accurately determining and controlling the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the areas and associated environmental control systems.

  19. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  20. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed M Usman; Hussain, Sajid; Siddiqui, Ali Akber; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-01-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively

  1. Infrared wireless data transfer for real-time motion control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajdusek, M.; Overboom, T.T.; Damen, A.A.H.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper several wireless solution are compared for their suitability for real-time control of a fast motion system. From the comparison, Very Fast Infrared (VFIR) communication link has been found to be an attractive solution for presented wirelessly controlled manipulator. Because standard

  2. Adaptive Wavelet Coding Applied in a Wireless Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Felipe O S; Silveira, Luiz F Q; Salazar, Andrés O

    2017-12-13

    Wireless control systems can sense, control and act on the information exchanged between the wireless sensor nodes in a control loop. However, the exchanged information becomes susceptible to the degenerative effects produced by the multipath propagation. In order to minimize the destructive effects characteristic of wireless channels, several techniques have been investigated recently. Among them, wavelet coding is a good alternative for wireless communications for its robustness to the effects of multipath and its low computational complexity. This work proposes an adaptive wavelet coding whose parameters of code rate and signal constellation can vary according to the fading level and evaluates the use of this transmission system in a control loop implemented by wireless sensor nodes. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus E b / N 0 and spectral efficiency, considering a time-varying channel with flat Rayleigh fading, and in terms of processing overhead on a control system with wireless communication. The results obtained through computational simulations and experimental tests show performance gains obtained by insertion of the adaptive wavelet coding in a control loop with nodes interconnected by wireless link. These results enable the use of this technique in a wireless link control loop.

  3. Adaptive Wavelet Coding Applied in a Wireless Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O. S. Gama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless control systems can sense, control and act on the information exchanged between the wireless sensor nodes in a control loop. However, the exchanged information becomes susceptible to the degenerative effects produced by the multipath propagation. In order to minimize the destructive effects characteristic of wireless channels, several techniques have been investigated recently. Among them, wavelet coding is a good alternative for wireless communications for its robustness to the effects of multipath and its low computational complexity. This work proposes an adaptive wavelet coding whose parameters of code rate and signal constellation can vary according to the fading level and evaluates the use of this transmission system in a control loop implemented by wireless sensor nodes. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER versus E b / N 0 and spectral efficiency, considering a time-varying channel with flat Rayleigh fading, and in terms of processing overhead on a control system with wireless communication. The results obtained through computational simulations and experimental tests show performance gains obtained by insertion of the adaptive wavelet coding in a control loop with nodes interconnected by wireless link. These results enable the use of this technique in a wireless link control loop.

  4. Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can be widely applied for a security system or a smart home system. Since some of the wireless remote sensor nodes may be powered by energy storage devices such as batteries, it is a very important issue to transmit signals at lower power with the consideration of the communication effectiveness. In this paper, we will provide a fuzzy controller with two inputs and one output for received signal strength indicator (RSSI and link quality indicator (LQI to adjust transmission power suitably in order to maintaining a certain communication level with a reduced energy consumption. And we will divide the sampling period of a sensor node into four intervals so that the sensor node radio device does not in receiving or transmission status all the time. Hence the sensor node can adjust transmission power automatically and reduce sensor node power consumption. Experimental results show that the battery life can be extended to about 10 times for the designed sensor node comparing to a normal node.

  5. Design and implementation of the wireless high voltage control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, A.; Pandey, H.K.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the implementation of the wireless link for controlling and monitoring the serial data between control PC and the interface card (general DAQ card), by replacing existing RS232 based remote control system for controlling and monitoring High Voltage Power Supply (120kV/50mA). The enhancement in the reliability is achieved by replacing old RS232 based control system with wireless system by isolating ground loop. (author)

  6. Low-latency wireless data transfer for motion control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Haazen, M.H.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for wireless motion control. Existing wireless techniques suffer from large closed loop delays of several milliseconds, which is unacceptable in precision motion systems. These large delays are mainly caused by the protocol used, since these are optimized for

  7. Sleep Control Game for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, each node controls its sleep to reduce energy consumption without sacrificing message latency. In this paper we apply the game theory, which is a powerful tool that explains how each individual acts for his or her own economic benefit, to analyze the optimal sleep schedule for sensor nodes. We redefine this sleep control game as a modified version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma. In the sleep control game, each node decides whether or not it wakes up for the cycle. Payoff functions of the sleep control game consider the expected traffic volume, network conditions, and the expected packet delay. According to the payoff function, each node selects the best wake-up strategy that may minimize the energy consumption and maintain the latency performance. To investigate the performance of our algorithm, we apply the sleep control game to X-MAC, which is one of the recent WSN MAC protocols. Our detailed packet level simulations confirm that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the energy consumption by removing unnecessary wake-up operations without loss of the latency performance.

  8. Psychological, behavioral, and clinical effects of intra-oral camera: a randomized control trial on adults with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário-Rui; Alvarez, Maria-João; Godinho, Cristina A; Pereira, Cícero

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis, outlined by evidence and a theory-based framework. A group of 78 adult patients with gingivitis receiving an SPT was randomized into two groups: IOC and control. Bleeding on Marginal Probing (BOMP), self-reported dental hygiene behaviors, and psychological determinants of behavior change (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning) and IOC opinion were evaluated 1 week before or during the appointment and 4 months later. Repeated-measures anova was used to compare groups over time. Almost all the patients brushed their teeth daily, while 78% either never or hardly ever used dental floss. The IOC group showed significant improvements in BOMP index (P < 0.001), self-reported flossing (P < 0.05), and self-efficacy (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. The use of IOC significantly improves clinical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of periodontal health 4 months after treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Towards Controlling Latency in Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Wireless networks are undergoing an unprecedented revolution in the last decade. With the explosion of delay-sensitive applications in the Internet (i.e., online gaming and VoIP), latency becomes a major issue for the development of wireless

  10. Simulation Of Wireless Networked Control System Using TRUETIME And MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyan Phyo Aung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networked control systems WNCS are attracting an increasing research interests in the past decade. Wireless networked control system WNCS is composed of a group of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate through wireless link which achieves distributed sensing and executing tasks. This is particularly relevant for the areas of communication control and computing where successful design of WNCS brings about new challenges to the researchers. The primary motivation of this survey paper is to examine the design issues and to provide directions for successful simulation and implementation of WNCS. The paper also as well reviews some simulation tools for such systems.

  11. Wirelessly Controllable Inflated Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable membrane reflectors are attractive for deployable, large aperture, lightweight optical and microwave systems in micro-gravity space environment. However, any fabrication flaw or temperature variation may results in significant aberration of the surface. Even for a perfectly fabricated inflatable membrane mirror with uniform thickness, theory shows it will form a Hencky curve surface but a desired parabolic or spherical surface. Precision control of the surfaceshape of extremely flexible membrane structures is a critical challenge for the success of this technology. Wirelessly controllable inflated reflectors made of electroactive polymers (EAP) are proposed in this paper. A finite element model was configured to predict the behavior of the inflatable EAP membranes under pre-strains, pressures and distributed electric charges on the surface. To explore the controllability of the inflatable EAP reflectors, an iteration algorism was developed to find the required electric actuation for correcting the aberration of the Hencky curve to the desired parabolic curve. The correction capability of the reflectors with available EAP materials was explored numerically and is presented in this paper.

  12. Power control in wireless sensor networks with variable interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, M.; Syed, A.A.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive transmission power control schemes have been introduced in wireless sensor networks to adjust energy consumption under different network conditions. This is a crucial goal, given the constraints under which sensor communications operate. Power reduction may however have counterproductive

  13. Lifetime Maximizing Adaptive Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Fangting; Shayman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    ...: adaptive power control. They focus on the sensor networks that consist of a sink and a set of homogeneous wireless sensor nodes, which are randomly deployed according to a uniform distribution...

  14. Broadband Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum is proposing to develop a broadband wireless device for real-time data acquisition and monitoring applicable to the field instrumentation and control...

  15. Predictive power control in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, M.; Syed, Aly; Mocanu, D.C.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are affected by dynamic environments, variable signal fluctuations and interference. Thus, prompt actions are necessary to achieve dependable communications and meet quality of service requirements. To this end, the reactive algorithms used in

  16. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-05-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  17. Transmission Delay Based Control over Networks with Wireless Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To achieve the mobility of computers during communication, the TCP connections between fixed host and mobile host may often traverse wired and wireless networks, and the recovery of losses due to wireless transmission error is much different from congestion control. The paper analyzes the side effect of RTT estimation while making the TCP source to handle congestion and wireless error losses properly. Then present a strategy using information feedback by the last hop acknowledgement and monitoring the queuing level of the wired bottleneck link by calculating the changes in transmission delay along the path. With the identification of the early stage of congestion, it can respond to wired congestion quickly while keeping wireless link more reliable, and make TCP react to the different packets losses more appropriately.

  18. A solar charge and discharge controller for wireless sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yibo; Shen, Shu

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the energy supply problem that restricts the life of wireless sensor nodes, a solar energy charge and discharge controller suitable for wireless sensor nodes is designed in this paper. A Microcontroller is used as the core of the solar charge and discharge controller. The software of the solar charge and discharge controller adopts the C language to realize the program of the main control module. Firstly, the function of monitoring solar panel voltage and lithium battery voltage are simulated by Protel software, and the charge time is tested in cloudy and overcast outdoor environment. The results of the experiment show that our controller meets the power supply demand of wireless sensor nodes.

  19. Internal model control for industrial wireless plant using WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chung Duc; Ibrahim, Rosdiazli; Asirvadam, Vijanth Sagayan; Saad, Nordin; Sabo Miya, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of wireless technologies such as WirelessHART and ISA100 Wireless for deployment at industrial process plants has urged the need for research and development in wireless control. This is in view of the fact that the recent application is mainly in monitoring domain due to lack of confidence in control aspect. WirelessHART has an edge over its counterpart as it is based on the successful Wired HART protocol with over 30 million devices as of 2009. Recent works on control have primarily focused on maintaining the traditional PID control structure which is proven not adequate for the wireless environment. In contrast, Internal Model Control (IMC), a promising technique for delay compensation, disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking has not been investigated in the context of WirelessHART. Therefore, this paper discusses the control design using IMC approach with a focus on wireless processes. The simulation and experimental results using real-time WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator (WH-HILS) indicate that the proposed approach is more robust to delay variation of the network than the PID. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Novel Intelligent Transportation Control Supported by Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Qian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless sensor unit, and improvement of real-time and quality of wireless communication, the intelligent transportation control system employ these technologies to realize sensing, positioning, computing, and communication for voiding collisions. This paper discusses the framework of transportation control system, and emphases TDOA positioning algorithm and the new weighted least square optimization method. The simulation result shows that, our method achieves high-accuracy of positioning, which can satisfy the need of transportation control. Finally, we outline the urgent work need to address in the future.

  1. A Reliable Wireless Control System for Tomato Hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibayashi, Hirofumi; Kaneda, Yukimasa; Imahara, Jungo; Oishi, Naoki; Kuroda, Masahiro; Mineno, Hiroshi

    2016-05-05

    Agricultural systems using advanced information and communication (ICT) technology can produce high-quality crops in a stable environment while decreasing the need for manual labor. The system collects a wide variety of environmental data and provides the precise cultivation control needed to produce high value-added crops; however, there are the problems of packet transmission errors in wireless sensor networks or system failure due to having the equipment in a hot and humid environment. In this paper, we propose a reliable wireless control system for hydroponic tomato cultivation using the 400 MHz wireless band and the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The 400 MHz band, which is lower than the 2.4 GHz band, has good obstacle diffraction, and zero-data-loss communication is realized using the guaranteed time-slot method supported by the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. In addition, this system has fault tolerance and a self-healing function to recover from faults such as packet transmission failures due to deterioration of the wireless communication quality. In our basic experiments, the 400 MHz band wireless communication was not affected by the plants' growth, and the packet error rate was less than that of the 2.4 GHz band. In summary, we achieved a real-time hydroponic liquid supply control with no data loss by applying a 400 MHz band WSN to hydroponic tomato cultivation.

  2. A Reliable Wireless Control System for Tomato Hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibayashi, Hirofumi; Kaneda, Yukimasa; Imahara, Jungo; Oishi, Naoki; Kuroda, Masahiro; Mineno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural systems using advanced information and communication (ICT) technology can produce high-quality crops in a stable environment while decreasing the need for manual labor. The system collects a wide variety of environmental data and provides the precise cultivation control needed to produce high value-added crops; however, there are the problems of packet transmission errors in wireless sensor networks or system failure due to having the equipment in a hot and humid environment. In this paper, we propose a reliable wireless control system for hydroponic tomato cultivation using the 400 MHz wireless band and the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The 400 MHz band, which is lower than the 2.4 GHz band, has good obstacle diffraction, and zero-data-loss communication is realized using the guaranteed time-slot method supported by the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. In addition, this system has fault tolerance and a self-healing function to recover from faults such as packet transmission failures due to deterioration of the wireless communication quality. In our basic experiments, the 400 MHz band wireless communication was not affected by the plants’ growth, and the packet error rate was less than that of the 2.4 GHz band. In summary, we achieved a real-time hydroponic liquid supply control with no data loss by applying a 400 MHz band WSN to hydroponic tomato cultivation. PMID:27164105

  3. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  4. Energy efficient topology control algorithm for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aron, FO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of the topology of a network makes it possible for the network nodes to reduce their power of transmission while ensuring that network connectivity is preserved. This paper explains the need for energy consumption control in Wireless...

  5. Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Feng; Ma, Longhua; Peng, Chen; Sun, Youxian; Dong, Jinxiang

    2008-01-01

    There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS) scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting cross-layer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An event-driven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN. PMID:27879934

  6. Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Dong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting crosslayer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An eventdriven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN.

  7. Wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Randall, John N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper will explore the possibilities of implementing a wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing. The manufacturing process, similar to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, takes place within an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) chamber at a pressure of 10-10 torr. In order to create vibration isolation, and to keep internal noise to a minimum, a wireless link inside the UHV chamber becomes essential. We present a MATLAB simulation of the problem, and then demonstrate a hardware scheme between a Gumstix computer and a Linux based laptop for controlling nano-manipulators with three degrees of freedom. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2011-04-01

    This paper will explore the possibilities of implementing a wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing. The manufacturing process, similar to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, takes place within an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) chamber at a pressure of 10-10 torr. In order to create vibration isolation, and to keep internal noise to a minimum, a wireless link inside the UHV chamber becomes essential. We present a MATLAB simulation of the problem, and then demonstrate a hardware scheme between a Gumstix computer and a Linux based laptop for controlling nano-manipulators with three degrees of freedom. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Analog design of wireless control for home equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyong; Li, Zhao; Li, Biqing; Jiang, Suping

    2018-04-01

    This design consists of a STC89C52 microcontroller, a serial Bluetooth module and the Android system. Production of STC89C52 controlled by single-chip computer telephone systems. The system is composed of mobile phone Android system as a master in the family centre,via serial Bluetooth module pass instructions and information to implement wireless transceiver using STC89C52 MCU wireless Bluetooth transmission to control homedevices. System high reliability, low cost easy to use, stong applicability and other characerristics, can be used in single-user family, has great significance.

  10. Efficient Evaluation of Wireless Real-Time Control Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horvath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a system simulation framework for the design and performance evaluation of complex wireless cyber-physical systems. We describe the simulator architecture and the specific developments that are required to simulate cyber-physical systems relying on multi-channel, multihop mesh networks. We introduce realistic and efficient physical layer models and a system simulation methodology, which provides statistically significant performance evaluation results with low computational complexity. The capabilities of the proposed framework are illustrated in the example of WirelessHART, a centralized, real-time, multi-hop mesh network designed for industrial control and monitor applications.

  11. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    The next generation of broadband access networks is expected to be heterogeneous. Multiple wired and wireless systems can be integrated, in order to simultaneously provide seamless access with an appropriate Quality of Service (QoS). Wireless networks support ubiquitous connectivity yet low data...... rates, whereas optical networks can offer much higher data rates but only provide fixed connection structures. Their complementary characteristics make the integration of the two networks a promising trend for next generation networks. With combined strengths, the converged network will provide both...... the complementary characteristics of the optical networks and the wireless networks, addresses motivations for their interworking, discusses the current progress in hybrid network architectures as well as the functionalities of a control system, and identifies the achieved research contributions in the integrated...

  12. Distributed topology control algorithm for multihop wireless netoworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbash, S. A.; Jennings, E. H.

    2002-01-01

    We present a network initialization algorithmfor wireless networks with distributed intelligence. Each node (agent) has only local, incomplete knowledge and it must make local decisions to meet a predefined global objective. Our objective is to use power control to establish a topology based onthe relative neighborhood graph which has good overall performance in terms of power usage, low interference, and reliability.

  13. Assessment of proactive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Transmission Power Control (TPC) techniques are employed. The existing TPC schemes adjust the transmission power mostly reacting to changes at link quality between communicating nodes. Proactive TPC has been proposed in the recent past

  14. In-node cognitive power control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Reliability, interoperability and efficiency are fundamental in Wireless Sensor Network deployment. Herein we look at how transmission power control may be used to reduce interference, which is particularly problematic in high-density conditions. We adopt a distributed approach where every node has

  15. Interference mitigation through adaptive power control in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, M.; Bacchiani, C.; Syed, Aly; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive transmission power control schemes have been introduced in wireless sensor networks to adjust energy consumption under different network conditions. This is a crucial goal, given the constraints under which sensor communications operate. Power reduction may however have counter-productive

  16. Liquid-crystal intraocular adaptive lens with wireless control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, A.N.; Vdovine, G.V.; Loktev, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a prototype of an adaptive intraocular lens based on a modal liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator with wireless control. The modal corrector consists of a nematic liquid-crystal layer sandwiched between two glass substrates with transparent low- and high-ohmic electrodes, respectively.

  17. Adaptive Media Access Control for Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    ODMAC (On-Demand Media Access Control) is a recently proposed MAC protocol designed to support individual duty cycles for Energy Harvesting — Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). Individual duty cycles are vital for EH-WSNs, because they allow nodes to adapt their energy consumption to the ever-ch...

  18. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  19. Design and implementation of a topology control scheme for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudali, P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) backbone is usually comprised of stationary nodes but the transient nature of wireless links results in changing network topologies. Topology Control (TC) aims to preserve network connectivity in ad hoc and mesh...

  20. A cross-layer communication framework for wireless networked control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israr, N.; Scanlon, W.G.; Irwin, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a robust, dynamic cross-layer wireless communication architecture for wireless networked control systems. Each layer in the proposed protocol architecture contributes to the overall goal of reliable, energy efficient communication. The protocol stack also features a

  1. Telescope Array Control System Based on Wireless Touch Screen Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia-nan; Huang, Lei; Wei, Jian-yan

    2017-10-01

    Ground-based Wide Angle Cameras (GMAC) are the ground-based observational facility for the SVOM (Space Variable Object Monitor) astronomical satellite of Sino-French cooperation, and Mini-GWAC is the pathfinder and supplement of GWAC. In the context of the Mini-GWAC telescope array, this paper introduces the design and implementation of a kind of telescope array control system based on the wireless touch screen platform. We describe the development and implementation of the system in detail in terms of control system principle, system hardware structure, software design, experiment, and test etc. The system uses a touch-control PC which is based on the Windows CE system as the upper computer, while the wireless transceiver module and PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) are taken as the system kernel. It has the advantages of low cost, reliable data transmission, and simple operation. And the control system has been applied to the Mini-GWAC successfully.

  2. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the result of efforts to identify and solve the problems that arise when a control system is to be designed for various industrial case studies of the Plug and Play Process Control (P3C) project that require autonomous addition/removal of sensors, actuators and subsystems...... in only one of the P3C case studies where all of the nodes of the wireless networked control system are placed underground and should be able to transmit data among themselves. It is not a trivial problem because the well known radio frequency electromagnetic waves face serious difficulties penetrating...... is recommended for wireless plug and play control systems. Formation and maintenance of clusters of nodes are directly linked to the top level application layer via a novel application-based routing metric. The proposed routing metric facilitates implementation of the networking topology in accordance...

  3. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-04-01

    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  4. Intraoral gothic arch tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

    2011-01-01

    In order to create optimum esthetics, function and phonetics in complete denture fabrication, it is necessary to record accurate maxillo-mandibular determinants of occlusion. This requires clinical skill to establish an accurate, verifiable and reproducible vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and centric relation (CR). Correct vertical relation depends upon a consideration of several factors, including muscle tone, inter-dental arch space and parallelism of the ridges. Any errors made while taking maxillo-mandibular jaw relation records will result in dentures that are uncomfortable and, possibly, unwearable. The application of a tracing mechanism such as the Gothic arch tracer (a central bearing device) is a demonstrable method of determining centric relation. Intraoral Gothic arch tracers provide the advantage of capturing VDO and CR in an easy-to-use technique for practitioners. Intraoral tracing (Gothic arch tracing) is a preferred method of obtaining consistent positions of the mandible in motion (retrusive, protrusive and lateral) at a comfortable VDO.

  5. Intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum is reported in a 50- year- old Indian. He did not respond to topical application of podophyllin 20% but responded partially to electric cauterisation. Surgical excision was done to get rid of the warty growh completely. Since there were no skin or genital lesions and no history of marital or extramarital sexual contact the lesion was probably acquired from environmental sources. Nonsexual transmission should be considered especially when the lesions are extragenital.

  6. Security in Wireless Sensor Networks for Open Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we develop, evaluate and implement a security solution for Open Controllers wireless sensor network platform. A scenario is used to describe an exemplar application showing how our system is supposed to function. The security of the platform is analyzed using a well-established threat modeling process and attack trees which result in the identification of a number of risks, which could be security weaknesses. These attack trees visualize the security weaknesses in an easy to ac...

  7. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  8. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Bellido-Outeiriño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed.

  9. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  10. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  11. Context-Based Topology Control for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragasen Mudali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Topology Control has been shown to provide several benefits to wireless ad hoc and mesh networks. However these benefits have largely been demonstrated using simulation-based evaluations. In this paper, we demonstrate the negative impact that the PlainTC Topology Control prototype has on topology stability. This instability is found to be caused by the large number of transceiver power adjustments undertaken by the prototype. A context-based solution is offered to reduce the number of transceiver power adjustments undertaken without sacrificing the cumulative transceiver power savings and spatial reuse advantages gained from employing Topology Control in an infrastructure wireless mesh network. We propose the context-based PlainTC+ prototype and show that incorporating context information in the transceiver power adjustment process significantly reduces topology instability. In addition, improvements to network performance arising from the improved topology stability are also observed. Future plans to add real-time context-awareness to PlainTC+ will have the scheme being prototyped in a software-defined wireless mesh network test-bed being planned.

  12. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-04-27

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed.

  13. Wireless communication technology for modular mechatronic controllers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bright, G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available architecture. This further introduces problems that are concerned with timing, such as lag effect of zero-order hold (ZOH) and problems with re- spect to motion control. Problems of time variations can be addressed in control 2 design, e.g., by using... to determine the correct controller reaction time. Controlled process(es) System components } } } } } } } } Mechatronics sub-systems Level 2 communications Mechatronics system Level 3 communications Other systems D ec re as in g tim e de...

  14. Wireless communication of real-time ultrasound data and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.

    2015-03-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to grow to 26 billion connected devices by 2020, plus the PC, smart phone, and tablet segment that includes mobile Health (mHealth) connected devices is projected to account for another 7.3 billion units by 2020. This paper explores some of the real-time constraints on the data-flow and control of a wireless connected ultrasound machine. The paper will define an ultrasound server and the capabilities necessary for real-time use of the device. The concept of an ultrasound server wirelessly (or over any network) connected to multiple lightweight clients on devices like an iPad, iPhone, or Android-based tablet, smartphone and other network-attached displays (i.e., Google Glass) is explored. Latency in the ultrasound data stream is one of the key areas to measure and to focus on keeping as small as possible (20 frames-per-second on a properly configured wireless network. The ultrasound server needs to be designed to accept multiple ultrasound data clients and multiple control clients. A description of the server and some of its key features will be described.

  15. Intelligence Control System for Landfills Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Chuan; Gong, Jian

    2018-06-01

    This paper put forward an intelligence system for controlling the landfill gas in landfills to make the landfill gas (LFG) exhaust controllably and actively. The system, which is assigned by the wireless sensor network, were developed and supervised by remote applications in workshop instead of manual work. An automatic valve control depending on the sensor units embedded is installed in tube, the air pressure and concentration of LFG are detected to decide the level of the valve switch. The paper also proposed a modified algorithm to solve transmission problem, so that the system can keep a high efficiency and long service life.

  16. Intelligence Control System for Landfills Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper put forward an intelligence system for controlling the landfill gas in landfills to make the landfill gas (LFG exhaust controllably and actively. The system, which is assigned by the wireless sensor network, were developed and supervised by remote applications in workshop instead of manual work. An automatic valve control depending on the sensor units embedded is installed in tube, the air pressure and concentration of LFG are detected to decide the level of the valve switch. The paper also proposed a modified algorithm to solve transmission problem, so that the system can keep a high efficiency and long service life.

  17. Wireless communication for control of manipulation systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Rychnovský, V.; Píša, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-41 ISSN 1230-2384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : distributed mechatronic system * model-based control * multi-level control * odometry * optical sensors * standard IEEE 802.15.4 * ZigBee protocol Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/belda-0376476.pdf

  18. Evolution of Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Low

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Technologies evolve in a process of gradual scientific change, but the commercial application of technologies is discontinuous. Managers interested in technology evolution can integrate these contrasting ideas using a powerful theoretical framework, based on the concept of punctuated equilibrium from evolutionary biology. The framework, which enables the differentiation of the technical evolution of a technology from its market application, is used in this article to compare the two standards for wireless sensor networks (WSN for industrial instrumentation and control: WirelessHART and ISA100.11a. The two WSN standards are the product of two different market contexts, which have selected different minimum viable technologies for evolution in their respective niches. Network security issues present some important selection criteria. Both WSN standards implement security countermeasures against localized wireless network attacks based on the application of the AES encryption standard, but some specific security threats – some local, others remotely launched – are only well-defended by the adoption of public-key cryptographic (PKC protocols, which only ISA100.11a supports. This article concludes that the mainstream market potential of the Internet has influenced the evolution of ISA100.11a and will continue to demand that each WSN standard evolve in ways that are difficult to predict.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraoral hard and soft tissues using an intraoral coil and FLASH sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Tabea; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Kathrin; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Nelson, Katja [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Hoevener, Jan-Bernd; Ludwig, Ute; Hennig, Juergen [University Medical Center Freiburg, Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Spittau, Bjoern [Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To ascertain the feasibility of MRI as a non-ionizing protocol for routine dentomaxillofacial diagnostic imaging. Wireless coils were used for MRI of intraoral hard and soft tissues. FLASH MRI was applied in vivo with a mandible voxel size of 250 x 250 x 500 μm{sup 3}, FOV of 64 x 64 x 28 mm{sup 3} and acquisition time of 3:57 min and with a maxilla voxel size of 350 μm{sup 3} and FOV of 34 cm{sup 3} in 6:40 min. Ex vivo imaging was performed in 4:38 min, with a resolution of 200 μm{sup 3} and FOV of 36.5 cm{sup 3}. Cone beam (CB) CT of the mandible and subjects were acquired. MRI was compared to CBCT and histological sections. Deviations were calculated with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (c{sub v}). A high congruence between CBCT, MRI and specimens was demonstrated. Hard and soft tissues including dental pulp, periodontium, gingiva, cancellous bone and mandibular canal contents were adequately displayed with MRI. Imaging of select intraoral tissues was achieved using custom MRI protocols with an easily applicable intraoral coil in a clinically acceptable acquisition time. Comparison with CBCT and histological sections helped demonstrate dimensional accuracy of the MR images. The course of the mandibular canal was accurately displayed with CBCT and MRI. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraoral hard and soft tissues using an intraoral coil and FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluegge, Tabea; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Kathrin; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Nelson, Katja; Hoevener, Jan-Bernd; Ludwig, Ute; Hennig, Juergen; Spittau, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the feasibility of MRI as a non-ionizing protocol for routine dentomaxillofacial diagnostic imaging. Wireless coils were used for MRI of intraoral hard and soft tissues. FLASH MRI was applied in vivo with a mandible voxel size of 250 x 250 x 500 μm 3 , FOV of 64 x 64 x 28 mm 3 and acquisition time of 3:57 min and with a maxilla voxel size of 350 μm 3 and FOV of 34 cm 3 in 6:40 min. Ex vivo imaging was performed in 4:38 min, with a resolution of 200 μm 3 and FOV of 36.5 cm 3 . Cone beam (CB) CT of the mandible and subjects were acquired. MRI was compared to CBCT and histological sections. Deviations were calculated with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (c v ). A high congruence between CBCT, MRI and specimens was demonstrated. Hard and soft tissues including dental pulp, periodontium, gingiva, cancellous bone and mandibular canal contents were adequately displayed with MRI. Imaging of select intraoral tissues was achieved using custom MRI protocols with an easily applicable intraoral coil in a clinically acceptable acquisition time. Comparison with CBCT and histological sections helped demonstrate dimensional accuracy of the MR images. The course of the mandibular canal was accurately displayed with CBCT and MRI. (orig.)

  1. Robust Controller for Delays and Packet Dropout Avoidance in Solar-Power Wireless Network

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Azzawi, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    Solar Wireless Networked Control Systems (SWNCS) are a style of distributed control systems where sensors, actuators, and controllers are interconnected via a wireless communication network. This system setup has the benefit of low cost, flexibility, low weight, no wiring and simplicity of system diagnoses and maintenance. However, it also unavoidably calls some wireless network time delays and packet dropout into the design procedure. Solar lighting system offers a clean environment, therefo...

  2. Infection control in digital intraoral radiography: evaluation of microbiological contamination of photostimulable phosphor plates in barrier envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, David S; Waterfield, J Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The detectors (both solid-state sensors and photostimulable phosphor [PSP] plates) used for digital intraoral radiography cannot be autoclaved, and barriers are typically used to prevent the spread of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a barrier envelope system for PSP plates. Disinfected PSP plates were aseptically inserted into barrier envelopes and placed in a periapical location. One PSP plate was placed in each of 28 patients, and 12 plates in each of 2 volunteers (D.S.M., J.D.W.). After retrieval, each PSP plate was removed from its barrier envelope, immersed in trypticase soy broth and aliquots were plated on trypticase soy agar. Bacterial colonies were counted 2 days later. Fifty-two PSP plates in barrier envelopes were evaluated for contamination. Quality assurance of the PSP plates before clinical placement revealed defects in the integrity of 4 barrier envelopes, caused by forceps-related damage or failure to achieve a uniform seal. These defects allowed substantial contamination. Contamination also occurred as a result of failure to extract the PSP plate from the barrier envelope cleanly. Of the 44 barriers with no obvious defects that were placed by either final-year dental students or a radiologist, only 3 allowed bacterial contamination of the PSP plate. Detectors contained in barrier envelopes remain a potential source of contamination. PSP plates must be disinfected between removal from a contaminated barrier envelope and placement in a new barrier envelope. In addition, placement into the barrier envelope should ideally be carried out under aseptic conditions. Finally, the integrity of each sealed barrier envelope must be verified visually before release to the clinic.

  3. Wireless sensor networks for active vibration control in automobile structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieyeville, Fabien; Navarro, David; Du, Wan; Ichchou, Mohamed; Scorletti, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are nowadays widely used in monitoring and tracking applications. This paper presents the feasibility of using WSNs in active vibration control strategies. The method employed here involves active-structural acoustic control using piezoelectric sensors distributed on a car structure. This system aims at being merged with a WSN whose head node collects data and processes control laws so as to command piezoelectric actuators wisely placed on the structure. We will study the feasibility of implementing WSNs in active vibration control and introduce a complete design methodology to optimize hardware/software and control law synergy in mechatronic systems. A design space exploration will be conducted so as to identify the best WSN platform and the resulting impact on control. (paper)

  4. Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network Design for Mobile Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxian Sung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor/actuator networks (WSANs are emerging as a new generationof sensor networks. Serving as the backbone of control applications, WSANs will enablean unprecedented degree of distributed and mobile control. However, the unreliability ofwireless communications and the real-time requirements of control applications raise greatchallenges for WSAN design. With emphasis on the reliability issue, this paper presents anapplication-level design methodology for WSANs in mobile control applications. Thesolution is generic in that it is independent of the underlying platforms, environment,control system models, and controller design. To capture the link quality characteristics interms of packet loss rate, experiments are conducted on a real WSAN system. From theexperimental observations, a simple yet efficient method is proposed to deal withunpredictable packet loss on actuator nodes. Trace-based simulations give promisingresults, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Compact wireless control network protocol with fast path switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor network protocol stacks require the addition or adjustment of functions based on customer requirements. Sensor network protocols that require low delay and low packet error rate (PER, such as wireless control networks, often adopt time division multiple access (TDMA. However, it is difficult to add or adjust functions in protocol stacks that use TDMA methods. Therefore, to add or adjust functions easily, we propose NES-SOURCE, a compact wireless control network protocol with a fast path-switching function. NES-SOURCE is implemented using carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA rather than TDMA. Wireless control networks that use TDMA prevent communication failure by duplicating the communication path. If CSMA/CA networks use duplicate paths, collisions occur frequently, and communication will fail. NES-SOURCE switches paths quickly when communication fails, which reduces the effect of communication failures. Since NES-SOURCE is implemented using CSMA/CA rather than TDMA, the implementation scale is less than one-half that of existing network stacks. Furthermore, since NES-SOURCE’s code complexity is low, functions can be added or adjusted easily and quickly. Communication failures occur owing to changes in the communication environment and collisions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NES-SOURCE’s path-switching function reduces the amount of communication failures when the communication environment changes owing to human movement and others. Furthermore, we clarify the relationships among the probability of a changing communication environment, the collision occurrence rate, and the PER of NES-SOURCE.

  6. Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)

  7. Passive wireless tags for tongue controlled assistive technology interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakibet, Osman O.; Horne, Robert J.; Kelly, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue control with low profile, passive mouth tags is demonstrated as a human–device interface by communicating values of tongue-tag separation over a wireless link. Confusion matrices are provided to demonstrate user accuracy in targeting by tongue position. Accuracy is found to increase dramatically after short training sequences with errors falling close to 1% in magnitude with zero missed targets. The rate at which users are able to learn accurate targeting with high accuracy indicates that this is an intuitive device to operate. The significance of the work is that innovative very unobtrusive, wireless tags can be used to provide intuitive human–computer interfaces based on low cost and disposable mouth mounted technology. With the development of an appropriate reading system, control of assistive devices such as computer mice or wheelchairs could be possible for tetraplegics and others who retain fine motor control capability of their tongues. The tags contain no battery and are intended to fit directly on the hard palate, detecting tongue position in the mouth with no need for tongue piercings. PMID:27222736

  8. Development of wireless vehicle remote control for fuel lid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, N.; Jadin, M. S.; Najib, M. S.; Mustafa, M.; Azmi, S. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of the vehicle technology had made the vehicle especially car to be equipped with a remote control to control the operation of the locking and unlocking system of the car’s door and rear’s bonnet. However, for the fuel or petrol lid, it merely can be opened from inside the car’s cabin by handling the fuel level inside the car’s cabin to open the fuel lid. The petrol lid can be closed by pushing the lid by hand. Due to the high usage of using fuel lever to open the fuel lid when refilling the fuel, the car driver might encounter the malfunction of fuel lid (fail to open) when pushing or pulling the fuel lever. Thus, the main aim of the research is to enhance the operation of an existing car remote control where the car fuel lid can be controlled using two techniques; remote control-based and smartphone-based. The remote control is constructed using Arduino microcontroller, wireless sensors and XCTU software to set the transmitting and receiving parameters. Meanwhile, the smartphone can control the operation of the fuel lid by communicating with Arduino microcontroller which is attached to the fuel lid using Bluetooth sensor to open the petrol lid. In order to avoid the conflict of instruction between wireless systems with the existing mechanical-based system, the servo motor will be employed to release the fuel lid merely after receiving the instruction from Arduino microcontroller and smartphone. As a conclusion, the prototype of the multipurpose vehicle remote control is successfully invented, constructed and tested. The car fuel lid can be opened either using remote control or smartphone in a sequential manner. Therefore, the outcome of the project can be used to serve as an alternative solution to solve the car fuel lid problem even though the problem rarely occurred.

  9. Cross-Layer Design of Source Rate Control and Congestion Control for Wireless Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-layer design has been used in streaming video over the wireless channels to optimize the overall system performance. In this paper, we extend our previous work on joint design of source rate control and congestion control for video streaming over the wired channel, and propose a cross-layer design approach for wireless video streaming. First, we extend the QoS-aware congestion control mechanism (TFRCC proposed in our previous work to the wireless scenario, and provide a detailed discussion about how to enhance the overall performance in terms of rate smoothness and responsiveness of the transport protocol. Then, we extend our previous joint design work to the wireless scenario, and a thorough performance evaluation is conducted to investigate its performance. Simulation results show that by cross-layer design of source rate control at application layer and congestion control at transport layer, and by taking advantage of the MAC layer information, our approach can avoid the throughput degradation caused by wireless link error, and better support the QoS requirements of the application. Thus, the playback quality is significantly improved, while good performance of the transport protocol is still preserved.

  10. Power Control and Coding Formulation for State Estimation with Wireless Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan; Ahlen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    efficient communication. In this paper, we examine the role of power control and coding for Kalman filtering over wireless correlated channels. Two estimation architectures are considered; initially, the sensors send their measurements directly to a single gateway (GW). Next, wireless relay nodes provide...... additional links. The GW decides on the coding scheme and the transmitter power levels of the wireless nodes. The decision process is carried out online and adapts to varying channel conditions to improve the tradeoff between state estimation accuracy and energy expenditure. In combination with predictive......Technological advances made wireless sensors cheap and reliable enough to be brought into industrial use. A major challenge arises from the fact that wireless channels introduce random packet dropouts. Power control and coding are key enabling technologies in wireless communications to ensure...

  11. Self-Learning Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2018-01-27

    Current trends in interconnecting myriad smart objects to monetize on Internet of Things applications have led to high-density communications in wireless sensor networks. This aggravates the already over-congested unlicensed radio bands, calling for new mechanisms to improve spectrum management and energy efficiency, such as transmission power control. Existing protocols are based on simplistic heuristics that often approach interference problems (i.e., packet loss, delay and energy waste) by increasing power, leading to detrimental results. The scope of this work is to investigate how machine learning may be used to bring wireless nodes to the lowest possible transmission power level and, in turn, to respect the quality requirements of the overall network. Lowering transmission power has benefits in terms of both energy consumption and interference. We propose a protocol of transmission power control through a reinforcement learning process that we have set in a multi-agent system. The agents are independent learners using the same exploration strategy and reward structure, leading to an overall cooperative network. The simulation results show that the system converges to an equilibrium where each node transmits at the minimum power while respecting high packet reception ratio constraints. Consequently, the system benefits from low energy consumption and packet delay.

  12. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication.

  13. Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks with Variable Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Chincoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive transmission power control schemes have been introduced in wireless sensor networks to adjust energy consumption under different network conditions. This is a crucial goal, given the constraints under which sensor communications operate. Power reduction may however have counterproductive effects to network performance. Yet, indiscriminate power boosting may detrimentally affect interference. We are interested in understanding the conditions under which coordinated power reduction may lead to better spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation and, thus, have beneficial effects on network performance. Through simulations, we analyze the performance of sensor nodes in an environment with variable interference. Then we study the relation between transmission power and communication efficiency, particularly in the context of Adaptive and Robust Topology (ART control, showing how appropriate power reduction can benefit both energy and spectrum efficiency. We also identify critical limitations in ART, discussing the potential of more cooperative power control approaches.

  14. Local, distributed topology control for large-scale wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this document, topology control of a large-scale, wireless network by a distributed algorithm that uses only locally available information is presented. Topology control algorithms adjust the transmission power of wireless nodes to create a desired topology. The algorithm, named local power

  15. Wireless sensing and vibration control with increased redundancy and robustness design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Luyu; Song, Gangbing; Yu, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Control systems with long distance sensor and actuator wiring have the problem of high system cost and increased sensor noise. Wireless sensor network (WSN)-based control systems are an alternative solution involving lower setup and maintenance costs and reduced sensor noise. However, WSN-based control systems also encounter problems such as possible data loss, irregular sampling periods (due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel), and the possibility of sensor breakdown (due to the increased complexity of the overall control system). In this paper, a wireless microcontroller-based control system is designed and implemented to wirelessly perform vibration control. The wireless microcontroller-based system is quite different from regular control systems due to its limited speed and computational power. Hardware, software, and control algorithm design are described in detail to demonstrate this prototype. Model and system state compensation is used in the wireless control system to solve the problems of data loss and sensor breakdown. A positive position feedback controller is used as the control law for the task of active vibration suppression. Both wired and wireless controllers are implemented. The results show that the WSN-based control system can be successfully used to suppress the vibration and produces resilient results in the presence of sensor failure.

  16. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Luis, Juan; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Alcina-Espigado, Javier; Teixido-Rovira, Pedro Miguel

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  17. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Luis, Juan; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Alcina-Espigado, Javier; Teixido-Rovira, Pedro Miguel

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management. PMID:29320466

  18. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  19. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  20. Wireless, smartphone controlled potentiostat integrated with lab-on-disc platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Zor, Kinga; Wang, Jen-Hung

    A smartphone controlled wireless data transmitting and inductive powering Power Lab-on-disc (PLoD) platform is developed based on 2.4 GHz Bluetooth and 205 kHz Qi techniques, respectively. A potentiostat is integrated on the PLoD platform, and amperometric measurements are performed. The wireless...

  1. Modernization Of Electrical Installation By Using Wireless Remote Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawlood M Al – Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Great benefits can be achieved by using wireless remote control in electrical wiring systems of buildings.     Probably the main advantage of this application is the drastic saving in wiring installations, which in turn will give higher reliability, safety and economy.     The idea of this application can be summarized in the following explanation. '' Instead off connecting each point of electrical system to individual switch by wires, a remote receiver can be situated in a place near to the point. The transmitter is used to operate the point remotely. The mains are connected to the receiver which will connect or disconnect the load as required. Many points can be connected to one receiver and can be operated by one or more transmitter.

  2. Development of a Wireless System for Monitoring and Control of a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian M. Durán-Acevedo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of a wireless communication technology through the ZigBee protocol, by implementing XBee S2B. Wireless communication was implemented on a wind turbine prototype (i.e. wind power generation in order to controlling variables automatically, such as: Direction of the wind, temperature, humidity and velocity engine. The XBee were conditioned using a Mega ADK Arduino card, which the signals generated were acquired by several sensors and subsequently sent wirelessly. The programming and monitoring of Arduino module with each of the variables was performed through Labview software. The study was also conducted in order to explore new technologies for wireless communication, which is useful in interoperable systems to monitor, control and automate different processes. As a result, the performance test with the wireless system was stable and data transmission was reliable.

  3. Design and Construction of Wireless Control System for Drilling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Su Moan Hsam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drilling machine is used for boring holes in various materials and used in woodworking metalworking construction and do-it-yourself projects. When the machine operate for a long time the temperature increases and so we need to control the temperature of the machine and some lubrication system need to apply to reduce the temperature. Due to the improvement of technology the system can be controlled with wireless network. This control system use Window Communication Foundation WCF which is the latest service oriented technology to control all drilling machines in industries simultaneously. All drilling machines are start working when they received command from server. After the machine is running for a long time the temperature is gradually increased. This system used LM35 temperature sensor to measure the temperature. When the temperature is over the safely level that is programmed in host server the controller at the server will command to control the speed of motor and applying some lubrication system at the tip and edges of drill. The command from the server is received by the client and sends to PIC. In this control system PIC microcontroller is used as an interface between the client computer and the machine. The speed of motor is controlled with PWM and water pump system is used for lubrication. This control system is designed and simulated with 12V DC motor LM35 sensor LCD displayand relay which is to open the water container to spray water between drill and work piece. The host server choosing to control the drilling machine that are overheat by selecting the clients IP address that is connected with that machine.

  4. The benefits of soft sensor and multi-rate control for the implementation of Wireless Networked Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, Raul K; Godoy, Eduardo P; Porto, Arthur J V

    2014-12-18

    Recent advances in wireless networking technology and the proliferation of industrial wireless sensors have led to an increasing interest in using wireless networks for closed loop control. The main advantages of Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCSs) are the reconfigurability, easy commissioning and the possibility of installation in places where cabling is impossible. Despite these advantages, there are two main problems which must be considered for practical implementations of WNCSs. One problem is the sampling period constraint of industrial wireless sensors. This problem is related to the energy cost of the wireless transmission, since the power supply is limited, which precludes the use of these sensors in several closed-loop controls. The other technological concern in WNCS is the energy efficiency of the devices. As the sensors are powered by batteries, the lowest possible consumption is required to extend battery lifetime. As a result, there is a compromise between the sensor sampling period, the sensor battery lifetime and the required control performance for the WNCS. This paper develops a model-based soft sensor to overcome these problems and enable practical implementations of WNCSs. The goal of the soft sensor is generating virtual data allowing an actuation on the process faster than the maximum sampling period available for the wireless sensor. Experimental results have shown the soft sensor is a solution to the sampling period constraint problem of wireless sensors in control applications, enabling the application of industrial wireless sensors in WNCSs. Additionally, our results demonstrated the soft sensor potential for implementing energy efficient WNCS through the battery saving of industrial wireless sensors.

  5. The Benefits of Soft Sensor and Multi-Rate Control for the Implementation of Wireless Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Mansano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networking technology and the proliferation of industrial wireless sensors have led to an increasing interest in using wireless networks for closed loop control. The main advantages of Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCSs are the reconfigurability, easy commissioning and the possibility of installation in places where cabling is impossible. Despite these advantages, there are two main problems which must be considered for practical implementations of WNCSs. One problem is the sampling period constraint of industrial wireless sensors. This problem is related to the energy cost of the wireless transmission, since the power supply is limited, which precludes the use of these sensors in several closed-loop controls. The other technological concern in WNCS is the energy efficiency of the devices. As the sensors are powered by batteries, the lowest possible consumption is required to extend battery lifetime. As a result, there is a compromise between the sensor sampling period, the sensor battery lifetime and the required control performance for the WNCS. This paper develops a model-based soft sensor to overcome these problems and enable practical implementations of WNCSs. The goal of the soft sensor is generating virtual data allowing an actuation on the process faster than the maximum sampling period available for the wireless sensor. Experimental results have shown the soft sensor is a solution to the sampling period constraint problem of wireless sensors in control applications, enabling the application of industrial wireless sensors in WNCSs. Additionally, our results demonstrated the soft sensor potential for implementing energy efficient WNCS through the battery saving of industrial wireless sensors.

  6. Dynamic power control for wireless backbone mesh networks: a survey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available points of failures, and robust against RF interference, obstacles or power outage. This is because WMRs forming wireless backbone mesh networks (WBMNs) are built on advanced physical technologies. Such nodes perform both accessing and forwarding...

  7. Defective plastic infection-control barriers and faulty technique may cause PSP plate contamination used in digital intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperstein, Arthur S

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-two disinfected photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates in plastic barrier envelopes were evaluated for contamination following placement in 30 study participants. Forty-four plates were acceptable for use in the study. The risk factor was the abundant oropharyngeal microbial flora and its ability to breach infection-control barrier sheaths. The presence of bacterial colonies on an agar plate was used to determine bacterial contamination and the presence of any growth indicated failure of the barrier envelope. Before clinical placement of the plates, quality review of the PSP plates revealed defects in the integrity of 4 barrier envelopes most likely caused by forceps-related damage or failure to achieve a uniform seal during manufacturing. These defects allowed substantial contamination. Contamination also occurred as a result of failure to extract the PSP plate from the barrier envelope cleanly. Of the 44 barriers with no obvious signs of a defect, 3 produced bacterial growth following culture. The authors concluded that digital sensor sheathed in barrier envelopes remain a potential source of contamination. PSP plates must be disinfected between removal from a contaminated barrier envelope (used in a patient) and placement in a new barrier envelope. In addition, placement into the barrier envelope should ideally be carried out under aseptic conditions. Finally, the integrity of each sealed barrier envelope must be verified visually. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Wireless Intelligent Control System for HPS Lamps and LEDs Combined Illumination in Road Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinxing; Qiu, Junling; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Yaqiong; Fan, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Because of the particularity of the environment in the tunnel, the rational tunnel illumination system should be developed, so as to optimize the tunnel environment. Considering the high cost of traditional tunnel illumination system with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as well as the effect of a single light source on tunnel entrance, the energy-saving illumination system with HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel, which could make full use of these two kinds of lamps, was proposed. The wireless intelligent control system based on HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination and microcontrol unit (MCU) Si1000 wireless communication technology was designed. And the remote monitoring, wireless communication, and PWM dimming module of this system were designed emphatically. Intensity detector and vehicle flow detector can be configured in wireless intelligent control system, which gather the information to the master control unit, and then the information is sent to the monitoring center through the Ethernet. The control strategies are got by the monitoring center according to the calculated results, and the control unit wirelessly sends parameters to lamps, which adjust the luminance of each segment of the tunnel and realize the wireless intelligent control of combined illumination in road tunnel. PMID:25587266

  9. Control Strategy for Vehicle Inductive Wireless Charging Based on Load Adaptive and Frequency Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging system for electric vehicles is a hot research issue in the world today. Since the existing research on wireless charging is mostly forward-looking aimed at low-power appliances like household appliances, while electric vehicles need a high-power, high-efficiency, and strong coupling wireless charging system. In this paper, we have specifically designed a 6.6 KW wireless charging system for electric vehicles and have proposed a control strategy suitable for electric vehicles according to its power charging characteristics and existing common wired charging protocol. Firstly, the influence of the equivalent load and frequency bifurcation on a wireless charging system is analyzed in this paper. Secondly, an adaptive load control strategy matching the characteristics of the battery, and the charging pile is put forward to meet the constant current and constant voltage charging requirements to improve the system efficiency. In addition, the frequency adjustment control strategy is designed to realize the real-time dynamic optimization of the entire system. It utilizes the improved methods of rapid judgment, variable step length matching and frequency splitting recognition, which are not adopted in early related researches. Finally, the results of 6.6 kW test show that the control strategy works perfectly since system response time can be reduced to less than 1 s, and the overall efficiency of the wireless charging system and the grid power supply module can reach up to 91%.

  10. Stabilization of a Wireless Networked Control System with Packet Loss and Time Delay: An ADS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization problem of a wireless networked control system is considered in this paper. Both time delay and packet loss exist simultaneously in the wireless network. The system is modeled as an asynchronous dynamic system (ADS with unstable subsystems. A sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Wireless power transfer: control algorithm to transfer the maximum power

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Urbano, Javier Arturo

    2016-01-01

    This job is developed as part of “Health aware enhanced range wireless power transfer systems", known as ETHER. It is a cooperation project where Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC) research groups are mainly involved. ETHER objective is to develop a wireless power transfer system for medical applications, specifically a pacemaker charger to improve patient’s lifestyle decreasing the number of required operations to replace pacemaker batter...

  12. A Uniform Voltage Gain Control for Alignment Robustness in Wireless EV Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabiao Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of wireless power transfer is sensitive to the horizontal and vertical distances between the transmitter and receiver coils due to the magnetic coupling change. To address the output voltage variation and efficiency drop caused by misalignment, a uniform voltage gain frequency control is implemented to improve the power delivery and efficiency of wireless power transfer under misalignment. The frequency is tuned according to the amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics of coupling variations in order to maintain a uniform output voltage in the receiver coil. Experimental comparison of three control methods, including fixed frequency control, resonant frequency control, and the proposed uniform gain control was conducted and demonstrated that the uniform voltage gain control is the most robust method for managing misalignment in wireless charging applications.

  13. Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Aeindra Myint Lwin; Zaw Min Min Htun; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research presents the microcontroller controlled smart living room system using Bluetooth wireless technology from mobile phone.An android apk is created in mobile for controlling the living room system. A 16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a bluetooth module transceiver. It is used for controlling fan speed control dim light control lighting ONOFF and window angle control. An arduino controller is used for keypad control door security. It is connected to DC motor...

  14. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... coils, receiving coils and compensation capacitors, the wireless power transmission system is designed to be resonant when it is operating at the rated power, with the aim to achieve the optimum transmission system efficiency. Simulation and experimental results of the hierarchical control...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  15. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  16. Self-learning power control in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Current trends in interconnecting myriad smart objects to monetize on Internet of Things applications have led to high-density communications in wireless sensor networks. This aggravates the already over-congested unlicensed radio bands, calling for new mechanisms to improve spectrum management and

  17. Transmission power control for wireless home and building automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchiani, C.

    2015-01-01

    Home and building automation can provide significant improvements in comfort and energy efficiency of buildings. However, its diffusion is hindered by the complexity of installation and maintenance. Wireless connectivity can simplify this process, reducing installation time and cost, but it requires

  18. Medium Access Control in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon

    Focusing on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that are powered by energy harvesting, this dissertation focuses on energy-efficient communication links between senders and receivers that are alternating between active and sleeping states of operation. In particular, the focus lies on Medium Access...

  19. Independent motion control of a tower crane through wireless sensor and actuator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumboulis, Fotis N; Kouvakas, Nikolaos D; Giannaris, George L; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The problem of independent control of the performance variables of a tower crane through a wireless sensor and actuator network is investigated. The complete nonlinear mathematical model of the tower crane is developed. Based on appropriate data driven norms an accurate linear approximant of the system, including an upper bound of the communication delays, is derived. Using this linear approximant, a dynamic measurable output multi delay controller for independent control of the performance outputs of the system is proposed. The controller performs satisfactory despite the nonlinearities of the model and the communication delays of the wireless network. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Joint Design of Control and Power Efficiency in Wireless Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a joint design method for wireless networked control system (WNCS to balance both the demands of network service and the control performance. Since the problems of power consumption, communication reliability, and system stability exist simultaneously and interdependently in WNCS, most of the achieved results in the wireless network and wired networked control system cannot be used directly. To coordinate the three problems, sampling period is found to be the linking bridge. An adaptive sampling power efficiency algorithm is proposed to manage the power consumption such that it can meet the demands of network life span. The sampling period is designed to update periodically on the constraints of network schedulability and system stability. The convergence of the power efficiency algorithm is further proved. The sampling period is no longer a fixed value, however; thus, increasing the difficulty in modeling and controlling such a complicated time-varying system remains. In this work, a switched control system scheme is applied to model such a WNCS, and the effect of network-induced delay is considered. Switched feedback controllers are introduced to stabilize the WNCS, and some considerations on stability condition and the bounds of the update circle for renewing sampling period are discussed. A numerical example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Wireless Industrial Monitoring and Control Networks: The Journey So Far and the Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Havinga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While traditional wired communication technologies have played a crucial role in industrial monitoring and control networks over the past few decades, they are increasingly proving to be inadequate to meet the highly dynamic and stringent demands of today’s industrial applications, primarily due to the very rigid nature of wired infrastructures. Wireless technology, however, through its increased pervasiveness, has the potential to revolutionize the industry, not only by mitigating the problems faced by wired solutions, but also by introducing a completely new class of applications. While present day wireless technologies made some preliminary inroads in the monitoring domain, they still have severe limitations especially when real-time, reliable distributed control operations are concerned. This article provides the reader with an overview of existing wireless technologies commonly used in the monitoring and control industry. It highlights the pros and cons of each technology and assesses the degree to which each technology is able to meet the stringent demands of industrial monitoring and control networks. Additionally, it summarizes mechanisms proposed by academia, especially serving critical applications by addressing the real-time and reliability requirements of industrial process automation. The article also describes certain key research problems from the physical layer communication for sensor networks and the wireless networking perspective that have yet to be addressed to allow the successful use of wireless technologies in industrial monitoring and control networks.

  2. Stability Analysis of Wireless Measurement and Control System Based on Dynamic Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian SONG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on data packet loss and time delay problems in wireless greenhouse measurement and control system, and temperature and humidity were taken as the research objects, the model of temperature and humidity information transmission was set up by decoupling technology according to the characteristics of wireless greenhouse measurement and control system. According to related theory of exponential stability in network control system, the stability conditions judgment of temperature and humidity control model was established, the linear matrix inequality that time delay and packet loss should satisfy was obtained when wireless measurement and control system was stable operation. The feasibility analysis of linear matrix inequality (LMI was implemented Using LMI toolbox in MATLAB, and the critical values of time delay and packet loss rate were obtained when the system was stable operation. The wireless sensor network control system simulation model with time delay and packet loss was set up using TrueTime toolbox. The simulation results have shown that the system was in a stable state when time delay and packet loss rate obtained were less than the critical values in wireless greenhouse sensor network measurement and control system; With the increase of time delay and packet loss rate, and stable performance drops; When time delay and packet loss rate obtained were more than the critical values, the measurement and control system would be in a state of flux, and when it was serious, even can lead to collapse of the whole system. As a result, the critical values determination of time delay and packet loss rate provided a theoretical basis for establishing stable greenhouse wireless sensor network (WSN measurement and control system in practical application.

  3. Enhancing the versatility of wireless biopotential acquisition for myoelectric prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercich, Rebecca A; Wang, Zhi; Mei, Henry; Hammer, Lauren H; Seburn, Kevin L; Hargrove, Levi J; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2016-08-01

    A significant challenge in rehabilitating upper-limb amputees with sophisticated, electric-powered prostheses is sourcing reliable and independent channels of motor control information sufficient to precisely direct multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously. In response to the expressed needs of clinicians, we have developed a miniature, batteryless recording device that utilizes emerging integrated circuit technology and optimal impedance matching for magnetic resonantly coupled (MRC) wireless power transfer to improve the performance and versatility of wireless electrode interfaces with muscle. In this work we describe the fabrication and performance of a fully wireless and batteryless EMG recording system and use of this system to direct virtual and electric-powered limbs in real-time. The advantage of using MRC to optimize power transfer to a network of wireless devices is exhibited by EMG collected from an array of eight devices placed circumferentially around a human subject's forearm. This is a comprehensive, low-cost, and non-proprietary solution that provides unprecedented versatility of configuration to direct myoelectric prostheses without wired connections to the body. The amenability of MRC to varied coil geometries and arrangements has the potential to improve the efficiency and robustness of wireless power transfer links at all levels of upper-limb amputation. Additionally, the wireless recording device's programmable flash memory and selectable features will grant clinicians the unique ability to adapt and personalize the recording system's functional protocol for patient- or algorithm-specific needs.

  4. Enhancing the versatility of wireless biopotential acquisition for myoelectric prosthetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercich, Rebecca A.; Wang, Zhi; Mei, Henry; Hammer, Lauren H.; Seburn, Kevin L.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. A significant challenge in rehabilitating upper-limb amputees with sophisticated, electric-powered prostheses is sourcing reliable and independent channels of motor control information sufficient to precisely direct multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously. Approach. In response to the expressed needs of clinicians, we have developed a miniature, batteryless recording device that utilizes emerging integrated circuit technology and optimal impedance matching for magnetic resonantly coupled (MRC) wireless power transfer to improve the performance and versatility of wireless electrode interfaces with muscle. Main results. In this work we describe the fabrication and performance of a fully wireless and batteryless EMG recording system and use of this system to direct virtual and electric-powered limbs in real-time. The advantage of using MRC to optimize power transfer to a network of wireless devices is exhibited by EMG collected from an array of eight devices placed circumferentially around a human subject’s forearm. Significance. This is a comprehensive, low-cost, and non-proprietary solution that provides unprecedented versatility of configuration to direct myoelectric prostheses without wired connections to the body. The amenability of MRC to varied coil geometries and arrangements has the potential to improve the efficiency and robustness of wireless power transfer links at all levels of upper-limb amputation. Additionally, the wireless recording device’s programmable flash memory and selectable features will grant clinicians the unique ability to adapt and personalize the recording system’s functional protocol for patient- or algorithm-specific needs.

  5. Performance in wireless networks and industrial wireless networks on control processes in real time under industrial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Monsalve-Posada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of Ethernet networks on the industrial automation pyramid has led many companies to develop new devices to operate in requirements of this level, nowadays it is called Industrial Ethernet network, on the market there are various sensors and actuators to industrial scale equipped with this technology, many of these devices are very expensive. In this paper, the performance of two wireless networks is evaluated, the first network has conventional Ethernet devices, and the second network has Industrial Ethernet devices. For the process we vary four parameters such as distance, number of bytes, the signal to noise ratio, and the packet error rate, and then we measure delays and compare with metric statistics results, Box Plot graphs were used for the analysis. Finally, we conclude that under the parameters and conditions tested, wireless networks can serve as a communication system in control applications with allowable delays of up to 50 ms, in addition, the results show a better performance of Industrial Ethernet networks over conventional networks, with differences in the RTT of milliseconds. Therefore, it is recommended to establish what risk is for the process to control these delays to determine if the equipment conventional applies, since under certain features like humidity and temperature can operate properly for a considerable time and at lower cost than devices to Industrial Ethernet.

  6. Wireless Sensor Network Congestion Control Based on Standard Particle Swarm Optimization and Single Neuron PID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xueying; Xia, Riting; Qian, Zhihong

    2018-04-19

    Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm⁻neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller. Finally, the standard particle swarm optimization to neural PID (NPID) algorithm of initial values of proportion, integral and differential parameters and neuron learning rates were used for online optimization. This paper describes experiments and simulations which show that the PNPID algorithm effectively stabilized queue length near the expected value. At the same time, network performance, such as throughput and packet loss rate, was greatly improved, which alleviated network congestion and improved network QoS.

  7. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Bo, E-mail: yebo@hubu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002 (China); Sun, Zhen-jun [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo, Lin [School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Deng, Chao [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Ya-qi [Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhang, Hong-hai [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Sheng [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application. - Highlights: • A new magnetic control method for spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope is proposed. • Wireless capsule endoscope rotates synchronously with external permanent magnet. • The method controls the wireless capsule endoscope well in porcine small intestine. • Long control distance makes the method may be used in future medical application. • Experimental setup has great advantages: high cost performance and easy operation.

  8. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  9. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  10. Range based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). In this paper, researchers present a range based dynamic power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint Unified...

  11. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  12. Congestion control in wireless links based on selective delivery of erroneous packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, congestion control in packet networks is performed by reducing the transmission rate when congestion is detected, in order to cut down the traffic that overwhelms the capacity of the network. However, if the bottleneck is a wireless link, congestion is often cumulated because...... the performance of the proposed mechanism against traditional congestion control with a simulation study. The results show that the proposed approach can improve the overall performance both by increasing the throughput over the wireless and improving the video quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR...

  13. Receiver-Assisted Congestion Control to Achieve High Throughput in Lossy Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Shu, Yantai; Yang, Oliver; Luo, Jiarong

    2010-04-01

    Many applications would require fast data transfer in high-speed wireless networks nowadays. However, due to its conservative congestion control algorithm, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) cannot effectively utilize the network capacity in lossy wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a receiver-assisted congestion control mechanism (RACC) in which the sender performs loss-based control, while the receiver is performing delay-based control. The receiver measures the network bandwidth based on the packet interarrival interval and uses it to compute a congestion window size deemed appropriate for the sender. After receiving the advertised value feedback from the receiver, the sender then uses the additive increase and multiplicative decrease (AIMD) mechanism to compute the correct congestion window size to be used. By integrating the loss-based and the delay-based congestion controls, our mechanism can mitigate the effect of wireless losses, alleviate the timeout effect, and therefore make better use of network bandwidth. Simulation and experiment results in various scenarios show that our mechanism can outperform conventional TCP in high-speed and lossy wireless environments.

  14. The Intraoral Ultrasonography in Dentistry | Caglayan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraoral USG is also used in dentistry for examining the salivary glands and ducts, as well as the mouth floor, the buccal, labial, and palatal mucosa, the tongue, periodontal tissues, and periapical lesions. The main purpose of this review is to provide detailed information about intraoral USG applications in dentistry.

  15. Constant voltage and constant current control implementation for electric vehicles (evs) wireless charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Marojahan; Pamungkas, Laskar; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chiu, Huang Jen

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of Constant Voltage (CV) and Constant Current (CC) control for a wireless charger system. A battery charging system needs these control modes to ensure the safety of the battery and the effectiveness of the charging system. Here, the wireless charger system does not employ any post-regulator stage to control the output voltage and output current of the charger. But, it uses a variable frequency control incorporated with a conventional PI control. As a result, the size and the weight of the system are reduced. This paper discusses the brief review of the SS-WPT, control strategy and implementation of the CV and CC control. Experimental hardware with 2kW output power has been performed and tested. The results show that the proposed CV and CC control method works well with the system.

  16. Modeling and Model Predictive Power and Rate Control of Wireless Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunwu Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel power and rate control system model for wireless communication networks is presented, which includes uncertainties, input constraints, and time-varying delays in both state and control input. A robust delay-dependent model predictive power and rate control method is proposed, and the state feedback control law is obtained by solving an optimization problem that is derived by using linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques. Simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  18. Receiver-initiated medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental building blocks of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, that part of the system governing when and how two independent neighboring nodes activate their respective transceivers to directly interact. Historically, data exchange has always...

  19. A hybrid medium access control for convergence of broadband wireless and wireline ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid medium access control protocol for supporting broadband integrated services in the wireless ATM networks. The integrated services include CBR, VBR and ABR traffic varying from low bit-rate to very high bit-rate. The proposed protocol is an excellent compromise...

  20. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  1. Design Aspects of An Energy-Efficient, Lightweight Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the most relevant design aspects of the lightweight medium access control (LMAC) protocol [16] for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). These aspects include selfconfiguring and localized operation of the protocol, time synchronization in multi-hop networks, network

  2. Network preservation through a topology control algorithm for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aron, FO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to the wireless infrastructure-based networks. The benefits of WMN deployments, however, come with certain challenges e.g., power management. While focussing on WMN applications in rural areas, this paper explains the need for transmit power consumption control...

  3. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C

    2014-07-01

    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FPGA implementation of a ZigBee wireless network control interface to transmit biomedical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez López, M. A.; Goy, C. B.; Bolognini, P. C.; Herrera, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, cardiac hemodynamic monitors have incorporated new technologies based on wireless sensor networks which can implement different types of communication protocols. More precisely, a digital conductance catheter system recently developed adds a wireless ZigBee module (IEEE 802.15.4 standards) to transmit cardiac signals (ECG, intraventricular pressure and volume) which would allow the physicians to evaluate the patient's cardiac status in a noninvasively way. The aim of this paper is to describe a control interface, implemented in a FPGA device, to manage a ZigBee wireless network. ZigBee technology is used due to its excellent performance including simplicity, low-power consumption, short-range transmission and low cost. FPGA internal memory stores 8-bit signals with which the control interface prepares the information packets. These data were send to the ZigBee END DEVICE module that receives and transmits wirelessly to the external COORDINATOR module. Using an USB port, the COORDINATOR sends the signals to a personal computer for displaying. Each functional block of control interface was assessed by means of temporal diagrams. Three biological signals, organized in packets and converted to RS232 serial protocol, were sucessfully transmitted and displayed in a PC screen. For this purpose, a custom-made graphical software was designed using LabView.

  5. FPGA implementation of a ZigBee wireless network control interface to transmit biomedical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, M A Gómez; Goy, C B; Bolognini, P C; Herrera, M C

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, cardiac hemodynamic monitors have incorporated new technologies based on wireless sensor networks which can implement different types of communication protocols. More precisely, a digital conductance catheter system recently developed adds a wireless ZigBee module (IEEE 802.15.4 standards) to transmit cardiac signals (ECG, intraventricular pressure and volume) which would allow the physicians to evaluate the patient's cardiac status in a noninvasively way. The aim of this paper is to describe a control interface, implemented in a FPGA device, to manage a ZigBee wireless network. ZigBee technology is used due to its excellent performance including simplicity, low-power consumption, short-range transmission and low cost. FPGA internal memory stores 8-bit signals with which the control interface prepares the information packets. These data were send to the ZigBee END DEVICE module that receives and transmits wirelessly to the external COORDINATOR module. Using an USB port, the COORDINATOR sends the signals to a personal computer for displaying. Each functional block of control interface was assessed by means of temporal diagrams. Three biological signals, organized in packets and converted to RS232 serial protocol, were successfully transmitted and displayed in a PC screen. For this purpose, a custom-made graphical software was designed using LabView.

  6. Regulation control and energy management scheme for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.

    2015-12-29

    Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit. The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.

  7. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pawlowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results.

  8. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Andrzej; Guzman, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Francisco; Berenguel, Manuel; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results. PMID:22389597

  9. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  10. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  11. Intraoral frostbite and Leidenfrost effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, V C; Saravanakarthikeyan, B

    2018-04-21

    Current lifestyle trends encouraging the rise in use of liquid nitrogen in food and beverages may eventually increase the episodes of injuries reported as well. Here, we report the first case of intraoral frostbite as a result of direct injury to the tissues due to ingestion of liquid nitrogen. The mechanism of injury to the oral mucosa in the absence of any injury to the gastric mucosa is explained correlating it to the Leidenfrost phenomenon. Awareness and proper regulations for the use of liquid nitrogen are unavailable and must be created in order to avoid any potential mortality. The diagnostician must consider the possibility of a chemical agent such as liquid nitrogen, which is so widely being used in the food and beverage industry, as a possible aetiological factor of oral mucosal injury. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Distributed control for energy-efficient and fast consensus in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Sabato; Tucci, Edmondo Di

    2017-05-01

    The paper proposes a distributed control of nodes transmission radii in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks for simultaneously coping with energy consumption and consensus responsiveness requirement. The stability of the closed-loop network under the proposed control law is proved. Simulation validations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in nominal scenario as well as in the presence of uncertain node power requirements and harvesting system supply.

  13. Research on wireless remote control scheme for the water source well of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Bao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wired electrical control method is applicable to simple control for the short-distance industrial equipment, but it is not suitable for the water source well of uranium mines requiring remote control. A kind of wireless remote control system based on high-speed radio modem communication technology was presented for the water source wells of a uranium mine, and the water source wells can be remotely controlled with the system. The component, implementation and characteristics of the control system are introduced. (authors)

  14. Software-Based Wireless Power Transfer Platform for Various Power Control Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Han Hwang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a software-based wireless power transfer platform that enables the development of a prototype involving various open- and closed-loop power control functions. Our platform is based on a loosely coupled planar wireless power transfer circuit that uses a class-E power amplifier. In conjunction with this circuit, we implement flexible control functions using a National Instruments Data Acquisition (NI DAQ board and algorithms in the MATLAB/Simulink. To verify the effectiveness of our platform, we conduct two types of power-control experiments: a no-load or metal detection using open-loop power control, and an output voltage regulation for different receiver positions using closed-loop power control. The use of the MATLAB/Simulink software as a part of the planar wireless power transfer platform for power control experiments is shown to serve as a useful and inexpensive alternative to conventional hardware-based platforms.

  15. A NEW PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAJME TANZADE PANAH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of various applications in the domain of wireless sensor networks, the tendency to use wireless sensors has gradually increased in different applications. On the other hand, diverse traffic with different priorities generated by these sensors requires providing adaptive quality of services based on users` needs. In this paper, a congestion control predictor model is proposed for wireless sensor networks, which considers parameters like network energy consumption, packet loss rate and percentage of delivered high and medium priority packets to the destination. This method consists of congestion prevention, congestion control, and energy control plans using shortest path selection algorithm. In the congestion prevention plan, congestion is prevented by investigating the queues length. In the congestion control plan, the congestion is controlled by reducing the transmission rate. Finally, the energy control plan aims to partially balance the energy of nodes to prevent network failures due to node energy outage. Simulation results indicated that the proposed method has a higher efficiency regarding the aforementioned parameters. In addition, comparisons with other well-known methods showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Dynamic Contention Window Control Scheme in IEEE 802.11e EDCA-Based Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, B. A. Hirantha Sithira; Matsuda, Takahiro; Takine, Tetsuya

    In the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, access points (APs) are given the same priority as wireless terminals in terms of acquiring the wireless link, even though they aggregate several downlink flows. This feature leads to a serious throughput degradation of downlink flows, compared with uplink flows. In this paper, we propose a dynamic contention window control scheme for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA-based wireless LANs, in order to achieve fairness between uplink and downlink TCP flows while guaranteeing QoS requirements for real-time traffic. The proposed scheme first determines the minimum contention window size in the best-effort access category at APs, based on the number of TCP flows. It then determines the minimum and maximum contention window sizes in higher priority access categories, such as voice and video, so as to guarantee QoS requirements for these real-time traffic. Note that the proposed scheme does not require any modification to the MAC protocol at wireless terminals. Through simulation experiments, we show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  17. Cognitive radio networks medium access control for coexistence of wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Kaigui; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of the medium access control (MAC) principles in cognitive radio networks, with a specific focus on how such MAC principles enable different wireless systems to coexist in the same spectrum band and carry out spectrum sharing.  From algorithm design to the latest developments in the standards and spectrum policy, readers will benefit from leading-edge knowledge of how cognitive radio systems coexist and share spectrum resources.  Coverage includes cognitive radio rendezvous, spectrum sharing, channel allocation, coexistence in TV white space, and coexistence of heterogeneous wireless systems.   • Provides a comprehensive reference on medium access control (MAC)-related problems in the design of cognitive radio systems and networks; • Includes detailed analysis of various coexistence problems related to medium access control in cognitive radio networks; • Reveals novel techniques for addressing the challenges of coexistence protocol design at a higher level ...

  18. Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Ouyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of sensor nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a sensor network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for wireless sensor networks.

  19. Intraoral scanning systems - a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M; Mehl, A; Mörmann, W H; Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt today about the possibilities and potential of digital impression-taking with the aid of intraoral optical impression systems, and the past few years have seen a considerable increase in the range of optical intraoral scanners available on the market. On the strength of numerous innovations and a wider range of indications in orthodontics and implantology, intraoral scanning systems appear to be a highly promising development for the future. Digital impression-taking with intraoral scanners has already shown itself in some respects to be clearly superior to conventional impression- taking. Particularly worthy of mention is the versatile integration of digital impressions into diagnostic and treatment concepts to provide a customizable healthcare solution for the patient. It remains exciting to look forward to future developments that will allow us to observe digital impression-taking--as with other digital applications already established in everyday life--becoming firmly established in the routine of dentistry and dental technology. This article presents an overview of the benefits and limitations of digital impression-taking using intraoral scanning systems, and includes a summary of all the relevant intraoral scanners available on the market at present.

  20. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging

  1. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  2. Integrated wireless sensor network and real time smart controlling and monitoring system for efficient energy management in standalone photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Thabt, A.; Helmy, S.; Kashf, Y.; Hadad, Y.; Tarique, M.; Abo-Elnor, Ossama

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, wireless sensor network and smart real-time controlling and monitoring system are integrated for efficient energy management of standalone photovoltaic system. The proposed system has two main components namely the monitoring and controlling system and the wireless communication system. LabView software has been used in the implementation of the monitoring and controlling system. On the other hand, ZigBee wireless modules have been used to implement the wireless system. The main functions of monitoring and controlling unit is to efficiently control the energy consumption form the photovoltaic system based on accurate determination of the periods of times at which the loads are required to be operated. The wireless communication system send the data from the monitoring and controlling unit to the loads at which desired switching operations are performed. The wireless communication system also continuously feeds the monitoring and controlling unit with updated input data from the sensors and from the photovoltaic module send to calculate and record the generated, the consumed, and the stored energy to apply load switching saving schemes if necessary. It has to be mentioned that our proposed system is a low cost and low power system because and it is flexible to be upgraded to fulfill additional users' requirements.

  3. Wireless Control of Miniaturized Mobile Vehicle for Indoor Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saquib, Syed M Taha; Hameed, Sarmad; Jafri, Raza; Usman Ali, Syed M; Amin, Imran

    2013-01-01

    This work is based upon electronic automation and Smart Control techniques, which constitute the basis of Control Area Network (CAN) and Personal Area Network (PAN). Bluetooth technology has been interfaced with a programmable controller to provide multi-dimensional vehicle control. A network is proposed which contains a remote, mobile host controller and an android operating system based mobile set (Client). The client communicates with a host controller through a Bluetooth device. The system incorporates duplex communication after successful confirmation between the host and the client; the android based mobile unit controls the vehicle through the Bluetooth module

  4. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols,...

  5. Adaptive Duty-Cycling to Enhance Topology Control Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Myungsu; Kim, Mihui; Kim, Dongsoo S.; Choo, Hyunseung

    2014-01-01

    To prolong the network lifetime, various scheduling approaches that schedule wireless devices of nodes to switch between active and sleep states have been studied. Topology control schemes are one of the scheduling approaches that can extend the network lifetime and reduce the additional communication delays at the same time. However, they do not guarantee that all nodes have the same lifetime. They reduce the network coverage and prevent seamless communications. This paper proposes an adapti...

  6. Smart Control of Multiple Evaporator Systems with Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar González-Potes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete integration of a fuzzy control of multiple evaporator systems with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, in which we study several important aspects for this kind of system, like a detailed analysis of the end-to-end real-time flows over wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN, a real-time kernel with an earliest deadline first (EDF scheduler, periodic and aperiodic tasking models for the nodes, lightweight and flexible compensation-based control algorithms for WSAN that exhibit packet dropouts, an event-triggered sampling scheme and design methodologies. We address the control problem of the multi-evaporators with the presence of uncertainties, which was tackled through a wireless fuzzy control approach, showing the advantages of this concept where it can easily perform the optimization for a set of multiple evaporators controlled by the same smart controller, which should have an intelligent and flexible architecture based on multi-agent systems (MAS that allows one to add or remove new evaporators online, without the need for reconfiguring, while maintaining temporal and functional restrictions in the system. We show clearly how we can get a greater scalability, the self-configuration of the network and the least overhead with a non-beacon or unslotted mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, as well as wireless communications and distributed architectures, which could be extremely helpful in the development process of networked control systems in large spatially-distributed plants, which involve many sensors and actuators. For this purpose, a fuzzy scheme is used to control a set of parallel evaporator air-conditioning systems, with temperature and relative humidity control as a multi-input and multi-output closed loop system; in addition, a general architecture is presented, which implements multiple control loops closed over a communication network, integrating the analysis and validation method for multi

  7. A comparison of the accuracy of intraoral scanners using an intraoral environment simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Nan; Lim, Young-Jun; Yi, Won-Jin; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to design an intraoral environment simulator and to assess the accuracy of two intraoral scanners using the simulator. A box-shaped intraoral environment simulator was designed to simulate two specific intraoral environments. The cast was scanned 10 times by Identica Blue (MEDIT, Seoul, South Korea), TRIOS (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark), and CS3500 (Carestream Dental, Georgia, USA) scanners in the two simulated groups. The distances between the left and right canines (D3), first molars (D6), second molars (D7), and the left canine and left second molar (D37) were measured. The distance data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The differences in intraoral environments were not statistically significant ( P >.05). Between intraoral scanners, statistically significant differences ( P Kruskal-Wallis test with regard to D3 and D6. No difference due to the intraoral environment was revealed. The simulator will contribute to the higher accuracy of intraoral scanners in the future.

  8. Accuracy of five intraoral scanners compared to indirect digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Runkel, Cornelius; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel; Keul, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Direct and indirect digitalization offer two options for computer-aided design (CAD)/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-generated restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different intraoral scanners and compare them to the process of indirect digitalization. A titanium testing model was directly digitized 12 times with each intraoral scanner: (1) CS 3500 (CS), (2) Zfx Intrascan (ZFX), (3) CEREC AC Bluecam (BLU), (4) CEREC AC Omnicam (OC) and (5) True Definition (TD). As control, 12 polyether impressions were taken and the referring plaster casts were digitized indirectly with the D-810 laboratory scanner (CON). The accuracy (trueness/precision) of the datasets was evaluated by an analysing software (Geomagic Qualify 12.1) using a "best fit alignment" of the datasets with a highly accurate reference dataset of the testing model, received from industrial computed tomography. Direct digitalization using the TD showed the significant highest overall "trueness", followed by CS. Both performed better than CON. BLU, ZFX and OC showed higher differences from the reference dataset than CON. Regarding the overall "precision", the CS 3500 intraoral scanner and the True Definition showed the best performance. CON, BLU and OC resulted in significantly higher precision than ZFX did. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of the ascertained datasets was dependent on the scanning system. The direct digitalization was not superior to indirect digitalization for all tested systems. Regarding the accuracy, all tested intraoral scanning technologies seem to be able to reproduce a single quadrant within clinical acceptable accuracy. However, differences were detected between the tested systems.

  9. Wireless Sensor Network Congestion Control Based on Standard Particle Swarm Optimization and Single Neuron PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xueying; Xia, Riting; Qian, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm–neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller. Finally, the standard particle swarm optimization to neural PID (NPID) algorithm of initial values of proportion, integral and differential parameters and neuron learning rates were used for online optimization. This paper describes experiments and simulations which show that the PNPID algorithm effectively stabilized queue length near the expected value. At the same time, network performance, such as throughput and packet loss rate, was greatly improved, which alleviated network congestion and improved network QoS. PMID:29671822

  10. Integrated Wireless Monitoring and Control System in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Haji Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational processes of the Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane desalination plants require continuous monitoring through the constant attendance of operators to ensure proper productivity and minimize downtime and prevent membrane failure. Therefore, the plant must be equipped with a control system that monitors and controls the operational variables. Monitoring and controlling the affecting parameters are critical to the evaluation of the performance of the desalination plant, which will help the operator find and resolve problems immediately. Therefore, this paper was aimed at developing an RO unit by utilizing a wireless sensor network (WSN system. Hence, an RO pilot plant with a feed capacity of 1.2 m3/h was utilized, commissioned, and tested in Kuwait to assess and verify the performance of the integrated WSN in RO membrane desalination system. The investigated system allowed the operators to remotely monitor the operational process of the RO system. The operational data were smoothly recorded and monitored. Furthermore, the technical problems were immediately determined, which reduced the time and effort in rectifying the technical problems relevant to the RO performance. The manpower requirements of such treatment system were dramatically reduced by about 50%. Based on a comparison between manual and wireless monitoring operational processes, the availability of the integrated RO unit with a wireless monitoring was increased by 10%

  11. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Rocha, Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da, E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (PPGEB/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UNIR/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unidade de Imagem e Radioterapia; Almeida, Claudio Domingues de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods: Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipment. The data related to the equipment was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results: Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipment do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipment, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. (author)

  12. Dynamics of the congestion control model in underwater wireless sensor networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Tao; Hu, Wenjie; Liao, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a congestion control model in underwater wireless sensor network with time delay is considered. First, the boundedness of the positive equilibrium, where the samples density is positive for each node and the different event flows coexist, is investigated, which implies that the samples density of sensor node cannot exceed the Environmental carrying capacity. Then, by considering the time delay can be regarded as a bifurcating parameter, the dynamical behaviors, which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation, are investigated. It is found that when the communication time delay passes a critical value, the system loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs, which means the underwater wireless sensor network will be congested, even collapsed. Furthermore, the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, some numerical examples are finally performed to verify the theoretical results.

  13. An Interference-Aware Admission Control Design for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikantan Shila Devu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present IAC, an interference aware admission control algorithm for use in wireless mesh networks. The core concept of IAC is to use a low overhead dual threshold based approach to share the bandwidth information with its neighbors in the interfering range. As a result, IAC guarantees that the shared wireless bandwidth is not overutilized and the quality of all existing flows are preserved. Moreover, IAC takes into account the intraflow interference effect to estimate the bandwidth consumption of the flow in a multihop path. We have further proposed two approaches of bandwidth allocation, FCFS and MCU, and demonstrated that proper tuning of thresholds can lead to high performance of both schemes. Simulation results illustrate that IAC effectively limits the overutilization of channel resources which in turn results in high throughput, low delay and low packet loss rate for all admitted flows.

  14. Design and Control of a 3 kW Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a 3 kW wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles. First, the LCL-LCL topology and LC-LC series topology are analyzed, and their transfer efficiencies under the same transfer power are compared. The LC-LC series topology is validated to be more efficient than the LCL-LCL topology and thus is more suitable for the system design. Then a novel q-Zsource-based online power regulation method which employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source is proposed. By controlling the shoot-through state of the H Bridge, the charging current can be adjusted, and hence, transfer power. Finally, a prototype is implemented, which can transfer 3 kW wirelessly with ~95% efficiency over a 20 cm transfer distance.

  15. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Grid Communications: Cyber Attacks, Intrusion Detection System and Topology Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Chhaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are small micro electrical mechanical systems that are deployed to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.

  16. Wireless implantable chip with integrated nitinol-based pump for radio-controlled local drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jeffrey; Xiao, Zhiming; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-02-21

    We demonstrate an active, implantable drug delivery device embedded with a microfluidic pump that is driven by a radio-controlled actuator for temporal drug delivery. The polyimide-packaged 10 × 10 × 2 mm(3) chip contains a micromachined pump chamber and check valves of Parylene C to force the release of the drug from a 76 μL reservoir by wirelessly activating the actuator using external radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The rectangular-shaped spiral-coil actuator based on nitinol, a biocompatible shape-memory alloy, is developed to perform cantilever-like actuation for pumping operation. The nitinol-coil actuator itself forms a passive 185 MHz resonant circuit that serves as a self-heat source activated via RF power transfer to enable frequency-selective actuation and pumping. Experimental wireless operation of fabricated prototypes shows successful release of test agents from the devices placed in liquid and excited by radiating tuned RF fields with an output power of 1.1 W. These tests reveal a single release volume of 219 nL, suggesting a device's capacity of ~350 individual ejections of drug from its reservoir. The thermal behavior of the activated device is also reported in detail. This proof-of-concept prototype validates the effectiveness of wireless RF pumping for fully controlled, long-lasting drug delivery, a key step towards enabling patient-tailored, targeted local drug delivery through highly miniaturized implants.

  17. Ubiquitous Wireless Smart Sensing and Control. Pumps and Pipes JSC: Uniquely Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Need new technologies to reliably and safely have humans interact within sensored environments (integrated user interfaces, physical and cognitive augmentation, training, and human-systems integration tools).Areas of focus include: radio frequency identification (RFID), motion tracking, wireless communication, wearable computing, adaptive training and decision support systems, and tele-operations. The challenge is developing effective, low cost/mass/volume/power integrated monitoring systems to assess and control system, environmental, and operator health; and accurately determining and controlling the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the areas and associated environmental control systems.

  18. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  19. Wearable wireless User Interface Cursor-Controller (UIC-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Nicholas; Kerr, Kevin; Aranda, Ricardo; Hickey, Richard; Esmailbeigi, Hananeh

    2017-07-01

    Controlling a computer or a smartphone's cursor allows the user to access a world full of information. For millions of people with limited upper extremities motor function, controlling the cursor becomes profoundly difficult. Our team has developed the User Interface Cursor-Controller (UIC-C) to assist the impaired individuals in regaining control over the cursor. The UIC-C is a hands-free device that utilizes the tongue muscle to control the cursor movements. The entire device is housed inside a subject specific retainer. The user maneuvers the cursor by manipulating a joystick imbedded inside the retainer via their tongue. The joystick movement commands are sent to an electronic device via a Bluetooth connection. The device is readily recognizable as a cursor controller by any Bluetooth enabled electronic device. The device testing results have shown that the time it takes the user to control the cursor accurately via the UIC-C is about three times longer than a standard computer mouse controlled via the hand. The device does not require any permanent modifications to the body; therefore, it could be used during the period of acute rehabilitation of the hands. With the development of modern smart homes, and enhancement electronics controlled by the computer, UIC-C could be integrated into a system that enables individuals with permanent impairment, the ability to control the cursor. In conclusion, the UIC-C device is designed with the goal of allowing the user to accurately control a cursor during the periods of either acute or permanent upper extremities impairment.

  20. Stationary intraoral tomosynthesis for dental imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscoe, Christina R.; Wu, Gongting; Soulioti, Danai E.; Platin, Enrique; Mol, Andre; Gaalaas, Laurence R.; Anderson, Michael R.; Tucker, Andrew W.; Boyce, Sarah; Shan, Jing; Gonzales, Brian; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent advances in dental radiography, the diagnostic accuracies for some of the most common dental diseases have not improved significantly, and in some cases remain low. Intraoral x-ray is the most commonly used x-ray diagnostic tool in dental clinics. It however suffers from the typical limitations of a 2D imaging modality including structure overlap. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) uses high radiation dose and suffers from image artifacts and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of developing a stationary intraoral tomosynthesis (s-IOT) using spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray array technology, and to evaluate its diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional 2D intraoral x-ray. A bench-top s-IOT device was constructed using a linear CNT based X-ray source array and a digital intraoral detector. Image reconstruction was performed using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Studies were performed to optimize the imaging configuration. For evaluation of s-IOT's diagnostic accuracy, images of a dental quality assurance phantom, and extracted human tooth specimens were acquired. Results show s-IOT increases the diagnostic sensitivity for caries compared to intraoral x-ray at a comparable dose level.

  1. Wireless Power Control for Tactical MANET: Power Rate Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    J; P. Hande; T. Lan; C. W. Tan [2008] Power Control in Cellular Networks, Now Publishers Inc., Hanover, MA. 12. Chaves, Fabiano de Sousa; F. R. P...Asymptotically Fast Convergence, IEEE Selected Areas in Communications, 18(3). 36. Jian, Tao; Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos; Georgios B. Giannakis [2003] Kalman...Power Control and Its Imperfections in CDMA Cellular Systems, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technologies, 48, pages 1706–1777. 75. Tan , Chee Wei

  2. Wireless Intelligent Monitoring and Control System of Greenhouse Temperature Based on Fuzzy-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei ZHAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Control effect is not ideal for traditional control method and wired control system, since greenhouse temperature has such characteristics as nonlinear and longtime lag. Therefore, Fuzzy- PID control method was introduced and radio frequency chip CC1110 was applied to design greenhouse wireless intelligent monitoring and control system. The design of the system, the component of nodes and the developed intelligent management software system were explained in this paper. Then describe the design of the control algorithm Fuzzy-PID. By simulating the new method in Matlab software, the results showed that Fuzzy-PID method small overshoot and better dynamic performance compared with general PID control. It has shorter settling time and no steady-state error compared with fuzzy control. It can meet requirements in greenhouse production.

  3. Assessment of wireless Sensor Networks for Digital Instrument and Control System at Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomma, R.I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems play a crucial role in the operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The most important task of I and C systems is to ensure safety, availability, and performance of the plant. The advanced generation of NPP design is expected to have the higher degree of automation; consequently, it requires new solutions in both sensing technologies and digital control. In general, the world’s nuclear power fleet is relying on the progress of digital electronics and information technology, to create incentives for integrated replacement of traditional analog electronics with novel digital I and C systems that rely on wireless technology. Moreover, as the domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) increases its market share in many industrial, health, and critical applications, it has matured significantly. As a result, the barriers to the nuclear industry entry will surely continue to decrease further. Nowadays, several WSN deployments for on-line monitoring of the nuclear environment have been recently addressed by incremental and experimental networks. Furthermore, upon tightening new regulations, the demand for using smart wireless sensing for safety, and surveillance applications of nuclear installations are growing rapidly. The first part of this thesis describes the design of a practical small-scale WSN that allows smart real-time monitoring of radiation levels at nuclear facilities. A wireless system combined with a radiation sensor and associated peripherals been developed and implemented on ZigBee technology using the TI CC2530 chip. The radiation sensor uses a Geiger Muller Tube (GMT) as a reliable detector for the radioactive particulates in the gaseous effluent vented from nuclear facilities. The WSN allows the operators to record and control the radiation levels emitted into the environment, and it is supported by a warning system, for the early detection of radiation release. We evaluated the performance of the radiation

  4. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  5. A wirelessly controlled implantable LED system for deep brain optogenetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A.; Go, Vinson; Murphy, Tracy; Fu, Quanhai; Morizio, James; Yin, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years optogenetics has rapidly become an essential technique in neuroscience. Its temporal and spatial specificity, combined with efficacy in manipulating neuronal activity, are especially useful in studying the behavior of awake behaving animals. Conventional optogenetics, however, requires the use of lasers and optic fibers, which can place considerable restrictions on behavior. Here we combined a wirelessly controlled interface and small implantable light-emitting diode (LED) that allows flexible and precise placement of light source to illuminate any brain area. We tested this wireless LED system in vivo, in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in striatonigral neurons expressing D1-like dopamine receptors. In all mice tested, we were able to elicit movements reliably. The frequency of twitches induced by high power stimulation is proportional to the frequency of stimulation. At lower power, contraversive turning was observed. Moreover, the implanted LED remains effective over 50 days after surgery, demonstrating the long-term stability of the light source. Our results show that the wireless LED system can be used to manipulate neural activity chronically in behaving mice without impeding natural movements. PMID:25713516

  6. A Wireless Capsule Endoscope System With Low-Power Controlling and Processing ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinkai Chen; Xiaoyu Zhang; Linwei Zhang; Xiaowen Li; Nan Qi; Hanjun Jiang; Zhihua Wang

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule endoscope system. The proposed system is mainly composed of a CMOS image sensor, a RF transceiver and a low-power controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Several design challenges involving system power reduction, system miniaturization and wireless wake-up method are resolved by employing optimized system architecture, integration of an area and power efficient image compression module, a power management unit (PMU) and a novel wireless wake-up subsystem with zero standby current in the ASIC design. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS technology with a die area of 3.4 mm * 3.3 mm. The digital baseband can work under a power supply down to 0.95 V with a power dissipation of 1.3 mW. The prototype capsule based on the ASIC and a data recorder has been developed. Test result shows that proposed system architecture with local image compression lead to an average of 45% energy reduction for transmitting an image frame.

  7. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevaa Katiravan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  8. Evaluation of the Beam Quality of Intraoral X-ray Equipment using Intraoral Standard Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Sub; Kwon, Hyok Rak; Sim, Woo Hyoun; Oh, Seung Hyoun; Lee, Ji Youn; Jeon, Kug Jin; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2000-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment used at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (YUDH) using the half value layer (HVL) and the characteristic curve of intraoral standard X-ray film. The study was done using the intraoral X-ray equipment used at each clinical department at YUDH. Aluminum filter was used to determine the HVL. Intraoral standard film was used to get the characteristic curve of each intraoral X-ray equipment. Most of the HVLs of intraoral X-ray equipment were higher than the least recommended thickness, but the REX 601 model used at the operative dentistry department and the X-707 model used at the pediatric dentistry department had HVLs lower than the recommended thickness. The slopes of the characteristic curves of films taken using the PANPAS 601 model and REX 601 model at operative dentistry department, the X-70S model of prosthodontic dentistry department, and the REX 601 model at the student clinic were relatively low. HVL and the characteristic curve of X-ray film can be used to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment. In order to get the best X-ray films with the least radiation exposure to patients and best diagnostic information in clinical dentistry, X-ray equipment should be managed in the planned and organized fashion.

  9. Virus spreading in wireless sensor networks with a medium access control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ya-Qi; Yang Xiao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an extended version of standard susceptible-infected (SI) model is proposed to consider the influence of a medium access control mechanism on virus spreading in wireless sensor networks. Theoretical analysis shows that the medium access control mechanism obviously reduces the density of infected nodes in the networks, which has been ignored in previous studies. It is also found that by increasing the network node density or node communication radius greatly increases the number of infected nodes. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. (general)

  10. Data driven transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio; Di Fatta, G.; Fortino, G.; Li, W.; Pathan, M.; Stahl, F.; Guerrieri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Power Control (TPC) is employed in the sensor nodes with the main objective of minimizing transmission power consumption. However, major drawbacks with well-known TPC are time consuming and energy inefficient initialization phase. Moreover, they employ Received Signal Strength Indicator

  11. A Wireless Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    operate /tune the proposed controller and maintain WSN after reasonable training Feedback from CERL facility staff/ managemen t on ease of operation and...26 4.2 FACILITY/SITE LOCATION AND OPERATIONS ...HVAC RETROFITS ...................................................................................................... 36 5.4 OPERATIONAL TESTING

  12. Accuracy of intraoral digital impressions using an artificial landmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Amelya, Ami; Shin, Yooseok; Shim, June-Sung

    2017-06-01

    Intraoral scanners have been reported to have limited accuracy in edentulous areas. Large amounts of mobile tissue and the lack of obvious anatomic landmarks make it difficult to acquire a precise digital impression of an edentulous area with an intraoral scanner. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of an artificial landmark on a long edentulous space on the accuracy outcomes of intraoral digital impressions. A mandibular model containing 4 prepared teeth and an edentulous space of 26 mm in length was used. A blue-light light-emitting diode tabletop scanner was used as a control scanner, and 3 intraoral scanners were used as experimental groups. Five scans were made using each intraoral scanner without an artificial landmark, and another 5 scans were performed after application of an artificial landmark (a 4×3 mm alumina material) on the edentulous area. The obtained datasets were used to evaluate trueness and precision. Without an artificial landmark on the edentulous area, the mean trueness for the intraoral scanner ranged from 36.1 to 38.8 μm and the mean precision ranged from 13.0 to 43.6 μm. With an artificial landmark on the edentulous area, accuracy was improved significantly: the mean trueness was 26.7 to 31.8 μm, and the mean precision was 9.2 to 12.4 μm. The use of an alumina artificial landmark in an edentulous space improved the trueness and precision of the intraoral scanners tested. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  14. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well.

  15. 21 CFR 872.4130 - Intraoral dental drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental drill. 872.4130 Section 872.4130...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4130 Intraoral dental drill. (a) Identification. An intraoral dental drill is a rotary device intended to be attached to a dental handpiece to drill holes in...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  17. Prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper-Jones, L; Aldred, M; Walker, D M

    1980-01-01

    An imprint culture technique has been employed to study the prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in 16 patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in 16 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and dental status. The prevalence and intraoral density of C. albicans was found to be significantly higher at almost all sites in the Sjögren's patients than in the controls. The distribution of candida was also altered, being significantly higher in the floor of the mouth and anterior lab...

  18. Wireless Sensing Based on RFID and Capacitive Technologies for Safety in Marble Industry Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Iacopetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wireless sensing systems to increase safety and robustness in industrial process control, particularly in industrial machines for marble slab working. The process is performed by abrasive or cutting heads activated independently by the machine controller when the slab, transported on a conveyer belt, is under them. Current slab detection systems are based on electromechanical or optical devices at the machine entrance stage, suffering from deterioration and from the harsh environment. Slab displacement or break inside the machine due to the working stress may result in safety issues and damages to the conveyer belt due to incorrect driving of the working tools. The experimented contactless sensing techniques are based on four RFID and two capacitive sensing technologies and on customized hardware/software. The proposed solutions aim at overcoming some limitations of current state-of-the-art detection systems, allowing for reliable slab detection, outside and/or inside the machine, while maintaining low complexity and at the same time robustness to industrial harsh conditions. The proposed sensing devices may implement a wireless or wired sensor network feeding detection data to the machine controller. Data integrity check and process control algorithms have to be implemented for the safety and reliability of the overall industrial process.

  19. An Asynchronous Multi-Sensor Micro Control Unit for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsing Luo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an asynchronous multi-sensor micro control unit (MCU core is proposed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs. It consists of asynchronous interfaces, a power management unit, a multi-sensor controller, a data encoder (DE, and an error correct coder (ECC. To improve the system performance and expansion abilities, the asynchronous interface is created for handshaking different clock domains between ADC and RF with MCU. To increase the use time of the WBSN system, a power management technique is developed for reducing power consumption. In addition, the multi-sensor controller is designed for detecting various biomedical signals. To prevent loss error from wireless transmission, use of an error correct coding technique is important in biomedical applications. The data encoder is added for lossless compression of various biomedical signals with a compression ratio of almost three. This design is successfully tested on a FPGA board. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 2.68-K gate counts and consumes power 496-μW at 133-MHz processing rate by using TSMC 0.13-μm CMOS process. Compared with the previous techniques, this work offers higher performance, more functions, and lower hardware cost than other micro controller designs.

  20. A Novel Topology Control Approach to Maintain the Node Degree in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Topology control is an important technique to improve the connectivity and the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs by means of adjusting the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a novel Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (FTC is proposed to achieve any desired average node degree by adaptively changing communication range, thus improving the network connectivity, which is the main target of FTC. FTC is a fully localized control algorithm, and does not rely on location information of neighbors. Instead of designing membership functions and if-then rules for fuzzy-logic controller, FTC is constructed from the training data set to facilitate the design process. FTC is proved to be accurate, stable and has short settling time. In order to compare it with other representative localized algorithms (NONE, FLSS, k-Neighbor and LTRT, FTC is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that: firstly, similar to k-Neighbor algorithm, FTC is the best to achieve the desired average node degree as node density varies; secondly, FTC is comparable to FLSS and k-Neighbor in terms of energy-efficiency, but is better than LTRT and NONE; thirdly, FTC has the lowest average maximum communication range than other algorithms, which indicates that the most energy-consuming node in the network consumes the lowest power.

  1. A novel topology control approach to maintain the node degree in dynamic wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanjiang; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández; Sendra, Juana

    2014-03-07

    Topology control is an important technique to improve the connectivity and the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) by means of adjusting the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a novel Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (FTC) is proposed to achieve any desired average node degree by adaptively changing communication range, thus improving the network connectivity, which is the main target of FTC. FTC is a fully localized control algorithm, and does not rely on location information of neighbors. Instead of designing membership functions and if-then rules for fuzzy-logic controller, FTC is constructed from the training data set to facilitate the design process. FTC is proved to be accurate, stable and has short settling time. In order to compare it with other representative localized algorithms (NONE, FLSS, k-Neighbor and LTRT), FTC is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that: firstly, similar to k-Neighbor algorithm, FTC is the best to achieve the desired average node degree as node density varies; secondly, FTC is comparable to FLSS and k-Neighbor in terms of energy-efficiency, but is better than LTRT and NONE; thirdly, FTC has the lowest average maximum communication range than other algorithms, which indicates that the most energy-consuming node in the network consumes the lowest power.

  2. Cross-Layer QoS Control for Video Communications over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Assuming a wireless ad hoc network consisting of homogeneous video users with each of them also serving as a possible relay node for other users, we propose a cross-layer rate-control scheme based on an analytical study of how the effective video transmission rate is affected by the prevailing operating parameters, such as the interference environment, the number of transmission hops to a destination, and the packet loss rate. Furthermore, in order to provide error-resilient video delivery over such wireless ad hoc networks, a cross-layer joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach, to be used in conjunction with rate-control, is proposed and investigated. This approach attempts to optimally apply the appropriate channel coding rate given the constraints imposed by the effective transmission rate obtained from the proposed rate-control scheme, the allowable real-time video play-out delay, and the prevailing channel conditions. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cross-layer combined rate-control and JSCC approach.

  3. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  4. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  5. Design of automatic curtain controlled by wireless based on single chip 51 microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dafeng; Chen, Xiaoning

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the wireless control of the domestic intelligent curtains, a set of wireless intelligent curtain control system based on 51 single chip microcomputer have been designed in this paper. The intelligent curtain can work in the manual mode, automatic mode and sleep mode and can be carried out by the button and mobile phone APP mode loop switch. Through the photosensitive resistance module and human pyroelectric infrared sensor to collect the indoor light value and the data whether there is the person in the room, and then after single chip processing, the motor drive module is controlled to realize the positive inversion of the asynchronous motor, the intelligent opening and closing of the curtain have been realized. The operation of the motor can be stopped under the action of the switch and the curtain opening and closing and timing switch can be controlled through the keys and mobile phone APP. The optical fiber intensity, working mode, curtain state and system time are displayed by LCD1602. The system has a high reliability and security under practical testing and with the popularity and development of smart home, the design has broad market prospects.

  6. Data Collection Method for Mobile Control Sink Node in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a mobile control sink node data collection method in the wireless sensor network based on compressive sensing. This method, with regular track, selects the optimal data collection points in the monitoring area via the disc method, calcu-lates the shortest path by using the quantum genetic algorithm, and hence determines the data collection route. Simulation results show that this method has higher network throughput and better energy efficiency, capable of collecting a huge amount of data with balanced energy consumption in the network.

  7. Power-Constrained Fuzzy Logic Control of Video Streaming over a Wireless Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Rouzbeh; Fleury, Martin; Ghanbari, Mohammed

    2008-12-01

    Wireless communication of video, with Bluetooth as an example, represents a compromise between channel conditions, display and decode deadlines, and energy constraints. This paper proposes fuzzy logic control (FLC) of automatic repeat request (ARQ) as a way of reconciling these factors, with a 40% saving in power in the worst channel conditions from economizing on transmissions when channel errors occur. Whatever the channel conditions are, FLC is shown to outperform the default Bluetooth scheme and an alternative Bluetooth-adaptive ARQ scheme in terms of reduced packet loss and delay, as well as improved video quality.

  8. A Monitoring and Control System for Aquaculture via Wireless Network and Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Web applications, databases and advanced mobile platform can facilitate real-time data acquisition for effective monitoring on intelligent agriculture. To improve facilities for aquaculture production automation and efficient, this paper presents an application for wireless network and Android platform that interacts with an advanced control system based on Apache, SQL Server, Java, to collect and monitor variables applied in aquaculture. The test and application shows that is stable, high price-performance ratio, good mobility and easy to operate, It has a strong practicality and application prospects.

  9. Assistance System for Disabled People: A Robot Controlled by Blinking and Wireless Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Val, Lara; Jiménez, María I.; Alonso, Alonso; de La Rosa, Ramón; Izquierdo, Alberto; Carrera, Albano

    Disabled people already profit from a lot of technical assistance that improves their quality of life. This article presents a system which will allow interaction between a physically disabled person and his environment. This system is controlled by voluntary muscular movements, particularly those of face muscles. These movements will be translated into machine-understandable instructions, and they will be sent by means of a wireless link to a mobile robot that will execute them. Robot includes a video camera, in order to show the user the environment of the route that the robot follows. This system gives a greater personal autonomy to people with reduced mobility.

  10. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of the effect two different low-level laser therapies (LLLT)--intraoral and extraoral--on trismus and facial swelling following surgical extraction of the lower third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Mutan Hamdi; Güngörmüş, Metin

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of extraoral and intraoral low-level laser therapies (LLLT) on postoperative trismus and oedema following the removal of mandibular third molars. Forty-eight patients who were to undergo surgical removal of their lower third molars were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: extraoral LLLT, intraoral LLLT, or placebo. In the study, a Ga-Al-As diode laser device with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm was used, and the laser therapy was applied by using a 1 x 3-cm handpiece. The flat-top laser beam profile was used in this therapy. For both of the LLLT groups, laser energy was applied at 100 mW (0.1 W) for a total of 120 s (0.1 W x 120 s = 12 J). Patients in the extraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation, and the laser was applied at the insertion point of the masseter muscle immediately after the operation. Patients in the intraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation intraorally at the operation site 1 cm from the target tissue. In the placebo group (n = 16), the handpiece was inserted intraorally at the operation site and then was touched extraorally to the masseter muscle for 1 min at each site (120 s total), but the laser was not activated. The size of the interincisal opening and facial swelling were evaluated on the second and seventh postoperative days. At the second postoperative day, trismus (29.0 +/- 7.6 mm [p = 0.010]) and swelling (105.3 +/- 5.0 mm [p = 0.047]) in the extraoral-LLLT group were significantly less than in the placebo group (trismus: 21.1 +/- 7.6 mm, swelling: 109.1 +/- 4.4 mm). Trismus (39.6 +/- 9.0 mm [p = 0.002]) in the extraoral-LLLT group at the seventh postoperative day was also significantly less than in the placebo group (29.0 +/- 6.2 mm). However, at the seventh postoperative day in the intraoral-LLLT group, only trismus (35.6 +/- 8.5 [p = 0.002]) was significantly less than

  11. Intraoral Morgellons disease or delusional parasitosis: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovigi, Allan J

    2010-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a new emerging disease that is still controversial and believed to be, by some practitioners, as nothing more than delusional parasitosis. The Center for Disease Control has recently launched an epidemiological investigation into this disease due to the increased number of reports. A first case is reported of an oral lesion and symptoms consistent with Morgellons disease. The nature of the characteristic fibers associated with the intraoral lesion is investigated. Research has started at a number of institutions to elucidate the nature of this emerging disease.

  12. Molecular inspired models for prediction and control of directional FSO/RF wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Jaime; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2010-08-01

    Directional wireless networks using FSO and RF transmissions provide wireless backbone support for mobile communications in dynamic environments. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of such networks challenges their robustness and requires self-organization mechanisms to assure end-to-end broadband connectivity. We developed a framework based on the definition of a potential energy function to characterize robustness in communication networks and the study of first and second order variations of the potential energy to provide prediction and control strategies for network performance optimization. In this paper, we present non-convex molecular potentials such as the Morse Potential, used to describe the potential energy of bonds within molecules, for the characterization of communication links in the presence of physical constraints such as the power available at the network nodes. The inclusion of the Morse Potential translates into adaptive control strategies where forces on network nodes drive the release, retention or reconfiguration of communication links for network performance optimization. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our self-organized control mechanism, where the physical topology reorganizes to maximize the number of source to destination communicating pairs. Molecular Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) techniques for assessing network performance degradation in dynamic networks are also presented. Preliminary results show correlation between peaks in the eigenvalues of the Hessian of the network potential and network degradation.

  13. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  14. Inductively powered wireless pacing via a miniature pacemaker and remote stimulation control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Parinaz; Abiri, Ahmad; Packard, René R Sevag; Ding, Yichen; Yousefi, Alireza; Ma, Jianguo; Bersohn, Malcolm; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Markovic, Dejan; Moloudi, Shervin; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2017-07-21

    Pacemakers have existed for decades as a means to restore cardiac electrical rhythms. However, lead-related complications have remained a clinical challenge. While market-released leadless devices have addressed some of the issues, their pacer-integrated batteries cause new health risks and functional limitations. Inductive power transfer enables wireless powering of bioelectronic devices; however, Specific Absorption Rate and size limitations reduce power efficiency for biomedical applications. We designed a remote-controlled system in which power requirements were significantly reduced via intermittent power transfer to control stimulation intervals. In parallel, the cardiac component was miniaturized to facilitate intravascular deployment into the anterior cardiac vein. Given size constraints, efficiency was optimal via a circular receiver coil wrapped into a half-cylinder with a meandering tail. The pacemaker was epicardially tested in a euthanized pig at 60 beats per minute, 2 V amplitude, and 1 ms pulse width, restoring mean arterial pressure from 0 to 37 mmHg. Power consumption was 1 mW at a range of > 3 cm with no misalignment and at 2 cm with 45° displacement misalignment, 45° x-axis angular misalignment, or 45° y-axis angular misalignment. Thus, we demonstrated a remote-controlled miniaturized pacing system with low power consumption, thereby providing a basis for the next generation of wireless implantable devices.

  15. Control of plasma density distribution via wireless power transfer in an inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Young-Cheol; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    With an enlargement of the wafer size, development of large-area plasma sources and control of plasma density distribution are required. To control the spatial distribution of the plasma density, wireless power transfer is applied to an inductively coupled plasma for the first time. An inner powered antenna and an outer resonant coil connected to a variable capacitor are placed on the top of the chamber. As the self-resonance frequency ω r of the resonant coil is adjusted, the power transfer rate from the inner powered coil to the outer resonant coil is changed and the dramatic evolution of the plasma density profile is measured. As ω r of the outer resonant coil changes from the non-resonant condition (where ω r is not the driving angular frequency ω rf ) to the resonant condition (where ω r = ω rf ), the plasma density profile evolves from a convex shape with maximal plasma density at the radial center into a concave shape with maximal plasma density in the vicinity of the resonant antenna coil. This result shows that the plasma density distribution can be successfully controlled via wireless resonance power transfer. (fast track communication)

  16. Joint Utility-Based Power Control and Receive Beamforming in Decentralized Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Feistel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of joint resource allocation in general wireless networks and its practical implementation aspects. The objective is to allocate transmit powers and receive beamformers to the users in order to maximize a network-wide utility that represents the attained QoS and is a function of the signal-to-interference ratios. This problem is much more intricate than the corresponding QoS-based power control problem. In particular, it is not known which class of utility functions allows for a convex formulation of this problem. In case of perfect synchronization, the joint power and receiver control problem can be reformulated as a power control problem under optimal receivers. Standard gradient projection methods can be applied to solve this problem. However, these algorithms are not applicable in decentralized wireless networks. Therefore, we decompose the problem and propose a convergent alternate optimization that is amenable to distributed implementation. In addition, in real-world networks noisy measurements and estimations occur. Thus, the proposed algorithm has to be investigated in the framework of stochastic approximation. We discuss practical implementation aspects of the proposed stochastic algorithm and investigate its convergence properties by simulations.

  17. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfu Mo

    Full Text Available In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET, the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  18. Stochastic Power Control for Time-Varying Long-Term Fading Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Charalambos D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new time-varying (TV long-term fading (LTF channel model which captures both the space and time variations of wireless systems is developed. The proposed TV LTF model is based on a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion. This model is more realistic than the static models usually encountered in the literature. It allows viewing the wireless channel as a dynamical system, thus enabling well-developed tools of adaptive and nonadaptive estimation and identification techniques to be applied to this class of problems. In contrast with the traditional models, the statistics of the proposed model are shown to be TV, but converge in steady state to their static counterparts. Moreover, optimal power control algorithms (PCAs based on the new model are proposed. A centralized PCA is shown to reduce to a simple linear programming problem if predictable power control strategies (PPCS are used. In addition, an iterative distributed stochastic PCA is used to solve for the optimization problem using stochastic approximations. The latter solely requires each mobile to know its received signal-to-interference ratio. Generalizations of the power control problem based on convex optimization techniques are provided if PPCS are not assumed. Numerical results show that there are potentially large gains to be achieved by using TV stochastic models, and the distributed stochastic PCA provides better power stability and consumption than the distributed deterministic PCA.

  19. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  20. An efficient transmission power control scheme for temperature variation in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwook; Chung, Kwangsue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  1. Decentralized Control of Unmanned Aerial Robots for Wireless Airborne Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cooperative control strategy for a team of aerial robotic vehicles to establish wireless airborne communication networks between distributed heterogeneous vehicles. Each aerial robot serves as a flying mobile sensor performing a reconfigurable communication relay node which enabls communication networks with static or slow-moving nodes on gorund or ocean. For distributed optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles for communication networks, an adaptive hill-climbing type decentralized control algorithm is developed to seek out local extremum for optimal localization of the vehicles. The sensor networks estabilished by the decentralized cooperative control approach can adopt its configuraiton in response to signal strength as the function of the relative distance between the autonomous aerial robots and distributed sensor nodes in the sensed environment. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed decentralized cooperative control technique for robust communication networks.

  2. An Efficient Transmission Power Control Scheme for Temperature Variation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwook Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  3. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  4. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  5. Sub-1GHz wireless sensing and control instruments for green house farming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardana, I. N. K.; Ciptayani, P. I.; Suranata, I. W. A.

    2018-01-01

    Radio frequency enabled devices was developed to make the data gathering and instruments control process become wirelessly possible for greenhouse. This research used 915 MHz radio frequency band, which is also known as ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) band. To accomplish the experiments, three main devices was developed. They are node sensors (NoSe), node actuators (NoAc), and gateway. According to communication range test, the devices can transmit flawlessly up to 43 meters in harsh environment (Non-Line of Sight or Non-LoS). The result was increased dramatically in an open field (Line of Sight or LoS ) with maximum range that can be achieved is up to 280 meters. The RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) for LoS and Non-LoS measurements were recorded. The number of transmitted data was approximately 500 samples and transferred approximately every 200 ms. In Non-Los scenario, RSSI ranged from -74 dB to -96 dB with average -82 dB. The better performance was shown in LoS measurement that is RSSI varied from -67 dB to -89 dB with average -76 dB. Based on that results, this technology have a great prospect as an option to greenhouse wireless sensing and controlling technology.

  6. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapojuwo Abraham O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  7. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  8. Robust Drones Formation Control in 5G Wireless Sensor Network Using mmWave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The drones formation control in 5G wireless sensor network is discussed. The base station (BS is used to receive backhaul position signals from the lead drone in formation and launches the beam to the lead one as the fronthaul flying signal enhancement. It is a promising approach to raise the formation strength of drones during flight control. The BS can transform the direction of the antennas and transmit energy to the lead drone that could widely enlarge the number of the receivers and increase the transmission speed of the data links. The millimeter-Wave (mmWave communication system offers new opportunities to meet this requirement owing to the tremendous amount of available spectrums. However, the massive non-line-of-sight (NLoS transmission and the site constraints in urban environment are severely challenging the conventional deploying terrestrial low power nodes (LPNs. Simulation experiments have been performed to verify the availability and effectiveness of mmWave in 5G wireless sensor network.

  9. A Reinforcement Sensor Embedded Vertical Handoff Controller for Vehicular Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication platforms that provide real-time access to wireless networks have drawn more and more attention in recent years. IEEE 802.11p is the main radio access technology that supports communication for high mobility terminals, however, due to its limited coverage, IEEE 802.11p is usually deployed by coupling with cellular networks to achieve seamless mobility. In a heterogeneous cellular/802.11p network, vehicular communication is characterized by its short time span in association with a wireless local area network (WLAN. Moreover, for the media access control (MAC scheme used for WLAN, the network throughput dramatically decreases with increasing user quantity. In response to these compelling problems, we propose a reinforcement sensor (RFS embedded vertical handoff control strategy to support mobility management. The RFS has online learning capability and can provide optimal handoff decisions in an adaptive fashion without prior knowledge. The algorithm integrates considerations including vehicular mobility, traffic load, handoff latency, and network status. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm can adaptively adjust the handoff strategy, allowing users to stay connected to the best network. Furthermore, the algorithm can ensure that RSUs are adequate, thereby guaranteeing a high quality user experience.

  10. Performance Evaluation of TDMA Medium Access Control Protocol in Cognitive Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Enes Bayrakdar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio paradigm has been revealed as a new communication technology that shares channels in wireless networks. Channel assignment is a crucial issue in the field of cognitive wireless networks because of the spectrum scarcity. In this work, we have evaluated the performance of TDMA medium access control protocol. In our simulation scenarios, primary users and secondary users utilize TDMA as a medium access control protocol. We have designed a network environment in Riverbed simulation software that consists of primary users, secondary users, and base stations. In our system model, secondary users sense the spectrum and inform the base station about empty channels. Then, the base station decides accordingly which secondary user may utilize the empty channel. Energy detection technique is employed as a spectrum sensing technique because it is the best when information about signal of primary user is acquired. Besides, different number of users is selected in simulation scenarios in order to obtain accurate delay and throughput results. Comparing analytical model with simulation results, we have shown that performance analysis of our system model is consistent and accurate.

  11. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  12. Truncated power control for improving TCP/IP performance over CDMA wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee; De Sanctis, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques...... in enhancing TCP/IP performance depends on the tradeoff between frame transmission delay and residual errors after retransmissions. The paper shows how a truncated power control can be effectively applied to improve that tradeoff so that a higher transmission reliability is provided without increasing...... the frame transmission delay through the radio link layer and without increasing the energy consumption. An analytical framework has been developed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power control. The analytical results, which are carried out assuming a constant multiuser...

  13. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  14. Supervision and control system for greenhouses using wireless network sensors; Sistema de supervisao e controle para casas de vegetacao empregando rede 'wireless' de sensores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Ivo Reis; Cagnon, Jose Angelo; Rodrigues, Ricardo Martini [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: ivo@feb.unesp.br, e-mail: martini@feb.unesp.br, e-mail: jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work had as objective the configuration of a supervision and control system for greenhouses applications using a system of data collection of control parameters through a wireless communication network. In agreement with the adopted methodology, its development was accomplished in three different phases. Initially the hardware modules for a Sensors Unit, a Data Concentrator Unit and a capacitive type soil moisture sensor were developed. Soon afterwards an application was configured through a SCADA supervision and control program, the Ellipse PRO, dedicated to the supervision and control of a green house. In the final phase the necessary data were collected for the training of an artificial neural network that is integral part of the humidity sensor. The Sensors Unit and the Data Concentrator Unit were developed starting from microcontrollers of low consumption and high performance and presents excellent cost/benefit relationship. These units are used in the acquisition and data storage of in comings from several sensors applied in the installation. In order to eliminate the inconveniences of a system that uses nets of electric cables connections links of RF was used, with pattern of message of the protocol MODBUS/RTU, for the communication among these units. The application developed through the Ellipse FOR is composed of a group of screens that represents in a virtual way the complete green house environment. Through these screens the operator can alter the operation state of each one of the elements involved in the irrigation and climatization control process. According the cost characteristics, operation flexibility and existent functionality this system represents a solution economically viable in the automation green houses. It can be affirmed that this configuration represents an innovative solution and that can contribute in much for the improvement of cultivated species as well as to provide the necessary ways for the rational use of the

  15. Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeindra Myint Lwin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research presents the microcontroller controlled smart living room system using Bluetooth wireless technology from mobile phone.An android apk is created in mobile for controlling the living room system. A 16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a bluetooth module transceiver. It is used for controlling fan speed control dim light control lighting ONOFF and window angle control. An arduino controller is used for keypad control door security. It is connected to DC motor control circuit and switching circuit for opening and closing of the door keypad for entering password and serial LCD for displaying the update status of the door.User can control the home appliances by using bluetooth connection from mobile phone in its range. User can adjust the dim light fan speed window angle and light bulbs from android apk. An internal EEPROM is built in 16F877A microcontroller and it stores the last requested data of the appliances. If userwants to recover the former conditions of the appliances he can recall them from android apk.

  16. Control of the Low-energy X-rays by Using MCNP5 and Numerical Analysis for a New Concept Intra-oral X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jangyong; Ji, Yunseo; Lee, Rena

    2018-05-01

    An X-ray control algorithm to modulate the X-ray intensity distribution over the FOV (field of view) has been developed by using numerical analysis and MCNP5, a particle transport simulation code on the basis of the Monte Carlo method. X-rays, which are widely used in medical diagnostic imaging, should be controlled in order to maximize the performance of the X-ray imaging system. However, transporting X-rays, like a liquid or a gas is conveyed through a physical form such as pipes, is not possible. In the present study, an X-ray control algorithm and technique to uniformize the Xray intensity projected on the image sensor were developed using a flattening filter and a collimator in order to alleviate the anisotropy of the distribution of X-rays due to intrinsic features of the X-ray generator. The proposed method, which is combined with MCNP5 modeling and numerical analysis, aimed to optimize a flattening filter and a collimator for a uniform distribution of X-rays. Their size and shape were estimated from the method. The simulation and the experimental results both showed that the method yielded an intensity distribution over an X-ray field of 6×4 cm2 at SID (source to image-receptor distance) of 5 cm with a uniformity of more than 90% when the flattening filter and the collimator were mounted on the system. The proposed algorithm and technique are not only confined to flattening filter development but can also be applied for other X-ray related research and development efforts.

  17. A Cluster-Based Dual-Adaptive Topology Control Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jinsong; Zhou, Kai; Xiong, Naixue

    2016-01-01

    Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) can improve wireless network performance. Sensors are usually single-antenna devices due to the high hardware complexity and cost, so several sensors are used to form virtual MIMO array, which is a desirable approach to efficiently take advantage of MIMO gains. Also, in large Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), clustering can improve the network scalability, which is an effective topology control approach. The existing virtual MIMO-based clustering schemes do not either fully explore the benefits of MIMO or adaptively determine the clustering ranges. Also, clustering mechanism needs to be further improved to enhance the cluster structure life. In this paper, we propose an improved clustering scheme for virtual MIMO-based topology construction (ICV-MIMO), which can determine adaptively not only the inter-cluster transmission modes but also the clustering ranges. Through the rational division of cluster head function and the optimization of cluster head selection criteria and information exchange process, the ICV-MIMO scheme effectively reduces the network energy consumption and improves the lifetime of the cluster structure when compared with the existing typical virtual MIMO-based scheme. Moreover, the message overhead and time complexity are still in the same order of magnitude. PMID:27681731

  18. A Cluster-Based Dual-Adaptive Topology Control Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Gui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO can improve wireless network performance. Sensors are usually single-antenna devices due to the high hardware complexity and cost, so several sensors are used to form virtual MIMO array, which is a desirable approach to efficiently take advantage of MIMO gains. Also, in large Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, clustering can improve the network scalability, which is an effective topology control approach. The existing virtual MIMO-based clustering schemes do not either fully explore the benefits of MIMO or adaptively determine the clustering ranges. Also, clustering mechanism needs to be further improved to enhance the cluster structure life. In this paper, we propose an improved clustering scheme for virtual MIMO-based topology construction (ICV-MIMO, which can determine adaptively not only the inter-cluster transmission modes but also the clustering ranges. Through the rational division of cluster head function and the optimization of cluster head selection criteria and information exchange process, the ICV-MIMO scheme effectively reduces the network energy consumption and improves the lifetime of the cluster structure when compared with the existing typical virtual MIMO-based scheme. Moreover, the message overhead and time complexity are still in the same order of magnitude.

  19. A Cluster-Based Dual-Adaptive Topology Control Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jinsong; Zhou, Kai; Xiong, Naixue

    2016-09-25

    Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) can improve wireless network performance. Sensors are usually single-antenna devices due to the high hardware complexity and cost, so several sensors are used to form virtual MIMO array, which is a desirable approach to efficiently take advantage of MIMO gains. Also, in large Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), clustering can improve the network scalability, which is an effective topology control approach. The existing virtual MIMO-based clustering schemes do not either fully explore the benefits of MIMO or adaptively determine the clustering ranges. Also, clustering mechanism needs to be further improved to enhance the cluster structure life. In this paper, we propose an improved clustering scheme for virtual MIMO-based topology construction (ICV-MIMO), which can determine adaptively not only the inter-cluster transmission modes but also the clustering ranges. Through the rational division of cluster head function and the optimization of cluster head selection criteria and information exchange process, the ICV-MIMO scheme effectively reduces the network energy consumption and improves the lifetime of the cluster structure when compared with the existing typical virtual MIMO-based scheme. Moreover, the message overhead and time complexity are still in the same order of magnitude.

  20. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M

    2015-09-18

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries.

  1. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Hernández Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container, and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries.

  2. Cross-Layer Active Predictive Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Wu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node‟s neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  3. Wireless radio channel for intramuscular electrode implants in the control of upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stango, Antonietta; Yazdandoost, Kamya Yekeh; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the use of implanted devices has been considered also in the field of myoelectric hand prostheses. Wireless implanted EMG (Electromyogram) sensors can improve the functioning of the prosthesis, providing information without the disadvantage of the wires, and the usability by amputees. The solutions proposed in the literature are based on proprietary communication protocols between the implanted devices and the prosthesis controller, using frequency bands that are already assigned to other purposes. This study proposes the use of a standard communication protocol (IEEE 802.15.6), specific for wireless body area networks (WBANs), which assign a specific bandwidth to implanted devices. The propagation losses from in-to-on body were investigated by numerical simulation with a 3D human model and an electromagnetic solver. The channel model resulting from the study represents the first step towards the development of myoelectric prosthetic hands which are driven by signals acquired by implanted sensors. However these results can provide important information to researchers for further developments, and manufacturers, which can decrease the production costs for hand prostheses having a common standard of communication with assigned frequencies of operation.

  4. Cross-layer active predictive congestion control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Renjian; Wu, Yinfeng

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC) for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node's neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  5. Energy Effective Congestion Control for Multicast with Network Coding in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve network throughput and reduce energy consumption, we propose in this paper a cross-layer optimization design that is able to achieve multicast utility maximization and energy consumption minimization. The joint optimization of congestion control and power allocation is formulated to be a nonlinear nonconvex problem. Using dual decomposition, a distributed optimization algorithm is proposed to avoid the congestion by control flow rate at the source node and eliminate the bottleneck by allocating the power at the intermediate node. Simulation results show that the cross-layer algorithm can increase network performance, reduce the energy consumption of wireless nodes and prolong the network lifetime, while keeping network throughput basically unchanged.

  6. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socas, Rafael; Dormido, Sebastián; Dormido, Raquel; Fabregas, Ernesto

    2015-12-02

    In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency) interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  7. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over,

  8. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated.

  9. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    2014-01-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  10. Complete-arch accuracy of intraoral scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesh, Joshua C; Liacouras, Peter C; Taft, Robert M; Brooks, Daniel I; Raiciulescu, Sorana; Ellert, Daniel O; Grant, Gerald T; Ye, Ling

    2018-04-30

    Intraoral scanners have shown varied results in complete-arch applications. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the complete-arch accuracy of 4 intraoral scanners based on trueness and precision measurements compared with a known reference (trueness) and with each other (precision). Four intraoral scanners were evaluated: CEREC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam, TRIOS Color, and Carestream CS 3500. A complete-arch reference cast was created and printed using a 3-dimensional dental cast printer with photopolymer resin. The reference cast was digitized using a laboratory-based white light 3-dimensional scanner. The printed reference cast was scanned 10 times with each intraoral scanner. The digital standard tessellation language (STL) files from each scanner were then registered to the reference file and compared with differences in trueness and precision using a 3-dimensional modeling software. Additionally, scanning time was recorded for each scan performed. The Wilcoxon signed rank, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests were used to detect differences for trueness, precision, and scanning time (α=.05). Carestream CS 3500 had the lowest overall trueness and precision compared with Bluecam and TRIOS Color. The fourth scanner, Omnicam, had intermediate trueness and precision. All of the scanners tended to underestimate the size of the reference file, with exception of the Carestream CS 3500, which was more variable. Based on visual inspection of the color rendering of signed differences, the greatest amount of error tended to be in the posterior aspects of the arch, with local errors exceeding 100 μm for all scans. The single capture scanner Carestream CS 3500 had the overall longest scan times and was significantly slower than the continuous capture scanners TRIOS Color and Omnicam. Significant differences in both trueness and precision were found among the scanners. Scan times of the continuous capture scanners were faster than the single capture scanners

  11. Pudendal nerve stimulation and block by a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Wang, Jicheng; Shen, Bing; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to determine the functionality of a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator designed for stimulation and block of the pudendal nerve. In five cats under α-chloralose anesthesia, the stimulator was implanted underneath the skin on the left side in the lower back along the sacral spine. Two tripolar cuff electrodes were implanted bilaterally on the pudendal nerves in addition to one bipolar cuff electrode that was implanted on the left side central to the tripolar cuff electrode. The stimulator provided high-frequency (5-20 kHz) biphasic stimulation waveforms to the two tripolar electrodes and low-frequency (1-100 Hz) rectangular pulses to the bipolar electrode. Bladder and urethral pressures were measured to determine the effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or block. The maximal (70-100 cmH2O) urethral pressure generated by 20-Hz PNS applied via the bipolar electrode was completely eliminated by the pudendal nerve block induced by the high-frequency stimulation (6-15 kHz, 6-10 V) applied via the two tripolar electrodes. In a partially filled bladder, 20-30 Hz PNS (2-8 V, 0.2 ms) but not 5 Hz stimulation applied via the bipolar electrode elicited a large sustained bladder contraction (45.9 ± 13.4 to 52.0 ± 22 cmH2O). During cystometry, the 5 Hz PNS significantly (p < 0.05) increased bladder capacity to 176.5 ± 27.1% of control capacity. The wireless-controlled implantable stimulator successfully generated the required waveforms for stimulation and block of pudendal nerve, which will be useful for restoring bladder functions after spinal cord injury. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  12. The efficacy of centralized flow rate control in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, K.

    2013-06-13

    Commodity WiFi-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can be used to provide last mile Internet access. These networks exhibit extreme unfairness with backlogged traffic sources. Current solutions propose distributed source-rate control algorithms requiring link-layer or transport-layer changes on all mesh nodes. This is often infeasible in large practical deployments. In wireline networks, router-assisted rate control techniques have been proposed for use alongside end-to-end mechanisms. We wish to evaluate the feasibility of establishing similar centralized control via gateways in WMNs. In this paper, we focus on the efficacy of this control rather than the specifics of the controller design mechanism. We answer the question: Given sources that react predictably to congestion notification, can we enforce a desired rate allocation through a single centralized controller? The answer is not obvious because flows experience varying contention levels, and transmissions are scheduled by a node using imperfect local knowledge. We find that common router-assisted flow control schemes used in wired networks fail in WMNs because they assume that (1) links are independent, and (2) router queue buildups are sufficient for detecting congestion. We show that non-work-conserving, rate-based centralized scheduling can effectively enforce rate allocation. It can achieve results comparable to source rate limiting, without requiring any modifications to mesh routers or client devices. 2013 Jamshaid et al.; licensee Springer.

  13. Fault Detection for Wireless Networked Control Systems with Stochastic Switching Topology and Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fault detection problem for a class of discrete-time wireless networked control systems described by switching topology with uncertainties and disturbances. System states of each individual node are affected not only by its own measurements, but also by other nodes’ measurements according to a certain network topology. As the topology of system can be switched in a stochastic way, we aim to design H∞ fault detection observers for nodes in the dynamic time-delay systems. By using the Lyapunov method and stochastic analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are acquired to guarantee the existence of the filters satisfying the H∞ performance constraint, and observer gains are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an illustrated example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  14. Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop's surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

  15. Adaptive Control of the Packet Transmission Period with Solar Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kideok Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  16. Adaptive control of the packet transmission period with solar energy harvesting prediction in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-04-24

    A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  17. Topology control algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on Link forwarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucuo, Cairen; Qi, Ai-qin

    2018-03-01

    The research of topology control could effectively save energy and increase the service life of network based on wireless sensor. In this paper, a arithmetic called LTHC (link transmit hybrid clustering) based on link transmit is proposed. It decreases expenditure of energy by changing the way of cluster-node’s communication. The idea is to establish a link between cluster and SINK node when the cluster is formed, and link-node must be non-cluster. Through the link, cluster sends information to SINK nodes. For the sake of achieving the uniform distribution of energy on the network, prolongate the network survival time, and improve the purpose of communication, the communication will cut down much more expenditure of energy for cluster which away from SINK node. In the two aspects of improving the traffic and network survival time, we find that the LTCH is far superior to the traditional LEACH by experiments.

  18. Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System for Dew Condensation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop’s surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control. PMID:22163813

  19. Strategic Control of 60 GHz Millimeter-Wave High-Speed Wireless Links for Distributed Virtual Reality Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongheon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stochastic and strategic control of 60 GHz millimeter-wave (mmWave wireless transmission for distributed and mobile virtual reality (VR applications. In VR scenarios, establishing wireless connection between VR data-center (called VR server (VRS and head-mounted VR device (called VRD allows various mobile services. Consequently, utilizing wireless technologies is obviously beneficial in VR applications. In order to transmit massive VR data, the 60 GHz mmWave wireless technology is considered in this research. However, transmitting the maximum amount of data introduces maximum power consumption in transceivers. Therefore, this paper proposes a dynamic/adaptive algorithm that can control the power allocation in the 60 GHz mmWave transceivers. The proposed algorithm dynamically controls the power allocation in order to achieve time-average energy-efficiency for VR data transmission over 60 GHz mmWave channels while preserving queue stabilization. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm presents desired performance.

  20. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  1. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  2. Towards a distributed control system for software defined wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kobo, Hlabishi I

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available on the network device. The coupling stifles innovation and evolution because the network often becomes rigid. Software Defined Wireless Sensor Networks (SDWSN) is also an emerging network paradigm that infuses the SDN model into Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs...

  3. Medium access control and network layer design for 60 GHz wireless personal area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, X.

    2010-01-01

    The unlicensed frequency band around 60 GHz is a very promising spectrum due to its potential to provide multiple gigabits per second based data rates for short range wireless communication. Hence, 60 GHz radio is an attractive candidate to enable ultra high rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

  4. A Multi-Vehicles, Wireless Testbed for Networked Control, Communications and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Richard; Doyle, John; Effros, Michelle; Hickey, Jason; Low, Steven

    2002-03-01

    We have constructed a testbed consisting of 4 mobile vehicles (with 4 additional vehicles being completed), each with embedded computing and communications capability for use in testing new approaches for command and control across dynamic networks. The system is being used or is planned to be used for testing of a variety of communications-related technologies, including distributed command and control algorithms, dynamically reconfigurable network topologies, source coding for real-time transmission of data in lossy environments, and multi-network communications. A unique feature of the testbed is the use of vehicles that have second order dynamics. Requiring real-time feedback algorithms to stabilize the system while performing cooperative tasks. The testbed was constructed in the Caltech Vehicles Laboratory and consists of individual vehicles with PC-based computation and controls, and multiple communications devices (802.11 wireless Ethernet, Bluetooth, and infrared). The vehicles are freely moving, wheeled platforms propelled by high performance dotted fairs. The room contains an access points for an 802.11 network, overhead visual sensing (to allow emulation of CI'S signal processing), a centralized computer for emulating certain distributed computations, and network gateways to control and manipulate communications traffic.

  5. Development of a wireless protection against imitation system for identification and control of vehicle access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei A. Gavrishev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with wireless systems for identification and control of vehicle access to protected objects. Known systems are considered. As a result, it has been established that one of the most promising approaches to identifying and controlling vehicle access to protected objects is the use of systems based on the "friend or foe" principle. Among these systems, there are "one-directional" and "bedirectional" identification and access control systems. "Bidirectional" systems are more preferable for questions of identification and access control. However, at present, these systems should have a reduced probability of recognizing the structure of the request and response signals because the potential attacker can easily perform unauthorized access to the radio channel of the system. On this basis, developed a wireless system identification and control vehicle access to protected objects based on the principle of "friend or foe", featuring increased protection from unauthorized access and jamming through the use of rewritable drives chaotic sequences. In addition, it’s proposed to use to identify the vehicle's RFID tag containing additional information about it. Are some specifications of the developed system (the possible frequency range of the request-response signals, the communication range, data rate, the size of the transmitted data, guidelines for choosing RFID. Also, with the help of fuzzy logic, was made the security assessment from unauthorized access request-response signals based on the system of "friend or foe", which are transferred via radio channel, developed systems and analogues. The security assessment of the developed system shows an adequate degree of protection against complex threats (view, spoofing, interception and jamming of traffic in comparison with known systems of this class. Among the main advantages of the developed system it’s necessary to mention increased security from unauthorized access and jamming

  6. Localized and Energy-Efficient Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy-Logic Control Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensor nodes in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are prone to failures due to many reasons, for example, running out of battery or harsh environment deployment; therefore, the WSNs are expected to be able to maintain network connectivity and tolerate certain amount of node failures. By applying fuzzy-logic approach to control the network topology, this paper aims at improving the network connectivity and fault-tolerant capability in response to node failures, while taking into account that the control approach has to be localized and energy efficient. Two fuzzy controllers are proposed in this paper: one is Learning-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (LFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is learnt from a training data set; another one is Rules-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (RFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is obtained through designing if-then rules and membership functions. Both LFTC and RFTC do not rely on location information, and they are localized. Comparing them with other three representative algorithms (LTRT, List-based, and NONE through extensive simulations, our two proposed fuzzy controllers have been proved to be very energy efficient to achieve desired node degree and improve the network connectivity when sensor nodes run out of battery or are subject to random attacks.

  7. Recurrent intraoral HSV-1 infection: A retrospective study of 58 immunocompetent patients from Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovaru, Serban; Parlatescu, Ioanina; Tovaru, Mihaela; Cionca, Lucia; Arduino, Paolo-Giacomo

    2011-03-01

    To revise the clinical features of the recurrent intraoral herpetic infection (RIOH) with respect to precipitating factors, demographic, clinical features and outcome. Fifty-eight, unrelated Caucasian, immunocompetent patients with positive laboratory test for intraoral Herpes simplex virus infection were studied. The mean age in the women's group (n=42) was 41.23 years (± 21.73) and in the men's group was 32.25 years (±15.68). Possible trigger factors were identified in 9 cases (15.5%). General symptoms were noted in 20 cases (34.48%). Most of patients in this study presented multiple lesions. 14 patients had vermillion lesions associated with intraoral lesions. In most of the cases both fixed and mobile mucosa was concomitantly involved. Treatment was prescribed in order to control the symptoms and to shorten the evolution with minimal side effects. Intraoral secondary herpetic infection could be polymorphous and sometimes associated with general symptoms. The recognition of its atypical features may prevent unnecessary and costly investigations and treatments for unrelated though clinically similar-appearing disorders.

  8. Accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners: effects of the presence of orthodontic brackets and wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoo-Ran; Park, Ji-Man; Chun, Youn-Sic; Lee, Kkot-Nim; Kim, Minji

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners and the effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire. For this study, three sets of models (Control model, BKT model with buccal bracket, and WBKT model with buccal bracket and orthodontic wire) were scanned using four different types of intraoral scanners: E4D dentist, iTero, Trios, and Zfx IntraScan. The mesiodistal width of the teeth, intercanine width, and intermolar width measured by four scanners were compared. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the brackets were taken using the four scanners. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, independent t test, and post-hoc Tukey test at a significance level of P brackets and orthodontic wire. Comparison of 3D bracket images scanned by the four scanners showed differences in image distortion among the scanners. Bracket characteristics did not affect the 3D bracket images. The four intraoral scanners used in this study differed in accuracy. However, the results acquired by iTero and Trios were more reliable. Effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire on the 3D images taken by intraoral scanners were not clinically significant.

  9. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%.

  10. Cluster-based adaptive power control protocol using Hidden Markov Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinutha, C. B.; Nalini, N.; Nagaraja, M.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents strategies for an efficient and dynamic transmission power control technique, in order to reduce packet drop and hence energy consumption of power-hungry sensor nodes operated in highly non-linear channel conditions of Wireless Sensor Networks. Besides, we also focus to prolong network lifetime and scalability by designing cluster-based network structure. Specifically we consider weight-based clustering approach wherein, minimum significant node is chosen as Cluster Head (CH) which is computed stemmed from the factors distance, remaining residual battery power and received signal strength (RSS). Further, transmission power control schemes to fit into dynamic channel conditions are meticulously implemented using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) where probability transition matrix is formulated based on the observed RSS measurements. Typically, CH estimates initial transmission power of its cluster members (CMs) from RSS using HMM and broadcast this value to its CMs for initialising their power value. Further, if CH finds that there are variations in link quality and RSS of the CMs, it again re-computes and optimises the transmission power level of the nodes using HMM to avoid packet loss due noise interference. We have demonstrated our simulation results to prove that our technique efficiently controls the power levels of sensing nodes to save significant quantity of energy for different sized network.

  11. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2015-11-05

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  12. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  13. Congestion Control and Traffic Scheduling for Collaborative Crowdsourcing in SDN Enabled Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.

  14. Precise Localization and Formation Control of Swarm Robots via Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise localization and formation control are one of the key technologies to achieve coordination and control of swarm robots, which is also currently a bottleneck for practical applications of swarm robotic systems. Aiming at overcoming the limited individual perception and the difficulty of achieving precise localization and formation, a localization approach combining dead reckoning (DR with wireless sensor network- (WSN- based methods is proposed in this paper. Two kinds of WSN localization technologies are adopted in this paper, that is, ZigBee-based RSSI (received signal strength indication global localization and electronic tag floors for calibration of local positioning. First, the DR localization information is combined with the ZigBee-based RSSI position information using the Kalman filter method to achieve precise global localization and maintain the robot formation. Then the electronic tag floors provide the robots with their precise coordinates in some local areas and enable the robot swarm to calibrate its formation by reducing the accumulated position errors. Hence, the overall performance of localization and formation control of the swarm robotic system is improved. Both of the simulation results and the experimental results on a real schematic system are given to demonstrate the success of the proposed approach.

  15. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  16. A novel and efficient user access control scheme for wireless body area sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Chatterjee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs can be applied to provide healthcare and patient monitoring. However, patient privacy can be vulnerable in a WBAN unless security is considered. Access to authorized users for the correct information and resources for different services can be provided with the help of efficient user access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a new user access control scheme for a WBAN. The proposed scheme makes use of a group-based user access ID, an access privilege mask, and a password. An elliptic curve cryptography-based public key cryptosystem is used to ensure that a particular legitimate user can only access the information for which he/she is authorized. We show that our scheme performs better than previously existing user access control schemes. Through a security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, through a formal security verification using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool, we show that our scheme is also secure against passive and active attacks.

  17. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  18. Wireless brain-machine interface using EEG and EOG: brain wave classification and robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) links a user's brain activity directly to an external device. It enables a person to control devices using only thought. Hence, it has gained significant interest in the design of assistive devices and systems for people with disabilities. In addition, BMI has also been proposed to replace humans with robots in the performance of dangerous tasks like explosives handling/diffusing, hazardous materials handling, fire fighting etc. There are mainly two types of BMI based on the measurement method of brain activity; invasive and non-invasive. Invasive BMI can provide pristine signals but it is expensive and surgery may lead to undesirable side effects. Recent advances in non-invasive BMI have opened the possibility of generating robust control signals from noisy brain activity signals like EEG and EOG. A practical implementation of a non-invasive BMI such as robot control requires: acquisition of brain signals with a robust wearable unit, noise filtering and signal processing, identification and extraction of relevant brain wave features and finally, an algorithm to determine control signals based on the wave features. In this work, we developed a wireless brain-machine interface with a small platform and established a BMI that can be used to control the movement of a robot by using the extracted features of the EEG and EOG signals. The system records and classifies EEG as alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. The classified brain waves are then used to define the level of attention. The acceleration and deceleration or stopping of the robot is controlled based on the attention level of the wearer. In addition, the left and right movements of eye ball control the direction of the robot.

  19. Implementation of an Embedded Web Server Application for Wireless Control of Brain Computer Interface Based Home Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Eda Akman; Bay, Ömer Faruk; Güler, İnan

    2016-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based environment control systems could facilitate life of people with neuromuscular diseases, reduces dependence on their caregivers, and improves their quality of life. As well as easy usage, low-cost, and robust system performance, mobility is an important functionality expected from a practical BCI system in real life. In this study, in order to enhance users' mobility, we propose internet based wireless communication between BCI system and home environment. We designed and implemented a prototype of an embedded low-cost, low power, easy to use web server which is employed in internet based wireless control of a BCI based home environment. The embedded web server provides remote access to the environmental control module through BCI and web interfaces. While the proposed system offers to BCI users enhanced mobility, it also provides remote control of the home environment by caregivers as well as the individuals in initial stages of neuromuscular disease. The input of BCI system is P300 potentials. We used Region Based Paradigm (RBP) as stimulus interface. Performance of the BCI system is evaluated on data recorded from 8 non-disabled subjects. The experimental results indicate that the proposed web server enables internet based wireless control of electrical home appliances successfully through BCIs.

  20. Energy-Aware Topology Control Strategy for Human-Centric Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roc Meseguer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of mobile and ubiquitous solutions that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing increases every day. This situation has highlighted the relevance of optimizing the energy consumption of these solutions, because their operation depends on the devices’ battery lifetimes. This article presents a study that intends to understand how the prediction of topology control messages in human-centric wireless sensor networks can be used to help reduce the energy consumption of the participating devices. In order to do that, five research questions have been defined and a study based on simulations was conducted to answer these questions. The obtained results help identify suitable mobile computing scenarios where the prediction of topology control messages can be used to save energy of the network nodes. These results also allow estimating the percentage of energy saving that can be expected, according to the features of the work scenario and the participants behavior. Designers of mobile collaborative applications that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing, can take advantage of these findings to increase the autonomy of their solutions.

  1. Provably Secure Heterogeneous Access Control Scheme for Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omala, Anyembe Andrew; Mbandu, Angolo Shem; Mutiria, Kamenyi Domenic; Jin, Chunhua; Li, Fagen

    2018-04-28

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) provides a medium through which physiological information could be harvested and transmitted to application provider (AP) in real time. Integrating WBAN in a heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem would enable an AP to monitor patients from anywhere and at anytime. However, the IoT roadmap of interconnected 'Things' is still faced with many challenges. One of the challenges in healthcare is security and privacy of streamed medical data from heterogeneously networked devices. In this paper, we first propose a heterogeneous signcryption scheme where a sender is in a certificateless cryptographic (CLC) environment while a receiver is in identity-based cryptographic (IBC) environment. We then use this scheme to design a heterogeneous access control protocol. Formal security proof for indistinguishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack and unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attack in random oracle model is presented. In comparison with some of the existing access control schemes, our scheme has lower computation and communication cost.

  2. Gait-Cycle-Driven Transmission Power Control Scheme for a Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Weilin; Li, Ye

    2018-05-01

    In a wireless body area network (WBAN), walking movements can result in rapid channel fluctuations, which severely degrade the performance of transmission power control (TPC) schemes. On the other hand, these channel fluctuations are often periodic and are time-synchronized with the user's gait cycle, since they are all driven from the walking movements. In this paper, we propose a novel gait-cycle-driven transmission power control (G-TPC) for a WBAN. The proposed G-TPC scheme reinforces the existing TPC scheme by exploiting the periodic channel fluctuation in the walking scenario. In the proposed scheme, the user's gait cycle information acquired by an accelerometer is used as beacons for arranging the transmissions at the time points with the ideal channel state. The specific transmission power is then determined by using received signal strength indication (RSSI). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and reliability of the proposed G-TPC based on a CC2420 platform. The results reveal that compared to the original RSSI/link-quality-indication-based TPC, G-TPC reduces energy consumption by 25% on the sensor node and reduce the packet loss rate by 65%.

  3. Topology control of tactical wireless sensor networks using energy efficient zone routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Thulasiraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Defense (DoD routinely uses wireless sensor networks (WSNs for military tactical communications. Sensor node die-out has a significant impact on the topology of a tactical WSN. This is problematic for military applications where situational data is critical to tactical decision making. To increase the amount of time all sensor nodes remain active within the network and to control the network topology tactically, energy efficient routing mechanisms must be employed. In this paper, we aim to provide realistic insights on the practical advantages and disadvantages of using established routing techniques for tactical WSNs. We investigate the following established routing algorithms: direct routing, minimum transmission energy (MTE, Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Head routing (LEACH, and zone clustering. Based on the node die out statistics observed with these algorithms and the topological impact the node die outs have on the network, we develop a novel, energy efficient zone clustering algorithm called EZone. Via extensive simulations using MATLAB, we analyze the effectiveness of these algorithms on network performance for single and multiple gateway scenarios and show that the EZone algorithm tactically controls the topology of the network, thereby maintaining significant service area coverage when compared to the other routing algorithms.

  4. A wirelessly-powered homecage with animal behavior analysis and closed-loop power control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoyao Jia; Zheyuan Wang; Canales, Daniel; Tinkler, Morgan; Chia-Chun Hsu; Madsen, Teresa E; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new EnerCage-homecage system, EnerCage-HC2, for longitudinal electrophysiology data acquisition experiments on small freely moving animal subjects, such as rodents. EnerCage-HC2 is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transmission (WPT), closed-loop power control, bidirectional data communication via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Microsoft Kinect® based animal behavior tracking and analysis. The EnerCage-HC2 achieves a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 14% on average, with ~42 mW power delivered to the load (PDL) at a nominal height of 7 cm by the closed-loop power control mechanism. The Microsoft Kinect® behavioral analysis algorithm can not only track the animal position in real-time but also classify 5 different types of rodent behaviors: standstill, walking, grooming, rearing, and rotating. A proof-of-concept in vivo experiment was conducted on two awake freely behaving rats while successfully operating a one-channel stimulator and generating an ethogram.

  5. A Fine-Grained Data Access Control System in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface K. Alese

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolving realities of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN deployed to various terrain of life require serving multiple applications. As large amount of sensed data are distributed and stored in individual sensors nodes, the illegal access to these sensitive data can be devastating. Consequently, data insecurity becomes a big concern. This study, therefore, proposes a fine-grained access control system which only requires the right set of users to access a particular data, based on their access privileges in the sensor networks. It is designed using Priccess Protocol with Access policy formulation adopting the principle of Bell Lapadula model as well as Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE to control access to sensor data. The functionality of the proposed system is simulated using Netbeans. The performance analysis of the proposed system using execution time and size of the key show that the higher the key size, the harder it becomes for the attacker to hack the system. Additionally, the time taken for the proposed work is lesser which makes the work faster than the existing work. Consequently, a well secure interactive web-based application that could facilitates the field officers access to stored data in safe and secure manner is developed.

  6. Voice-Controlled and Wireless Solid Set Canopy Delivery (VCW-SSCD System for Mist-Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Ampatzidis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available California growers in the San Joaquin Valley believe that climate change will affect the pistachio yield dramatically. As the central valley fog disappears, insufficient dormant chill accumulation results in poor flowering synchrony, flower quality, and fruit set in this dioecious species. We have developed a novel, user-friendly, and low-cost Voice-Controlled Wireless Solid Set Canopy Delivery (VCW-SSCD system to increase bud chill accumulation with evaporative cooling on sunny (winter days. This system includes: (i an automated solid-state canopy delivery (SSCD system; (ii a wireless weather-, crop-related data acquisition system; (iii a Voice-Controlled (VC system using Amazon Alexa; (iv a mobile application to visualize the collected data and wirelessly control the SSCD system; and (v a smart control system. The proposed system was deployed and evaluated in a commercial pistachio orchard in Bakersfield, CA. The system worked well with no reported errors. Results demonstrated the system’s ability to cool bud temperatures in a low relative humidity climate. At an ambient temperature of 10–20 °C, bud temperatures were lowered 5–10 °C.

  7. Dynamic Control of Adsorption Sensitivity for Photo-EMF-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using a Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vashpanov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range of ammonia concentration from 3 to 800 ppm occurs when the gas concentration magnitude corresponds with the optimal intensity of the illumination light. A simulation with LabView-engineered modules for automatic control of a new intelligent computer system was conducted to improve measurement precision over a wide range of gas concentrations. This gas sensor computer system with wireless network technology could be useful in the chemical industry for automatic detection and measurement of hazardous ammonia gas levels in real time.

  8. 77 FR 58577 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that the presiding administrative law judge has issued a Final Initial Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically a limited exclusion order and a cease and desist order against certain video game systems and wireless controllers and components thereof, imported by respondent Nintendo Co., Ltd., of Kyoto, Japan and Nintendo America, Inc. of Redmond, Washington (collectively, ``Nintendo'').

  9. Paper-Based Digital Microfluidic Chip for Multiple Electrochemical Assay Operated by a Wireless Portable Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Lee, Jumi; Chae, Heedo

    2017-01-01

    for multiple analysis assays are fabricated by affordable printing techniques. For enhanced sensitivity of the sensor, the working electrode is modified through the electrochemical method, namely by reducing graphene with voltammetry and coating gold nanoparticles by amperometry. Detachable sensor and absorber...... designed portable power supply and wireless control system, the active paper-based chip platform can be utilized as an advanced point-of-care device for multiple assays in digital microfluidics....

  10. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake; Gong, Chen

    2017-08-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power.

  11. An Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Using Double Trapdoor Chameleon Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeshwari Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, a type of communication system, is normally deployed into the unattended environment where the intended user can get access to the network. The sensor nodes collect data from this environment. If the data are valuable and confidential, then security measures are needed to protect them from the unauthorized access. This situation requires an access control protocol (ACP in the design of sensor network because of sensor nodes which are vulnerable to various malicious attacks during the authentication and key establishment and the new node addition phase. In this paper, we propose a secured ACP for such WSN. This protocol is based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP and double trapdoor chameleon hash function which secures the WSN from malicious attacks such as node masquerading attack, replay attack, man-in-the-middle attack, and forgery attacks. Proposed ACP has a special feature known as session key security. Also, the proposed ACP is more efficient as it requires only one modular multiplication during the initialization phase.

  12. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  13. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake

    2017-01-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power. PMID:28763011

  14. A wireless reflectance pulse oximeter with digital baseline control for unfiltered photoplethysmograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve

    2012-06-01

    Pulse oximeters are central to the move toward wearable health monitoring devices and medical electronics either hosted by, e.g., smart phones or physically embedded in their design. This paper presents a small, low-cost pulse oximeter design appropriate for wearable and surface-based applications that also produces quality, unfiltered photo-plethysmograms (PPGs) ideal for emerging diagnostic algorithms. The design's "filter-free" embodiment, which employs only digital baseline subtraction as a signal compensation mechanism, distinguishes it from conventional pulse oximeters that incorporate filters for signal extraction and noise reduction. This results in high-fidelity PPGs with thousands of peak-to-peak digitization levels that are sampled at 240 Hz to avoid noise aliasing. Electronic feedback controls make these PPGs more resilient in the face of environmental changes (e.g., the device can operate in full room light), and data stream in real time across either a ZigBee wireless link or a wired USB connection to a host. On-board flash memory is available for store-and-forward applications. This sensor has demonstrated an ability to gather high-integrity data at fingertip, wrist, earlobe, palm, and temple locations from a group of 48 subjects (20 to 64 years old).

  15. The system power control unit based on the on-chip wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Ma, Caiwen; Li, WenHua

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS) includes 2nd-generation (2G), 3rd-generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU) is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM) communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  16. The System Power Control Unit Based on the On-Chip Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS includes 2nd-generation (2G, 3rd-generation (3G, and long-term evolution (LTE communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  17. [Exploration of the design of media access control layer of wireless body area network for medical healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Ge, Baofeng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets for wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems.

  18. A low noise remotely controllable wireless telemetry system for single-unit recording in rats navigating in a vertical maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Hyland, Brian; Lu, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Jia Jin Jason

    2008-08-01

    The use of cables for recording neural activity limits the scope of behavioral tests used in conscious free-moving animals. Particularly, cable attachments make it impossible to record in three-dimensional (3D) mazes where levels are vertically stacked or in enclosed spaces. Such environments are of particular interest in investigations of hippocampal place cells, in which neural activity is correlated with spatial position in the environment. We developed a flexible miniaturized Bluetooth-based wireless data acquisition system. The wireless module included an 8-channel analogue front end, digital controller, and Bluetooth transceiver mounted on a backpack. Our bidirectional wireless design allowed all data channels to be previewed at 1 kHz sample rate, and one channel, selected by remote control, to be sampled at 10 kHz. Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity are highly susceptible to ambient electrical noise due to the high electrode impedance. Through careful design of appropriate shielding and hardware configuration to avoid ground loops, mains power and Bluetooth hopping frequency noise were reduced sufficiently to yield signal quality comparable to those recorded by wired systems. With this system we were able to obtain single-unit recordings of hippocampal place cells in rats running an enclosed vertical maze, over a range of 5 m.

  19. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Beijing100084 (China)

    2009-01-15

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration. (author)

  20. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  1. Prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper-Jones, L; Aldred, M; Walker, D M

    1980-03-01

    An imprint culture technique has been employed to study the prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in 16 patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in 16 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and dental status. The prevalence and intraoral density of C. albicans was found to be significantly higher at almost all sites in the Sjögren's patients than in the controls. The distribution of candida was also altered, being significantly higher in the floor of the mouth and anterior labial sulcus in the Sjögren's group. There was an approximate inverse relationship between candida populations and rate of salivary flow. Mean candida densities were found to be significantly higher in those Sjögren's patients with detectable serum rheumatoid factor in the serum. However, patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome had significantly higher mean candida densities compared with patients with secondary Sjögren's syndrome.

  2. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  3. Extraoral periapical radiography: an alternative approach to intraoral periapical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Khambete, Neha; Priya, Ekta

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to take intraoral radiographs in some patients who are intolerable to place the film in their mouth. For these patients, Newman and Friedman recommended a new technique of extraoral film placement. Here we report various cases that diagnostic imaging was performed in patients using the extraoral periapical technique. This technique was used to obtain the radiographs for the patients with severe gag reflex, pediatric dental patients, and patients with restricted mouth opening. This technique can be recommended as an alternative to conventional intraoral periapical technique in cases where intraoral film placement is difficult to achieve.

  4. Guides for intraoral x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsunlade, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    An h-shaped exterior guide for use in combination with a SNAP-A-RAY film holder for accurately aligning a beam from an X-ray cone with an X-ray film during the process of taking intraoral periapical dental X-rays of the maxillary and mandibular teeth is described comprising: a first guide arm laterally and detachably connectable through a housing means; a traverse arm extending from the midpoint of the first guide arm and parallel to the X-ray film; and a second guide arm extending perpendicularly from an end of the traverse arm toward a plane of the X-ray film and in parallel relation up to an end point of the first guide arm

  5. Intraoral hydatid cyst: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran Alaparthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Hydatid" is a Greek word which means "a drop of water." Hydatid cysts occur in hydatid disease or echinococcosis, which is one of the most geographically prevalent zoonosis. This zoonotic infection in humans is mainly caused by infection by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This tapeworm infestation is widespread in sheep, goats, cattle, and dogs. This chronic disease is present worldwide among herding populations who live in close proximity to dogs and herd animals. It is a serious and potentially fatal condition and symptoms may occur a long time after the early infection. The most frequently affected organs are liver, lungs, followed by bones and brain, and extremely unusual occurrence has been found in the oral cavity, which was noticed in the present case. So hereby, we reveal a very rare case of intraoral hydatid cyst in a 20-year-old female patient.

  6. Intraoral blue (Jadassohn-Tieche) nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, C D; Zoutendam, G L; Gombas, O F

    1978-05-01

    Blue nevus of the oral mucosa is a distinctly uncommon clincial entity. Careful review of the literature yielded thirty-one previously reported cases. The present article reports the occurrence of a blue nevus of the hard palate in a 58-year-old man. It is of interest since it is the smallest (1 by 1 mm.) intraoral blue nevus to be reported. A clinicopathologic study of the previous thirty-one cases and of our case suggests that this lesion has no age or sex predilection. The most common site of occurrence was the hard palate. There appears to be no tendency toward recurrence. A brief review of the historical background, clinical features, theories of possible origin, and differential diagnosis is presented. Excisional biopsy of localized areas of oral pibmentation, together with histopathologic study, is indicated to rule out melanoma.

  7. Intraoral digital impressions to enhance implant esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Kenneth F

    2014-09-01

    Providing an accurate soft-tissue transfer for anterior implants is not a new concept; however, it is currently an especially relevant one. There are numerous documented cases in which residual excess cement with cement-retained implant restorations was a contributing cause in periimplantitis. In 2012, Wadhwani et al reported the importance of placing the crown abutment margins supragingivally for ease of cement removal as a possible solution to address this important issue. Therefore, if placement of the crown abutment margin location is imperative, making an impression that reproduces the soft tissue is equally critical. In 1997, this author introduced the "custom impression coping" to achieve such an accurate transfer. Given the wide use of intraoral digital impressions in 2014, this discussion describes how to fabricate a "custom scan body" using that technology to replicate the transition zone in the virtual environment.

  8. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  9. Accuracy of complete-arch model using an intraoral video scanner: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Il-Do; Lee, Jae-Jun; Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Information on the accuracy of intraoral video scanners for long-span areas is limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the trueness and precision of an intraoral video scanner, an intraoral still image scanner, and a blue-light scanner for the production of digital impressions. Reference scan data were obtained by scanning a complete-arch model. An identical model was scanned 8 times using an intraoral video scanner (CEREC Omnicam; Sirona) and an intraoral still image scanner (CEREC Bluecam; Sirona), and stone casts made from conventional impressions of the same model were scanned 8 times with a blue-light scanner as a control (Identica Blue; Medit). Accuracy consists of trueness (the extent to which the scan data differ from the reference scan) and precision (the similarity of the data from multiple scans). To evaluate precision, 8 scans were superimposed using 3-dimensional analysis software; the reference scan data were then superimposed to determine the trueness. Differences were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests (α=.05). Trueness in the video scanner group was not significantly different from that in the control group. However, the video scanner group showed significantly lower values than those of the still image scanner group for all variables (P<.05), except in tolerance range. The root mean square, standard deviations, and mean negative precision values for the video scanner group were significantly higher than those for the other groups (P<.05). Digital impressions obtained by the intraoral video scanner showed better accuracy for long-span areas than those captured by the still image scanner. However, the video scanner was less accurate than the laboratory scanner. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous Wireless Power Transfer and Data Communication Using Synchronous Pulse-Controlled Load Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Chunbo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-10-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and wireless data communication are both important problems of research with various applications, especially in medicine. However, these two problems are usually studied separately. In this work, we present a joint study of both problems. Most medical electronic devices, such as smart implants, must have both a power supply to allow continuous operation and a communication link to pass information. Traditionally, separate wireless channels for power transfer and communication are utilized, which complicate the system structure, increase power consumption and make device miniaturization difficult. A more effective approach is to use a single wireless link with both functions of delivering power and passing information. We present a design of such a wireless link in which power and data travel in opposite directions. In order to aggressively miniaturize the implant and reduce power consumption, we eliminate the traditional multi-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), digital memory and data transmission circuits all together. Instead, we use a pulse stream, which is obtained from the original biological signal, by a sigma-delta converter and an edge detector, to alter the load properties of the WPT channel. The resulting WPT signal is synchronized with the load changes therefore requiring no memory elements to record inter-pulse intervals. We take advantage of the high sensitivity of the resonant WPT to the load change, and the system dynamic response is used to transfer each pulse. The transient time of the WPT system is analyzed using the coupling mode theory (CMT). Our experimental results show that the memoryless approach works well for both power delivery and data transmission, providing a new wireless platform for the design of future miniaturized medical implants.

  11. Medium access control and hardware prototype designs for low-energy wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohvakka, M.

    2009-07-01

    A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology consisting of small, cheap, and ultra-low energy sensor nodes, which cooperatively monitor physical quantities, actuate, and perform data processing tasks. A deployment may comprise thousands of randomly distributed autonomous nodes, which must self-configure and create a multi-hop network topology.This thesis focuses on low-energy WSNs targeting to long network lifetime. The main research problem is the combination of adaptive and scalable multi-hop networking with constrained energy budget, processing power, and communication bandwidth. The research problem is approached by energy-efficient protocols and low-power sensor node platforms. The main contribution of this thesis is an energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) design for TUTWSN (Tampere University of Technology Wireless Sensor Network). The design comprises channel access and networking mechanisms, which specify data exchange, link synchronization, network self-configuration, and neighbor discovery operations. The second outcome are several low-power sensor node platforms, which have been designed and implemented to evaluate the performance of the MAC design and hardware components in real deployments. The third outcome are the performance models and analysis of several MAC designs including TUTWSN, IEEE 802.15.4, and the most essential research proposals.The results and conclusion of this Thesis indicate that it is possible to implement multi-hop WSNs in harsh and dynamic operation conditions with years of lifetime using current low-cost components and batteries. Energy analysis results indicate that the lowest energy consumption is achieved by using simple and high data-rate transceivers. It is also critical to minimize sleep mode power consumption of all components and to use accurate wake-up timers. However, the selection of components constitutes only a minor part of the solution, and an energy-efficient MAC layer design being able to

  12. A framework of call admission control procedures for integrated services mobile wireless networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Ashraf S. Hasan; Al-Qahtani, Salman A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for a wide range of call admission control (CAC) algorithms. For several CAC schemes, which are a subset of this general framework, an analytical performance evaluation is presented for a multi-traffic mobile wireless network. These CAC algorithms consider a variety of mechanisms to prioritize traffic in an attempt to support different levels of quality of service (QoS) for different types of calls. These mechanisms include dividing the handoff traffic into more than one class and using guard channels or allowing channel splitting to admit more handoff calls. Other mechanisms aimed at adding priority for handoff calls consider employing queuing of handoff calls or dynamically reducing the number lower priority calls. Furthermore our analysis relaxes the typically used assumptions of equal channel holding time and equal resource usage for voice and data calls. The main contribution of this paper is the development of an analytical model for each of the three CAC algorithms specified in this study. In addition to the call blocking and termination probabilities which are usually cited as the performance metrics, in this work we derive and evaluate other metrics that not have be considered by the previous work such as the average queue length, the average queue residency, and the time-out probability for handoff calls. We also develop a simulation tool to test and verify our results. Finally, we present numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed CAG algorithms and we show that analytical and simulation results are in total agreement. (author)

  13. A Wirelessly-Powered Homecage With Segmented Copper Foils and Closed-Loop Power Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Jia, Yaoyao; Canales, Daniel; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-10-01

    A new wireless electrophysiology data acquisition system, built around a standard homecage, is presented in this paper, which can power up and communicate with sensors and actuators/stimulators attached to or implanted in small freely behaving animal subjects, such as rodents. Key abilities of the energized homecage (EnerCage) system is enabling longitudinal experiments with minimal operator involvement or interruption, while providing test subjects with an enriched environment closer to their natural habitat, without the burden of being tethered or carrying bulky batteries. The magnetic resonant multi-coil design used in the new EnerCage-HC2 automatically localizes the transmitted electromagnetic power from a single transmitter (Tx) coil at the bottom of the cage toward the receiver coil (Rx), carried on/in the animal body, obviating the need for tracking the animal or switching the coils. In order to increase the resonators' quality factor (Q > 166) at the desired operating frequency of 13.56 MHz, while maintaining a high self-resonance frequency [Formula: see text], they are made of wide copper foils and optimally segmented based on a set of design rules that can be adopted for experimental arenas with different shapes and dimensions. The Rx rectified voltage is regulated at a user-defined window [Formula: see text] by a Tx-Rx closed-loop power control (CLPC) mechanism that creates a volume inside the homecage with 42 mW of power delivered to the load (PDL), and a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) plane of 14% on average at ∼7 cm height, plus stability against angular mis-alignments of up to 80°.

  14. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  15. An Efficient Radio Access Control Mechanism for Wireless Network-On-Chip Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Palesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern systems-on-chip (SoCs today contain hundreds of cores, and this number is predicted to reach the thousands by the year 2020. As the number of communicating elements increases, there is a need for an efficient, scalable and reliable communication infrastructure. As technology geometries shrink to the deep submicron regime, however, the communication delay and power consumption of global interconnections become the major bottleneck. The network-on-chip (NoC design paradigm, based on a modular packet-switched mechanism, can address many of the on-chip communication issues, such as the performance limitations of long interconnects and integration of large number of cores on a chip. Recently, new communication technologies based on the NoC concept have emerged with the aim of improving the scalability limitations of conventional NoC-based architectures. Among them, wireless NoCs (WiNoCs use the radio medium for reducing the performance and energy penalties of long-range and multi-hop communications. As the radio medium can be accessed by a single transmitter at a time, a radio access control mechanism (RACM is needed. In this paper, we present a novel RACM, which allows one to improve both the performance and energy figures of the WiNoC. Experiments, carried out on both synthetic and real traffic scenarios, have shown the effectiveness of the proposed RACM. On average, a 30% reduction in communication delay and a 25% energy savings have been observed when the proposed RACM is applied to a known WiNoC architecture.

  16. Effect of Software Version on the Accuracy of an Intraoral Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Yasser; Bahrami, Golnosh; Isidor, Flemming

    2018-04-06

    To investigate the impact of software version on the accuracy of an intraoral scanning device. A master tooth was scanned with a high-precision optical scanner and then 10 times with a CEREC Omnicam scanner with software versions 4.4.0 and 4.4.4. Discrepancies were measured using quality control software. Mean deviation for 4.4.0 was 36.2 ± 35 μm and for 4.4.4 was 20.7 ± 14.2 μm (P ≤ .001). Software version has a significant impact on the accuracy of an intraoral scanner. It is important that researchers also publish the software version of scanners when publishing their findings.

  17. Performance of a wireless sensor network for crop monitoring and irrigation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  18. Layer-component-based communication stack framework for wireless residential control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, R.; Hjorth, Theis S.

    2011-01-01

    on a common IP infrastructure, regardless of individual wireless technology. Legacy home automation devices are also supported. A prototype has been implemented on multiple resource-constrained hardware platforms, to demonstrate that the solution is both feasible for low-cost devices and portable. It has been...

  19. Layer-component-based communication stack framework for wireless residential control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune; Hjorth, Theis

    2010-01-01

    on a common IP infrastructure, regardless of individual wireless technology. Legacy home automation devices are also supported. A prototype has been implemented on multiple resource-constrained hardware platforms, to demonstrate that the solution is both feasible for low-cost devices and portable. It has been...

  20. How Wireless Sensor Networks Can Benefit from Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalayci, Tahir Emre; Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of small sensing and actuating devices that collaboratively monitor a phenomena, process and reason about sensor measurements, and provide adequate feedback or take actions. One of WSNs tasks is event detection, in which occurrence of events of interest

  1. Sensors on speaking terms: Schedule-based medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks make the previously unobservable, observable. The basic idea behind these networks is straightforward: all wires are cut in traditional sensing systems and the sensors are equipped with batteries and radio's to virtually restore the cut wires. The resulting sensors can be

  2. Improved control of distributed parameter systems using wireless sensor and actuator networks: An observer-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zheng-Xian; Cui Bao-Tong; Lou Xu-Yang; Zhuang Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control problem of distributed parameter systems is investigated by using wireless sensor and actuator networks with the observer-based method. Firstly, a centralized observer which makes use of the measurement information provided by the fixed sensors is designed to estimate the distributed parameter systems. The mobile agents, each of which is affixed with a controller and an actuator, can provide the observer-based control for the target systems. By using Lyapunov stability arguments, the stability for the estimation error system and distributed parameter control system is proved, meanwhile a guidance scheme for each mobile actuator is provided to improve the control performance. A numerical example is finally used to demonstrate the effectiveness and the advantages of the proposed approaches. (paper)

  3. In vivo and in vitro assessment of an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagaclioglu, Lale; Terzioglu, Hakan; Yilmaz, Burak; Yurdukoru, Bengul

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of an intraoral dental colorimeter. In vivo repeatability of an intraoral colorimeter was assessed by performing color measurements of 30 individuals' right maxillary central incisor. Three consecutive measurements from each individual were made. In the in vitro part of the study, 25 metal-ceramic and 25 all-ceramic specimens were prepared. Five shades of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic specimens were selected for color determination. A widely recognized in vitro colorimeter was used as the control group for the in vitro performance assessment of the in vivo colorimeter. The color differentiation capability of two colorimeters was compared with the readings obtained from ceramic specimens. DeltaE values between shade groups of ceramic specimens were calculated and statistically analyzed with Student's t-test. The repeatability of the intraoral instrument was evaluated statistically with Intraclass correlation coefficient. The in vivo evaluation results showed that the overall repeatability coefficient values of L*, a*, and b* notations of the intraoral colorimeter were "excellent." The color differences (DeltaE) calculated between the colorimeters were significant only between shades A(1)-B(1) for metal-ceramic specimens (p= 0.002); however, from 5 of 10 shade couples of all-ceramic specimens, the color differences obtained from the readings of the in vivo colorimeter were significantly different from that of the in vitro colorimeter (p colorimeter exhibited successful in vivo repeatability; however, the color difference detection performance of the device varied depending on the translucency of the specimens.

  4. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Verikoukis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs. The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions. In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead.

  5. Handheld Devices with Wide-Area Wireless Connectivity: Applications in Astronomy Educational Technology and Remote Computational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiardja, R. D.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Guidry, M. W.

    2003-05-01

    Wireless technology implemented with handheld devices has attractive features because of the potential to access large amounts of data and the prospect of on-the-fly computational analysis from a device that can be carried in a shirt pocket. We shall describe applications of such technology to the general paradigm of making digital wireless connections from the field to upload information and queries to network servers, executing (potentially complex) programs and controlling data analysis and/or database operations on fast network computers, and returning real-time information from this analysis to the handheld device in the field. As illustration, we shall describe several client/server programs that we have written for applications in teaching introductory astronomy. For example, one program allows static and dynamic properties of astronomical objects to be accessed in a remote observation laboratory setting using a digital cell phone or PDA. Another implements interactive quizzing over a cell phone or PDA using a 700-question introductory astronomy quiz database, thus permitting students to study for astronomy quizzes in any environment in which they have a few free minutes and a digital cell phone or wireless PDA. Another allows one to control and monitor a computation done on a Beowulf cluster by changing the parameters of the computation remotely and retrieving the result when the computation is done. The presentation will include hands-on demonstrations with real devices. *Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  6. Nash Bargaining Game-Theoretic Framework for Power Control in Distributed Multiple-Radar Architecture Underlying Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Nash bargaining solution (NBS-based cooperative game-theoretic framework for power control in a distributed multiple-radar architecture underlying a wireless communication system. Our primary objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the distributed multiple-radar system (DMRS with the protection of wireless communication user’s transmission, while guaranteeing each radar’s target detection requirement. A unified cooperative game-theoretic framework is proposed for the optimization problem, where interference power constraints (IPCs are imposed to protect the communication user’s transmission, and a minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR requirement is employed to provide reliable target detection for each radar. The existence, uniqueness and fairness of the NBS to this cooperative game are proven. An iterative Nash bargaining power control algorithm with low computational complexity and fast convergence is developed and is shown to converge to a Pareto-optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game model. Numerical simulations and analyses are further presented to highlight the advantages and testify to the efficiency of our proposed cooperative game algorithm. It is demonstrated that the distributed algorithm is effective for power control and could protect the communication system with limited implementation overhead.

  7. FUeW opts for wireless centralised ripple control systems; Das FUeW entscheidet sich fuer Funk-Rundsteuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G [Fraenkische Ueberlandwerk AG, Nuernberg (Germany); Saupe, R [EFR Europaeische Funk-Rundsteuerung GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-01-15

    After extensive trials in the course of a project study Fraenkische Ueberlandwerk AG (FUeW) has decided to introduce a wireless centralised ripple control system for its entire service area. The system will initially be used for synchronising and parameterising multiple tariff meters. Ripple control receivers are to take over the function formerly perfomed by switch clocks of switching between night and day tariff. FUeW`s decision was essentially motivated by the proven reliability of wireless centralised ripple control systems and by the economic advantages of this modern technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Fraenkische Ueberlandwerk AG (FUeW), Nuernberg, hat nach umfangreichen Versuchen im Rahmen einer Projektstudie entschieden, die Funk-Rundsteuerung flaechendeckend im Versorgungsgebiet einzusetzen. Das System wird zunaechst zur Synchronisierung und Parametrierung von Mehrtarifzaehlern angewendet. Wurde bisher die HT/NT-Umschaltung der Zaehler durch Schaltuhren durchgefuehrt, so wird kuenftig ein Funk-Rundsteuerempfaenger diese Aufgabe uebernehmen. Wesentlich fuer die Entscheidung des FUeW waren die bewiesene Funktionssicherheit der Funk-Rundsteuerung und die wirtschaftlichen Vorteile, die sich durch den Einsatz dieser modernen Technik ergeben. (orig.)

  8. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  9. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  10. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  11. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  12. CONGESTION CONTROL IMPROVED QoS ROUTING SCHEME FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    A. Elakkiya*, B. Santhana Krishnan, Dr. M. Ramaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is distributed self-governing sensors used to monitor the physical conditions of the environment. They are constructed by nodes where each of them is connected to sensors. These sensor nodes acquire real time information and transmit the information. When large number of sensor nodes are active in transmitting the information there is a possibility of congestion in the data packets. Congestion occurs due to buffer overflow, channel contention, packet collision, reporti...

  13. Loss Performance Modeling for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks With Speed-Sensitive Call Admission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim

    2011-01-01

    . This approach avoids unnecessary and frequent handoff between cells and reduces signaling overheads. An approximation model with guaranteed accuracy and low computational complexity is presented for the loss performance of multiservice traffic. The accuracy of numerical results is validated by comparing......A hierarchical overlay structure is an alternative solution that integrates existing and future heterogeneous wireless networks to provide subscribers with better mobile broadband services. Traffic loss performance in such integrated heterogeneous networks is necessary for an operator's network...

  14. Frequency-controlled wireless shape memory polymer microactuator for drug delivery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, M A; Ahmad, A; Mohamed Ali, M S

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports the wireless Shape-Memory-Polymer actuator operated by external radio frequency magnetic fields and its application in a drug delivery device. The actuator is driven by a frequency-sensitive wireless resonant heater which is bonded directly to the Shape-Memory-Polymer and is activated only when the field frequency is tuned to the resonant frequency of heater. The heater is fabricated using a double-sided Cu-clad Polyimide with much simpler fabrication steps compared to previously reported methods. The actuation range of 140 μm as the tip opening distance is achieved at device temperature 44 °C in 30 s using 0.05 W RF power. A repeatability test shows that the actuator's average maximum displacement is 110 μm and standard deviation of 12 μm. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate drug release with 5 μL of an acidic solution loaded in the reservoir and the device is immersed in DI water. The actuator is successfully operated in water through wireless activation. The acidic solution is released and diffused in water with an average release rate of 0.172 μL/min.

  15. A Low-Power Wireless Image Sensor Node with Noise-Robust Moving Object Detection and a Region-of-Interest Based Rate Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    from both environment and hardware further reduces the transmission energy with negligible computation and memory overhead. The rate controller...detection, Region-of-interest, Rate control Introduction In wireless image sensor nodes for moving object surveillance, energy efficiency can be...noise, reliable moving object detection is required to avoid unnecessary transmission of background scenes [1]. Transmission energy can be further

  16. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  17. Mondani intraoral welding: historical process and main practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Carlo, L; Pasqualini, M E; Mondani, P M; Rossi, F; Moglioni, E; Shulman, M

    2017-01-01

    The intraoral welder was invented by Dr. Pierluigi Mondani during the early 70’s to weld titanium needle implants to a titanium bar in patient’s mouth and to load them immediately by means of resin prosthesis. The clinical use documented dates back to 1972. Over the years, many practical applications have been added to the initial one, which have expanded the use of this device. In this scientific work, main applications are described. The aim of the work was to trace the historical process of intra-oral welding according to Mondani and describe the main practical applications. Intra-oral welding is a process introduced by dr. Pier Luigi Mondani of Genova (Italy) which allows to firmly conjoin titanium implants of any shape by means of a titanium bar or also directly between them in the mouth during surgery. The immediate stabilization achieved by intraoral welding increases implants success rate, allows immediate loading even in situations of bone atrophy, saves implants that are running into failure, re-evaluates fractured implants, allows to stabilize submerged implants postponing prosthesis management, allows to achieve efficient rehabilitation protocols to deal with difficult cases. The 40-years’ experience with intra-oral welding described in this article, confirms the ease of use and efficiency in providing immediate stabilization of titanium implants of all types.

  18. Dose measurements in intraoral radiography using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorín, C.; Azorín, J.; Aguirre, F.; Rivera, T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-ray in medicine demands to expose the patient and the professional to the lowest radiation doses available in agreement with ALARA philosophy. The reference level for intraoral dental radiography is 7 mGy and, in Mexico, a number of examinations of this type are performed annually. It is considered that approximately 25% of all the X-rays examinations carried out in our country correspond to intraoral radiographies. In other hand, most of the intraoral X-ray equipment correspond to conventional radiological systems using film, which are developed as much manual as automatically. In this work the results of determining the doses received by the patients in intraoral radiological examinations made with different radiological systems using LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters are presented. In some conventional radiological systems using film, when films are developed manual or automatically, incident kerma up to 10.61 ± 0.74 mGv were determined. These values exceed that reference level suggested by the IAEA and in the Mexican standards for intraoral examinations.

  19. Dose measurements in intraoral radiography using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorín, C; Rivera, T; Azorín, J; Aguirre, F

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-ray in medicine demands to expose the patient and the professional to the lowest radiation doses available in agreement with ALARA philosophy. The reference level for intraoral dental radiography is 7 mGy and, in Mexico, a number of examinations of this type are performed annually. It is considered that approximately 25% of all the X-rays examinations carried out in our country correspond to intraoral radiographies. In other hand, most of the intraoral X-ray equipment correspond to conventional radiological systems using film, which are developed as much manual as automatically. In this work the results of determining the doses received by the patients in intraoral radiological examinations made with different radiological systems using LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters are presented. In some conventional radiological systems using film, when films are developed manual or automatically, incident kerma up to 10.61 ± 0.74 mGv were determined. These values exceed that reference level suggested by the IAEA and in the Mexican standards for intraoral examinations

  20. Comparison of cone - beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography in detection of recurrent caries under composite restorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Rahmani, Hamid, E-mail: Dr.a.shokri@gmail.com [Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Samira [Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Secondary caries is the most common cause of dental restoration failures. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detection of recurrent caries around composite restorations mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared using bur on 45 extracted sound human molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, cavities were restored with composite resin after etching and bonding (n=15). In Group 2, 500-μm thick wax was placed over the buccal, lingual and gingival walls and the cavities were restored with composite resin. Group 3 specimens were subjected to pH cycling and artificial caries were created on the buccal, lingual and gingival walls. The cavities were restored with composite. Conventional and digital photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP; Optime) radiographs and two CBCTs images (NewTom 3G and Cranex 3D) were obtained from them. Presence or absence of caries in the cavity walls was assessed on these images. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT was significantly higher than that of digital and conventional intraoral radiography (p<0.05). The accuracy was 0.83, 0.78, 0.55 and 0.49 for CBCT Cranex 3D, CBCT NewTom 3G, conventional and digital intraoral radiography, respectively. CBCT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than digital and conventional intraoral radiography for detection of secondary caries around composite restorations. (author)

  1. Comparison of cone - beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography in detection of recurrent caries under composite restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Rahmani, Hamid; Khajeh, Samira

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is the most common cause of dental restoration failures. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detection of recurrent caries around composite restorations mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared using bur on 45 extracted sound human molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, cavities were restored with composite resin after etching and bonding (n=15). In Group 2, 500-μm thick wax was placed over the buccal, lingual and gingival walls and the cavities were restored with composite resin. Group 3 specimens were subjected to pH cycling and artificial caries were created on the buccal, lingual and gingival walls. The cavities were restored with composite. Conventional and digital photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP; Optime) radiographs and two CBCTs images (NewTom 3G and Cranex 3D) were obtained from them. Presence or absence of caries in the cavity walls was assessed on these images. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT was significantly higher than that of digital and conventional intraoral radiography (p<0.05). The accuracy was 0.83, 0.78, 0.55 and 0.49 for CBCT Cranex 3D, CBCT NewTom 3G, conventional and digital intraoral radiography, respectively. CBCT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than digital and conventional intraoral radiography for detection of secondary caries around composite restorations. (author)

  2. Performance Analysis of Quality-of-Service Controls in a Cell-Cluster-Based Wireless ATM Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Jong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient cell-cluster-based call control scheme with guaranteed quality-of-service(QoS) provision ing is presented for next generation wireless ATM networks and its performance is mathematically analyzed using the open queuing network. With the cell-cluster-based call control, at the time a mobile connection is admitted to the network, a virtual cell is constructed by choosing a group of neighboring base stations to which the call may probabilistic ally hand over and by assigning to the call a collection of virtual paths between the base stations. Within a micro cell/pico cell environment, it is seen that the cell-cluster-based call control can support effectively a very high rate of handovers, provides very high system capacity, and guarantees a high degree of frequency reuse over the same geographical region without requiring the intervention of the network call control processor each time a handover occurs. But since mobiles, once admitted, are free to roam within the virtual cell, congestion condition occurs in which the number of calls to be handled by one base station exceeds the cell sites` capacity of radio channel and consequently a predefined QoS provision cannot be guaranteed. So, there must be a call admission control function to limit the number of calls existing in a cell-cluster such that required QoS objectives are met. As call acceptance criteria for constant-bit-rate or realtime variable-bit-rate ATM connections, we define four mobile QoS metrics: new-call blocking probability, wireless channel utilization efficiency, congestion probability and normalized average congestion duration. In addition, for QoS provision ing to available-bit-rate, unspecified-bit-rate or non-realtime variable-bit-rate connections, we further define another QoS metric, the minimum threshold breaking probability. By using the open network queuing model, we derive closed form expressions for the five QoS metrics defined above and show that they can be

  3. Comprehensive Study of the Flow Control Strategy in a Wirelessly Charged Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform with Two Rotation Axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunzeng; Chen, Yiqi; Meng, Xiangrui; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ying; Xu, Youchun; Cheng, Jing

    2017-09-05

    Centrifugal microfluidics has been widely applied in the sample-in-answer-out systems for the analyses of nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. However, the inherent characteristic of unidirectional fluid propulsion limits the flexibility of these fluidic chips. Providing an extra degree of freedom to allow the unconstrained and reversible pumping of liquid is an effective strategy to address this limitation. In this study, a wirelessly charged centrifugal microfluidic platform with two rotation axes has been constructed and the flow control strategy in such platform with two degrees of freedom was comprehensively studied for the first time. Inductively coupled coils are installed on the platform to achieve wireless power transfer to the spinning stage. A micro servo motor is mounted on both sides of the stage to alter the orientation of the device around a secondary rotation axis on demand during stage rotation. The basic liquid operations on this platform, including directional transport of liquid, valving, metering, and mixing, are comprehensively studied and realized. Finally, a chip for the simultaneous determination of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and methanal in water samples is designed and tested based on the strategy presented in this paper, demonstrating the potential use of this platform for on-site environmental monitoring, food safety testing, and other life science applications.

  4. Model and Frequency Control for Three-Phase Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to the eliminate the “dead spot” in the traditional three-phase wireless power transfer (WPT system, a three-phase WPT system with an asymmetric magnetic circuit is presented in this paper. Additionally, mathematical model of the system is established and the system parameters are optimized. Based on the fact that the resonant frequency and efficiency are greatly varied with the load, a method based on impedance conversion is further proposed to improve the frequency stability and system efficiency. Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method is reliable and feasible to eliminate the “dead spot.”

  5. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Jin Woo; Jung, Yun Hoa; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm 2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p 2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  6. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deferm, Julie T.; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A. W.; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J.; Maal, Thomas J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by

  7. A Brief Review of the Need for Robust Smart Wireless Sensor Systems for Future Propulsion Systems, Distributed Engine Controls, and Propulsion Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper discusses the motivation towards the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. The challenges associated with the use of traditional wired sensor systems will be reviewed and potential advantages of Smart Sensor Systems will be discussed. A brief review of potential applications for wireless smart sensor networks and their potential impact on propulsion system operation, with emphasis on Distributed Engine Control and Propulsion Health Management, will be given. A specific example related to the development of high temperature Smart Sensor Systems based on silicon carbide electronics will be discussed. It is concluded that the development of a range of robust smart wireless sensor systems are a foundation for future development of intelligent propulsion systems with enhanced capabilities.

  8. Unusual presentation of firework injury causing intraoral burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Chintan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fireworks are commonly used in celebrate festive occasions. We present a case of an unusual presentation of intraoral firework injury, which is a very rare case. A fifteen year old boy kept four explosive papercaps wrapped in a small polythene bags in between his left molars and crushed them. This resulted in a contused lacerated wound over the left buccal mucosa. Patient was treated conservatively with maintenance of intraoral hygiene, antibiotics, proteolytic enzymes and analgesics. It took 18 days for complete healing of the wound.

  9. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Seok Lee; Jin-Hak Kim; Shin-Young Cho; Il-Oun Lee

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless b...

  10. The repeatability of an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Francis F; Goldstein, Gary R; Jang, Sungkoo; Hittelman, Eugene

    2002-12-01

    Characterizing and reproducing color remain one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry. A relatively new intraoral colorimeter measures the color of natural teeth and metal-ceramic restorations and prints out a color recipe for the Vintage Halo Porcelain System. The reliability of the colorimeter is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a contact dental colorimeter and to correlate the shade registered by the colorimeter with the shade selected by experienced clinicians. In part I of the study, 2 examiners (A and B) took 2 colorimeter measurements from the maxillary right central incisors of 11 subjects. The examiners were blinded to their own data and those of other investigators. The readings were repeated 3 weeks later with the same protocol. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was used to analyze the collected data. In part II of the study, 2 experienced clinicians (examiners D and E) selected a shade from the classic Vita Lumin Vacuum shade guide for the maxillary right central incisors of the same 11 subjects. The clinicians were blinded to each other's selections and the colorimeter readings. It should be noted that the manufacturer of the colorimeter uses the terms shade, value, and hue to represent chroma, value, and hue, respectively, as defined in the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:39-110). The reliability analysis results for each of the combined trials for shade, value, and hue were all >.94. The interexaminer reliability alpha values were >.9 for shade and value and.64 to.74 for hue. The interexaminer alpha represented the value range of each of 4 measurements. The intraexaminer reliability alpha values for shade, value, and hue were.99,.95, and.96 for examiner A and.99,.93, and.97 for examiner B, respectively. In part II of the study, the colorimeter agreed with itself 82% of the time, whereas clinicians agreed with each other on the selected shade 73% of the time. Selections made

  11. Design and Validation of a Control Algorithm for a SAE J2954-Compliant Wireless Charger to Guarantee the Operational Electrical Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel González-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer is foreseen as a suitable technology to provide charge without cables to electric vehicles. This technology is mainly supported by two coupled coils, whose mutual inductance is sensitive to their relative positions. Variations on this coefficient greatly impact the electrical magnitudes of the wireless charger. The aim of this paper is the design and validation of a control algorithm for an Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2954-compliant wireless charger to guarantee some operational and electrical constraints. These constraints are designed to prevent some components from being damaged by excessive voltage or current. This paper also presents the details for the design and implementation of the bidirectional charger topology in which the proposed controller is incorporated. The controller is installed on the primary and on the secondary side, given that wireless communication is necessary with the other side. The input data of the controller helps it decide about the phase shift required to apply in the DC/AC converter. The experimental results demonstrate how the system regulates the output voltage of the DC/AC converter so that some electrical magnitudes do not exceed predefined thresholds. The regulation, which has been tested when coil misalignments occur, is proven to be effective.

  12. An Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a battery-free…

  13. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Follow Simple Instructions and Perform Designated Occupational Activities According to Simple Instructions with Battery-Free Wireless Mice by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study extended Battery-free wireless mouse functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated simple occupational activities according to simple instructions by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using Battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed…

  14. Examination of the Position Accuracy of Implant Abutments Reproduced by Intra-Oral Optical Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaira, Chikayuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kondo, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    An impression technique called optical impression using intraoral scanner has attracted attention in digital dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the optical impression, comparing a virtual model reproduced by an intraoral scanner to a working cast made by conventional silicone impression technique. Two implants were placed on a master model. Working casts made of plaster were fabricated from the master model by silicone impression. The distance between the ball abutments and the angulation between the healing abutments of 5 mm and 7 mm height at master model were measured using Computer Numerical Control Coordinate Measuring Machine (CNCCMM) as control. Working casts were then measured using CNCCMM, and virtual models via stereo lithography data of master model were measured by a three-dimensional analyzing software. The distance between ball abutments of the master model was 9634.9 ± 1.2 μm. The mean values of trueness of the Lava COS and working casts were 64.5 μm and 22.5 μm, respectively, greater than that of control. The mean of precision values of the Lava COS and working casts were 15.6 μm and 13.5 μm, respectively. In the case of a 5-mm-height healing abutment, mean angulation error of the Lava COS was greater than that of the working cast, resulting in significant differences in trueness and precision. However, in the case of a 7-mm-height abutment, mean angulation errors of the Lava COS and the working cast were not significantly different in trueness and precision. Therefore, distance errors of the optical impression were slightly greater than those of conventional impression. Moreover, the trueness and precision of angulation error could be improved in the optical impression using longer healing abutments. In the near future, the development of information technology could enable improvement in the accuracy of the optical impression with intraoral scanners. PMID:27706225

  15. Design and implementation of an Internet based effective controlling and monitoring system with wireless fieldbus communications technologies for process automation--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinceviz, Yucel; Bayindir, Ramazan

    2012-05-01

    The network requirements of control systems in industrial applications increase day by day. The Internet based control system and various fieldbus systems have been designed in order to meet these requirements. This paper describes an Internet based control system with wireless fieldbus communication designed for distributed processes. The system was implemented as an experimental setup in a laboratory. In industrial facilities, the process control layer and the distance connection of the distributed control devices in the lowest levels of the industrial production environment are provided with fieldbus networks. In this paper, the Internet based control system that will be able to meet the system requirements with a new-generation communication structure, which is called wired/wireless hybrid system, has been designed on field level and carried out to cover all sectors of distributed automation, from process control, to distributed input/output (I/O). The system has been accomplished by hardware structure with a programmable logic controller (PLC), a communication processor (CP) module, two industrial wireless modules and a distributed I/O module, Motor Protection Package (MPP) and software structure with WinCC flexible program used for the screen of Scada (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), SIMATIC MANAGER package program ("STEP7") used for the hardware and network configuration and also for downloading control program to PLC. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of an Optical-Wireless Network with Spectrum Sensing and Dynamic Resource Allocation Using Optically Controlled Reconfigurable Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Raimundo-Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the concept and reports the implementation of an adaptive and cognitive radio over fiber architecture. It is aimed at dealing with the new demands for convergent networks by means of simultaneously providing the functionalities of multiband radiofrequency spectrum sensing, dynamic resource allocation, and centralized processing capability, as well as the use of optically controlled reconfigurable antennas and radio over fiber technology. The performance of this novel and innovative architecture has been evaluated in a geographically distributed optical-wireless network under real conditions and for different fiber lengths. Experimental results demonstrate reach extension of more than 40 times and an enhancement of more than 30 dB in the carrier to interference plus noise ratio parameter.

  17. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  18. On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Andre N.; Souza, Efren L.; Nakamura, Fabiola G.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. PMID:22969329

  19. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Model and Analysis Approach Based on Networked Control Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the importance of the clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, this paper proposes a new research approach and model approach, which quantitatively analyzes clock synchronization from the perspective of modern control theory. Two kinds of control strategies are used as examples to analyze the effect of the control strategy on clock synchronization from different perspectives, namely, the single-step optimal control and the LQG global optimal control. The proposed method establishes a state space model for clock relationship, thus making dimension extension and parameter identification easier, and is robust to changes under the condition of node failures and new nodes. And through the design of different control strategies and performance index functions, the method can satisfy various requirements of the synchronization precision, convergence speed, energy consumption and the computational complexity, and so on. Finally, the simulations show that the synchronization accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the existing protocol, and the former convergence speed of the synchronization error is faster.

  20. A Short-Current Control Method for Constant Frequency Current-Fed Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequency drift is a serious problem in Current-Fed Wireless Power Transfer (WPT systems. When the operating frequency is drifting from the inherent Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS frequency of resonant network, large short currents will appear and damage the switches. In this paper, an inductance-dampening method is proposed to inhibit short currents and achieve constant-frequency operation. By adding a small auxiliary series inductance in the primary resonant network, short currents are greatly attenuated to a safe level. The operation principle and steady-state analysis of the system are provided. An overlapping time self-regulating circuit is designed to guarantee ZVS running. The range of auxiliary inductances is discussed and its critical value is calculated exactly. The design methodology is described and a design example is presented. Finally, a prototype is built and the experimental results verify the proposed method.

  1. Neurofeedback Control in Parkinsonian Patients Using Electrocorticography Signals Accessed Wirelessly With a Chronic, Fully Implanted Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Preeya; Swann, Nicole C; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Miller, Andrew; Starr, Philip A; Carmena, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms such as rigidity and bradykinesia that prevent normal movement. Beta band oscillations (13-30 Hz) in neural local field potentials (LFPs) have been associated with these motor symptoms. Here, three PD patients implanted with a therapeutic deep brain neural stimulator that can also record and wirelessly stream neural data played a neurofeedback game where they modulated their beta band power from sensorimotor cortical areas. Patients' beta band power was streamed in real-time to update the position of a cursor that they tried to drive into a cued target. After playing the game for 1-2 hours each, all three patients exhibited above chance-level performance regardless of subcortical stimulation levels. This study, for the first time, demonstrates using an invasive neural recording system for at-home neurofeedback training. Future work will investigate chronic neurofeedback training as a potentially therapeutic tool for patients with neurological disorders.

  2. An easy to deploy street light control system based on wireless communication and LED technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elejoste, Pilar; Angulo, Ignacio; Perallos, Asier; Chertudi, Aitor; Zuazola, Ignacio Julio García; Moreno, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Astrain, José Javier; Falcone, Francisco; Villadangos, Jesús

    2013-05-16

    This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding's environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  3. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Villadangos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  4. Five years experience with a new intraoral maxillary distraction device (RID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Arnaud; Diner, Patrick A; Galliani, Eva; Tomat, Catherine; Vazquez, Ma rie Paule; Carls, Friedrich P

    2011-10-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is well established for the treatment of severe retromaxilla. We report our experience since 2004 of the treatment of 19 patients using a new intraoral maxillary distraction device. Maxillary advancement was successful in all patients with mean advancement of 9.6mm (range 4-17) measured at a point in lateral cephalograms. The new device limited surgical exposure and the amount of materials implanted, and improved control in every phase of the distraction. It was psychologically accepted by patients and was more comfortable than existing devices. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraoral approach: A newer technique for filler injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chytra V Anand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Filler injections are the most common aesthetic procedures used for volume correction. Various techniques have been described in the use of fillers. This article reviews the available literature on a new technique using the intraoral approach for injection of fillers.

  6. Digital Intraoral Imaging Re-Exposure Rates of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Anthea; Winand, Curtis; Ganatra, Seema; Lai, Hollis; Alsulfyani, Noura; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila

    2018-01-01

    A guiding principle of radiation safety is ensuring that radiation dosage is as low as possible while yielding the necessary diagnostic information. Intraoral images taken with conventional dental film have a higher re-exposure rate when taken by dental students compared to experienced staff. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and reasons for re-exposure of digital intraoral images taken by third- and fourth-year dental students in a dental school clinic. At one dental school in Canada, the total number of intraoral images taken by third- and fourth-year dental students, re-exposures, and error descriptions were extracted from patient clinical records for an eight-month period (September 2015 to April 2016). The data were categorized to distinguish between digital images taken with solid-state sensors or photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP). The results showed that 9,397 intraoral images were made, and 1,064 required re-exposure. The most common error requiring re-exposure for bitewing images was an error in placement of the receptor too far mesially or distally (29% for sensors and 18% for PSP). The most common error requiring re-exposure for periapical images was inadequate capture of the periapical area (37% for sensors and 6% for PSP). A retake rate of 11% was calculated, and the common technique errors causing image deficiencies were identified. Educational intervention can now be specifically designed to reduce the retake rate and radiation dose for future patients.

  7. Assessment of intraoral image artifacts related to photostimulable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-21

    Apr 21, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: A total of 11,443 intraoral images, including 4291 periapical and 7152 bitewing ... that produce a latent image when exposed to radiation. ..... dropped on the floor or if a patient bites hard into their.

  8. A wireless control system for the HTS-ECRIS, PKDELIS ion source for the HCI injector at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, R.N.; Mathur, Y.; Lakshmy, P.S.; Rao, U.K.; Barua, P.; Rodrigues, G.; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-01-01

    An 18 Ghz high Tc superconducting ECR PKDELIS developed in collaboration with Pantechnic, France, has been installed on a high voltage (100 kV) deck in the beam hall III to provide charged particles for the HCI-DTL system. Control system for this source has been implemented using state of the art wireless interconnection system for electrical isolation of the control/coordination channel. An RS 485/MODBUS system for the local control bus has been used for its proven reliability and ruggedness and stable software/hardware support. The end control point is implemented with industrial grade and low cost but rugged and high voltage protected ADC, DAC and DIOs. Realtime parameter plotting and realtime automatic scanning of M/q vs magnetic field at a fast speed by sweeping the mass analyzer without operator interference are provided. Remote Ethernet based client server interface using a TCP/IP based compatible protocol interface for integration of the system with the complete facility of HCI + DTL + LINAC also has been incorporated. The system has proven to be rugged and reliable. The details of control system architecture, its topology, hardware and software interfaces and protocols and complete software structure will be provided in the paper. (author)

  9. Diurnal variation of intraoral pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lyons, Karl M; Kieser, Jules A; Waddell, Neil J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure continuously the intraoral pH and temperature of healthy individuals to investigate their diurnal variations. Seventeen participants (mean age, 31±9 years) wore a custom-made intraoral appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 24 h, while carrying out normal daily activities including sleep. The continuous changes in intraoral pH and temperature were captured using a sensor placed on the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. The collected data were categorised into different status (awake and sleep) and periods (morning, afternoon, evening and night). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. The intraoral pH change was found to show a distinctive daily rhythm, showing a 12-h interval between maximum (7.73) and minimum (6.6) pH values. The maximum and minimum values were found to repeat after 24 h. The mean pH over 48 h (two sets of 24 h) was found to be 7.27 (±0.74). There was significant difference found in pH when subjects were awake and asleep and different periods during the day ( P pH. There was a significant difference found in temperature depending on the time of the day, except between morning and afternoon ( P =0.78). Our results showed that there is a distinctive daily, circadian-like pattern in intraoral pH variation over a 24-h period, which has been considered as one of the risk factors in sleep-related dental diseases.

  10. Wireless Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    completely change the entire landscape. For example, under the quantum computing regime, factoring prime numbers requires only polynomial time (i.e., Shor’s...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0206 Wireless Cybersecurity Biao Chen Syracuse University April 2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 21-02-2013 FINAL REPORT 01-04-2009 TO 30-11-2012 Wireless Cybersecurity

  11. On the tip of the tongue: learning typing and pointing with an intra-oral computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltenco, Héctor A; Breidegard, Björn; Struijk, Lotte N S Andreasen

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate typing and pointing performance and improvement over time of four able-bodied participants using an intra-oral tongue-computer interface for computer control. A physically disabled individual may lack the ability to efficiently control standard computer input devices. There have been several efforts to produce and evaluate interfaces that provide individuals with physical disabilities the possibility to control personal computers. Training with the intra-oral tongue-computer interface was performed by playing games over 18 sessions. Skill improvement was measured through typing and pointing exercises at the end of each training session. Typing throughput improved from averages of 2.36 to 5.43 correct words per minute. Pointing throughput improved from averages of 0.47 to 0.85 bits/s. Target tracking performance, measured as relative time on target, improved from averages of 36% to 47%. Path following throughput improved from averages of 0.31 to 0.83 bits/s and decreased to 0.53 bits/s with more difficult tasks. Learning curves support the notion that the tongue can rapidly learn novel motor tasks. Typing and pointing performance of the tongue-computer interface is comparable to performances of other proficient assistive devices, which makes the tongue a feasible input organ for computer control. Intra-oral computer interfaces could provide individuals with severe upper-limb mobility impairments the opportunity to control computers and automatic equipment. Typing and pointing performance of the tongue-computer interface is comparable to performances of other proficient assistive devices, but does not cause fatigue easily and might be invisible to other people, which is highly prioritized by assistive device users. Combination of visual and auditory feedback is vital for a good performance of an intra-oral computer interface and helps to reduce involuntary or erroneous activations.

  12. DESIGN OF CAUCUS MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (C-MAC PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS IN SMART GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEETU SHARMA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Caucus-based medium access control protocol (C-MAC is proposed to reduce the end to end delay and battery consumption of the sensor nodes deployed in the monitoring of various smart grid regions, such as substation, pole and wires, perimeter security, real time and non-real-time monitoring using wireless sensor networks. The objective is to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce the end to end delay by mitigating the energy-hole problem and by eliminating bottlenecks significantly by using caucus based efficient synchronization techniques in multi-hop square grid topology of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The protocol self-reliantly and adaptively schedules node’s wake-up times, decreases idle listening and collisions, increases network throughput, and extends network lifetime. It induces a low duty cycle for adjusting wake-up times of sensor nodes. The appropriate selection of active and sleep time slots and next hop relay nodes are proposed to minimize the data transmission latency and to reduce battery consumption to increase the network lifetime. The uniform and synchronized transmission of the data packets is of prime importance to improve the network performance. Simulation results justify that the proposed C-MAC protocol increases the network lifetime, successful data transmission ratio along-with the reduction in end to end delay. The objective of this paper is to envisage benefits and utilization of C-MAC protocol for WSNs deployed in smart grids and to draw the attention of researchers in this area.

  13. Apparatus and method supporting wireless access to multiple security layers in an industrial control and automation system or other system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Gene T.

    2013-04-16

    A method includes receiving a message at a first wireless node. The first wireless node is associated with a first wired network, and the first wired network is associated with a first security layer. The method also includes transmitting the message over the first wired network when at least one destination of the message is located in the first security layer. The method further includes wirelessly transmitting the message for delivery to a second wireless node when at least one destination of the message is located in a second security layer. The second wireless node is associated with a second wired network, and the second wired network is associated with the second security layer. The first and second security layers may be associated with different security paradigms and/or different security domains. Also, the message could be associated with destinations in the first and second security layers.

  14. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  15. Finding NEMO (novel electromaterial muscle oscillator): a polypyrrole powered robotic fish with real-time wireless speed and directional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, Scott; Alici, Gursel; Spinks, Geoffrey; Truong, Van-Tan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an autonomously powered and controlled robotic fish that incorporates an active flexural joint tail fin, activated through conducting polymer actuators based on polypyrrole (PPy). The novel electromaterial muscle oscillator (NEMO) tail fin assembly on the fish could be controlled wirelessly in real time by varying the frequency and duty cycle of the voltage signal supplied to the PPy bending-type actuators. Directional control was achieved by altering the duty cycle of the voltage input to the NEMO tail fin, which shifted the axis of oscillation and enabled turning of the robotic fish. At low speeds, the robotic fish had a turning circle as small as 15 cm (or 1.1 body lengths) in radius. The highest speed of the fish robot was estimated to be approximately 33 mm s −1 (or 0.25 body lengths s −1 ) and was achieved with a flapping frequency of 0.6–0.8 Hz which also corresponded with the most hydrodynamically efficient mode for tail fin operation. This speed is approximately ten times faster than those for any previously reported artificial muscle based device that also offers real-time speed and directional control. This study contributes to previously published studies on bio-inspired functional devices, demonstrating that electroactive polymer actuators can be real alternatives to conventional means of actuation such as electric motors

  16. Finding NEMO (novel electromaterial muscle oscillator): a polypyrrole powered robotic fish with real-time wireless speed and directional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Scott; Alici, Gursel; Truong, Van-Tan; Spinks, Geoffrey

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the development of an autonomously powered and controlled robotic fish that incorporates an active flexural joint tail fin, activated through conducting polymer actuators based on polypyrrole (PPy). The novel electromaterial muscle oscillator (NEMO) tail fin assembly on the fish could be controlled wirelessly in real time by varying the frequency and duty cycle of the voltage signal supplied to the PPy bending-type actuators. Directional control was achieved by altering the duty cycle of the voltage input to the NEMO tail fin, which shifted the axis of oscillation and enabled turning of the robotic fish. At low speeds, the robotic fish had a turning circle as small as 15 cm (or 1.1 body lengths) in radius. The highest speed of the fish robot was estimated to be approximately 33 mm s-1 (or 0.25 body lengths s-1) and was achieved with a flapping frequency of 0.6-0.8 Hz which also corresponded with the most hydrodynamically efficient mode for tail fin operation. This speed is approximately ten times faster than those for any previously reported artificial muscle based device that also offers real-time speed and directional control. This study contributes to previously published studies on bio-inspired functional devices, demonstrating that electroactive polymer actuators can be real alternatives to conventional means of actuation such as electric motors.

  17. Wireless steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Akopian, David; D'Souza, Sunil

    2006-02-01

    Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends in mobile phone technology indicate that tasks achievable by mobile devices will soon exceed our imagination. This paper undertakes a case study of the development and implementation of one of the first known steganography (data hiding) applications on a mobile device. Steganography is traditionally accomplished using the high processing speeds of desktop or notebook computers. With the introduction of mobile platform operating systems, there arises an opportunity for the users to develop and embed their own applications. We take advantage of this opportunity with the introduction of wireless steganographic algorithms. Thus we demonstrates that custom applications, popular with security establishments, can be developed also on mobile systems independent of both the mobile device manufacturer and mobile service provider. For example, this might be a very important feature if the communication is to be controlled exclusively by authorized personnel. The paper begins by reviewing the technological capabilities of modern mobile devices. Then we address a suitable development platform which is based on Symbian TM/Series60 TM architecture. Finally, two data hiding applications developed for Symbian TM/Series60 TM mobile phones are presented.

  18. Designing of Simulation for Engine Room Km. Sinabung with Control Monitoring Web Server Based by Wireless Network and Power Line Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, Eko Sasmito; Adietya, Berlian Arswendo; S.P, Firdaus

    2013-01-01

    Engine room monitoring control system is monitoring and controlling main engine and auxiliary engine from long distance by powerline communication network and wireless network to ease the operator in operating the ship and save operational cost. To prevent error in programming the main engine and auxiliary engine, a simulation using instrument software is needed to know the machine characteristic. After simulation result fulfills the requirement which is approached the value of test record, i...

  19. DESIGNING OF SIMULATION FOR ENGINE ROOM KM. SINABUNG WITH CONTROL MONITORING WEB SERVER BASED BY WIRELESS NETWORK AND POWER LINE COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Sasmito Hadi; Berlian Arswendo Adietya; Firdaus S.P

    2013-01-01

    Engine room monitoring control system is monitoring and controlling main engine and auxiliary engine from long distance by powerline communication network and wireless network to ease the operator in operating the ship and save operational cost. To prevent error in programming the main engine and auxiliary engine, a simulation using instrument software is needed to know the machine characteristic. After simulation result fulfills the requirement which is approached the value of test record, i...

  20. Energy-Efficient Control with Harvesting Predictions for Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Feng, Qijie; Chen, Yanlian

    2016-01-04

    Wireless sensor networks equipped with rechargeable batteries are useful for outdoor environmental monitoring. However, the severe energy constraints of the sensor nodes present major challenges for long-term applications. To achieve sustainability, solar cells can be used to acquire energy from the environment. Unfortunately, the energy supplied by the harvesting system is generally intermittent and considerably influenced by the weather. To improve the energy efficiency and extend the lifetime of the networks, we propose algorithms for harvested energy prediction using environmental shadow detection. Thus, the sensor nodes can adjust their scheduling plans accordingly to best suit their energy production and residual battery levels. Furthermore, we introduce clustering and routing selection methods to optimize the data transmission, and a Bayesian network is used for warning notifications of bottlenecks along the path. The entire system is implemented on a real-time Texas Instruments CC2530 embedded platform, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms sustain the networks' activities in an uninterrupted and efficient manner.

  1. A Game Theory Based Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the presence of congestion increases the ratio of packet loss and energy consumption and reduces the network throughput. Particularly, this situation will be more complex in Internet of Things (IoT environment, which is composed of thousands of heterogeneous nodes. RPL is an IPv6 routing protocol in low power and lossy networks standardized by IETF. However, the RPL can induce problems under network congestion, such as frequently parent changing and throughput degradation. In this paper, we address the congestion problem between parent nodes and child nodes in RPL-enabled networks, which typically consist of low power and resource constraint devices. To mitigate the effect of network congestion, we design a parent-change procedure by game theory strategy, by which the child nodes can change next hop neighbors toward the sink. Comparing to the ContikiRPL implementation, the simulation results show that our protocol can achieve more than two times improvement in throughput and reduce packet loss rate with less increasing of average hop count.

  2. Energy-Efficient Control with Harvesting Predictions for Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengyue Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks equipped with rechargeable batteries are useful for outdoor environmental monitoring. However, the severe energy constraints of the sensor nodes present major challenges for long-term applications. To achieve sustainability, solar cells can be used to acquire energy from the environment. Unfortunately, the energy supplied by the harvesting system is generally intermittent and considerably influenced by the weather. To improve the energy efficiency and extend the lifetime of the networks, we propose algorithms for harvested energy prediction using environmental shadow detection. Thus, the sensor nodes can adjust their scheduling plans accordingly to best suit their energy production and residual battery levels. Furthermore, we introduce clustering and routing selection methods to optimize the data transmission, and a Bayesian network is used for warning notifications of bottlenecks along the path. The entire system is implemented on a real-time Texas Instruments CC2530 embedded platform, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms sustain the networks’ activities in an uninterrupted and efficient manner.

  3. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  4. Elemental, microstructural, and mechanical characterization of high gold orthodontic brackets after intraoral aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersche, Sepp; Sifakakis, Iosif; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elemental composition, the microstructure, and the selected mechanical properties of high gold orthodontic brackets after intraoral aging. Thirty Incognito™ (3M Unitek, Bad Essen, Germany) lingual brackets were studied, 15 brackets as received (control group) and 15 brackets retrieved from different patients after orthodontic treatment. The surface of the wing area was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was performed, and the elemental composition was determined by X-ray EDS analysis (EDX). After appropriate metallographic preparation, the mechanical properties tested were Martens hardness (HM), indentation modulus (EIT), elastic index (ηIT), and Vickers hardness (HV). These properties were determined employing instrumented indentation testing (IIT) with a Vickers indenter. The results were statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant differences evidenced in surface morphology and elemental content between the control and the experimental group. These two groups of brackets showed no statistically significant difference in surface morphology. Moreover, the mean values of HM, EIT, ηIT, and HV did not reach statistical significance between the groups (p>0.05). Under the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that the surface elemental content and microstructure as well as the evaluated mechanical properties of the Incognito™ lingual brackets remain unaffected by intraoral aging.

  5. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Results are reported for basic research in mobile wireless communication networks for tactical applications including investigations of new methods for error-control coding and decoding, modulation...

  6. Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    assessment method, particularly assessment of 8 intra-oral digital photographs is comparable to the visual examination method in the primary dentition. With the additional benefits of archiving, remote scoring, allowing multiple scorers to score images and enabling longitudinal analysis, the photographic assessment method may be used as an alternative caries detection method in the primary dentition in situations where the visual examination method may not be applicable such as when examiner blinding is required and in practice based randomised controlled trials (RCTs). PMID:23312001

  7. Decentralized power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available control problems. However, such contributions can not solve the power control problems in MRMC configurations because of the architectural and structural differences amongst them. This paper presents a dynamic power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN...

  8. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-09-18

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols.

  9. Probability of Interference-Optimal and Energy-Efficient Analysis for Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been widely used in recent years, how to reduce their energy consumption and interference has become a major issue. Topology control is a common and effective approach to improve network performance, such as reducing the energy consumption and network interference, improving the network connectivity, etc. Many topology control algorithms reduce network interference by dynamically adjusting the node transmission range. However, reducing the network interference by adjusting the transmission range is probabilistic. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze the probability of interference-optimality for the WSNs and prove that the probability of interference-optimality increases with the increasing of the original transmission range. Under a specific transmission range, the probability reaches the maximum value when the transmission range is 0.85r in homogeneous networks and 0.84r in heterogeneous networks. In addition, we also prove that when the network is energy-efficient, the network is also interference-optimal with probability 1 both in the homogeneous and heterogeneous networks.

  10. Analysis of Adaptive Control Scheme in IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Hui-Cheng

    In order to achieve the prioritized quality of service (QoS) guarantee, the IEEE 802.11e EDCAF (the enhanced distributed channel access function) provides the distinguished services by configuring the different QoS parameters to different access categories (ACs). An admission control scheme is needed to maximize the utilization of wireless channel. Most of papers study throughput improvement by solving the complicated multidimensional Markov-chain model. In this paper, we introduce a back-off model to study the transmission probability of the different arbitration interframe space number (AIFSN) and the minimum contention window size (CWmin). We propose an adaptive control scheme (ACS) to dynamically update AIFSN and CWmin based on the periodical monitoring of current channel status and QoS requirements to achieve the specific service differentiation at access points (AP). This paper provides an effective tuning mechanism for improving QoS in WLAN. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the basic EDCAF in terms of throughput and service differentiation especially at high collision rate.

  11. Intra-oral Sebaceous Gland Tumours in Two Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, D-M; Lee, S-H; Woo, S-H; Kim, D-Y

    2017-11-01

    A 12-year-old female miniature schnauzer and a 12-year-old neutered female cocker spaniel each had a grey-yellow nodular lesion arising from the gingiva. Microscopical examination showed that both nodules were composed of varied proportions of sebocytes and basal-type reserve cells with few ducts lined by stratified squamous epithelium. Based on the histopathological findings, the cases were diagnosed as sebaceous adenoma and sebaceous epithelioma, respectively. In man, the occurrence of sebaceous neoplasms in the oral cavity has been reported to some extent, but these lesions are very rare in animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intra-oral sebaceous neoplasms in dogs. Intra-oral sebaceous epithelioma has never been reported in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Piezosurgical osteotomy for harvesting intraoral block bone graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmiganthan, Mahalingam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Shanmugasundaram, Natarajan; Daniel, Rajkumar; Ramesh, Sadashiva B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations for the cutting of bone was first introduced two decades ago. Piezoelectric surgery is a minimally invasive technique that lessens the risk of damage to surrounding soft tissues and important structures such as nerves, vessels, and mucosa. It also reduces damage to osteocytes and permits good survival of bony cells during harvesting of bone. Grafting with intraoral bone blocks is a good way to reconstruct severe horizontal and vertical bone resorption in future implants sites. The piezosurgery system creates an effective osteotomy with minimal or no trauma to soft tissue in contrast to conventional surgical burs or saws and minimizes a patient's psychological stress and fear during osteotomy under local anesthesia. The purpose of this article is to describe the harvesting of intraoral bone blocks using the piezoelectric surgery device. PMID:23066242

  14. Piezosurgical osteotomy for harvesting intraoral block bone graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalingam Lakshmiganthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasonic vibrations for the cutting of bone was first introduced two decades ago. Piezoelectric surgery is a minimally invasive technique that lessens the risk of damage to surrounding soft tissues and important structures such as nerves, vessels, and mucosa. It also reduces damage to osteocytes and permits good survival of bony cells during harvesting of bone. Grafting with intraoral bone blocks is a good way to reconstruct severe horizontal and vertical bone resorption in future implants sites. The piezosurgery system creates an effective osteotomy with minimal or no trauma to soft tissue in contrast to conventional surgical burs or saws and minimizes a patient′s psychological stress and fear during osteotomy under local anesthesia. The purpose of this article is to describe the harvesting of intraoral bone blocks using the piezoelectric surgery device.

  15. Radiation exposure and dose evaluation in intraoral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, B.; Looe, H. K.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Eenboom, F.; Chofor, N.; Sering, M.; Ruehmann, A.; Poplawski, A.; Willborn, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, dose area product measurements have been performed to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental radiology. Measurements were carried out at 60 X-ray units for all types of intraoral examinations performed in clinical routine. The third quartile values calculated range from 26.2 to 87.0 mGy cm 2 . The results showed that there exists a large difference between the patient exposures among different dental facilities. It was also observed that dentists working with faster film type or higher tube voltage are not always associated with lower exposure. The study demonstrated the necessity to have the DRLs laid out as guidelines in dental radiology. (authors)

  16. Multiple intraoral neurofibromas: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krithika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type I (NF I is an autosomal dominant disease transmitted with a high degree of penetrance. The disease is expressed in different forms. NF I accounts for almost 90% of the cases although nine types have been described to date. We report one such case of a 40-year-old male who presented with multiple nodules on the body and multiple intraoral soft tissue swellings. He was diagnosed to have NF I, having satisfied the diagnostic criteria for the same. This paper highlights the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of NF, the prevalence and the significance of intraoral neurofibromas and the need for the general practitioner to be aware of this condition.

  17. Secure and Efficient Access Control Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks in the Cross-Domain Context of the IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays wireless sensor network (WSN is increasingly being used in the Internet of Things (IoT for data collection, and design of an access control scheme that allows an Internet user as part of IoT to access the WSN becomes a hot topic. A lot of access control schemes have been proposed for the WSNs in the context of the IoT. Nevertheless, almost all of these schemes assume that communication nodes in different network domains share common system parameters, which is not suitable for cross-domain IoT environment in practical situations. To solve this shortcoming, we propose a more secure and efficient access control scheme for wireless sensor networks in the cross-domain context of the Internet of Things, which allows an Internet user in a certificateless cryptography (CLC environment to communicate with a sensor node in an identity-based cryptography (IBC environment with different system parameters. Moreover, our proposed scheme achieves known session-specific temporary information security (KSSTIS that most of access control schemes cannot satisfy. Performance analysis is given to show that our scheme is well suited for wireless sensor networks in the cross-domain context of the IoT.

  18. A Spike Neural Controller for Traffic Load Parameter with Priority-Based Rate in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Adnan Shiltagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs are a type of sensor network that contains sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones; therefore the WMSNS are able to produce multimedia data such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar data from the surrounding environment. Most multimedia applications typically produce huge volumes of data, this leads to congestion. To address this challenge, This paper proposes Modify Spike Neural Network control for Traffic Load Parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (MSNTLP with EWBPRC. The Modify Spike Neural Network controller (MSNC can calculate the appropriate traffic load parameter μ for each parent node and then use in the EWPBRC algorithm to estimate the transmission rate of parent nodes and then assign a suitable transmission rate for each child node. A comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and fuzzy logic controller for traffic load parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm shows that the (MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm in terms of packet loss, queue delay and throughput. Another comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ shows that the MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ in terms of packet loss ratio and queue delay. A simulation process is developed and tested using the network simulator _2 (NS2 in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (64-bit, core i7, RAM 8GB, hard 1TB.

  19. Avance maxilar en pacientes fisurados labio palatinos con distractor intraoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adoración Martínez Plaza

    2015-07-01

    Conclusiones: La DO intraoral es una técnica alternativa exitosa para avance del maxilar en pacientes fisurados labio palatinos que necesiten un avance inferior a 10 mm. Produce mejoras en el perfil esquelético y blando. Los dispositivos internos no producen impacto psicológico. La contención más larga en el tiempo. La recidiva es difícil de definir y calcular.

  20. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  1. Intraoral Laser Welding (ILW in Implant Prosthetic Dentistry: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to describe the possibility of using the Nd:YAG laser device utilized in the dental offices to weld metals intraorally. The authors, before applying this technique “in vivo” on human subjects, tested the “in vitro” metal welding efficacy of dental Nd:YAG device firstly by interferometry, SEM, and EDS and subsequently by thermal camera and thermocouples in order to record temperature changes during the welding process on bovine jaws. Four implants were inserted in the edentulous maxillary arch of a 67 years old male patient. Immediately after that, a bar previously made by the dental technician was intraorally welded to the abutments by Nd:YAG laser (Fidelis Plus III, Fotona, Slovenia with these parameters: 9.90 mJ, 1 Hz, 15 msec, 0.6 mm spot. Then the prosthesis was connected to the bar with four OT Caps. This clinical study, even if preliminary, suggests that laser welding technique may be intraorally used without side effects.

  2. Precise positioning of an intraoral distractor using augmented reality in patients with hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Miao; Hou, Yikang; Xu, Yourong; Shen, Congcong; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Le; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Chai, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Through three-dimensional real time imaging, augmented reality (AR) can provide an overlay of the anatomical structure, or visual cues for specific landmarks. In this study, an AR Toolkit was used for distraction osteogenesis with hemifacial microsomia to define the mandibular osteotomy line and assist with intraoral distractor placement. 20 patients with hemifacial microsomia were studied and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Pre-operative computed tomography was used in both groups, whereas AR was used in the experimental group. Afterwards, pre- and post-operative computed tomographic scans of both groups were superimposed, and several measurements were made and analysed. Both the conventional method and AR technique achieved proper positioning of the osteotomy planes, although the AR was more accurate. The difference in average vertical distance from the coronoid and condyle process to the pre- and post-operative cutting planes was significant (p 0.05) was observed in the average angle between the two planes. The difference in deviations between the intersection points of the overlaid mandible across two cutting planes was also significant (p Augmented reality tools such as the AR Toolkit may be helpful for precise positioning of intraoral distractors in patients with hemifacial microsomia in craniofacial surgery. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Method for Intraoral Access to the Superior Head of the Human Lateral Pterygoid Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleli Tôrres Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The uncoordinated activity of the superior and inferior parts of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM has been suggested to be one of the causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement. A therapy for this muscle disorder is the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX, of the LPM. However, there is a potential risk of side effects with the injection guide methods currently available. In addition, they do not permit appropriate differentiation between the two bellies of the muscle. Herein, a novel method is presented to provide intraoral access to the superior head of the human LPM with maximal control and minimal hazards. Methods. Computational tomography along with digital imaging software programs and rapid prototyping techniques were used to create a rapid prototyped guide to orient BTX injections in the superior LPM. Results. The method proved to be feasible and reliable. Furthermore, when tested in one volunteer it allowed precise access to the upper head of LPM, without producing side effects. Conclusions. The prototyped guide presented in this paper is a novel tool that provides intraoral access to the superior head of the LPM. Further studies will be necessary to test the efficacy and validate this method in a larger cohort of subjects.

  4. Radiation protection and quality assurance in dental radiology: I. Intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Alcaraz, M.; Jodar-Porlan, S.; Saura-Iniesta, A.M.; Velasco-Hidalgo, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies 2524 official reports on quality assurance in dental radiography, made in the context of the three first revisions of these dental clinics as a result of the entry into force of the regulations establishing the duties for these types of facilities. In the results section we present a quantitative analysis of the facilities equipped with an intraoral device, making a special reference to the brands they have available, as well as their physical features (KV, mAs, filtration, length of cone) and the deviations detected in their operation. Some of the features in the process of obtaining radiological images at those facilities (film control, development time, liquid renewal) are determined, and the average dose of ionizing radiation used in order to obtain the radiological image of the same tooth is presented. This paper shows, in a quantitative way, the characteristic features of intraoral dental radiology in our medium. The study is intended to be continued during the next years, which would allow the assessment of the prospective improvement in dental radiological performances as a result of the newly established regulations. (author)

  5. Intra-oral orthosis vs amitriptyline in chronic tension-type headache: a clinical and laser evoked potentials study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardaro Michele

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we examined clinical and laser-evoked potentials (LEP features in two groups of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH patients treated with two different approaches: intra-oral appliance of prosthesis, aiming to reduce muscular tenderness, and 10 mg daily amitriptyline. Methods Eighteen patients with diagnosed CTTH participated in this open label, controlled study. A baseline evaluation was performed for clinical features, Total Tenderness Score (TTS and a topographic analysis of LEPs obtained manually and the pericranial points stimulation in all patients vs. healthy subjects. Thereafter, patients were randomly assigned to a two-month treatment by either amitriptyline or intra-oral appliance. Results and discussion Both the intra-oral appliance and amitriptyline significantly reduced headache frequency. The TTS was significantly reduced in the group treated with the appliance. The amplitude of P2 response elicited by stimulation of pericranial zones showed a reduction after amitriptyline treatment. Both therapies were effective in reducing headache severity, the appliance with a prevalent action on the pericranial muscular tenderness, amitriptyline reducing the activity of the central cortical structures subtending pain elaboration Conclusion The results of this study may suggest that in CTTH both the interventions at the peripheral and central levels improve the outcome of headache.

  6. Remotely controllable WDM-PON technology for wireless fronthaul/backhaul application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Michael H.; Wagner, Christoph; Lawin, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost WDM-PON solutions for fronthaul and backhaul applications will include remotely controlled tail-end transceivers. We report on control aspects of these transceivers and how standardization is evolving to enable these applications.......Low-cost WDM-PON solutions for fronthaul and backhaul applications will include remotely controlled tail-end transceivers. We report on control aspects of these transceivers and how standardization is evolving to enable these applications....

  7. 76 FR 23624 - In the Matter of Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on March 21, 2011, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Creative Kingdoms, LLC of Wakefield, Rhode Island and New Kingdoms, LLC of Nehalem, Oregon. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain video game systems and wireless controllers and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,500,917 (``the '917 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 6,761,637 (``the '637 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 7,850,527 (``the '527 patent''); and U.S. Patent No. 7,896,742 (``the '742 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainants request that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and a cease and desist order.

  8. Wireless Tots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lee-Allison

    2003-01-01

    The first wireless technology program for preschoolers was implemented in January at the Primrose School at Bentwater in Atlanta, Georgia, a new corporate school operated by Primrose School Franchising Co. The new school serves as a testing and training facility for groundbreaking educational approaches, including emerging innovations in…

  9. Wireless Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  10. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CoCMA: Energy-Efficient Coverage Control in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chung Wang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs has drawn much attention in recent years. Given the limited energy for sensor nodes, it is critical to implement WSNs with energy efficiency designs. Sensing coverage in networks, on the other hand, may degrade gradually over time after WSNs are activated. For mission-critical applications, therefore, energy-efficient coverage control should be taken into consideration to support the quality of service (QoS of WSNs. Usually, coverage-controlling strategies present some challenging problems: (1 resolving the conflicts while determining which nodes should be turned off to conserve energy; (2 designing an optimal wake-up scheme that avoids awakening more nodes than necessary. In this paper, we implement an energy-efficient coverage control in cluster-based WSNs using a Memetic Algorithm (MA-based approach, entitled CoCMA, to resolve the challenging problems. The CoCMA contains two optimization strategies: a MA-based schedule for sensor nodes and a wake-up scheme, which are responsible to prolong the network lifetime while maintaining coverage preservation. The MA-based schedule is applied to a given WSN to avoid unnecessary energy consumption caused by the redundant nodes. During the network operation, the wake-up scheme awakens sleeping sensor nodes to recover coverage hole caused by dead nodes. The performance evaluation of the proposed CoCMA was conducted on a cluster-based WSN (CWSN under either a random or a uniform deployment of sensor nodes. Simulation results show that the performance yielded by the combination of MA and wake-up scheme is better than that in some existing approaches. Furthermore, CoCMA is able to activate fewer sensor nodes to monitor the required sensing area.

  12. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-01-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Safety Study

    OpenAIRE

    M.Shankar; Dr.M.Sridar; Dr.M.Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Few security mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been implemented, and even fewer have been applied in real deployments. The limited resources of each sensor node makes security in WSNs hard, as the tradeoff between security and practicality must be carefully considered. These complex systems include in their design different types of information and communication technology systems, such as wireless (mesh) sensor networks, to carry out control processes in real time. This fact...

  14. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-04-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

  15. On the Impact of Wireless Jamming on the Distributed Secondary Microgrid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Meng, Lexuan

    2017-01-01

    The secondary control in direct current microgrids (MGs) is used to restore the voltage deviations caused by the primary droop control, where the latter is implemented locally in each distributed generator and reacts to load variations. Numerous recent works propose to implement the secondary con...... the secondary MG control. Compared to other denial-of-service attacks that are oriented against the tertiary control, such as economic dispatch, the attack on the secondary control presented here can be more severe, as it disrupts the basic functionality of the MG.......The secondary control in direct current microgrids (MGs) is used to restore the voltage deviations caused by the primary droop control, where the latter is implemented locally in each distributed generator and reacts to load variations. Numerous recent works propose to implement the secondary...... control in a distributed fashion, relying on a communication system to achieve consensus among MG units. This paper shows that, if the system is not designed to cope with adversary communication impairments, then a malicious attacker can apply a simple jamming of a few units of the MG and thus compromise...

  16. Mini-remote-control Antenna for On-body Wireless Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lauge K.; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Yatman, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Two commercially available, compact antennas are evaluated for use in a small 55mm 39mm 15mm Remote Control (RC). The influence of the body on the path gain (jS21j) at 2:45 GHz between the remote control and a monopole parallel to the side of the head is evaluated. The measurements are made on two...

  17. Feedback power control strategies in wireless sensor networks with joint channel decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrardo, Andrea; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Martalò, Marco; Perna, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive feedback power control strategies for block-faded multiple access schemes with correlated sources and joint channel decoding (JCD). In particular, upon the derivation of the feasible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region for the considered multiple access schemes, i.e., the multidimensional SNR region where error-free communications are, in principle, possible, two feedback power control strategies are proposed: (i) a classical feedback power control strategy, which aims at equalizing all link SNRs at the access point (AP), and (ii) an innovative optimized feedback power control strategy, which tries to make the network operational point fall in the feasible SNR region at the lowest overall transmit energy consumption. These strategies will be referred to as "balanced SNR" and "unbalanced SNR," respectively. While they require, in principle, an unlimited power control range at the sources, we also propose practical versions with a limited power control range. We preliminary consider a scenario with orthogonal links and ideal feedback. Then, we analyze the robustness of the proposed power control strategies to possible non-idealities, in terms of residual multiple access interference and noisy feedback channels. Finally, we successfully apply the proposed feedback power control strategies to a limiting case of the class of considered multiple access schemes, namely a central estimating officer (CEO) scenario, where the sensors observe noisy versions of a common binary information sequence and the AP's goal is to estimate this sequence by properly fusing the soft-output information output by the JCD algorithm.

  18. Information Security and Wireless: Alternate Approaches for Controlling Access to Critical Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nandram, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    .... Typically, network managers implement countermeasures to augment security. The goal of this thesis is to research approaches that compliment existing security measures with fine grain access control measures. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is adopted to accommodate such granular access control as it provides the mechanisms for scaling security down to the document content level.

  19. Design And Planning Of E- Learning EnvironmentE-Education System On Heterogeneous Wireless Network Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThandarOo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research is to provide a more efficient and effective communication method between teacher and student with the use of heterogeneous network. Moreover the effective use of heterogeneous network can be emphasized. The system of e-education can develop utilizing wireless network.The e-Education system can help students to communicate with their teacher more easily and effectively using a heterogeneous wireless network system. In this wireless network system students who are blind or dumb will also be able to communicate and learn from the teacher as normal students can do. All the devices or laptops will be connected on wireless LAN. Even when the teacher is not around he will be able to help his students with their study or give instructions easily by using the mobile phone to send text or voice signal. When the teacher sends information to the dumb student it will be converted into sign language for the student to be able to understand. When the dumb student sends the information to the teacher it will be converted into text for the teacher to understand. For the blind student text instructions from the teacher will be converted into audio signal using text-to-speech conversion.Thus the performance of heterogeneous wireless network model can evaluate by using Robust Optimization Method. Therefore the e-Education systems performance improves by evaluating Robust Optimization Method.

  20. Wireless control system for two-axis linear oscillating motion applying CBR technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the aspects of elaborating a movement control system. The system is to implement determination of movement characteristics of the object controlled, which performs an oscillating linear motion in a two-axis direction. The system has an electronic-optical principle of action: light receivers are attached to a controlled object, and a laser light emitter is attached to a static construction. While the object performs movement along the construction, the light emitter signal is registered by light receivers, based on which determination of the object position and characteristic of its movement are performed. An algorithm of system implementation is elaborated. Signal processing is performed on the basis of the case-based reasoning method. The system is to be used in machine-building industry in controlling relative displacement of the dynamic object or its assembly.

  1. The efficacy of centralized flow rate control in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, K.; Ward, P.; Karsten, M.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    predictably to congestion notification, can we enforce a desired rate allocation through a single centralized controller? The answer is not obvious because flows experience varying contention levels, and transmissions are scheduled by a node using imperfect

  2. Feedback Power Control Strategies inWireless Sensor Networks with Joint Channel Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Perna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive feedback power control strategies for block-faded multiple access schemes with correlated sources and joint channel decoding (JCD. In particular, upon the derivation of the feasible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR region for the considered multiple access schemes, i.e., the multidimensional SNR region where error-free communications are, in principle, possible, two feedback power control strategies are proposed: (i a classical feedback power control strategy, which aims at equalizing all link SNRs at the access point (AP, and (ii an innovative optimized feedback power control strategy, which tries to make the network operational point fall in the feasible SNR region at the lowest overall transmit energy consumption. These strategies will be referred to as “balanced SNR” and “unbalanced SNR,” respectively. While they require, in principle, an unlimited power control range at the sources, we also propose practical versions with a limited power control range. We preliminary consider a scenario with orthogonal links and ideal feedback. Then, we analyze the robustness of the proposed power control strategies to possible non-idealities, in terms of residual multiple access interference and noisy feedback channels. Finally, we successfully apply the proposed feedback power control strategies to a limiting case of the class of considered multiple access schemes, namely a central estimating officer (CEO scenario, where the sensors observe noisy versions of a common binary information sequence and the AP’s goal is to estimate this sequence by properly fusing the soft-output information output by the JCD algorithm.

  3. Wireless sensor network adaptive cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T. [SynapSense Corp., Folsom, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Options for reducing data centre cooling energy requirements and their cost savings were discussed with particular reference to a wireless control solution developed by SynapSense Corporation. The wireless sensor network reduces cooling energy use at data centres by providing improved air flow management through the installation of cold aisle containment. The use of this low cost, non-invasive wireless sensor network has reduced the cooling energy use in a data center at BC Hydro by 30 per cent. The system also reduced the server and storage fan energy by 3 per cent by maintaining inlet air temperature below ASHRAE recommended operating range. The distribution of low power, low cost wireless sensors has enabled visualization tools that are changing the way that data centres are managed. The annual savings have been estimated at 4,560,000 kWh and the annual carbon dioxide abatement is approximately 1,400 metric tons. tabs., figs.

  4. Cross-layer based adaptive wireless traffic control for per-flow and per-station fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwamogsatham Siwaruk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs, the bandwidth is not fairly shared among stations due to the distributed coordination function (DCF mechanism in the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. It introduces the per-flow and per-station unfairness problems between uplink and downlink flows, as the uplink flows usually dominate the downlink flows. In addition, some users may use greedy applications such as video streaming, which may prevent other applications from connecting to the Internet. In this article, we propose an adaptive cross-layer bandwidth allocation mechanism to provide per-station and per-flow fairness. To verify the effectiveness and scalability, our scheme is implemented on a wireless access router and numerous experiments in a typical wireless environment with both TCP and UDP traffic are conducted to evaluate performance of the proposed scheme.

  5. Wireless Magnetic-Based Closed-Loop Control of Self-Propelled Microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate closed-loop motion control of self-propelled microjets under the influence of external magnetic fields. We control the orientation of the microjets using external magnetic torque, whereas the linear motion towards a reference position is accomplished by the thrust and pulling magnetic forces generated by the ejecting oxygen bubbles and field gradients, respectively. The magnetic dipole moment of the microjets is characterized using the U-turn technique, and its average is calculated to be 1.310−10 A.m2 at magnetic field and linear velocity of 2 mT and 100 µm/s, respectively. The characterized magnetic dipole moment is used in the realization of the magnetic force-current map of the microjets. This map in turn is used for the design of a closed-loop control system that does not depend on the exact dynamical model of the microjets and the accurate knowledge of the parameters of the magnetic system. The motion control characteristics in the transient- and steady-states depend on the concentration of the surrounding fluid (hydrogen peroxide solution) and the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our control system allows us to position microjets at an average velocity of 115 m/s, and within an average region-of-convergence of 365 m. PMID:24505244

  6. Versatility of radial forearm free flap for intraoral reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Jelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The radial forearm free flap has an important role in reconstruction of the oncologic defects in the region of head and neck. Objective. The aim was to present and evaluate clinical experience and results in the radial forearm free transfer for intraoral reconstructions after resections due to malignancies. Methods. This article illustrates the versatility and reliability of forearm single donor site in 21 patients with a variety of intraoral oncologic defects who underwent immediate (19 patients, 90.5% or delayed (2 patients, 9.5% reconstruction using free flaps from the radial forearm. Fascio-cutaneous flaps were used in patients with floor of the mouth (6 cases, buccal mucosa (5 cases, lip (1 case and a retromolar triangle (2 cases defects, or after hemiglossectomy (7 cases. In addition, the palmaris longus tendon was included with the flap in 2 patients that required oral sphincter reconstruction. Results. An overall success rate was 90.5%. Flap failures were detected in two (9.5% patients, in one patient due to late ischemic necrosis, which appeared one week after the surgery, and in another patient due to venous congestion, which could not be salvaged after immediate re-exploration. Two patients required re-exploration due to vein thrombosis. The donor site healed uneventfully in all patients, except one, who had partial loss of skin graft. Conclusion. The radial forearm free flap is, due to multiple advantages, an acceptable method for reconstructions after resection of intraoral malignancies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41006

  7. Intraoral scan bodies in implant dentistry: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Ryan M; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-04-05

    Intraoral scan body (ISB) design is highly variable and its role in the digital workflow and accuracy of digital impressions is not well understood. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relevant reports pertaining to ISBs with regard to design and accuracy and to describe their evolution and role in the digital dentistry workflow. Special attention was placed on their key features in relation to intraoral scanning technology and the digitization process. A MEDLINE/PubMed search was performed to identify relevant reports pertaining to ISB usage in dentistry. This search included but was not limited to scan body features and design, scan body accuracy, and scan body techniques and the role of ISBs in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) processes. Commercially available scan bodies were examined, and a patient situation was shown highlighting the use of ISBs in the digital workflow. Deficiencies in the reports were found regarding various scan body topics, including ISB features/design, accuracy, and the role of ISBs in CAD-CAM processes. ISBs are complex implant-positioning-transfer devices that play an essential role in the digital workflow and fabrication of accurately fitting implant-supported restorations. With scanner technology rapidly evolving and becoming more widespread, future studies are needed and should be directed toward all parts of the digital workflow when using ISBs. By understanding the basic components of ISBs and how they relate to digital scanning and CAD-CAM technology, more emphasis may be placed on their importance and usage in the digital workflow to ensure accurate transfer of implant position to the virtual and analog definitive cast. Efforts should be made by clinicians to identify an optimal ISB design in relation to the specific intraoral scanning technology being used. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Optimal control of transmission power management in wireless backbone mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available , the TPM problems are modelled as a singular-perturbation of both energy and packet evolutions at the queue system as well as a weak-coupling problem, owing to the interference across adjacent multiple channels. Based on these models, an optimal control...

  9. Optimum practical design of distributed and asynchronous power control for wireless networks with shared bands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Štěpán; Yamamoto, K.; Yoshida, S.

    E90A, č. 7 (2007), s. 1261-1270 ISSN 0916-8508 Grant - others:Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 14213201; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 16206040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : power control Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.287, year: 2007

  10. Joint queue-perturbed and weakly-coupled power control for wireless backbone networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available perturbation and weakly-coupled based power control approach for the WBNs. The ultimate objectives are to increase energy-efficiency and the overal network capacity. In order to achieve these objectives, a Markov chain model is first presented to describe...

  11. Analysing the Effectiveness of Wearable Wireless Sensors in Controlling Crowd Disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Y.H.A.; Viswanathan, V.; Lees, M.; Cai, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Love Parade disaster in Duisberg, Germany lead to several deaths and injuries. Disasters like this occur due to the existence of high densities in a limited area. We propose a wearable electronic device that helps reduce such disasters by directing people and thus controlling the density of the

  12. Maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis with intraoral device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Yoko; Uematsu, Setsuko; Takada, Kenji

    2010-11-01

    This article describes the surgical orthodontic treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in a patient with cleft lip and palate using maxillary distraction osteogenesis with internal maxillary distractors. Maxillary advancement was performed to correct the retrusive maxillary facial profile and Class III malocclusion. Rotational movement of the distraction segment was made to correct the upper dental midline. Although maxillary advancement was insufficient because of unexpected breakage of the intraoral distractor after completion of the distraction, skeletal traction with a face mask compensated for the shortage. Successful esthetic improvement and posttreatment occlusal stability were achieved with no discernible relapse after 2 years of retention.

  13. New intraoral x-ray fluorographic imaging for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, T.; Osada, T.; Aoyama, W.; Iguchi, M.; Suzuki, S.; Kanno, M.; Moriya, K.; Yoshimura, M.; Tusuda, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new dental x-ray fluorographic unit has been developed. This unit is composed of small intraoral x-ray tube, a compact x-ray image intensifier, and a high-resolution TV system. The purposes for developing this equipment were to (1) directly observe the tooth during endodontic procedures and (2) reduce x-ray exposure to the patient and the dentist. The radiation exposure can be reduced to about 1/600 the exposure used with conventional dental film. In clinical trials, a satisfactory fluorographic dental image for endodontic treatment was obtained with this new device

  14. Efficiency of the cervical lead shield during intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaffe, I.; Littner, M.M.; Shlezinger, T.; Segal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The cervical lead shield was compared with the conventional lead apron with regard to efficiency of protection against radiation during a full-month survey (fourteen periapical and two bitewing radiographs). The study was performed on a Temex tissue-equivalent human phantom, and thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure radiation absorption in the ovaries, testes, and thyroid gland areas. Results showed that the cervical shield significantly reduces the amount of radiation to the skin in all three areas and is equally as effective as the combination of lead apron and thyroid shield. It is therefore recommended as a protective measure during intraoral radiography

  15. Application of intra-oral dental scanners in the digital workflow of implantology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Wicher J; Andriessen, Frank S; Wismeijer, Daniel; Ren, Yijin

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intra-oral scanners will play a central role in digital dentistry in the near future. In this study the accuracy of three intra-oral scanners was compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A master model made of stone was fitted with three high precision manufactured PEEK cylinders and scanned

  16. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a... structures. The x-ray source (a tube) is located inside the mouth. This generic type of device may include... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section...

  17. Application of intra-oral dental scanners in the digital workflow of implantology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.J.; Andriessen, F.S.; Wismeijer, D.; Ren, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-oral scanners will play a central role in digital dentistry in the near future. In this study the accuracy of three intra-oral scanners was compared. Materials and methods: A master model made of stone was fitted with three high precision manufactured PEEK cylinders and scanned with three

  18. Performance Analysis of IIUM Wireless Campus Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, Suhaimi Abd; Masud, Mosharrof H; Anwar, Farhat

    2013-01-01

    International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is one of the leading universities in the world in terms of quality of education that has been achieved due to providing numerous facilities including wireless services to every enrolled student. The quality of this wireless service is controlled and monitored by Information Technology Division (ITD), an ISO standardized organization under the university. This paper aims to investigate the constraints of wireless campus network of IIUM. It evaluates the performance of the IIUM wireless campus network in terms of delay, throughput and jitter. QualNet 5.2 simulator tool has employed to measure these performances of IIUM wireless campus network. The observation from the simulation result could be one of the influencing factors in improving wireless services for ITD and further improvement

  19. Energy Savings by Wireless Control of Speed, Scheduling and Travel Times for Hauling Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Rylander, David; Axelsson, Jakob; Wallin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A Quarry and Aggregate production site consist of sequential production processes and activities to process and produce the output products. Compared to a fixed manufacturing plant, the quarry processes involve mobile machines such as wheel loaders, trucks and articulated haulers and a highly dynamic road infrastructure. Today, the mobile machines are generally not synchronized or controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. This indicates a general improvement potentia...

  20. Wireless sensor networks in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, A.A.; Jawad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in wireless technology are a clear indication of the commercial promise of wireless networks. Industrial wireless sensing has now become more economical, efficient and secure as compared to traditional wired sensing. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are successfully being used for process monitoring and control of many industrial plants. This paper explores how Chemical Industry in particular can benefit from the application of WSN technology. Various examples of successful implementation are cited. In order to address the industrial requirements, we propose a low power and low cost solution for process monitoring by implementing WSN. (author)

  1. An Error Control Scheme for Delay Constrained Data Communication in a Chain-Based Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghikhaki, Zahra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Delay sensitive applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) demand timely data delivery for fast identification of out-of-ordinary situations and fast and reliable delivery of notification and warning messages. Due to unreliable nature of WSNs, achieving real-time guarantees and providing

  2. Assisting Patients with Disabilities to Actively Perform Occupational Activities Using Battery-Free Wireless Mice to Control Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Chang, Man-Ling; Kung, Ssu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    The latest studies have adopted software technology to turn the battery-free wireless mouse into a high performance object location detector using a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP). This study extended OLDP functionality to assess whether two patients recovering from cerebral vascular accidents would be able to actively…

  3. Assisting People with Disabilities in Actively Performing Designated Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice to Control Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The latest researches use software technology (OLDP, object location detection programs) to turn a commercial high-technology product, i.e. a battery-free wireless mouse, into a high performance/precise object location detector to detect whether or not an object has been placed in the designated location. The preferred environmental stimulation is…

  4. An Adaptive and Autonomous Sensor Sampling Frequency Control Scheme for Energy-Efficient Data Acquisition in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Nikoletseas, S.E.; Chlebus, B.S.; Johnson, D.; Krishnamachari, B.

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are increasingly being used in environmental monitoring applications. Collecting raw data from these networks can lead to excessive energy consumption. This is especially true when the application requires specialized sensors that have very high energy consumption, e.g.

  5. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms.

  6. GSM Web-Based Centralized Remote Wireless Automatic Controlling and Monitoring of Aquafeeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. L.; Idris, A.; Hasan, Z.

    2016-03-01

    This project is about producing a prototype to feed fishes at fish ponds of remote location with the use of GSM mobile phone. An automatic fish feeder is an electric device that has been designed to give out the right amount of pellets at the designed time. In this project, the automatic feeder designed consists of photovoltaic solar cells that are used to generate electricity and storing it into batteries. Solar charge controllers can be used to determine the rate of which current is drawn and added from the batteries. GSM cellular communication is used to allow user to control from a distance. Commands or instructions are sent to the operating system which in return runs the servomotor and blower by blowing certain amount of fish pallets into the pond to feed the fishes. The duration of the feeding processes is fixed by the user, hence the amount of fish food pallets released are precisely the same for each time. This technology is especially useful for fish farmers where they can remotely feed their fishes.

  7. [Imaging analysis of temporomandibular joint anatomy changes after intraoral condylectomy combined with orthognathic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, N J; Li, Z L; Yi, B; Liang, C; Wang, X; Wang, X X

    2016-06-01

    To quantitatively analyze the changes of facial symmetry and temporomandibular joint structure at different periods after intraoral condylectomy combined with orthognathic surgery, and to evaluate the long-term stability after the operation. Spiral CT data of 10 cases treated by intraoral condylectomy combined with orthognathic surgery were collected, and then reconstructed by ProPlan software. Mark points were drawn on the 3D-images reconstructed immediately after the operation, and 6 months and 12 months after the operation. The measurements parameters included condylar axis angle in three dimensions, condylar-glenoid relative position and condylar facial morphology related indicators. The results were statistically analyzed by the consistency test and the variance of repeated measurement data. The facial asymmetry of the patients was corrected after operation, the height of the affected mandibular ascending ramus(T1: [67.81±6.95]mm, T2: [64.49±6.24]mm, T3: [63.05±7.07]mm)as well as the degree of pogonion deviation decreased(T1: [2.79±4.93]mm, T2: [0.37±4.20]mm, T3: [0.33 ± 3.97]mm)(P0.05). The post-operative 3D changes of the position and shape of the resected and its contralateral condylar showed that the bilateral condylar axis angle in the horizontal plane gradually grew after operation(affected condyle: 71.95° ± 7.47°, 74.73°±8.44°, 76.56°±5.22°; control condyle: 72.60°±5.56°, 76.00°±5.30°, 77.19°±6.20° and had significant difference between all the post-operative periods)(P0.05). The intraoral condylectomy combined with orthognathic surgery can eliminate condylar lesions effectively and correct the facial asymmetry caused by condylar benign tumor and hyperplasia. The facial symmetry can be maintained well after the operation, and the post-operative condylar morphology changes tended to be stable six months after the operation.

  8. Wireless monitoring system for personal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hironobu; Kawamura, Takeshi; Inoue, Takayuki

    2000-01-01

    Fuji Electric has developed a system for the higher radiation controlled area in nuclear power plants, in which exposure dose data measured on the wearer's chest, hands, and legs are transferred by wireless to the data control equipment so that the exposure dose can be controlled in real time. The system using a specified low-power radio wave causes no interference to the other types of dosimeters. The data control equipment automatically saves data received from the dosimeters and also has functions of calibration of dosimeters and maintenance of the wireless system. This paper describes the wireless monitoring system that consists of chest and parts dosimeters and data control equipment. (author)

  9. Performance Analysis of Diversity-Controlled Multi-User Superposition Transmission for 5G Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jeong Seon; Chu, Eunmi; Jung, Bang Chul; Jin, Hu

    2018-02-10

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-complexity multi-user superposition transmission (MUST) technique for 5G downlink networks, which allows multiple cell-edge users to be multiplexed with a single cell-center user. We call the proposed technique diversity-controlled MUST technique since the cell-center user enjoys the frequency diversity effect via signal repetition over multiple orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) sub-carriers. We assume that a base station is equipped with a single antenna but users are equipped with multiple antennas. In addition, we assume that the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation is used for users. We mathematically analyze the bit error rate (BER) of both cell-edge users and cell-center users, which is the first theoretical result in the literature to the best of our knowledge. The mathematical analysis is validated through extensive link-level simulations.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Quantitative Sensory Testing to Discriminate Inflammatory Toothache and Intraoral Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    A differential diagnosis between inflammatory toothache (IT) and intraoral neuropathic pain is challenging. The aim of this diagnostic study was to quantify somatosensory function of subjects with IT (acute pulpitis) and atypical odontalgia (AO, intraoral neuropathic pain) and healthy volunteers and to quantify how accurately quantitative sensory testing (QST) discriminates an IT or AO diagnosis. The sample consisted of 60 subjects equally divided (n = 20) into 3 groups: (1) IT, (2) AO, and (3) control. A sequence of 4 QST methods was performed over the dentoalveolar mucosa in the apical maxillar or mandibular area: mechanical detection threshold, pain detection threshold (PDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal summation. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc analyses, and z score transformation were applied to the data. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio of the QST methods were calculated (α = 5%). Somatosensory abnormalities were found for the AO group, which is consistent with a low detection threshold to touch and pain and the presence of mechanical allodynia. For the IT group, no somatosensory abnormality was observed when compared with the control group. The most accurate QST to discriminate the diagnostic differences between IT and healthy individuals is the PDT. The diagnostic differences between AO and healthy individuals and between IT and AO are best discriminated with the mechanical detection threshold, PDT, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. The proposed QST methods may aid in the differential diagnosis between IT and AO with strong accuracy and may be used as complementary diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A method of multi-view intraoral 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Hongzhi; Xu, Yang; Lv, Peijun; Sun, Yunchun

    2015-02-01

    In dental restoration, its important to achieve a high-accuracy digital impression. Most of the existing intraoral measurement systems can only measure the tooth from a single view. Therfore - if we are wilng to acquire the whole data of a tooth, the scans of the tooth from multi-direction ad the data stitching based on the features of the surface are needed, which increases the measurement duration and influence the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a fringe-projection based on multi-view intraoral measurement system. It can acquire 3D data of the occlusal surface, the buccal surface and the lingual surface of a tooth synchronously, by using a senor with three mirrors, which aim at the three surfaces respectively and thus expand the measuring area. The constant relationship of the three mirrors is calibrated before measurement and can help stitch the data clouds acquired through different mirrors accurately. Therefore the system can obtain the 3D data of a tooth without the need to measure it from different directions for many times. Experiments proved the availability and reliability of this miniaturized measurement system.

  12. Facial exposure dose assessment during intraoral radiography by radiological technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The study examined the changes in the decreased facial exposure dose for radiological technologists depending on increased distance between the workers and the X-ray tube head during intraoral radiography. First, the facial phantom similar to the human tissues was manufactured. The shooting examination was configured to the maxillary molars for adults (60 kVp, 10 mA, 50 msec) and for children (60 kVp, 10 mA, 20 msec), and the chamber was fixed where the facial part of the radiation worker would be placed using the intraoral radiography equipment. The distances between the X-ray tube head and the phantom were set to 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm, 30 cm, 35 cm, and 40 cm. The phantom was radiated 20 times with each examination condition and the average scattered doses were examined. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 92.6% to 7.43% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the adult conditions. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 97.6% to 2.58% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the children conditions. Protection from the radiation exposure was required during the dental radiographic examination.

  13. Radiation exposure to children in intraoral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looe, H. K.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Chofor, N.; Eenboom, F.; Sering, M.; Ruehmann, A.; Poplawski, A.; Willborn, K.; Poppe, B.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, dose area product (DAP) measurements have been performed aiming at establishing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in paediatric intraoral dental radiology. Measurements were carried out at 52 X-ray units for all types of intraoral examinations performed in clinical routine. Not all X-ray units have pre-set child exposure settings with reduced exposure time or in some cases lower tube voltage. Child examinations are carried out using adult exposure settings at these units, which increases the DAP third quartile values by up to 50%. For example, third quartile values for peri-apical examination ranges from 14.4 to 40.9 mGy cm 2 for child settings and 20.6 to 48.8 mGy cm 2 when the adult settings are included. The results show that there exists a large difference between the patient exposures among different dental facilities. It was also observed that clinics working with faster film type or higher tube voltage are not always associated with lower exposure. (authors)

  14. Fuzzy Logic Control of Adaptive ARQ for Video Distribution over a Bluetooth Wireless Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Razavi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth's default automatic repeat request (ARQ scheme is not suited to video distribution resulting in missed display and decoded deadlines. Adaptive ARQ with active discard of expired packets from the send buffer is an alternative approach. However, even with the addition of cross-layer adaptation to picture-type packet importance, ARQ is not ideal in conditions of a deteriorating RF channel. The paper presents fuzzy logic control of ARQ, based on send buffer fullness and the head-of-line packet's deadline. The advantage of the fuzzy logic approach, which also scales its output according to picture type importance, is that the impact of delay can be directly introduced to the model, causing retransmissions to be reduced compared to all other schemes. The scheme considers both the delay constraints of the video stream and at the same time avoids send buffer overflow. Tests explore a variety of Bluetooth send buffer sizes and channel conditions. For adverse channel conditions and buffer size, the tests show an improvement of at least 4 dB in video quality compared to nonfuzzy schemes. The scheme can be applied to any codec with I-, P-, and (possibly B-slices by inspection of packet headers without the need for encoder intervention.

  15. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  16. Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ke; Liu, Rui Qiang

    2007-11-01

    In this work a Bluetooth-based wireless sensor network is proposed. In this bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks, information-driven star topology and energy-saved mode are used, through which a blue master node can control more than seven slave node, the energy of each sensor node is reduced and secure management of each sensor node is improved.

  17. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  18. Comparison of two intraoral scanners based on three-dimensional surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Min Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This in vivo study evaluated the difference of two well-known intraoral scanners used in dentistry, namely iTero (Align Technology and TRIOS (3Shape. Methods Thirty-two participants underwent intraoral scans with TRIOS and iTero scanners, as well as conventional alginate impressions. The scans obtained with the two intraoral scanners were compared with each other and were also compared with the corresponding model scans by means of three-dimensional surface analysis. The average differences between the two intraoral scans on the surfaces were evaluated by color-mapping. The average differences in the three-dimensional direction between each intraoral scans and its corresponding model scan were calculated at all points on the surfaces. Results The average differences between the two intraoral scanners were 0.057 mm at the maxilla and 0.069 mm at the mandible. Color histograms showed that local deviations between the two scanners occurred in the posterior area. As for difference in the three-dimensional direction, there was no statistically significant difference between two scanners. Conclusions Although there were some deviations in visible inspection, there was no statistical significance between the two intraoral scanners.

  19. Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in ICFWI 2011 conference. The 2011 International Conference on Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems (ICFWI 2011) has been held on November 30 ~ December 1, 2011, Macao, China. Topics covered include Wireless Information Networks, Wireless Networking Technologies, Mobile Software and Services, intelligent computing, network management, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Wireless Networks and Information Systems.

  20. Technology comparison of wireless of control networks for smart home and smart metering applications; Technologievergleich drahtloser Steuernetzwerke fuer Smart Home und Smart Metering Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhammer, N.; Kays, R. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kommunikationstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Smart grid power systems require a continuous communication technology networking at all levels of the hierarchy. In addition to large industrial consumers in the higher network levels, components in low voltage networks must be integrated into the smart grid. The realization of a robust control network for smart home and smart metering applications in the residential environment requires a major challenge. Due to the easy upgradeability and the great flexibility, the utilization of wireless technologies is very attractive. In practice, however, many different standards are competing. Examples for this include IEEE 802.15.4 and Konnex-RF. A tendency towards a de-facto standard is not yet in sight. In addition, the individual performance of the various technologies is difficult to estimate due to the large variety of parameters. This complicates the selection and commitment to a particular technology. However, in order to make a decision, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an objective comparison of the new communication technology layers of the current wireless control networks. As a comparison, the parameters of reliable indoor coverage and the expected energy consumption are used.

  1. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do [Universidade Federal de Sergipe - CCET - Dept. de Fisica, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  2. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2006-01-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  3. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  4. Recent advances in dental optics - Part I: 3D intraoral scanners for restorative dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzo, Silvia; Zanetti, Elisabetta M.; Franceschini, Giordano; Kilpelä, Ari; Mäkynen, Anssi

    2014-03-01

    Intra-oral scanning technology is a very fast-growing field in dentistry since it responds to the need of an accurate three-dimensional mapping of the mouth, as required in a large number of procedures such as restorative dentistry and orthodontics. Nowadays, more than 10 intra-oral scanning devices for restorative dentistry have been developed all over the world even if only some of those devices are currently available on the market. All the existing intraoral scanners try to face with problems and disadvantages of traditional impression fabrication process and are based on different non-contact optical technologies and principles. The aim of this publication is to provide an extensive review of existing intraoral scanners for restorative dentistry evaluating their working principles, features and performances.

  5. Wireless Headset Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  6. A comparative evaluation of intraoral and extraoral digital impressions: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sason, Gursharan Kaur; Mistry, Gaurang; Tabassum, Rubina; Shetty, Omkar

    2018-01-01

    The accuracy of a dental impression is determined by two factors: "trueness" and "precision." The scanners used in dentistry are relatively new in market, and very few studies have compared the "precision" and "trueness" of intraoral scanner with the extraoral scanner. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare accuracy of intraoral and extraoral digital impressions. Ten dentulous participants (male/female) aged 18-45 years with an asymptomatic endodontically treated mandibular first molars with adjacent teeth present were selected for this study. The prepared test tooth was measured using a digital Vernier caliper to obtain reference datasets. The tooth was then scanned using the intraoral scanner, and the extraoral scans were obtained using the casts made from the impressions. The datasets were divided into four groups and then statistically analyzed. The test tooth preparation was done, and dimples were made using a round diamond point on the bucco-occlusal, mesio-occlusal, disto-occlusal, and linguo-occlusal lines angles, and these were used to obtain reference datasets intraorally using a digital Vernier caliper. The test tooth was then scanned with the IO scanner (CS 3500, Carestream dental) thrice and also impressions were made using addition silicone impression material (3M™ ESPE) and dental casts were poured in Type IV dental stone (Kalrock-Kalabhai Karson India Pvt. Ltd., India) which were later scanned with the EO scanner (LAVA™ Scan ST Design system [3M™ ESPE]) thrice. The Datasets obtained from Intraoral and Extraoral scanner were exported to Dental Wings software and readings were obtained. Repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare differences between the groups and independent t -test for comparison between the readings of intraoral and extraoral scanner. Least significant difference test was used for comparison between reference datasets with intraoral and extraoral scanner, respectively. A level of statistical significance of P

  7. A novel design of an automatic lighting control system for a wireless sensor network with increased sensor lifetime and reduced sensor numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamaddoust, Reza; Haghighat, Abolfazl Toroghi; Sharif, Mohamad Javad Motahari; Capanni, Niccolo

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently being applied to energy conservation applications such as light control. We propose a design for such a system called a lighting automatic control system (LACS). The LACS system contains a centralized or distributed architecture determined by application requirements and space usage. The system optimizes the calculations and communications for lighting intensity, incorporates user illumination requirements according to their activities and performs adjustments based on external lighting effects in external sensor and external sensor-less architectures. Methods are proposed for reducing the number of sensors required and increasing the lifetime of those used, for considerably reduced energy consumption. Additionally we suggest methods for improving uniformity of illuminance distribution on a workplane's surface, which improves user satisfaction. Finally simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our design.

  8. A Novel Design of an Automatic Lighting Control System for a Wireless Sensor Network with Increased Sensor Lifetime and Reduced Sensor Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamaddoust, Reza; Haghighat, Abolfazl Toroghi; Sharif, Mohamad Javad Motahari; Capanni, Niccolo

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently being applied to energy conservation applications such as light control. We propose a design for such a system called a Lighting Automatic Control System (LACS). The LACS system contains a centralized or distributed architecture determined by application requirements and space usage. The system optimizes the calculations and communications for lighting intensity, incorporates user illumination requirements according to their activities and performs adjustments based on external lighting effects in external sensor and external sensor-less architectures. Methods are proposed for reducing the number of sensors required and increasing the lifetime of those used, for considerably reduced energy consumption. Additionally we suggest methods for improving uniformity of illuminance distribution on a workplane’s surface, which improves user satisfaction. Finally simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our design. PMID:22164114

  9. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Julie T; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A W; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J; Maal, Thomas J J

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by two observers. Conventional impressions were taken and digitized as a gold standard. The resulting surface models were aligned using an Iterative Closest Point approach. The absolute distance measurements between the intraoral models and the digitized impression were used to quantify the trueness and precision of intraoral scanning. The mean color of the palatal soft tissue was extracted in HSV (hue, saturation, value) format to establish the color precision. Finally, the mean curvature of the surface models was calculated and used for surface irregularity. Mean average distance error between the conventional impression models and the intraoral models was 0.02 ± 0.07 mm (p = 0.30). Mean interobserver color difference was - 0.08 ± 1.49° (p = 0.864), 0.28 ± 0.78% (p = 0.286), and 0.30 ± 1.14% (p = 0.426) for respectively hue, saturation, and value. The interobserver differences for overall and maximum surface irregularity were 0.01 ± 0.03 and 0.00 ± 0.05 mm. This study supports the hypothesis that the intraoral scan can perform a 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue in terms of shape, color, and curvature. An intraoral scanner can be an objective tool, adjunctive to the clinical examination of the palatal tissue.

  10. Intra-oral electron therapy for carcinoma of the oral cavity using transparent acrylic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime; Yoshiura, Takao; Ogawa, Masato; Yoshida, Akio; Ikemura, Kunio

    1986-01-01

    Intra-oral electron therapy for carcinoma of the oral cavity is a well-established treatment modality. However, the conventional metallic tubes were inconvenient to use because the irradiation field had to be confirmed by a side mirror. We devised transparent acrylic tubes which enable the positioning easy by confirming the tumor and irradiation field directry. Seven cases of various intra-oral carcinomas were treated with these new transparent acrylic tubes and good results were obtained. (author)

  11. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  12. Wireless communication technology NFC

    OpenAIRE

    MÁROVÁ, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this bachelor thesis is to handle the issue of new wireless communication technology NFC (Near Field Communication) including a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of NFC with other wireless technologies (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.). NFC is a technology for wireless communications between different electronic devices, one of which is typically a mobile phone. Near Field Communication allows wireless communication at very short distance by approaching or enclosing two devices and can...

  13. Wireless Communication Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Communication Technologies. Since 1999, the wireless LAN has experienced a tremendous growth. Reasons: Adoption of industry standards. Interoperability testing. The progress of wireless equipments to higher data rates. Rapid decrease in product ...

  14. Patient doses during intra-oral radiography in dental offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaino, Rie; Harata, Yasuo; Okano, Tomohiro; Sato, Kenji; Yosue, Takashi; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sano, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of patient entrance dose (PED) and dose area product (DAP) at various dental offices in the Tokyo bay area and comparison of PEDs with the existing diagnostic reference levels recommended in the United Kingdom (UK). The survey included 28 dental clinics categorized by the type of intra-oral radiography used. PED was measured by placing an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) at the tip of the cone. Exposure parameters were those used for the adult mandibular molar region in the respective clinics. The OSLD readings were calibrated using an ionizing chamber manufactured according to standards of the Japan Quality Assurance Organization. The area (A), of the X-ray beam, was calculated by exposing an X-ray film placed at the tip of the cone and measuring the exposed area. Then the DAP was calculated as the product of PED times A. The PED estimated at various dental clinics differed by a factor of 120. The mean, minimum, maximum, median and third quartile values of PEDs were 4.99, 0.18, 21.7, 3.60 and 5.76 mGy, respectively. At 60-70 kV, PEDs observed in clinics using digital imaging systems were below 2.1 mGy which was lower than that of clinics using films that were E-speed or faster. It was also observed that PEDs were directly proportional to the tube current and exposure time. The mean, minimum, maximum, median and third quartile of DAPs were 13.0, 0.45, 61.4, 9.34 and 13.4 cGy cm 2 , respectively. The DAP values showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99 with PED values. Measurement of PED and DAP using OSLD and X-ray film can play a useful role in optimization of radiation protection for patients during intra-oral radiography. This method can be conveniently applied to set up diagnostic reference levels by carrying out mass surveys in Japan. (author)

  15. Intra-oral cone radiation therapy for selected carcinomas of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.; Doppke, K.P.; Biggs, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 101 patients with early carcinomas of the oral cavity, T1 and T2, treated by external cobalt 60 beam and/or intra-oral cone (IOC) radiation therapy between 1964 through 1980 was made. The two year disease-free survival rate, including surgical salvage, was 88% and the local control rate was 85%. The incidence of radiation complications, i.e., soft tissue ulceration and/or osteoradionecrosis, was 14% and varied with various tumor sites and radiation doses delivered. The present review shows that local control and radiation complications are closely related to radiation doses and varies with different tumor sites of the oral cavity. Radiation therapy dosages expressed in terms of TDF values for these lesions are herein recommended. With proper selections of lesions arising from the oral cavity, combined external beam and IOC radiation therapy has been found extremely efficacious in achieving good local tumor control and high survival rates with excellent cosmetic and functional results and minimum radiation sequalae

  16. Comparison of accuracies of an intraoral spectrophotometer and conventional visual method for shade matching using two shade guide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Vidhya; Anilkumar, S; Lylajam, S; Rajesh, C; Narayan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the shade matching abilities of an intraoral spectrophotometer and the conventional visual method using two shade guides. The results of previous investigations between color perceived by human observers and color assessed by instruments have been inconclusive. The objectives were to determine accuracies and interrater agreement of both methods and effectiveness of two shade guides with either method. In the visual method, 10 examiners with normal color vision matched target control shade tabs taken from the two shade guides (VITAPAN Classical™ and VITAPAN 3D Master™) with other full sets of the respective shade guides. Each tab was matched 3 times to determine repeatability of visual examiners. The spectrophotometric shade matching was performed by two independent examiners using an intraoral spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade™) with five repetitions for each tab. Results revealed that visual method had greater accuracy than the spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer; however, exhibited significantly better interrater agreement as compared to the visual method. While VITAPAN Classical shade guide was more accurate with the spectrophotometer, VITAPAN 3D Master shade guide proved better with visual method. This in vitro study clearly delineates the advantages and limitations of both methods. There were significant differences between the methods with the visual method producing more accurate results than the spectrophotometric method. The spectrophotometer showed far better interrater agreement scores irrespective of the shade guide used. Even though visual shade matching is subjective, it is not inferior and should not be underrated. Judicious combination of both techniques is imperative to attain a successful and esthetic outcome.

  17. Influence of intra-oral sensory impairment by anaesthesia on food comminution and mixing in dentate subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, E; Fueki, K; Wakabayashi, N

    2015-06-01

    Sensory input from sensory receptors regarding food morsels can affect jaw motor behaviours during mastication. The aim was to clarify the effects of intra-oral sensory input on the food-comminuting and food-mixing capacities of dentate subjects. Eleven dentate subjects without sensory dysfunction in their oro-facial region participated in this study. Local anaesthesia was achieved on the periodontal structures and on the oral mucosa of the subjects' preferred chewing side by injecting a lidocaine solution with adrenalin. At baseline (control) and after anaesthesia, data on the subjects' food-comminuting and food-mixing capacities were gathered. The food-comminuting capacity was quantified by measuring the degree of pulverisation of peanuts (objective hardness; 45.3 [Newton, N]) after a prescribed 20 chewing strokes. The food-mixing capacity was measured as the degree of immixture of a two-coloured paraffin wax cube after 10 chewing strokes. Wax cubes of three different hardness levels were used (soft, medium and hard: 20.3, 32.6 and 75.5 [N], respectively) and were chewed in random order. After anaesthesia, the subjects' food-comminuting capacity significantly decreased (P food-mixing capacity for each hardness level of the wax cubes (P food-mixing capacity (P deterioration of the mixing capacity increased as the hardness increased. In conclusion, intra-oral sensory input can affect both food-comminuting and food-mixing capacities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stiharu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerically controlled (CNC machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based sensor node.

  19. Using the PALS Architecture to Verify a Distributed Topology Control Protocol for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks in the Presence of Node Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The PALS architecture reduces distributed, real-time asynchronous system design to the design of a synchronous system under reasonable requirements. Assuming logical synchrony leads to fewer system behaviors and provides a conceptually simpler paradigm for engineering purposes. One of the current limitations of the framework is that from a set of independent "synchronous machines", one must compose the entire synchronous system by hand, which is tedious and error-prone. We use Maude's meta-level to automatically generate a synchronous composition from user-provided component machines and a description of how the machines communicate with each other. We then use the new capabilities to verify the correctness of a distributed topology control protocol for wireless networks in the presence of nodes that may fail.

  20. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  1. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Campos, María Cecilia; Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-04-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce-only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (-3.0% [-33 mmol/mol]) and PD (-2.6% [-28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (-1.3% [-14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P improvements were observed on other clinical and self-report indicators but did not vary significantly across groups. Project Dulce with and without wireless technology substantially improved glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations.

  2. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  3. Bio-Inspired Distributed Transmission Power Control Considering QoS Fairness in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Jae; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2017-10-14

    Recently, the development of wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) has accelerated due to the rapid development of wireless technology. In the WBASN environment, many WBASNs coexist where communication ranges overlap with each other, resulting in the possibility of interference. Although nodes in a WBASN typically operate at a low power level, to avoid adversely affecting the human body, high transmission rates may be required to support some applications. In addition to this, since many varieties of applications exist in the WBASN environment, each prospective user may have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. Hence, the following issues should be considered in the WBASN environment: (1) interference between adjacent WBASNs, which influences the performance of a specific system, and (2) the degree of satisfaction on the QoS of each user, i.e., the required QoS such as user throughput should be considered to ensure that all users in the network are provided with a fair QoS satisfaction. Thus, in this paper, we propose a transmission power adjustment algorithm that addresses interference problems and guarantees QoS fairness between users. First, we use a new utility function to measure the degree of the satisfaction on the QoS for each user. Then, the transmission power of each sensor node is calculated using the Cucker-Smale model, and the QoS satisfaction of each user is synchronized dispersively. The results of simulations show that the proposed algorithm performs better than existing algorithms, with respect to QoS fairness and energy efficiency.

  4. The Wireless ATM Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palitefka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the proposed wireless ATM structure is provided. Wireless communication have been developed to a level where offered services can now be extended beyond voice and data. There are already wireless LANs, cordless systems offering data services and mobile data. Wireless LAN systems are basically planned for local, on-promises and in-house networking providing short distance radio or infrared links between computer system. The main challenge of wireless ATM is to harmonise the development of broadband wireless system with service B -ISDN/ATM and ATM LANs, and offer multimedia multiservice features for the support of time-sensitive voice communication, video, desktop multimedia applications, and LAN data traffic for the wireless user.

  5. First detection of lead in black paper from intraoral film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Debora F.C., E-mail: defcg@usp.br [Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe, S/N, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, Reginaldo S. [Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe, S/N, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Veiga, Marcia A.M.S. da [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe, S/N, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Pecora, Jesus D. [Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe, S/N, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-30

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the black paper that recovers intraoral films (BKP) has been investigated. BKP samples were collected from the Radiology Clinics of the Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. For sake of comparison, four different methods were used. The results revealed the presence of high lead levels, well above the maximum limit allowed by the legislation. Pb contamination levels achieved after the following treatments: paper digestion in nitric acid, microwave treatment, DIN38414-54 method and TCLP method were 997 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 189 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 20.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}, and 54.0 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed for lead determination according to the protocols of the applied methods. Lead contamination in used BKP was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS). All the SEM imaging was carried out in the secondary electron mode (SE) and backscattered-electron mode (QBSD) following punctual X-ray fluorescence spectra. Soil contamination derived from this product revealed the urgent need of addressing this problem. These elevated Pb levels, show that a preliminary treatment of BKP is mandatory before it is disposed into the common trash. The high lead content of this material makes its direct dumping into the environment unwise.

  6. Characteristics of Kodak Insight, an F-speed intraoral film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, J B; Platin, E; Mol, A

    2001-01-01

    This study reports film speed, contrast, exposure latitude, resolution, and response to processing solution depletion of Kodak Insight intraoral film. Densitometric curves were generated by using International Standards Organization protocol. Additional curves were generated for Ultra-speed, Ektaspeed Plus, and Insight films developed in progressively depleted processing solutions. Eight observers viewed images of a resolution test tool for maximum resolution assessment. Images of an aluminum step-wedge were reviewed to determine useful exposure latitude. Insight's sensitivity in fresh automatic processor solutions places it in the F-speed group. An average gradient of 1.8 was found with all film types. Insight provided 93% of the useful exposure latitude of Ektaspeed Plus film. Insight maintained contrast in progressively depleted processing solutions. Like Ektaspeed Plus, Insight was able to resolve at least 20 line-pairs per millimeter. Under International Standards Organization conditions, Insight required only 77% of the exposure of Ektaspeed Plus film. Insight film provided stable contrast in depleted processing solutions.

  7. Evolution of diagnostic reference levels in Spanish intraoral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Velasco, F.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Alcaraz-Saura, M.; Velasco, E.; Achel, G. D.; Canteras, M.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 16 175 official reports of quality assurance on dental radiodiagnostic surgeries from 16 Spanish autonomous regions compiled during 2002-09 were studied to determine the evolution of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for obtaining a diagnostic image in the normal conditions of clinical practice in Spanish dental clinics. A DRL of 3.1 mGy was set in 2009, which represents a 35.4 % decrease compared with the dose determined in 2002 (4.8 mGy). During the same period, the mean dose fell by only 17.2 %. The DRL recommended by the European Union in 2004 for intraoral radiology is 4 mGy, and this study shows that 83.4 % of the installations used a dose below this. Of the installations using indirect or direct digital systems 1.1 and 1.2 %, respectively, used doses higher than those recommended, while 14.2 % of those using radiographic film exceeded this limit. (authors)

  8. Geometric estimation method for x-ray digital intraoral tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Yang, Yao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    It is essential for accurate image reconstruction to obtain a set of parameters that describes the x-ray scanning geometry. A geometric estimation method is presented for x-ray digital intraoral tomosynthesis (DIT) in which the detector remains stationary while the x-ray source rotates. The main idea is to estimate the three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of each shot position using at least two small opaque balls adhering to the detector surface as the positioning markers. From the radiographs containing these balls, the position of each x-ray focal spot can be calculated independently relative to the detector center no matter what kind of scanning trajectory is used. A 3-D phantom which roughly simulates DIT was designed to evaluate the performance of this method both quantitatively and qualitatively in the sense of mean square error and structural similarity. Results are also presented for real data acquired with a DIT experimental system. These results prove the validity of this geometric estimation method.

  9. Fatigue failure of dental implants in simulated intraoral media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemtov-Yona, K; Rittel, D

    2016-09-01

    Metallic dental implants are exposed to various intraoral environments and repetitive loads during service. Relatively few studies have systematically addressed the potential influence of the environment on the mechanical integrity of the implants, which is therefore the subject of this study. Four media (groups) were selected for room temperature testing, namely dry air, saliva substitute, same with 250ppm of fluoride, and saline solution (0.9%). Monolithic Ti-6Al-4V implants were loaded until fracture, using random spectrum loading. The study reveals that the only aggressive medium of all is the saline solution, as it shortens significantly the spectrum fatigue life of the implants. The quantitative scanning electron fractographic analysis indicates that all the tested implants grew fatigue cracks of similar lengths prior to catastrophic fracture. However, the average crack growth rate in the saline medium was found to largely exceed that in other media, suggesting a decreased fracture toughness. The notion of a characteristic timescale for environmental degradation was proposed to explain the results of our spectrum tests that blend randomly low and high cycle fatigue. Random spectrum fatigue testing is powerful technique to assess and compare the mechanical performance of dental implants for various designs and/or environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraoral Scanner Technologies: A Review to Make a Successful Impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Richert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome difficulties associated with conventional techniques, impressions with IOS (intraoral scanner and CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies were developed for dental practice. The last decade has seen an increasing number of optical IOS devices, and these are based on different technologies; the choice of which may impact on clinical use. To allow informed choice before purchasing or renewing an IOS, this article summarizes first the technologies currently used (light projection, distance object determination, and reconstruction. In the second section, the clinical considerations of each strategy such as handling, learning curve, powdering, scanning paths, tracking, and mesh quality are discussed. The last section is dedicated to the accuracy of files and of the intermaxillary relationship registered with IOS as the rendering of files in the graphical user interface is often misleading. This overview leads to the conclusion that the current IOS is adapted for a common practice, although differences exist between the technologies employed. An important aspect highlighted in this review is the reduction in the volume of hardware which has led to an increase in the importance of software-based technologies.

  11. First detection of lead in black paper from intraoral film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Debora F.C.; Silva, Reginaldo S.; Veiga, Marcia A.M.S. da; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the black paper that recovers intraoral films (BKP) has been investigated. BKP samples were collected from the Radiology Clinics of the Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. For sake of comparison, four different methods were used. The results revealed the presence of high lead levels, well above the maximum limit allowed by the legislation. Pb contamination levels achieved after the following treatments: paper digestion in nitric acid, microwave treatment, DIN38414-54 method and TCLP method were 997 μg g -1 , 189 μg g -1 , 20.8 μg g -1 , and 54.0 μg g -1 , respectively. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed for lead determination according to the protocols of the applied methods. Lead contamination in used BKP was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS). All the SEM imaging was carried out in the secondary electron mode (SE) and backscattered-electron mode (QBSD) following punctual X-ray fluorescence spectra. Soil contamination derived from this product revealed the urgent need of addressing this problem. These elevated Pb levels, show that a preliminary treatment of BKP is mandatory before it is disposed into the common trash. The high lead content of this material makes its direct dumping into the environment unwise.

  12. Digital subtraction radiographic evaluation of the standardize periapical intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    1993-01-01

    The geometrically standardized intraoral radiographs using 5 occlusal registration material were taken serially from immediate, 1 day, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after making the bite blocks. The qualities of those subtracted images were evaluated to check the degree of reproducibility of each impression material. The results were as follows: 1. The standard deviations of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were 4.9 for Exaflex, 7.2 for Pattern resin, 9.0 for Tooth Shade Acrylic, 12.2 for XCP only, 14.8 for Impregum. 2. The standard deviation of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were grossly related to those of the localized horizontal line of interest. 3. Exaflex which showed the best subtracted image quality had 15 cases of straight, 14 cases of wave, 1 case of canyon shape. Impregum which showed the worst subtracted image quality had 4 cases of straight, 8 cases of wave, 18 cases of canyon shape respectively.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  15. Cutting and coagulation during intraoral soft tissue surgery using Er: YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisor, I; Pecie, R; Chaskelis, I; Krejci, I

    2013-06-01

    To find the optimal techniques and parameters that enables Er:YAG laser to be used successfully for small intraoral soft tissue interventions, in respect to its cutting and coagulation abilities. In vitro pre-tests: 4 different Er:YAG laser units and one CO2 unit as the control were used for incision and coagulation on porcine lower jaws and optimal parameters were established for each type of intervention and each laser unit: energy, frequency, type, pulse duration and distance. 3 different types of intervention using Er:YAG units are presented: crown lengthening, gingivoplasty and maxillary labial frenectomy with parameters found in the in vitro pre-tests. The results showed a great decrease of the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Moreover, the height and width of the chewing cycles in the frontal plane increased after therapy. Er:YAG is able to provide good cutting and coagulation effects on soft tissues. Specific parameters have to be defined for each laser unit in order to obtain the desired effect. Reduced or absent water spray, defocused light beam, local anaesthesia and the most effective use of long pulses are methods to obtain optimal coagulation and bleeding control.

  16. The need for national diagnostic reference levels: entrance surface dose measurement in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shareghi, A.; Kavousi, A.; Ghiassi-Nejad, M.; Jafari-Zadeh, M.; Nazeri, F.; Mozdarani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intraoral radiographies are the most frequent X-ray examinations in humans. According to International Commission on Radiation Protection recommendations, the selection of a diagnostic reference level should be specific to a country or region. Critical organs such as thyroid gland are exposed to X-rays in intraoral radiography and these exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To assist the development of DRLs for intraoral radiography, a National Radiation Protection Department-sponsored pilot study was carried out. Materials and methods: thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters on the skin (either mandibular or maxillary arcs) of 40 patients. Three thermoluminescent dosimetry chips were placed on the skin of each patient. The doses were averaged for each radiography and mean entrance surface doses of all patients calculated. Results: the mean ±SD entrance surface dose at the center of the beam on the patient's skin in intraoral radiography was 1.173 ±0.606 mGy (ranged from 0.01 o 0.40 m Gy). The mean entrance surface doses for male and female patients were 1.380± 0.823, and 1.004± 0.258 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Despite its necessity , in national level , there is no published data on the diagnostic reference levels for intraoral radiography. However, the results obtained in this study are lower than those reported by investigators in other countries. Conclusion: in IR Iran , due to lack of large scale studies, no diagnostic reference levels have been set for X-ray diagnostic procedures. Due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels, it is not possible to clarify whether in intraoral radiographies any dose reduction techniques are needed. We intend to perform similar nationwide studies to set the

  17. D-MSR: A Distributed Network Management Scheme for Real-Time Monitoring and Process Control Applications in Wireless Industrial Automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zand, P.; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot

  18. Wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed.

  19. Stationary intraoral digital tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube X-ray source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, J; Tucker, A W; Gaalaas, L R; Wu, G; Platin, E; Mol, A; Lu, J; Zhou, O

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral dental tomosynthesis and closely related tuned-aperture CT (TACT) are low-dose three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities that have shown improved detection of multiple dental diseases. Clinical interest in implementing these technologies waned owing to their time-consuming nature. Recently developed carbon nanotube (CNT) X-ray sources allow rapid multi-image acquisition without mechanical motion, making tomosynthesis a clinically viable technique. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility of and produce high-quality images from a digital tomosynthesis system employing CNT X-ray technology. A test-bed stationary intraoral tomosynthesis unit was constructed using a CNT X-ray source array and a digital intraoral sensor. The source-to-image distance was modified to make the system comparable in image resolution to current two-dimensional intraoral radiography imaging systems. Anthropomorphic phantoms containing teeth with simulated and real caries lesions were imaged using a dose comparable to D-speed film dose with a rectangular collimation. Images were reconstructed and analysed. Tomosynthesis images of the phantom and teeth specimen demonstrated perceived image quality equivalent or superior to standard digital images with the added benefit of 3D information. The ability to "scroll" through slices in a buccal-lingual direction significantly improved visualization of anatomical details. In addition, the subjective visibility of dental caries was increased. Feasibility of the stationary intraoral tomosynthesis is demonstrated. The results show clinical promise and suitability for more robust observer and clinical studies.

  20. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in intra-oral dental radiology and applicable texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.

    2009-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of intra-oral dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment. A second part indicates the various applicable legal and regulatory texts (European directives, institutions in charge of radioprotection, general arrangements applicable to workers and patients, and regulatory texts concerning worker protection or patient protection against ionizing radiations)