WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless product authentication

  1. Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ENACEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.

  2. Study of Wireless Authentication Center with Mixed Encryption in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available WSN (wireless sensor network has been used in a wide range of applications nowadays. Sensor networks may often relay critical data; thus, security must be a high priority. However, due to their limited computational, energy, and storage resources, sensor nodes are vulnerable to attack. So how to protect sensor nodes from attacks without raising computational capability and energy consumption is a worthwhile issue. A WAC (wireless authentication center with mixed encryption named “MEWAC” is proposed. MEWAC is based on MCU (Microcontroller Unit and WiFi (Wireless Fidelity module and uses RSA, AES (Advanced Encryption Standard, and SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1 to provide high performance authentication and data encryption services for sensor nodes. The experimental results show that MEWAC has the advantages of low cost, low power consumption, good performance, and stability; moreover, the authentication protocol improves the security of WSN and reduces the overhead in node authentication.

  3. A Multifactor Secure Authentication System for Wireless Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sugata; Tiwari, Ayu; Sanyal, Sudip

    Organizations are deploying wireless based online payment applications to expand their business globally, it increases the growing need of regulatory requirements for the protection of confidential data, and especially in internet based financial areas. Existing internet based authentication systems often use either the Web or the Mobile channel individually to confirm the claimed identity of the remote user. The vulnerability is that access is based on only single factor authentication which is not secure to protect user data, there is a need of multifactor authentication. This paper proposes a new protocol based on multifactor authentication system that is both secure and highly usable. It uses a novel approach based on Transaction Identification Code and SMS to enforce another security level with the traditional Login/password system. The system provides a highly secure environment that is simple to use and deploy with in a limited resources that does not require any change in infrastructure or underline protocol of wireless network. This Protocol for Wireless Payment is extended as a two way authentications system to satisfy the emerging market need of mutual authentication and also supports secure B2B communication which increases faith of the user and business organizations on wireless financial transaction using mobile devices.

  4. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  5. Authenticated Encryption for Low-Power Reconfigurable Wireless Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    this enabling technology, these radios have to propose cryptographic services such as con- fidentiality, integrity and authentication. Therefore, integration of security services to these low-power devices is very challenging and crucial as they have limited resources and computational capabilities......With the rapid growth of new wireless communication standards, a solution that is capable of providing a seamless shift between existing wireless protocols and high flexibility as well as capability is crucial. Technology based on reconfigurable devices offers this flexibility. In order to avail....... In this paper, we present a crypto solution for reconfigurable devices. The solution is a single pass Authenticated Encryption (AE) scheme that is designed for protecting both message confidentiality and its authenticity. This makes AE very attractive for low-cost low-power hardware implementation. For test...

  6. Research and Mass Deployment of Non-cognitive Authentication Strategy Based on Campus Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangfu Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet +, the dependence on wireless networks and wireless terminals are increasing. Campus wireless network has become the main network of teachers and students in campus on the internet. As there are uneven clients and a wide variety of intelligent terminals now. Simplified authentication and network security become the most urgent problem for wireless network. This paper used the Portal + Mac authentication method to realize the non-cognitive authentication of teachers and students on basis of the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of mainstream authentication of campus wireless network, such as 802.1X authentication, Portal authentication, Mac authentication and DHCP authentication. Teachers and students only need portal certification at the first time, then surf the internet with non-perceived authentication at the second time and later. This method increases network security, and is better to meet the needs of teachers and students.

  7. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORGERSON, MARK D.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  8. RUASN: A Robust User Authentication Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been considered as a potential solution for real-time monitoring applications and these WSNs have potential practical impact on next generation technology too. However, WSNs could become a threat if suitable security is not considered before the deployment and if there are any loopholes in their security, which might open the door for an attacker and hence, endanger the application. User authentication is one of the most important security services to protect WSN data access from unauthorized users; it should provide both mutual authentication and session key establishment services. This paper proposes a robust user authentication framework for wireless sensor networks, based on a two-factor (password and smart card concept. This scheme facilitates many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, secure session key establishment and it allows users to choose/update their password regularly, whenever needed. Furthermore, we have provided the formal verification using Rubin logic and compare RUASN with many existing schemes. As a result, we found that the proposed scheme possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low computation cost.

  9. Authenticity assessment of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of products protected by denomination of origin. A range of analytical methods to detect frauds have been developed, modified, and continually reassessed to be one step ahead of manufacturers who pursue these illegal activities. Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of dairy products include chromatographic, electrophoretic, and immunoenzymatic methods. New approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry have also emerged alongside the latest developments in the former procedures. This work intends to provide an updated and extensive overview since 1991 on the principal applications of all these techniques together with their advantages and disadvantages for detecting the authenticity of dairy products. The scope and limits of different tools are also discussed.

  10. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that th...

  11. Security Improvement on Biometric Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Younsung Choi; Youngsook Lee; Dongho Won

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions. However, authenticating a user or sensor in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication networks, resource limitation, and unattended operation. As a result, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. He et al. suggested a robust biometrics-based user authent...

  12. EAP-Kerberos: A Low Latency EAP Authentication Method for Faster Handoffs in Wireless Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelli, Saber; Okabe, Nobuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    The wireless medium is a key technology for enabling ubiquitous and continuous network connectivity. It is becoming more and more important in our daily life especially with the increasing adoption of networking technologies in many fields such as medical care and transportation systems. Although most wireless technologies nowadays provide satisfying bandwidth and higher speeds, several of these technologies still lack improvements with regard to handoff performance. In this paper, we focus on wireless network technologies that rely on the Extensible Authentication Protocol for mutual authentication between the station and the access network. Such technologies include local area wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) as well as broadband wireless networks (IEEE 802.16). We present a new EAP authentication method based on a three party authentication scheme, namely Kerberos, that considerably shortens handoff delays. Compared to other methods, the proposed method has the advantage of not requiring any changes on the access points, making it readily deployable at reasonable costs.

  13. Secure and Authenticated Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alfandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Securing communications in wireless sensor networks is increasingly important as the diversity of applications increases. However, even today, it is equally important for the measures employed to be energy efficient. For this reason, this publication analyzes the suitability of various cryptographic primitives for use in WSNs according to various criteria and, finally, describes a modular, PKI-based framework for confidential, authenticated, secure communications in which most suitable primitives can be employed. Due to the limited capabilities of common WSN motes, criteria for the selection of primitives are security, power efficiency and memory requirements. The implementation of the framework and the singular components have been tested and benchmarked in our testbed of IRISmotes.

  14. A Mutual Authentication Framework for Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Jangirala; Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2017-05-01

    Wireless medical sensor networks (WMSN) comprise of distributed sensors, which can sense human physiological signs and monitor the health condition of the patient. It is observed that providing privacy to the patient's data is an important issue and can be challenging. The information passing is done via the public channel in WMSN. Thus, the patient, sensitive information can be obtained by eavesdropping or by unauthorized use of handheld devices which the health professionals use in monitoring the patient. Therefore, there is an essential need of restricting the unauthorized access to the patient's medical information. Hence, the efficient authentication scheme for the healthcare applications is needed to preserve the privacy of the patients' vital signs. To ensure secure and authorized communication in WMSN, we design a symmetric key based authentication protocol for WMSN environment. The proposed protocol uses only computationally efficient operations to achieve lightweight attribute. We analyze the security of the proposed protocol. We use a formal security proof algorithm to show the scheme security against known attacks. We also use the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) simulator to show protocol secure against man-in-the-middle attack and replay attack. Additionally, we adopt an informal analysis to discuss the key attributes of the proposed scheme. From the formal proof of security, we can see that an attacker has a negligible probability of breaking the protocol security. AVISPA simulator also demonstrates the proposed scheme security against active attacks, namely, man-in-the-middle attack and replay attack. Additionally, through the comparison of computational efficiency and security attributes with several recent results, proposed scheme seems to be battered.

  15. An authentication scheme to healthcare security under wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Chih; Liao, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jen-Yan; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Horng, Gwo-Boa

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, Taiwan has been seeing an extension of the average life expectancy and a drop in overall fertility rate, initiating our country into an aged society. Due to this phenomenon, how to provide the elderly and patients with chronic diseases a suitable healthcare environment has become a critical issue presently. Therefore, we propose a new scheme that integrates healthcare services with wireless sensor technology in which sensor nodes are employed to measure patients' vital signs. Data collected from these sensor nodes are then transmitted to mobile devices of the medical staff and system administrator, promptly enabling them to understand the patients' condition in real time, which will significantly improve patients' healthcare quality. As per the personal data protection act, patients' vital signs can only be accessed by authorized medical staff. In order to protect patients', the system administrator will verify the medical staff's identity through the mobile device using a smart card and password mechanism. Accordingly, only the verified medical staff can obtain patients' vital signs data such as their blood pressure, pulsation, and body temperature, etc.. Besides, the scheme includes a time-bounded characteristic that allows the verified staff access to data without having to have to re-authenticate and re-login into the system within a set period of time. Consequently, the time-bounded property also increases the work efficiency of the system administrator and user.

  16. Enhanced Security and Pairing-free Handover Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shu, Guangqiang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    With the widely deployment of mobile wireless networks, we aim to propose a secure and seamless handover authentication scheme that allows users to roam freely in wireless networks without worrying about security and privacy issues. Given the open characteristic of wireless networks, safety and efficiency should be considered seriously. Several previous protocols are designed based on a bilinear pairing mapping, which is time-consuming and inefficient work, as well as unsuitable for practical situations. To address these issues, we designed a new pairing-free handover authentication scheme for mobile wireless networks. This scheme is an effective improvement of the protocol by Xu et al., which is suffer from the mobile node impersonation attack. Security analysis and simulation experiment indicate that the proposed protocol has many excellent security properties when compared with other recent similar handover schemes, such as mutual authentication and resistance to known network threats, as well as requiring lower computation and communication cost.

  17. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes. PMID:26184224

  18. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  19. Location Authentication based on Wireless Access Point Information to Prevent Wormhole Attack in Samsung Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RYU, G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a location authentication method to prevent wormhole payment attack in Samsung Pay. The primary feature of this method is comparing wireless Access Point (AP information collected by the current Samsung Pay user and a wireless AP model (WM that was created from wireless AP information (WI sent by previous Samsung Pay users. To create the WM, an autoencoder is used. Unlike the existing location authentication techniques that use WI, our method does not require additional hardware, modification of the Point of Sale (POS software, or any pre-requisite information such as the location coordinates of the POS. We show that the proposed location authentication technique exhibits the minimum Equal Error Rate (EER of 2.4% in real payment environments.

  20. A New Privacy-Preserving Handover Authentication Scheme for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Handover authentication is a critical issue in wireless networks, which is being used to ensure mobile nodes wander over multiple access points securely and seamlessly. A variety of handover authentication schemes for wireless networks have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, existing handover authentication schemes are vulnerable to a few security attacks, or incur high communication and computation costs. Recently, He et al. proposed a handover authentication scheme PairHand and claimed it can resist various attacks without rigorous security proofs. In this paper, we show that PairHand does not meet forward secrecy and strong anonymity. More seriously, it is vulnerable to key compromise attack, where an adversary can recover the private key of any mobile node. Then, we propose a new efficient and provably secure handover authentication scheme for wireless networks based on elliptic curve cryptography. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed scheme can resist key compromise attack, and achieves forward secrecy and strong anonymity. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of computation and communication.

  1. A New Privacy-Preserving Handover Authentication Scheme for Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Jiayuan

    2017-06-20

    Handover authentication is a critical issue in wireless networks, which is being used to ensure mobile nodes wander over multiple access points securely and seamlessly. A variety of handover authentication schemes for wireless networks have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, existing handover authentication schemes are vulnerable to a few security attacks, or incur high communication and computation costs. Recently, He et al. proposed a handover authentication scheme PairHand and claimed it can resist various attacks without rigorous security proofs. In this paper, we show that PairHand does not meet forward secrecy and strong anonymity. More seriously, it is vulnerable to key compromise attack, where an adversary can recover the private key of any mobile node. Then, we propose a new efficient and provably secure handover authentication scheme for wireless networks based on elliptic curve cryptography. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed scheme can resist key compromise attack, and achieves forward secrecy and strong anonymity. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of computation and communication.

  2. A Lightweight Authentication and Key Management Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security problem is one of the most popular research fields in wireless sensor networks for both the application requirement and the resource-constrained essence. An effective and lightweight Authentication and Key Management Scheme (AKMS is proposed in this paper to solve the problem of malicious nodes occurring in the process of networking and to offer a high level of security with low cost. For the condition that the mobile sensor nodes need to be authenticated, the keys in AKMS will be dynamically generated and adopted for security protection. Even when the keys are being compromised or captured, the attackers can neither use the previous keys nor misuse the authenticated nodes to cheat. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides more efficient security with less energy consumption for wireless sensor networks especially with mobile sensors.

  3. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Pin Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost.

  4. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of the Robust User Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are widely used in industrial process control, human health care, environmental control, vehicular tracking and battlefield surveillance, etc. A wireless sensor network consists of lots of sensor nodes and a gateway node. The sensor node usually communicates with the gateway node and users over an ad hoc wireless network. However, due to the open environments, the wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to variety of security threats. Thus, it is a critical issue to adopt a suitable authentication mechanism for wireless sensor networks to enhance security. In 2009, Vaidya et al. proposed a robust user authentication schemes for wireless sensor networks. In this article, we will show that their scheme is vulnerable to the guessing attack and the impersonation attack. Since it needs a secure channel for communications in password changing phase, their scheme is also inconvenient and expensive for users to update passwords. We also propose an improved scheme to remedy the flaws. The improved scheme withstands the replay attack and off-line guessing attack, and the users can freely update their passwords via public channels.

  5. A Novel Physical Layer Assisted Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuhua

    2017-02-04

    Physical-layer authentication can address physical layer vulnerabilities and security threats in wireless sensor networks, and has been considered as an effective complementary enhancement to existing upper-layer authentication mechanisms. In this paper, to advance the existing research and improve the authentication performance, we propose a novel physical layer assisted authentication scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks. In our proposed scheme, we explore the reciprocity and spatial uncorrelation of the wireless channel to verify the identities of involved transmitting users and decide whether all data frames are from the same sender. In our proposed scheme, a new method is developed for the legitimate users to compare their received signal strength (RSS) records, which avoids the information from being disclosed to the adversary. Our proposed scheme can detect the spoofing attack even in a high dynamic environment. We evaluate our scheme through experiments under indoor and outdoor environments. Experiment results show that our proposed scheme is more efficient and achieves a higher detection rate as well as keeping a lower false alarm rate.

  6. A Secured Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Wen Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das’ protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  7. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-12-14

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.'s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment.

  8. A Novel Physical Layer Assisted Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical-layer authentication can address physical layer vulnerabilities and security threats in wireless sensor networks, and has been considered as an effective complementary enhancement to existing upper-layer authentication mechanisms. In this paper, to advance the existing research and improve the authentication performance, we propose a novel physical layer assisted authentication scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks. In our proposed scheme, we explore the reciprocity and spatial uncorrelation of the wireless channel to verify the identities of involved transmitting users and decide whether all data frames are from the same sender. In our proposed scheme, a new method is developed for the legitimate users to compare their received signal strength (RSS records, which avoids the information from being disclosed to the adversary. Our proposed scheme can detect the spoofing attack even in a high dynamic environment. We evaluate our scheme through experiments under indoor and outdoor environments. Experiment results show that our proposed scheme is more efficient and achieves a higher detection rate as well as keeping a lower false alarm rate.

  9. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  10. Broadcast authentication for wireless sensor networks using nested hashing and the Chinese remainder theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldefrawy, Mohamed Hamdy; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled; Cho, Eun-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Secure broadcasting is an essential feature for critical operations in wireless sensor network (WSNs). However, due to the limited resources of sensor networks, verifying the authenticity for broadcasted messages is a very difficult issue. μTESLA is a broadcast authentication protocol, which uses network-wide loose time synchronization with one-way hashed keys to provide the authenticity verification. However, it suffers from several flaws considering the delay tolerance, and the chain length restriction. In this paper, we propose a protocol which provides broadcast authentication for wireless sensor networks. This protocol uses a nested hash chain of two different hash functions and the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). The two different nested hash functions are employed for the seed updating and the key generation. Each sensor node is challenged independently with a common broadcasting message using the CRT. Our algorithm provides forward and non-restricted key generation, and in addition, no time synchronization is required. Furthermore, receivers can instantly authenticate packets in real time. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis shows that this scheme is efficient and practical, and can achieve better performance than the μTESLA system.

  11. Data-Dependent Fingerprints for Wireless Device Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    architecture to assist in authentication 4 P ara lle l LC D C B lock ing C apac ito r S e ries Inducto r B ias ing C ircu itB ias V o ltage C hoke...Inducto r D C B lock ing C apac ito r C o-p lana r T L ine Unit 1 Second-order LC bandpass filter Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Varactor Diode Fig. 3

  12. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs.

  13. Efficient Physical-Layer Secret Key Generation and Authentication Schemes Based on Wireless Channel-Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwang Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the inherent physical properties of wireless channels to complement or enhance the traditional security mechanisms has attracted prominent attention recently. However, the existing secret key generation schemes suffer from miscellaneous extracting procedure. Many PHY-layer authentication schemes assume that the knowledge of the shared key is preknown. In this paper, we propose PHY-layer secret key generation and authentication schemes for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems. In the secret key generation scheme, to simplify the extracting procedure, only one legitimate party is chosen to probe the channel and quantize the measurements to obtain the preliminary key. The preliminary key is masked by the channel-phase after the mapping and before equalization and distributed to the other party. The final shared key is used for the PHY-layer authentication scheme in which random signals and the shared key masked by the channel-phase are exchanged at the PHY-layer. Then, a binary hypothesis test is formulated for authentication. Simulation results show that the proposed secret key generation scheme outperforms the existing schemes. For the PHY-layer authentication scheme, it is immune to various passive and active attacks and a high successful authentication rate is acquired even at low signal-to-noise ratio region.

  14. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-03-21

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al's method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration.

  15. A Bilinear Pairing-Based Dynamic Key Management and Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been used in a variety of environments; a wireless network infrastructure, established to communicate and exchange information in a monitoring area, has also been applied in different environments. However, for sensitive applications, security is the paramount issue. In this paper, we propose using bilinear pairing to design dynamic key management and authentication scheme of the hierarchical sensor network. We use the dynamic key management and the pairing-based cryptography (PBC to establish the session key and the hash message authentication code (HMAC to support the mutual authentication between the sensors and the base station. In addition, we also embed the capability of the Global Positioning System (GPS to cluster nodes to find the best path of the sensor network. The proposed scheme can also provide the requisite security of the dynamic key management, mutual authentication, and session key protection. Our scheme can defend against impersonation attack, replay attack, wormhole attack, and message manipulation attack.

  16. Mutual Image-Based Authentication Framework with JPEG2000 in Wireless Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginesu G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, together with the development of wireless connectivity, the need for a reliable and user-friendly authentication system becomes always more important. New applications, as e-commerce or home banking, require a strong level of protection, allowing for verification of legitimate users' identity and enabling the user to distinguis trusted servers from shadow ones. A novel framework for image-based authentication (IBA is then proposed and evaluated. In order to provide mutual authentication, the proposed method integrates an IBA password technique with a challenge-response scheme based on a shared secret key for image scrambling. The wireless environment is mainly addressed by the proposed system, which tries to overcome the severe constraints on security, data transmission capability, and user friendliness imposed by such environment. In order to achieve such results, the system offers a strong solution for authentication, taking into account usability and avoiding the need for hardware upgrades. Data and application scalability is provided through the JPEG2000 standard and JPIP framework.

  17. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs. PMID:24919012

  18. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.’s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.’s protocol. However, Shi et al.’s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.’s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  19. Cryptanalysis and Security Improvements of ‘Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Khan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the field. Since sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules; authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environments is a paramount security concern. Recently, M.L. Das proposed a two-factor user authentication scheme in WSNs and claimed that his scheme is secure against different kinds of attack. However, in this paper, we show that the M.L. Das-scheme has some critical security pitfalls and cannot be recommended for real applications. We point out that in his scheme: users cannot change/update their passwords, it does not provide mutual authentication between gateway node and sensor node, and is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attack and privileged-insider attack. To overcome the inherent security weaknesses of the M.L. Das-scheme, we propose improvements and security patches that attempt to fix the susceptibilities of his scheme. The proposed security improvements can be incorporated in the M.L. Das-scheme for achieving a more secure and robust two-factor user authentication in WSNs.

  20. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  1. Cryptanalysis and security improvements of 'two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the field. Since sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules; authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environments is a paramount security concern. Recently, M.L. Das proposed a two-factor user authentication scheme in WSNs and claimed that his scheme is secure against different kinds of attack. However, in this paper, we show that the M.L. Das-scheme has some critical security pitfalls and cannot be recommended for real applications. We point out that in his scheme: users cannot change/update their passwords, it does not provide mutual authentication between gateway node and sensor node, and is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attack and privileged-insider attack. To overcome the inherent security weaknesses of the M.L. Das-scheme, we propose improvements and security patches that attempt to fix the susceptibilities of his scheme. The proposed security improvements can be incorporated in the M.L. Das-scheme for achieving a more secure and robust two-factor user authentication in WSNs.

  2. Security enhanced user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-06-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  3. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-03-24

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes.

  4. An Efficient and Adaptive Mutual Authentication Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network-Based Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications. PMID:24521942

  5. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-04-25

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.'s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme.

  6. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.’s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme. PMID:28441331

  7. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved.

  8. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  9. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method with MAP (message authentication and passing for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  10. Development of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Narimanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research is to develop an anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system. The main requirements for this system are formulated, the choice of method of consumer product authentication is substantiated. The scheme of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system is developed basing on previously proposed method of checking the QR-code integrity and authenticity. The proposed within the system consumer product authentication technology is simple, economical for implementation, does not require the external changes of product packaging, does not affect existing production process. The technology can be recommended for the use to private businesses and government institutions that are interested in the security of their products from counterfeiting, as well as tracking and removing from circulation the counterfeit consumer products.

  11. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  12. An Enhanced Three-Factor User Authentication Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme.

  13. An Enhanced Three-Factor User Authentication Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Xu, Guoai; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-19

    As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme.

  14. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-06-25

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses.

  15. Efficient Anonymous Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are widely used in telemedicine, which can be utilized for real-time patients monitoring and home health-care. The sensor nodes in WBANs collect the client’s physiological data and transmit it to the medical center. However, the clients’ personal information is sensitive and there are many security threats in the extra-body communication. Therefore, the security and privacy of client’s physiological data need to be ensured. Many authentication protocols for WBANs have been proposed in recent years. However, the existing protocols fail to consider the key update phase. In this paper, we propose an efficient authenticated key agreement scheme for WBANs and add the key update phase to enhance the security of the proposed scheme. In addition, session keys are generated during the registration phase and kept secretly, thus reducing computation cost in the authentication phase. The performance analysis demonstrates that our scheme is more efficient than the currently popular related schemes.

  16. A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-11-06

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes.

  17. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation—the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  18. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000. Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure schemes.

  19. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  20. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling; Peng, Daiyuan; Peng, Tu; Liang, Hongbin; Liu, Zhicai

    2017-11-21

    Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation-the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  1. A Temporal Credential-Based Mutual Authentication with Multiple-Password Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisheng; Liu, Qidong

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which consist of a large number of sensor nodes, have become among the most important technologies in numerous fields, such as environmental monitoring, military surveillance, control systems in nuclear reactors, vehicle safety systems, and medical monitoring. The most serious drawback for the widespread application of WSNs is the lack of security. Given the resource limitation of WSNs, traditional security schemes are unsuitable. Approaches toward withstanding related attacks with small overhead have thus recently been studied by many researchers. Numerous studies have focused on the authentication scheme for WSNs, but most of these works cannot achieve the security performance and overhead perfectly. Nam et al. proposed a two-factor authentication scheme with lightweight sensor computation for WSNs. In this paper, we review this scheme, emphasize its drawbacks, and propose a temporal credential-based mutual authentication with a multiple-password scheme for WSNs. Our scheme uses multiple passwords to achieve three-factor security performance and generate a session key between user and sensor nodes. The security analysis phase shows that our scheme can withstand related attacks, including a lost password threat, and the comparison phase shows that our scheme involves a relatively small overhead. In the comparison of the overhead phase, the result indicates that more than 95% of the overhead is composed of communication and not computation overhead. Therefore, the result motivates us to pay further attention to communication overhead than computation overhead in future research. PMID:28135288

  2. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  3. Analytical authentication of organic products: an overview of markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R.; Veer, van der G.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' interest in organic foods is increasing and so is the need for robust analytical tools for their authentication. This review focuses on the most promising biomarkers/analytical approaches that are available for the authentication of organic produce. Food products have been subdivided into

  4. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  5. An Advanced Temporal Credential-Based Security Scheme with Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ta Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs. Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.’s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users’ attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.’s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  6. An advanced temporal credential-based security scheme with mutual authentication and key agreement for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2013-07-24

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs). Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.'s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users' attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.'s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  7. Security analysis and improvements of two-factor mutual authentication with key agreement in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, Donghoon; Jeon, Woongryul; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-04-09

    User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker's own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  8. An Improved Digital Signature Protocol to Multi-User Broadcast Authentication Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bashirpour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, users can use broadcast authentication mechanisms to connect to the target network and disseminate their messages within the network. Since data transfer for sensor networks is wireless, as a result, attackers can easily eavesdrop deployed sensor nodes and the data sent between them or modify the content of eavesdropped data and inject false data into the sensor network. Hence, the implementation of the message authentication mechanisms (in order to avoid changes and injecting messages into the network of wireless sensor networks is essential. In this paper, we present an improved protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC to accelerate authentication of multi-user message broadcasting. In comparison with previous ECC-based schemes, complexity and computational overhead of proposed scheme is significantly decreased. Also, the proposed scheme supports user anonymity, which is an important property in broadcast authentication schemes for WSNs to preserve user privacy and user untracking.

  9. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless sensor networks are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things. Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas’s currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs.

  10. Fuzzy Extractor and Elliptic Curve Based Efficient User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Maurya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of service and reduce the possibility of security attacks, a secure and efficient user authentication mechanism is required for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the Internet of Things (IoT. Session key establishment between the sensor node and the user is also required for secure communication. In this paper, we perform the security analysis of A.K.Das’s user authentication scheme (given in 2015, Choi et al.’s scheme (given in 2016, and Park et al.’s scheme (given in 2016. The security analysis shows that their schemes are vulnerable to various attacks like user impersonation attack, sensor node impersonation attack and attacks based on legitimate users. Based on the cryptanalysis of these existing protocols, we propose a secure and efficient authenticated session key establishment protocol which ensures various security features and overcomes the drawbacks of existing protocols. The formal and informal security analysis indicates that the proposed protocol withstands the various security vulnerabilities involved in WSNs. The automated validation using AVISPA and Scyther tool ensures the absence of security attacks in our scheme. The logical verification using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic confirms the correctness of the proposed protocol. Finally, the comparative analysis based on computational overhead and security features of other existing protocol indicate that the proposed user authentication system is secure and efficient. In future, we intend to implement the proposed protocol in real-world applications of WSNs and IoT.

  11. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  12. Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network-Fujisaki Okamoto(FO) Authentication Scheme against Sybil Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Raja, K; Maraline Beno, M

    2017-07-01

    In the wireless sensor network(WSN) security is a major issue. There are several network security schemes proposed in research. In the network, malicious nodes obstruct the performance of the network. The network can be vulnerable by Sybil attack. When a node illicitly assertions multiple identities or claims fake IDs, the WSN grieves from an attack named Sybil attack. This attack threatens wireless sensor network in data aggregation, synchronizing system, routing, fair resource allocation and misbehavior detection. Henceforth, the research is carried out to prevent the Sybil attack and increase the performance of the network. This paper presents the novel security mechanism and Fujisaki Okamoto algorithm and also application of the work. The Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) algorithm is ID based cryptographic scheme and gives strong authentication against Sybil attack. By using Network simulator2 (NS2) the scheme is simulated. In this proposed scheme broadcasting key, time taken for different key sizes, energy consumption, Packet delivery ratio, Throughput were analyzed.

  13. Energy-Efficient Source Authentication for Secure Group Communication with Low-Powered Smart Devices in Hybrid Wireless/Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras JohnS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new class of lightweight, symmetric-key digital certificates called extended TESLA certificates and a source authentication protocol for wireless group communication that is based on the certificate. The certificate binds the identity of a wireless smart device to the anchor element of its key chain; keys from the chain are used for computing message authentication codes (MACs on messages sourced by the device. The authentication protocol requires a centralized infrastructure in the network: we describe the protocol in a hybrid wireless network with a satellite overlay interconnecting the wireless devices. The satellite is used as the Certificate Authority (CA and also acts as the proxy for the senders in disclosing the MAC keys to the receivers. We also design a probabilistic nonrepudiation mechanism that utilizes the satellite's role as the CA and sender proxy. Through analysis, we show that the authentication protocol is secure against malicious adversaries. We also present detailed simulation results that demonstrate that the proposed protocol is much cheaper than traditional public key-based authentication technologies for metrics like processing delay, storage requirements, and energy consumption of the smart devices.

  14. Security Analysis and Improvements of Two-Factor Mutual Authentication with Key Agreement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker’s own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  15. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-S. E-mail: kskim@mail.chosun.ac.kr; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-10-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the {alpha}-carbon position and C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons were higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin.

  16. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  17. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  18. User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wagenknecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open source software package for web single sign-on (SSO across or within organizational boundaries. It allows service providers to make fine-grained authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources. The Shibboleth system is a widely used AAI, but only supports protection of browser-based web resources. We have implemented a Shibboleth AAI extension to protect web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. Besides user authentication for browser-based web resources, this extension also provides user and machine authentication for web service-based resources. Although implemented for a Shibboleth AAI, the architecture can be easily adapted to other AAIs.

  19. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  20. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  1. Sustainable Development Mechanism of Food Culture’s Translocal Production Based on Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using the in-depth interview method, this study discusses how northeastern Cuisine in Guangzhou balances the inheritance and innovation of authenticity, how producers and customers negotiate, and how to realize sustainable development. The main conclusions are: first, there are two different paths of translocal food culture production, which are “authentic food culture production” and “differentiated food culture production”. Second, what translocal enterprises produce is not objective authenticity, but constructive authenticity, or even existential authenticity. Third, compared with differentiated food culture production, authentic food culture production is helpful for the sustainable development of local food culture production. It protects the locality while transmitting and developing the local culture. Fourth, translocal food culture production is a process in which the producers and consumers continue to interact to maintain a state of equilibrium, which informs the sustainable development mechanism with a high degree of authenticity.

  2. The authenticity and quality of Rhodiola rosea products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Jalil, Banaz; Frommenwiler, Debora; Reich, Eike; Zhai, Lixiang; Kulic, Zarko; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-06-15

    contain salidroside, another marker compound found in other Rhodiola species. Approximately 80% of the remaining commercial products were lower in rosavin content than the registered products and appeared to be adulterated with other Rhodiola species. The variation in phytochemical constituents present in Rhodiola products available to European buyers via the internet and other sources is a major cause for concern. Adulteration with different species, and other sometimes unknown adulterants, appears to be commonplace. Good quality systems and manufacturing practices, including those required under the THMPD, enable consumers to have confidence that products are authentic and meet a high specification for quality and safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Geospatial Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time has been developed. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server. The Geospatial Authentication software has two parts Server and Client. The server software is a virtual private network (VPN) developed in Linux operating system using Perl programming language. The server can be a stand-alone VPN server or can be combined with other applications and services. The client software is a GUI Windows CE software, or Mobile Graphical Software, that allows users to authenticate into a network. The purpose of the client software is to pass the needed satellite information to the server for authentication.

  4. A Secure Localization Approach Using Mutual Authentication and Insider Node Validation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is a concerning issue in the applications of wireless sensor networks. Along with the accuracy of the location estimation of the sensor nodes, the security of the estimation is another priority. Wireless sensor networks often face various attacks where the attackers try to manipulate the estimated location or try to provide false beacons. In this paper, we have proposed a methodology that will address this problem of security aspects in localization of the sensor nodes. Moreover, we have considered the network environment with random node deployment and mobility as these two conditions are less addressed in previous research works. Further, our proposed algorithm provides low overhead due to the usage of less control messages in a limited transmission range. In addition, we have also proposed an algorithm to detect the malicious anchor nodes inside the network. The simulated results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient in terms of time consumption, localization accuracy, and localization ratio in the presence of malicious nodes.

  5. Authentication of the botanical origin of Western herbal products using Cimicifuga and Vitex products as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Sayaka

    2016-07-01

    Various herbal medicines have been developed and used in various parts of the world for thousands of years. Although locally grown indigenous plants were originally used for traditional herbal preparations, Western herbal products are now becoming popular in Japan with the increasing interest in health. At the same time, there are growing concerns about the substitution of ingredients and adulteration of herbal products, highlighting the need for the authentication of the origin of plants used in herbal products. This review describes studies on Cimicifuga and Vitex products developed in Europe and Japan, focusing on establishing analytical methods to evaluate the origins of material plants and finished products. These methods include a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system method. A genome-based authentication method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based authentication for black cohosh products, and the identification of two characteristic diterpenes of agnus castus fruit and a shrub chaste tree fruit-specific triterpene derivative are also described.

  6. Benefits and Limitations of DNA Barcoding and Metabarcoding in Herbal Product Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta Cristina; Heinrich, Michael; Ichim, Mihael Cristin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Herbal medicines play an important role globally in the health care sector and in industrialised countries they are often considered as an alternative to mono‐substance medicines. Current quality and authentication assessment methods rely mainly on morphology and analytical phytochemistry‐based methods detailed in pharmacopoeias. Herbal products however are often highly processed with numerous ingredients, and even if these analytical methods are accurate for quality control of specific lead or marker compounds, they are of limited suitability for the authentication of biological ingredients. Objective To review the benefits and limitations of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding in complementing current herbal product authentication. Method Recent literature relating to DNA based authentication of medicinal plants, herbal medicines and products are summarised to provide a basic understanding of how DNA barcoding and metabarcoding can be applied to this field. Results Different methods of quality control and authentication have varying resolution and usefulness along the value chain of these products. DNA barcoding can be used for authenticating products based on single herbal ingredients and DNA metabarcoding for assessment of species diversity in processed products, and both methods should be used in combination with appropriate hyphenated chemical methods for quality control. Conclusions DNA barcoding and metabarcoding have potential in the context of quality control of both well and poorly regulated supply systems. Standardisation of protocols for DNA barcoding and DNA sequence‐based identification are necessary before DNA‐based biological methods can be implemented as routine analytical approaches and approved by the competent authorities for use in regulated procedures. © 2017 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28906059

  7. Authentication of Fish Products by Large-Scale Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Deelder, André M.

    2013-01-01

    Authentication of food is a major concern worldwide to ensure that food products are correctly labeled in terms of which animals are actually processed for consumption. Normally authentication is based on species recognition by comparison of selected sequences of DNA or protein. We here present...... a new robust, proteome-wide tandem mass spectrometry method for species recognition and food product authentication. The method does not use or require any genome sequences or selection of tandem mass spectra but uses all acquired data. The experimental steps were performed in a simple, standardized...... workflow including protein extraction, digestion, and data analysis. First, a set of reference spectral libraries was generated using unprocessed muscle tissue from 22 different fish species. Query tandem mass spectrometry data sets from “unknown” fresh muscle tissue samples were then searched against...

  8. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of RFID Technology for Identification, Traceability Monitoring and the Checking of Product Authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Alexandru; Eleonora Tudora; Ovidiu Bica

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the structure of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems and radio frequency bands used by RFID technology. It also presents a solution based on the application of RFID for brand authentication, traceability and tracking, by implementing a production management system and extending its use to traders.

  10. The authenticity and quality of Rhodiola rosea products

    OpenAIRE

    Booker, A.; Jalil, B.; Frommenwiler, D.; Reich, E.; Zhai, L.; Kulic, Z.; Heinrich, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rhodiola rosea L. Crassulaceae, root (Golden Root, Arctic Root) is a high-value herbal medicinal product, registered in the UK for the treatment of stress-induced fatigue, exhaustion and anxiety based on traditional use and used throughout Europe as a herbal medicinal product for similar indications. Numerous unregistered supplements are also available. There are several Chinese species used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including Rhodiola crenulata (Hook.f. & Thomoson) t...

  11. Authenticating the Origin of Different Shrimp Products on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a polymerase chain reaction using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene to identify commercial food products of wide range of Penaeidae and Pandalidae shrimp species commercialised in the Tunisian market. Phylogenetic analyses ...

  12. Comparative authentication of Hypericum perforatum herbal products using DNA metabarcoding, TLC and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta Cristina; Paltinean, Ramona; Vlase, Laurian; Labarre, Aurélie; Manzanilla, Vincent; Ichim, Mihael Cristin; Crisan, Gianina; Brysting, Anne Krag; de Boer, Hugo

    2017-05-02

    Many herbal products have a long history of use, but there are increasing concerns over product efficacy, safety and quality in the wake of recent cases exposing discrepancies between labeling and constituents. When it comes to St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) herbal products, there is limited oversight, frequent off-label use and insufficient monitoring of adverse drug reactions. In this study, we use amplicon metabarcoding (AMB) to authenticate 78 H. perforatum herbal products and evaluate its ability to detect substitution compared to standard methods using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Hypericum perforatum was detected in 68% of the products using AMB. Furthermore, AMB detected incongruence between constituent species and those listed on the label in all products. Neither TLC nor HPLC-MS could be used to unambiguously identify H. perforatum. They are accurate methods for authenticating presence of the target compounds, but have limited efficiency in detecting infrageneric substitution and do not yield any information on other plant ingredients in the products. Random post-marketing AMB of herbal products by regulatory agencies could raise awareness among consumers of substitution and would provide an incentive to manufacturers to increase quality control from raw ingredients to commercialized products.

  13. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...

  14. Application of high-resolution melting analysis for authenticity testing of valuable Dendrobium commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoman; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Daiyin; Luo, Yuqin; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2018-01-01

    The accurate identification of botanical origin in commercial products is important to ensure food authenticity and safety for consumers. The Dendrobium species have long been commercialised as functional food supplements and herbal medicines in Asia. Three valuable Dendrobium species, namely Dendrobium officinale, D. huoshanense and D. moniliforme, are often mutually adulterated in trade products in pursuit of higher profit. In this paper, a rapid and reliable semi-quantitative method for identifying the botanical origin of Dendrobium products in terminal markets was developed using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis with specific primer pairs to target the trnL-F region. The HRM analysis method detected amounts of D. moniliforme adulterants as low as 1% in D. huoshanense or D. officinale products. The results have demonstrated that HRM analysis is a fast and effective tool for the differentiation of these Dendrobium species both for their authenticity as well as for the semi-quantitative determination of the purity of their processed products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2014-02-15

    With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  17. Developing Authentic Assessment Instrument on Short Story Appreciation and Production for Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwadi Susilo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as the follow-up action toward the result of a preliminary study which showed that Indonesian Language teachers in Senior High School (mentioned as “SMA” YPI Tunas Bangsa Palembang had not yet implemented any standardized, objective, accurate nor appropriate assessment instruments as demanded by the 2013 curriculum. Based on this problem, the research question in this study was “How are teachers’ necessities of an authentic assessment instrument to assess understanding on the short stories production and appreciation in SMA YPI Tunas Bangsa Palembang?”. This study employed the research and development method adapted from the one proposed by Akker which consisted of several steps: (1 analysis, (2 design, (3 evaluation, and the one by Tessmer: (1 self-evaluation, (2 expert judgment, (3 one-to-one, (4 small group, (5 revision, and (6 field test. The implementation of the authentic assessment for short stories production and appreciation was analyzed by using the inter-rater agreement. The inter-rater reliability was measured using the Cronbach’s Alfa. The data were also analyzed using the SPSS 16 program which resulted to a level of significance at 0.5. Therefore, it is found that the evaluation given by the experts and the respondents reached a similar perception. Based on the result of the Cronbach’s Alpha test, a value of 0.99 was obtained above 0.70 which implies that the authentic assessment instruments developed in this study are highly reliable.

  18. A bicistronic expression system for bacterial production of authentic human interleukin-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert B; McDevitt, Patrick J; Matico, Rosalie E; Nwagwu, Silas; Trulli, Stephen H; Mao, Joyce; Moore, Dwight D; Yorke, Adam F; McLaughlin, Megan M; Knecht, Kristin A; Elefante, Louis C; Calamari, Amy S; Fornwald, Jim A; Trill, John J; Jonak, Zdenka L; Kane, James; Patel, Pramathesh S; Sathe, Ganesh M; Shatzman, Allan R; Tapley, Peter M; Johanson, Kyung O

    2003-02-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is activated and released from immune effector cells to stimulate acquired and innate immune responses involving T and natural killer (NK) cells. The release of IL-18 from mammalian cells is linked to its proteolytic activation by caspases including interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE). The absence of a signal peptide sequence and the requirement for coupled activation and cellular release have presented challenges for the large-scale recombinant production of IL-18. In this study, we have explored methods for the direct production of authentic human IL-18 toward the development of a large-scale production system. Expression of mature IL-18 directly in Escherichia coli with a methionine initiating codon leads to the production of MetIL-18 that is dramatically less potent in bioassays than IL-18 produced as a pro-peptide and activated in vitro. To produce an authentic IL-18, we have devised a bicistronic expression system for the coupled transcription and translation of ProIL-18 with caspase-1 (ICE) or caspase-4 (ICE-rel II, TX, ICH-2). Mature IL-18 with an authentic N-terminus was produced and has a biological activity and potency comparable to that of in vitro processed mature IL-18. Optimization of this system for the maximal production yields can be accomplished by modulating the temperature, to affect the rate of caspase activation and to favor the accumulation of ProIL-18, prior to its proteolytic processing by activated caspase. The effect of temperature is particularly profound for the caspase-4 co-expression process, enabling optimized production levels of over 150 mg/L in shake flasks at 25 degrees C. An alternative bicistronic expression design utilizing a precise ubiquitin IL-18 fusion, processed by co-expressed ubiquitinase, was also successfully used to generate fully active IL-18, thereby demonstrating that the pro-sequence of IL-18 is not required for recombinant IL-18 production. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  19. Quality of Cell Products: Authenticity, Identity, Genomic Stability and Status of Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Kurt E J; Simann, Meike; Zghoul, Nadia; Schön, Oliver; Meyring, Wilhelm; Hannig, Horst; Macke, Lars; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Miller, Konstantin; Garritsen, Henk S P; Lindenmaier, Werner

    2010-04-01

    Cellular therapies that either use modifications of a patient's own cells or allogeneic cell lines are becoming in vogue. Besides the technical issues of optimal isolation, cultivation and modification, quality control of the generated cellular products are increasingly being considered to be more important. This is not only relevant for the cell's therapeutic application but also for cell science in general. Recent changes in editorial policies of respected journals, which now require proof of authenticity when cell lines are used, demonstrate that the subject of the present paper is not a virtual problem at all. In this article we provide 2 examples of contaminated cell lines followed by a review of the recent developments used to verify cell lines, stem cells and modifications of autologous cells. With relative simple techniques one can now prove the authenticity and the quality of the cellular material of interest and therefore improve the scientific basis for the development of cells for therapeutic applications. The future of advanced cellular therapies will require production and characterization of cells under GMP and GLP conditions, which include proof of identity, safety and functionality and absence of contamination.

  20. Authentication of Ficus Deltoidea Variety Kunstleri for Deltozide Phyto pharmaceutical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anee Suryani Sued; Zainah Adam; Fazliana Mohd Saaya

    2016-01-01

    Plant authentication is a quality assurance process that ensures the correct plant species and plant parts are used as raw materials for herbal medicines. Identification methods employed in the authentication of herbal materials are macroscopic identification and microscopic examination. Macroscopic examination involves the comparison of morphological characters that are visible with the naked eye or under low magnification with descriptions of the plant or botanical drug in floras or monographs. Characters such as size, shape and colour of leaves (or leaf fragments), flowers or fruits are commonly used in macroscopic identification. Microscopic examination focuses on anatomical structures in the plant material that are visible only with the help of a microscope. Features such as trichome (hair) shape and structure, the arrangement of stomata in the epidermis, the presence or absence of compounds such as mucilage, starch or lignin, or the presence of tissues with characteristic cells might be used in the microscopic identifications of herbal drugs. Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has been classified into various varieties such as var. deltoidea, var. angustifolia, var.bilobata, var. intermedia, var.kunstleri, var. motleyana, and var. trengganuensis. Morphological variations and unclear boundaries between varieties can lead to the misleading identification. Thus, correct identification of F. deltoidea varieties is important. The present study aims to examine the macroscopic morphology and microscopic anatomy of F. deltoidea var. kunstleri leaf, as the main phyto-ingredient in DELTOZIDE phyto pharmaceutical product. (author)

  1. Security Enhancement Using Mutual Authentication in Existing CDMA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    L. Krishna Bharathi; Gnanou Florence Sudha

    2010-01-01

    Even though CDMA2000 wireless networks are being widely deployed as a cellular digital standard around the world, it has some hidden vulnerabilities concerned with security issues. The existing CDMA systems use authentication mechanism by CAVE (Cellular Authentication and Voice Encryption) algorithm. This authentication method has several disadvantages. Only one way authentication is provided, that is, only a base station authenticates a subscriber. And, CAVE algorithm is prone to cryptograph...

  2. BEST PRACTICES IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: THE ZYRAY WIRELESS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koekemoer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Successful high-tech start-up companies are rare. This case study investigates the New Product Development (NPD process of Zyray Wireless, a very successful startup 3G technology company that originated in South Africa but relocated to California in the USA. The research looked into the differences between generally accepted NPD best practices and those implemented by this start-up company. Zyray Wireless scored above the industry average in the following categories: customer involvement, project selection, product strategy, technological leadership, and product goal. The best practices for metrics, human resource development, documentation, and change control implemented by Zyray Wireless scored at or below the industry average. The best practice results showed that this very successful start-up company focused more on strategy and engineering and less on process control than average.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suksesvolle nuwe hoë-tegnologie maatskappye is skaars. Hierdie gevallestudie het die Nuwe Produk Ontwikkelingproses (NPO ondersoek van Zyray Wireless, ʼn baie suksesvolle nuwe maatskappy wat in Suid-Afrika ontstaan het maar na Kalifornië in die VSA verskuif is. Die navorsing het na die verskille gekyk tussen algemeen aanvaarde NPO beste praktyke en dié wat deur hierdie maatskappy geïmplementeer is. Zyray Wireless het bo die industriegemiddelde gepresteer in die volgende kategorieë: kliëntbetrokkenheid, projekkeuse, produkstrategie, tegnologiese leierskap, en produkdoelwitte. Die beste praktyke vir maatstawwe, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling, dokumentasie, en veranderingsbeheer wat deur Zyray Wireless geïmplementeer is, het onder die industriegemiddeldes gepresteer. Die beste praktykresultate het getoon dat hierdie baie suksesvolle nuwe maatskappy meer gefokus het op strategie en ingenieurswese en minder op prosesbeheer as die gemiddelde.

  3. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  4. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  5. Application of microscopy in authentication of valuable Chinese medicine I--Cordyceps sinensis, its counterfeits, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Dawn; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Dajian; Mok, Daniel K W; Chan, Albert S C; Xu, Hongxi

    2012-01-01

    Light and polarized microscope was applied to authenticate 32 Cordyceps and 6 artificial counterfeits and 8 fermented Cordyceps as well as 7 Cordyceps capsules available in Hong Kong markets. Results showed that transverse sections of stroma and powder of larvae can be used to differentiate C. sinensis from its counterfeits. The fermented Cordyceps are in powder form. Among the eight fermented Cordyceps collected, half of them were pure; three were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; one was a mixture of unknown plant tissues and soya beans. For the seven Cordyceps capsules, the powders of five samples were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; the powders of other two were a mixture of C. sinensis stroma powder and fermented Cordyceps. The study indicated that the microscopy is an unambiguous method that requests fewer sample for the authentication of valuable Chinese medicine-C. sinensis and its related products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  7. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  8. Embedding X.509 Digital Certificates in Three-Dimensional Models for Authentication, Authorization, and Traceability of Product Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D.; Krima, Sylvere; Camelio, Jaime A.

    2016-01-01

    Exchange and reuse of three-dimensional (3D)-product models are hampered by the absence of trust in product-lifecycle-data quality. The root cause of the missing trust is years of “silo” functions (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, quality assurance) using independent and disconnected processes. Those disconnected processes result in data exchanges that do not contain all of the required information for each downstream lifecycle process, which inhibits the reuse of product data and results in duplicate data. The X.509 standard, maintained by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), was first issued in 1988. Although originally intended as the authentication framework for the X.500 series for electronic directory services, the X.509 framework is used in a wide range of implementations outside the originally intended paradigm. These implementations range from encrypting websites to software-code signing, yet X.509 certificate use has not widely penetrated engineering and product realms. Our approach is not trying to provide security mechanisms, but equally as important, our method aims to provide insight into what is happening with product data to support trusting the data. This paper provides a review of the use of X.509 certificates and proposes a solution for embedding X.509 digital certificates in 3D models for authentication, authorization, and traceability of product data. This paper also describes an application within the Aerospace domain. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and provides recommendations for further research into using X.509 certificates in product lifecycle management (PLM) workflows to enable a product lifecycle of trust. PMID:27840596

  9. Embedding X.509 Digital Certificates in Three-Dimensional Models for Authentication, Authorization, and Traceability of Product Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Krima, Sylvere; Camelio, Jaime A

    2017-03-01

    Exchange and reuse of three-dimensional (3D)-product models are hampered by the absence of trust in product-lifecycle-data quality. The root cause of the missing trust is years of "silo" functions (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, quality assurance) using independent and disconnected processes. Those disconnected processes result in data exchanges that do not contain all of the required information for each downstream lifecycle process, which inhibits the reuse of product data and results in duplicate data. The X.509 standard, maintained by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), was first issued in 1988. Although originally intended as the authentication framework for the X.500 series for electronic directory services, the X.509 framework is used in a wide range of implementations outside the originally intended paradigm. These implementations range from encrypting websites to software-code signing, yet X.509 certificate use has not widely penetrated engineering and product realms. Our approach is not trying to provide security mechanisms, but equally as important, our method aims to provide insight into what is happening with product data to support trusting the data. This paper provides a review of the use of X.509 certificates and proposes a solution for embedding X.509 digital certificates in 3D models for authentication, authorization, and traceability of product data. This paper also describes an application within the Aerospace domain. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and provides recommendations for further research into using X.509 certificates in product lifecycle management (PLM) workflows to enable a product lifecycle of trust.

  10. Wireless Communication Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Communication Technologies. Since 1999, the wireless LAN has experienced a tremendous growth. Reasons: Adoption of industry standards. Interoperability testing. The progress of wireless equipments to higher data rates. Rapid decrease in product ...

  11. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  12. Speaker Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qi (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on use of voice as a biometric measure for personal authentication. In particular, "Speaker Recognition" covers two approaches in speaker authentication: speaker verification (SV) and verbal information verification (VIV). The SV approach attempts to verify a speaker’s identity based on his/her voice characteristics while the VIV approach validates a speaker’s identity through verification of the content of his/her utterance(s). SV and VIV can be combined for new applications. This is still a new research topic with significant potential applications. The book provides with a broad overview of the recent advances in speaker authentication while giving enough attention to advanced and useful algorithms and techniques. It also provides a step by step introduction to the current state of the speaker authentication technology, from the fundamental concepts to advanced algorithms. We will also present major design methodologies and share our experience in developing real and successful speake...

  13. Nontargeted, Rapid Screening of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Products for Authenticity Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Conformity Index and Multivariate Statistical Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kia, Ali-Reza Fardin; Srigley, Cynthia; Chung, Jin Kyu; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2016-10-01

    A rapid tool for evaluating authenticity was developed and applied to the screening of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) retail products by using Fourier-transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in combination with univariate and multivariate data analysis methods. Using disposable glass tubes, spectra for 62 reference EVOO, 10 edible oil adulterants, 20 blends consisting of EVOO spiked with adulterants, 88 retail EVOO products and other test samples were rapidly measured in the transmission mode without any sample preparation. The univariate conformity index (CI) and the multivariate supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification tool were used to analyze the various olive oil products which were tested for authenticity against a library of reference EVOO. Better discrimination between the authentic EVOO and some commercial EVOO products was observed with SIMCA than with CI analysis. Approximately 61% of all EVOO commercial products were flagged by SIMCA analysis, suggesting that further analysis be performed to identify quality issues and/or potential adulterants. Due to its simplicity and speed, FT-NIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used as a complementary tool to conventional official methods of analysis to rapidly flag EVOO products that may not belong to the class of authentic EVOO. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-05-01

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. DNA Barcoding as a Reliable Method for the Authentication of Commercial Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nicolè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal DNA barcoding allows researchers to identify different species by analyzing a short nucleotide sequence, typically the mitochondrial gene cox1. In this paper, we use DNA barcoding to genetically identify seafood samples that were purchased from various locations throughout Italy. We adopted a multi-locus approach to analyze the cob, 16S-rDNA and cox1 genes, and compared our sequences to reference sequences in the BOLD and GenBank online databases. Our method is a rapid and robust technique that can be used to genetically identify crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. This approach could be applied in the future for conservation, particularly for monitoring illegal trade of protected and endangered species. Additionally, this method could be used for authentication in order to detect mislabeling of commercially processed seafood.

  16. light-weight digital signature algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M LAVANYA

    Abstract. The essential security mechanism in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is authentication, where nodes can authenticate each other before transmitting a valid data to a sink. There are a number of public key authentication procedures available for WSN in recent years. Due to constraints in WSN environment there ...

  17. light-weight digital signature algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M LAVANYA

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. The essential security mechanism in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is authentication, where nodes can authenticate each other before transmitting a valid data to a sink. There are a number of public key authentication procedures available for WSN in recent years. Due to constraints in WSN ...

  18. Pervasive wireless environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Trappe, Wade; Cheng, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides a new approach to prevent user spoofing by using the physical properties associated with wireless transmissions to detect the presence of user spoofing. The most common method, applying cryptographic authentication, requires additional management and computational power that cannot be deployed consistently. The authors present the new approach by offering a summary of the recent research and exploring the benefits and potential challenges of this method. This brief discusses the feasibility of launching user spoofing attacks and their impact on the wireless and sen

  19. A ring test of a wireless in vitro gas production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Hindrichsen, Ida Katarina Auf der M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro gas production (GP) technique has been widely used for feed evaluation. However, variability in results limits useful comparisons. Results from a ring test undertaken in four laboratories (Italy - IT, Spain - SP, Wales - WA and Denmark - DK) using the same wireless equipment (ANKOM......) or sheep (SP). Curves, corrected for blanks, were fitted using an exponential regression model with a lag time. The following variables were considered: (i) GP24 and GP48: raw values at 24 and 48 h (mL/g DM), corrected for blanks; (ii) A: asymptotic GP (mL/g DM); (iii) T1/2: time when half A is produced (h......); (iv) GPMR: maximum predicted GP rate (mL/h); (v) L: lag time (h). A mixed model including laboratories as random effect was used. A significant interaction between substrate and laboratories was found for all variables except A. The most repeatable and reproducible results were observed for A and GP48...

  20. Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyeon Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide.

  1. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) products - an assessment of their authenticity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Agapouda, Anastasia; Frommenwiler, Débora A; Scotti, Francesca; Reich, Eike; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    St John's wort products (Hypericum perforatum L.) are widely available for sale in many countries including the UK via the internet. In the UK, these products are required to hold either a marketing authorisation or Traditional herbal registration (THR) to be sold legally. The THR and other regulatory schemes help to ensure product safety and quality providing an example of best practice but there is a risk if both regulated and un-regulated products continue to be available to consumers. The project is embedded in a larger study aiming to investigate the quality of different herbal medicinal products along diverse value chains. Here we focus on a comparison of the quality of the finished products and assess phytochemical variation between registered products (THRs) and products obtained from the market without any registration. 47 commercial products (granulated powders and extracts) were sourced from different suppliers. We analysed these samples using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and 1 H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multi-variate analysis software following a method previously developed by our group. The consistency of the products varies significantly. Adulteration of the products (36%), possibly with other Hypericum species obtained from China or use of chemically distinct H. perforatum cultivars or chemotypes, and adulteration of the products (19%) with food dyes (tartrazine, amaranth, brilliant blue, sunset yellow) were the principle findings of this study. There is significant compositional variation among commercial finished products and two main causative quality problems were identified as adulteration by incorrect species or adulteration with food dyes. Generally, food supplements and unlicensed products were found to be of poorer quality than the regulated ones including THRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. A critical review on the use of artificial neural networks in olive oil production, characterization and authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, I; Iglesias-Otero, M A; Esteki, M; Moldes, O A; Mejuto, J C; Simal-Gandara, J

    2018-01-30

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) are computationally based mathematical tools inspired by the fundamental cell of the nervous system, the neuron. ANN constitute a simplified artificial replica of the human brain consisting of parallel processing neural elements similar to neurons in living beings. ANN is able to store large amounts of experimental information to be used for generalization with the aid of an appropriate prediction model. ANN has proved useful for a variety of biological, medical, economic and meteorological purposes, and in agro-food science and technology. The olive oil industry has a substantial weight in Mediterranean's economy. The different steps of the olive oil production process, which include olive tree and fruit care, fruit harvest, mechanical and chemical processing, and oil packaging have been examined in depth with a view to their optimization, and so have the authenticity, sensory properties and other quality-related properties of olive oil. This paper reviews existing literature on the use of bioinformatics predictive methods based on ANN in connection with the production, processing and characterization of olive oil. It examines the state of the art in bioinformatics tools for optimizing or predicting its quality with a view to identifying potential deficiencies or aspects for improvement.

  3. Technology and production of plant-based meat analogs with authentic texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion cooking has been widely used in modern food industry due to its versatility, high productivity, energy efficiency and low cost. Well-known applications include breakfast cereals, pasta, snacks, confectionery products, and textured vegetable proteins. Most applications take place at low ...

  4. System and method for authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Miller, Seth A.

    2015-12-29

    Described are methods and systems for determining authenticity. For example, the method may include providing an object of authentication, capturing characteristic data from the object of authentication, deriving authentication data from the characteristic data of the object of authentication, and comparing the authentication data with an electronic database comprising reference authentication data to provide an authenticity score for the object of authentication. The reference authentication data may correspond to one or more reference objects of authentication other than the object of authentication.

  5. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  6. Metabolomic analysis of saponins in crude extracts of Quillaja saponaria by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for product authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 50% aqueous methanolic extracts of bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina (quillaja) by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), using negative ion electrospray, revealed over 100 saponins. The majority could be assigned to known structures or generalised variations of these from the product ion spectra obtained by serial mass spectrometry in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Ten saponins contained a fatty acid domain terminated with both a pentose and deoxyhexose unit, a feature thus far only reported in QS-III. Twenty saponins were based on a hydroxylated derivative of quillaic acid, whereas only six 22beta-hydroxyquillaic acid saponins have been described. The occurrence of pairs of saponins differing only by the presence of a rhamnose or xylose unit in the C-3-substituted saccharide was readily observed in two-dimensional mass maps, and these showed the presence of the unreported 'rhamnose partner' of QS-III. However, one sample labelled as Q. saponaria appeared to lack all saponins containing rhamnose in the C-3 saccharide. Methods to authenticate saponin extracts of quillaja by LC/MS are suggested based on the general metabolomic profile, the occurrence of specific major saponins covering known structural variations, or the presence of saponins containing the unusual fatty acid domain, revealed by neutral loss analysis. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. ESnet authentication services and trust federations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muruganantham, Dhivakaran; Helm, Mike; Genovese, Tony

    2005-01-01

    ESnet provides authentication services and trust federation support for SciDAC projects, collaboratories, and other distributed computing applications. The ESnet ATF team operates the DOEGrids Certificate Authority, available to all DOE Office of Science programs, plus several custom CAs, including one for the National Fusion Collaboratory and one for NERSC. The secure hardware and software environment developed to support CAs is suitable for supporting additional custom authentication and authorization applications that your program might require. Seamless, secure interoperation across organizational and international boundaries is vital to collaborative science. We are fostering the development of international PKI federations by founding the TAGPMA, the American regional PMA, and the worldwide IGTF Policy Management Authority (PMA), as well as participating in European and Asian regional PMAs. We are investigating and prototyping distributed authentication technology that will allow us to support the 'roaming scientist' (distributed wireless via eduroam), as well as more secure authentication methods (one-time password tokens)

  8. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  9. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley 'Agordino'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio; Galla, Giulio; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2017-03-01

    The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L.) that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR) loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which could be rapidly

  10. Chromatography in authenticity and traceability tests of vegetable oils and dairy products: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 183-190 ISSN 0269-3879 Grant - others:CZ-HU(CZ) Cooperation programme Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chromatography * dairy products * vegetable oils Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.218, year: 2005

  11. Authentic Tasks to Foster Oral Production among English as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ortiz, Sandra Milena; Artunduaga Cuéllar, Marco Tulio

    2018-01-01

    Attaining oral production is a challenge for most English language teachers because most of the strategies implemented in class do not engage students in speaking activities. Tasks are an optimal alternative to engage learners in communicative exchanges. This article presents the results of a qualitative action research study examining the effects…

  12. Authentic Teachers: Student Criteria Perceiving Authenticity of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Authenticity is seen by many as a key for good learning and education. There is talk of authentic instruction, authentic learning, authentic problems, authentic assessment, authentic tools and authentic teachers. The problem is that while authenticity is an often-used adjective describing almost all aspects of teaching and learning, the concept…

  13. Tibetan Interpretations of Authenticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The four means of authentication are arguments for the authentication of Buddhist teachings in a Tibetan tradition. Different traditions emphasize different means of authentication. These reveal interesting facts about the self-image of these traditions.......The four means of authentication are arguments for the authentication of Buddhist teachings in a Tibetan tradition. Different traditions emphasize different means of authentication. These reveal interesting facts about the self-image of these traditions....

  14. AIS authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Users are invited to use the NICE password for AIS authentication. As announced in CNL June-August 2006 (see http://www.cerncourier.com/articles/cnl/3/6/14/1) it is possible to use the NICE username and password to log on to AIS. The procedure is now fully operational and users can themselves reset the AIS password such that the NICE password will be used for authentication required by AIS applications. We strongly recommend CERN users who have a NICE account (this is the case of most users) to do this, with the objective to reduce the number of passwords they need to remember. This can be achieved very easily, directly from the Change Password option on the AIS login (https://aislogin.cern.ch/). Users should just select the '[Change Password]' option displayed at the bottom of the page, provide the 'Old Password' and then click on the button 'Use Nice password' followed by 'Submit'. Change Password option on the AIS login windowSetting the AIS password - Use Nice Password It should be noted that the proce...

  15. Wireless bandwidth authentication improving quality of service

    OpenAIRE

    Peart, Amanda; Good, Alice

    2012-01-01

    With the popularity of distributed applications such as BitTorrent and Peer 2 Peer (P2P) networks, coupled with the increase in mobility of end user devices, there is a requirement for dynamic bandwidth management. Mobile users require access to the internet at varying times and for various reasons. Generally this access is via public hotspots in places such as airports, hotels and coffee shops. Therefore it is paramount that user access is managed as some users will utilize an unfair amount ...

  16. Authenticity and commoditization at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    This paper investigates how interest and affect are entangled in the built environment of new Danish homes. The paper unfolds tensions and conflicts in the process from design through branding to occupancy of the house, and the relationship between authenticity and commoditization is explored....... The aim is to unfold how forces of commoditization and singularization intertwine as the house is transformed from an architectural expression into real estate for sale and eventually into somebody's home. What tensions are revealed in this process and how are interest and affect entangled? Authenticity...... seems to be a key concept in contemporary branding of products, places, and more recently also private homes. On the one hand authenticity thus seems to be closely related to the commercial value of things, on the other hand the authentic is held to be an expression of an inner nature or feeling...

  17. Activity report for feasibility study on PKI authentication method with IC card in authentication system sub group of J-PARC information system group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Naoya; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Kiyoharu; Manabe, Atsushi; Yuasa, Fukuko

    2009-06-01

    The Authentication System Sub Group of J-PARC Information System Group completed the mapping of the several authentication methods in terms of the level of security. Of the methods, the PKI authentication method with IC card provides the Super High Security Level and will be adopted as the authentication method of several J-PARC Information Systems. We study the feasibility of this method with following four examples; (1) 'The EAP-TLS wireless LAN authentication method'. (2) 'The Web-SSL client authentication method in SSL-VPN connection'. (3) 'The PKI authentication method with a certificate issued by NAREGI-CA software stored in IC card.' (4) 'The PKI authentication method with Dual interface FeliCa card'. In each example, we confirmed the feasibility of the method in a practical way. In this report we present the details of the study. (author)

  18. nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR marker to authenticate Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus in Ayurvedic raw drug source and prepared herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-02-15

    To authenticate Ayurvedic medicinal plants Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum) and Musta (Cyperus rotundus) at the raw drug source and in prepared herbal products, nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR markers were designed and validated spp.-specific SCAR primers gave amplicon of 415 bp and 134 bp, respectively, in authentic species. The SCAR primers (Cyr-FP and Cyr-RP) could identify tissue sample containing 750 μg to 4.76 mg/100mg of Musta in complex mixtures of DNA extracted from commercial herbal drugs. Ativisha could not be identified through SCAR markers suggesting that authentic species may not been used to prepare herbal drugs despite its being labelled as one of the ingredients in formulations. Analysis of individual tubers of Ativisha and Musta assures the presence of admixtures in raw drug trade of Ativisha, indicates the need to monitor the basic raw material supply and concludes, supplying plant materials through cultivation to manufacturing industries can minimize the risks of adulteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Should Teachers Be Authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be "authentic"? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical…

  20. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  1. Authenticating the Leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann

    As authentic leadership, with its dictum of being true to the self, has become increasingly influential among practitioners and mainstream leadership scholars, critical writers have drawn attention to the negative consequences of this development. Yet, few scholars have investigated the problem...... of authentication within discourse of authentic leadership. If authentic leadership is to make any sense, it is necessary to be able to distinguish the authentic from the inauthentic leader – in other words, it is necessary to authenticate the leader. This paper uses Gilles Deleuze’s reading of Plato as the point...... of departure for discussing the problem of authentication – separating the authentic leader form the inauthentic one – in the leadership guru Bill George’s model of authentic leadership. By doing so, the paper offers a way of conceptualizing the problem of authenticating leaders, as well as challenging...

  2. Sum of ratios of products forα-μ random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-09-01

    The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

  3. Secure and robust authentication for DC MicroGrids based on power talk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for secure and reliable authentication of Distributed Energy Resources to the centralized secondary/tertiary control system of a DC MicroGrid (MG), networked using the IEEE 802.11 wireless interface. The key idea is to perform the authentication using power talk...

  4. Development of a Mobile EEG-based Biometric Authentication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonovs, Juris; Petersen, Christoffer Kjeldgaard; Olesen, Henning

    In recent years the need for greater security for storing personal and business data or accessing corporate networks on mobile devices is growing rapidly, and one of the potential solutions is to employ the innovative biometric authentication techniques. This paper presents the development...... of a mobile biometric authentication system based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in combination with already proven technologies such as facial detection and near-field communication (NFC). The overall goal of this work is to fill the gap between mobile web technologies and wireless EEG devices...... and present a mobile prototype system capable of authenticating users based on the uniqueness of their brainwaves. Furthermore, we implement a novel authentication process, which leads the authentication system to be more secure. We also give suggestions for future improvements of the system....

  5. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  6. Post-Session Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session. In th...... as the only setup assumption. We hope post-session authentication can be used to devise new strategies for building trust among strangers....

  7. The Effect of Text Chat Assisted with Word Processors on Saudi English Major Students' Writing Accuracy and Productivity of Authentic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mosa Batianeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstractــ-This study explored the effects of using online chat and word processors on students' writing skills that include; organizing a text, spelling, punctuation, grammar, phrasal verbs, idioms, idiomatic expressions, pragmatics, creativity, vocabulary growth, content, relational words, conjunctions, authenticity, figures of speech, imagination, coherence, style, socio-cultural aspects, language use, and the production of authentic text. The study group consisted of students in the Department of Languages and Translation at Taibah University who registered for the Writing Two course in the first semester of the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Fourty subjects were divided into two sections: section one was assigned as an experimental group (supported by Facebook and Skype and section two was assigned as a control group and was asked to write their essays with paper and pencil. Facebook and Skype accounts were created for every student in the experimental group. Data was analyzed from pre-test and post-test results to evaluate the question posed by the study: Does the use of online text chat assisted with word processors help undergraduate students develop their writing skills more than traditional methods of teaching? The results revealed that students who worked with Facebook and Skype showed a significant improvement in their writing skills when compared to the control group. In light of these findings, it is recommended that online discussions via Facebook, Skype, and other social media sites should be utilized when teaching writing and the other language skills.

  8. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  9. Authenticating the Leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmann Johnsen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In the wake of a series of corporate scandals, there has been a growing call for authentic leadership in order to ensure ethical conduct in contemporary organizations. Authentic leadership, however, depends upon the ability to draw a distinction between the authentic and inauthentic leader. This ...... or her own value-commitments....

  10. Authentication Assurance Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Cash, James R.; Devaney, David M.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Hansen, Randy R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Pitts, W. Karl

    2002-01-01

    This Common Criteria approach has been applied to create a definition of Authentication Assurance Levels that can quantify the level of assurance reached for a system subject to a set of authentication procedures. The arms-control authentication application of the Common Criteria expands on more typical information security evaluations in that it must contend with information barriers and preclude sophisticated intentional subversion attempts.

  11. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  12. Evaluation of the Botanical Authenticity and Phytochemical Profile of Black Cohosh Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Selected Ion Monitoring Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Kronenberg, Fredi; Nuntanakorn, Paiboon; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.) has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause, but the botanical authenticity of most products containing black cohosh has not been evaluated, nor is manufacturing highly regulated in the United States. In this study, 11 black cohosh products were analyzed for triterpene glycosides, phenolic constituents, and formononetin by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection and a new selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method. Three of the 11 products were found to contain the marker compound cimifugin and not cimiracemoside C, thereby indicating that these plants contain Asian Actaea instead of black cohosh. One product contained both black cohosh and an Asian Actaea species. For the products containing only black cohosh, there was significant product-to-product variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides and phenolic constituents, and as expected, no formononetin was detected. PMID:16637680

  13. Multi-factor authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  14. Proteomics for the authentication of fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2016-09-16

    Assessment of seafood authenticity and origin, mainly in the case of processed products (fillets, sticks, baby food) represents the crucial point to prevent fraudulent deceptions thus guaranteeing market transparency and consumers health. The most dangerous practice that jeopardies fish safety is intentional or unintentional mislabeling, originating from the substitution of valuable fish species with inferior ones. Conventional analytical methods for fish authentication are becoming inadequate to comply with the strict regulations issued by the European Union and with the increase of mislabeling due to the introduction on the market of new fish species and market globalization. This evidence prompts the development of high-throughput approaches suitable to identify unambiguous biomarkers of authenticity and screen a large number of samples with minimal time consumption. Proteomics provides suitable and powerful tools to investigate main aspects of food quality and safety and has given an important contribution in the field of biomarkers discovery applied to food authentication. This report describes the most relevant methods developed to assess fish identity and offers a perspective on their potential in the evaluation of fish quality and safety thus depicting the key role of proteomics in the authentication of fish species and processed products. The assessment of fishery products authenticity is a main issue in the control quality process as deceptive practices could imply severe health risks. Proteomics based methods could significantly contribute to detect falsification and frauds, thus becoming a reliable operative first-line testing resource in food authentication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Hsuan Chuang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people’s modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments.

  16. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yo-Hsuan; Lo, Nai-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Tang, Ssu-Wei

    2018-04-05

    Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people's modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT) environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments.

  17. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  18. Pre-Authentication Schemes for UMTS-WLAN Interworking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Shidhani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interworking Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs introduce new challenges including the design of secured and fast handover protocols. Handover operations within and between networks must not compromise the security of the networks involved. In addition, handovers must be instantaneous to sustain the quality of service (QoS of the applications running on the User Equipment (UE. There is a need to design fast and secured handover protocols to operate in UMTS-WLAN interworking architectures. This paper proposes two secured pre-authentication protocols in the UMTS-WLAN interworking architectures. Performance analysis of the proposed protocols show superior results in comparison to existing protocols in terms of authentication signaling cost, authentication delay and load on critical nodes involved in the authentication procedure. Additionally, the security of the proposed protocols was verified by the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA security analyzer.

  19. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  20. Authentication: Hot and cool

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, E; Cohen, SA

    2012-01-01

    Seeking to shift the discussion of the concept of authenticity in tourism scholarship from the dominant concern with tourist experiences to the more sociological problem of the processes of authentication of tourist attractions, we conceptualize two analytically distinct, but practically often intersecting, modes of authentication of attractions, “cool” and “hot”. Through a range of examples, we demonstrate the implications of the two modes for the dynamics of the constitution of tourist attr...

  1. STUDY & SURVEY ON WIRELESS CHARGING & TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Harshal Sharma*

    2016-01-01

    In the modern world, we have often heard a word- wireless charging technology. Actually what is it all about? So this paper is giving you the whole package about wireless charging technology. Wireless charging is a technology through which power is transmitted through an air gap to the electrical devices for the motive of replenishment of energy. At present wireless charging techniques and development of commercial products have provided a promise to address the energy bottleneck of portable ...

  2. Electronic Devices, Methods, and Computer Program Products for Selecting an Antenna Element Based on a Wireless Communication Performance Criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method of operating an electronic device includes providing a plurality of antenna elements, evaluating a wireless communication performance criterion to obtain a performance evaluation, and assigning a first one of the plurality of antenna elements to a main wireless signal reception and trans...

  3. Identification of mtDNA lineages of Sus scrofa by multiplex single base extension for the authentication of processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Silva Santos, Liliana; Carneiro, Joao; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, Antonio

    2011-07-13

    A genetic method to identify the breed of origin could serve as a useful tool for inspecting the authenticity of the increasing number of monobreed foodstuffs, such as those derived from small local European pig breeds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is practically the only reliable genomic target for PCR in processed products, and its haploid nature and strict maternal inheritance greatly facilitate genetic analysis. As a result of strategies that sought to improve the production traits of European pigs, most industrial breeds presently show a high frequency of Asian alleles, while the absence or low frequency of such Asian alleles has been observed in small rustic breeds from which highly prized dry-cured and other traditional products are derived. Therefore, the detection of Asian ancestry would indicate nonconformity in Protected Denomination of Origin products. This study presents a single base extension assay based on 15 diagnostic mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Asian and European Sus scrofa lineages. The test was robust, sensitive and accurate in a wide range of processed foodstuffs and allowed accurate detection of pig genetic material and identification of maternal ancestry. A market survey suggested that nonconformity of products derived from Portuguese breeds is an unusual event at present, but regular surveys both in the local populations and in commercial products would be advisible. Taking into consideration the limitations presented by other methodologies, this mtDNA-based test probably attains the highest resolution for the direct genetic test for population of origin in Sus scrofa food products.

  4. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  5. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  6. Authenticity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Authenticity at work, loosely defined as the degree to which an individual stays true to their core self, has impact on workers in the workplace. This thesis shows that authenticity at work can be measured with a reliable and valid instrument: the IAM Work. Furthermore, results of this thesis show

  7. (Special Issue - Wireless Manufacturing) RFID in product lifecycle management: a case in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hui; Folan, Paul; Mascolo, Julien Etienne; Browne, Jim J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The circumstances of globalisation and ever-stricter environmental legislation over the past decade have led enterprises to work together to transform products into extended products, and to manage these throughout their life cycle. Innovative Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology can be introduced as an enabler of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) business, by enhancing the traceability of the product throughout its value chain via automatic identification, en...

  8. AUTHENTICITY IN THE BLOGOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waclaw Branicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this article is to answer the question of whether writing a blog defined as a personal diary can help to better understand himself. Self-awareness is a prerequisite for authentic existence. In the first part analyzed the concept of authenticity. Pointed out the relationship of authenticity to the categories of freedom, truth and responsibility. The second part presents the relationship between authentic existence and the process of self-disclosure, which may take place in the blogosphere. In the third part presents the question whether a writing blog affects the level authenticity of existence. It was recognized that a key element of this phenomenon is the sense of responsibility.

  9. Validation of Remote Sensing Retrieval Products using Data from a Wireless Sensor-Based Online Monitoring in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Of the modern technologies in polar-region monitoring, the remote sensing technology that can instantaneously form large-scale images has become much more important in helping acquire parameters such as the freezing and melting of ice as well as the surface temperature, which can be used in the research of global climate change, Antarctic ice sheet responses, and cap formation and evolution. However, the acquirement of those parameters is impacted remarkably by the climate and satellite transit time which makes it almost impossible to have timely and continuous observation data. In this research, a wireless sensor-based online monitoring platform (WSOOP for the extreme polar environment is applied to obtain a long-term series of data which is site-specific and continuous in time. Those data are compared and validated with the data from a weather station at Zhongshan Station Antarctica and the result shows an obvious correlation. Then those data are used to validate the remote sensing products of the freezing and melting of ice and the surface temperature and the result also indicated a similar correlation. The experiment in Antarctica has proven that WSOOP is an effective system to validate remotely sensed data in the polar region.

  10. Validation of Remote Sensing Retrieval Products using Data from a Wireless Sensor-Based Online Monitoring in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Cheng, Xiao; Yang, Rongjin; Liu, Qiang; Qiu, Yubao; Zhang, Jialin; Cai, Erli; Zhao, Long

    2016-01-01

    Of the modern technologies in polar-region monitoring, the remote sensing technology that can instantaneously form large-scale images has become much more important in helping acquire parameters such as the freezing and melting of ice as well as the surface temperature, which can be used in the research of global climate change, Antarctic ice sheet responses, and cap formation and evolution. However, the acquirement of those parameters is impacted remarkably by the climate and satellite transit time which makes it almost impossible to have timely and continuous observation data. In this research, a wireless sensor-based online monitoring platform (WSOOP) for the extreme polar environment is applied to obtain a long-term series of data which is site-specific and continuous in time. Those data are compared and validated with the data from a weather station at Zhongshan Station Antarctica and the result shows an obvious correlation. Then those data are used to validate the remote sensing products of the freezing and melting of ice and the surface temperature and the result also indicated a similar correlation. The experiment in Antarctica has proven that WSOOP is an effective system to validate remotely sensed data in the polar region. PMID:27869668

  11. Seamless and secure communications over heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of the requirements, challenges, design issues and major techniques for seamless and secure communications over heterogeneous wireless networks. It summarizes and provides detailed insights into the latest research on handoff management, mobility management, fast authentication and security management to support seamless and secure roaming for mobile clients. The reader will also learn about the challenges in developing relevant technologies and providing ubiquitous Internet access over heterogeneous wireless networks. The authors have extensive experience in im

  12. Richard Peters and Valuing Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, M. A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Peters has been praised for the authenticity of his philosophy, and inquiry into aspects of the development of his philosophy reveals a profound authenticity. Yet authenticity is something he seems not to favour. The apparent paradox is resolved by observing historical changes in the understanding of authenticity as an important value.…

  13. Authenticity and Constructivism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of authenticity and its relevance in education, from a philosophical perspective. Under the heading of educational authenticity (EA), I critique Fred Newmann's views on authentic pedagogy and intellectual work. I argue against the notion that authentic engagement is usefully analyzed in terms of a relationship…

  14. A Review Of Authentication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh A. Lal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication is process of granting a user access to an information system. There are three main types of authentication mechanisms password entry smart card and biometric. Each authentication mechanism functions differently and has their strengths and weakness. In this paper we review different types of authentication mechanisms their vulnerabilities and recommend novel solutions.

  15. A Novel Single Pass Authenticated Encryption Stream Cipher for Software Defined Radios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant

    2012-01-01

    high throughput and low overhead for SDRs. The thesis is divided into two research topics. One topic is the design of a 1-pass authenticated encryption scheme that can accomplish both message secrecy and authenticity in a single cryptographic primitive. The other topic is the implementation......With the rapid growth of new wireless communication standards, a solution that is able to provide a seamless shift between existing wireless protocols and high flexibility as well as capacity is crucial. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology offers this flexibility. It gives the possibility...

  16. Documenting the 'terroir' aspects of award-winning Danish conserves: a model for the development of authentic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Sorensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    An example of the qualities embedded in the foods produced by small companies based on small Danish islands and reflections on the association between the qualities of the products and their geographical origin is presented. This case study discusses how it can be ensured that qualities in the pr...

  17. Blockchain based trust & authentication for decentralized sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moinet, Axel; Darties, Benoît; Baril, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Sensor networks and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key components for the development of the Internet of Things. These networks are subject of two kinds of constraints. Adaptability by the mean of mutability and evolutivity, and constrained node resources such as energy consumption, computational complexity or memory usage. In this context, none of the existing protocols and models allows reliable peer authentication and trust level management. In the field of virtual economic transaction...

  18. Papers of the PTAC wireless, telecommunications and e-business forum : using wireless, SCADA, and well data life cycle management technology to boost productivity and reduce costs in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of this forum was the use of wireless, telecommunications and e-business as a means of improving efficiency and productivity in the upstream oil and gas industry. The use of new communications technologies in asset monitoring and business performance was discussed, as well as industrial automation and wireless connectivity in conjunction with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. New technologies in the areas of maintenance and decision support and synergy integration were introduced. New health, safety and environmental performance tools were presented. Issues concerning secure communications and document exchange expenses were also introduced, as well as different methods of closing data gaps between joint interest partners. Specific tools and software concerning compliance management with web-based and remote field data capture technology were discussed, as well as the collection and display of well-site data using newly developed BlueGauge technology. Eleven papers were presented in this forum, of which three were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  19. Papers of the PTAC wireless, telecommunications and e-business forum : using wireless, SCADA, and well data life cycle management technology to boost productivity and reduce costs in the upstream oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The main focus of this forum was the use of wireless, telecommunications and e-business as a means of improving efficiency and productivity in the upstream oil and gas industry. The use of new communications technologies in asset monitoring and business performance was discussed, as well as industrial automation and wireless connectivity in conjunction with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. New technologies in the areas of maintenance and decision support and synergy integration were introduced. New health, safety and environmental performance tools were presented. Issues concerning secure communications and document exchange expenses were also introduced, as well as different methods of closing data gaps between joint interest partners. Specific tools and software concerning compliance management with web-based and remote field data capture technology were discussed, as well as the collection and display of well-site data using newly developed BlueGauge technology. Eleven papers were presented in this forum, of which three were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  20. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  1. Authentic Material 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeching, Kate

    1982-01-01

    Discusses techniques for the exploitation of authentic material, with reference to the self-instruction manual, designed for highly literate, undergraduate students, which accompanies the BBC course "Allez France." (EKN)

  2. Label-free pharmacological profiling based on dynamic mass redistribution for characterization and authentication of hazardous natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui-Peng; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoai; He, Ling; Zhong, Huailing; Wu, Si-Qi; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2017-07-05

    Natural products are becoming increasingly popular in multiple fields involving medicines, foods and beverages. However, due to the frequent occurrence of poisoning incidents, their toxicity and safety have caused a serious concern. Here we report a method of biosensor-based two-phase pharmacological profiling (BTPP) for discovery, monitor and control of receptor-targeted natural products. BTPP uses a resonant waveguide grating biosensor for label-free and non-invasive detection of intracellular dynamic mass redistribution (DMR), a phenomenon caused by protein relocalization after receptors receiving stimulation from toxicants. The method can not only facilitate the identification of hazardous materials but also quantify their bioactivity by EC 50 . As a proof of concept, the method was successfully applied to recognize Daturae Flos (DF), an herb that can antagonize muscarinic acetylcholine M 2 receptor and further cause poisoning, from other easily confused species. BTPP combined with high performance liquid chromatography revealed that scopolamine and hyoscyamine in DF were the key marker compounds. Moreover, the method accurately picked out 2 M 2 receptor antagonists from 25 natural compounds, displaying its potential in high-throughput screening. This study provides a systematic illustration about the establishment, applicability and advantages of BTPP, which contributes to the safety assessment of natural products in related fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-yield production of authentic human growth hormone using a plant virus-based expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gils, Mario; Kandzia, Romy; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2005-11-01

    We describe here a high-yield transient expression system for the production of human growth hormone (hGH, or somatotropin) in transfected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The system is based on a recently described plant virus-based modular expression vector [Gleba, Y., Marillonnet, S. and Klimyuk, V. (2004) Engineering viral expression vectors for plants: the 'full virus' and the 'deconstructed virus' strategies. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 7, 182-188; Marillonnet, S., Giritch, A., Gils, M., Kandzia, R., Klimyuk, V. and Gleba, Y. (2004) In planta engineering of viral RNA replicons: efficient assembly by recombination of DNA modules delivered by Agrobacterium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 6852-6857], and represents a simple and fast alternative to stable transformation. By using various combinations of provector modules, hGH was produced in three compartments of the cell: the apoplast, the chloroplast and the cytosol. We found that targeting to the apoplast provided the highest amount of correctly processed and biologically active hGH, with a yield of up to 10% of total soluble protein or 1 mg per gram of fresh weight leaf biomass. These results indicate that the use of viral vectors for high-yield production of human therapeutic proteins in plants by transient expression provides an attractive alternative to production protocols using standard expression vectors in transgenic or transplastomic plants.

  4. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  5. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa [NIGL, BGS, Keyworth, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Richards, Gemma J. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom); Brereton, Nicola [The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Knowles, Toby G. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  6. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J.; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  7. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  8. Authentication of pure L-leucine products manufactured in China by discriminating between plant and animal sources using nitrogen stable isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria; Tang, Shijiang

    2013-03-01

     L-leucine products among other branched chain amino acid supplements are highly susceptible to economically motivated adulteration. Curbing this menace is critical and timely. Hence, the δ(15) N composition of the L-leucine derived from plants and animals sources was estimated. The trophic enrichment phenomenon of δ(15) N composition was utilized to elucidate the sources. We finally established the distinction between the respective sources. Samples of plant sources (maize and soybean) and that of animal sources (pig fur and duck feather) were analyzed for δ(15) N isotopic signatures. An elemental analyzer which was connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer operated in the continuous flow mode was utilized. The raw materials were obtained from China. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated lower δ(15) N values of range -0.7344‰ to 2.384‰ and 1.032‰ to 2.064‰ for maize and soybean samples, respectively. Whereas, a range of 3.860‰ to 6.011‰ and 5.875‰ to 6.011‰ was, respectively, detected in pig fur and duck feather samples. The δ(15) N difference in plants and animals samples was significant (F = 165.0; P = 1.675 E-10 for maize and pig fur samples; F = 212.8; P = 0.0001284 for soybean and duck feather samples). It was observed that δ(15) N trophic enrichment is helpful in elucidating the respective sources. The authors can emphatically assert that the range of δ(15) N composition of L-leucine derived from plants sources within the study area is -1.000‰ to 3.000‰ whereas the range in animal sources is 4.000‰ to 9.000‰. Practical Application This study provides a reliable approach in verifying the authenticity of not only L-leucine products but also other branched chain amino acid supplements and thereby would help in fraud detection of any economically motivated adulteration and mislabeling of these products. When coupled with H and O stable

  9. Authenticity analyses of Rhizoma Paridis using barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Fang, Hai-Lan; Xiong, Chao; Li, Xi-Wen; Wang, Ping; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Rhizoma Paridis (Chonglou) is a commonly used and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. -Mazz. and Paris polyphylla Smith var . chinensis (Franch.) Hara are the two main sources of Chonglou under the monograph of Rhizoma Paridis in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the local marketplace, however, this medicine is prone to be accidentally contaminated, deliberately substituted or admixed with other species that are similar to Rhizoma Paridis in shape and color. Consequently, these adulterations might compromise quality control and result in considerable health concerns for consumers. This study aims to develop a rapid and sensitive method for accurate identification of Rhizoma Paridis and its common adulterants. DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting analysis was applied in this research to distinguish Rhizoma Paridis from its adulteration. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode was selected for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of the selected species. DNA of the tested herbal medicines was isolated and their melting profiles were generated and compared with the standard melting profile of P. polyphylla var. chinensis . The results indicate that the ITS2 molecular regions coupled with HRM analysis can effectively differentiate nine herbal species, including two authentic origins of Chonglou and their seven common adulterants. Ten herbal medicines labeled "Chonglou" obtained from a local market were collected and identified with our methods, and their sequence information was analyzed to validate the accuracy of HRM analysis. DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis is a accurate, reliable, rapid, cost-effective and robust tool, which could contribute to the quality control of Rhizoma Paridis in the supply chain of the natural health product industry (NHP).

  10. Consideration of historical authenticity in heritage tourism planning and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Wiles; Gail Vander Stoep

    2008-01-01

    A review of heritage tourism literature reveals a fundamental tension over the use, function, and degree of authenticity of historic resources used for tourism development. Using a case study approach, this paper explores how stakeholder beliefs regarding historical authenticity influence the heritage tourism products, services, and experiences created for visitors and...

  11. India: a Case of Fragile Wireless Service and Technology Adoption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); J. Motiwalla

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWireless penetration and the Indian economy have grown significantly over the past few years, but how robust and sustainable is the adoption of wireless services and products? Several papers have discussed India as a wireless service and product market, and sometimes tried to assess

  12. Synergy between Authentic Assessment Activities and Learner Autonomy: How Does This Promote Shared Authenticity in Online Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikandi, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether and how authentic assessment activities and learner autonomy converged to productively engage both the teacher and learners in shared authenticity. The study employed case study methodology to investigate the phenomena within an online course in ICT designed for continuing professionals in…

  13. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  14. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...

  15. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study of employm......Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study...... of employment and work parameters in light of religious teachings on the social question at national, organizational, or firm-specific levels. The function of a criterion variable is described, noting that the switch from a dependent variable approach introduces an open-system dynamism to social science...... theology and allied fields for the common cause of assessing authenticity in firm, organization, and higher system functions....

  16. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...

  17. Application and promotion of wireless charging technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Kaijun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study wireless charging technology and analyze the application and promotion of each technology. This technology is based on Faraday’s electromagnetic in 1830s. It is not a new technology but it is developing high speed nowadays. This thesis introduces four mainstream types of wireless charging technology and three main-stream standards, and analyzes their features and development status. Wireless charging technology has been applied to some products, suc...

  18. Authentic leadership to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Vlado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic leadership is the latest evolutionary stage in leadership development and emphasizes the leader's authenticity. The construct of authenticity was researched by ancient Greek philosophers as 'know thy-self ', and 'thy true self '. Authentic leadership began to develop after 2004. The main reason why the researchers place so much attention to authentic leadership is fact that authentic leadership reaches all of the employees in organizations. Authentic leaders must identify the strengths of their followers and help them with their development and integration towards a common goal, purpose, vision and identity of the organization. Authentic leadership is seen as the final stage in the development of leadership styles, properties of this leadership style, and the consequences of this style have not been fully explored. In our paper we will explore this new style of leadership and its implications.

  19. Brand new authentic places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    created and transformed by architects and designers, estate agents and, eventually, residents? Based on ethnographic fieldwork in 3-4 new residential neighbourhoods in the Copenhagen Region, the project will investigate how stories of authenticity give places meaning and identity. The project will unfold...... neighbourhoods stories of authenticity seems to be of great importance giving value and identity to place and people. By way of design and branding new places are implied with notions of the real, the original and the unique referring to e.g. its historical past, architectural uniqueness, sustainability or sense...

  20. Two-factor authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Stanislav, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the book, readers will learn about the various technical methods by which two-factor authentication is implemented, security concerns with each type of implementation, and contextual details to frame why and when these technologies should be used. Readers will also be provided with insight about the reasons that two-factor authentication is a critical security control, events in history that have been important to prove why organization and individual would want to use two factor, and core milestones in the progress of growing the market.

  1. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  2. Topic Map for Authentic Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Wandsvik, Atle; Zare, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    E-business is a new trend in Internet use. Authentic travel is an approach to travel and travel business which helps the traveler experience what is authentic in the travel destination. But how can the traveler find those small authentic spots and organize them together to compose a vacation? E-business techniques, combined withTopic Maps, can help.

  3. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...... recover the secret key of AVALANCHE in 2n/2, where n 2∈ {28; 192; 256} is the key length. This technique also applies to the authentication part of Calico whose 128-bit key can be recovered in 264 time. For RBS, we can recover its full 132-bit key in 265 time with a guess-and-determine attack. All attacks...

  4. Tools for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  5. Authentication of Hadith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OYELAKIN

    the side of one of the narrators. Hadith forgery featured in Islam barely two decades after the prophet and scholars did their best to differentiate it from authentic ones. Despite this, for Khan, it is possible that some traditions regarded as genuine merely due to their isnad may not be genuine in textual outlook. Since the isnad ...

  6. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  7. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  8. South African managers in public service: On being authentic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Barnard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work.

  9. South African managers in public service: On being authentic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054

  10. Authentic feminist? Authenticity and feminist identity in teenage feminists' talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder-Dawe, Octavia; Gavey, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    This article explores how young people's feminist identities take shape in conjunction with a contemporary ideal of personal authenticity: to know and to express the 'real me'. Drawing from interviews with 18 teenagers living in Auckland, New Zealand, we examine a novel convergence of authenticity and feminism in participants' identity talk. For social psychologists interested in identity and politics, this convergence is intriguing: individualizing values such as authenticity are generally associated with disengagement with structural critique and with a repudiation of politicized and activist identities. Rather than seeking to categorize authentic feminism as an instance of either 'good/collective' or 'bad/individualized' feminist politics, we use discourse analysis to examine how the identity position of authentic feminist was constructed and to explore implications for feminist politics. On one hand, interviewees mobilized authentic feminism to affirm their commitment to normative liberal values of authenticity and self-expression. At the same time, the position of authentic feminist appeared to authorize risky feminist identifications and to justify counter-normative feelings, desires, and actions. To conclude, we explore how encountering others' intolerance of authentic feminism exposed interviewees to the limits of authenticity discourse, propelling some towards new understandings of the social world and their space for action within it. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Utilizing a vast and complex wireless communication network in a sustainable biosystem for the production of fiber for use in bioenergy, paper and solid wood production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, N. [GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm, Boardman, OR (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a tree farm in eastern Oregon that using a sophisticated communication system to irrigate and chemigate the trees. The GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm (GWR BTF) covers about 100 km{sup 2}. A wireless network of 134 radio modems supports the irrigation and chemigation on 1,930 hectares of very high-value agriculture crops, including organic crops. This large network comprises 2 totally independent licensed wireless networks using a combination of Standard and High-Power industrial strength radio modems. One of the most advanced and sophisticated Irrigation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (I-SCADA) systems in the world uses this dual wireless network to operate the worlds largest contiguous drip irrigated farm and also the largest Tree Farm in US. This I-SCADA system has more than 2,800 sensors that remotely monitor a massive irrigation system of 19 individual pump stations with 100 pumps, 46 center pivots, 369 individual blocks of fields, 850 kilometers of buried pipe and 31,000 kilometres of drip line. The reliability of the I-SCADA system and wireless network has enabled BTF to sustain its position as a world leader in large scale drip irrigation efficiency.

  12. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  13. FPGA Authentication Methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Punnoose, Ratish J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mannos, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Neil [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Evans, Neil [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing designers of equipment to be used in a nuclear arms control treaty is how to convince the other party in the treaty to trust its results and functionality. Whether the host provides equipment meant to prove treaty obligations and the inspector needs to gain that trust (commonly referred to as authentication), or the inspector provides this equipment and the host needs to gain this trust (commonly considered to be included in certification), one party generally has higher confidence in the equipment at the start of a treaty regime and the other party needs to gain that confidence prior to use. While we focus on authentication in this document—that is, the inspector gaining confidence in host-provided equipment—our conclusions will likely apply to host certification of inspector-provided equipment.

  14. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  15. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  16. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  17. An Anonymous Access Authentication Scheme Based on Proxy Ring Signature for CPS-WMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Access security and privacy have become a bottleneck for the popularization of future Cyber-Physical System (CPS networks. Furthermore, users’ need for privacy-preserved access during movement procedure is more urgent. To address the anonymous access authentication issue for CPS Wireless Mesh Network (CPS-WMN, a novel anonymous access authentication scheme based on proxy ring signature is proposed. A hierarchical authentication architecture is presented first. The scheme is then achieved from the aspect of intergroup and intragroup anonymous mutual authentication through proxy ring signature mechanism and certificateless signature mechanism, respectively. We present a formal security proof of the proposed protocol with SVO logic. The simulation and performance analysis demonstrate that the proposed scheme owns higher efficiency and adaptability than the typical one.

  18. The influence of trait-emotional intelligence on authentic leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Authentic leadership is a relatively new construct that has recently gained increasing attention resulting from challenges faced by organisations relating to ethical meltdowns, corruption and fraud. Research purpose: This study seeks to explore the relationship between components of emotional intelligence and authentic leadership. Motivation for the study: Several authors called for more empirical investigations into the antecedents of authentic leadership. Despite the important role that emotions play in leadership, empirical studies were lacking about the influence of different components of emotional intelligence to authentic leadership. Research design, approach and method: Data were collected, using questionnaires obtained from 341 full-time employed applicants to MBA and leadership programmes in a South African Business School. Relationships between variables were analysed, using Pearson product-moment correlations and stepwise multiple regression. Main findings: The results indicated that emotional intelligence has positive statistically significant associations with authentic leadership. Specifically, those who scored high on all the emotional intelligence components also scored high on authentic leadership. In addition, the emotional intelligence component of empathy was a statistically significant predictor of authentic leadership. Practical/managerial implications: Initial findings suggest the potential value of recognising and developing the emotional intelligence of leaders to enable them to lead their organisations authentically to desired, successful outcomes. As empathy has been shown to be the most important emotional intelligence predictor of authentic leadership, leaders need to understand when subordinates perceive a leader as displaying empathic emotion. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature and empirical research on the antecedents of authentic leadership.

  19. k-Times Anonymous Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Furukawa, Jun; Sako, Kazue

    We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features: 1) no one, not even an authority, can identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, 2) anyone can trace, without help from the authority, dishonest users who have been authenticated beyond the allowable number by using the records of these authentications. Our scheme can be applied to e-voting, e-cash, electronic coupons, and trial browsing of content. In these applications, our scheme, unlike the previous one, conceals users' participation from protocols and guarantees that they will remain anonymous to everyone.

  20. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    Inhabitants in smart environments are often authenticated when they enter the smart environment, e.g., through biometrics or smart-/swipe-card systems. It may sometimes be necessary to re-authenticate when an inhabitant wishes to enter a restricted area or access ambient services or location based...... information, e.g., it is common to have swipe card terminals placed next to doors to restricted areas. This means that all access to protected resources must have individual means of authenticating users, which makes the access control system more expensive and less flexible, because access controls...... will not be installed unless it is absolutely necessary. The cost of installing and maintaining an authentication infrastructure and the inconvenience of repeatedly authenticating toward different location based service providers mean that new models of authentication are needed in smart environments. This paper...

  1. Authentication, privacy, security can exploit brainwave by biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Sweet, Charles; Sweet, James; Noel, Steven; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    We seek to augment the current Common Access Control (CAC) card and Personal Identification Number (PIN) verification systems with an additional layer of classified access biometrics. Among proven devices such as fingerprint readers and cameras that can sense the human eye's iris pattern, we introduced a number of users to a sequence of 'grandmother images', or emotionally evoked stimuli response images from other users, as well as one of their own, for the purpose of authentication. We performed testing and evaluation of the Authenticity Privacy and Security (APS) brainwave biometrics, similar to the internal organ of the human eye's iris which cannot easily be altered. `Aha' recognition through stimulus-response habituation can serve as a biomarker, similar to keystroke dynamics analysis for inter and intra key fluctuation time of a memorized PIN number (FIST). Using a non-tethered Electroencephalogram (EEG) wireless smartphone/pc monitor interface, we explore the appropriate stimuli-response biomarker present in DTAB low frequency group waves. Prior to login, the user is shown a series of images on a computer display. They have been primed to click their mouse when the image is presented. DTAB waves are collected with a wireless EEG and are sent via Smartphone to a cloud based processing infrastructure. There, we measure fluctuations in DTAB waves from a wireless, non-tethered, single node EEG device between the Personal Graphic Image Number (PGIN) stimulus image and the response time from an individual's mental performance baseline. Towards that goal, we describe an infrastructure that supports distributed verification for web-based EEG authentication. The performance of machine learning on the relative Power Spectral Density EEG data may uncover features required for subsequent access to web or media content. Our approach provides a scalable framework wrapped into a robust Neuro-Informatics toolkit, viable for use in the Biomedical and mental health

  2. On The Feasibility of a New Defense Layer for Wireless Sensor Networks using RF Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Antony; Roedig, Utz

    2009-01-01

    Cryptography is commonly used to provide link-layer message authentication in wireless sensor networks. However, keys are susceptible to compromise and introduce management requirements. Avoiding keys can therefore deliver security and management benefits. Our paper introduces and discusses the feasibility of RTTMAP, a protocol that uses radio frequency ranging for message authentication. RTTMAP uses secure round-trip-time with hash functions to determine the minimum distance of a transmitter....

  3. PhytoAuthent: Molecular authentication of complex herbal food supplements for safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ichim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The PhytoAuthent project was structured to gather, test, develop and apply, in real life case scenarios, molecular techniques, such as biochemical fingerprinting and DNA sequence-based methods, for plant identification of constituents in complex herbal products. The project had a strong focus on applied aspects like protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination of herbal products.

  4. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs, and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  5. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  6. Diffie-Hellman Key Based Authentication in Proxy Mobile IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunGon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication service providers have been showing strong interest in Proxy Mobile IPv6 for providing network-based IP mobility management. This could be a prominent way to support IP mobility to mobile nodes, because Proxy Mobile IPv6 requires minimal functionalities on the mobile node. While several extensions for Proxy Mobile IPv6 are being developed in the Internet Engineering Task Force, there has been little attentions paid to developing efficient authentication mechanisms. An authentication scheme for a mobility protocol must protect signaling messages against various security threats, e.g., session stealing attack, intercept attack by redirection, replay attack, and key exposure, while minimizing authentication latency. In this paper, we propose a Diffie-Hellman key based authentication scheme that utilizes the low layer signaling to exchange Diffie-Hellman variables and allows mobility service provisioning entities to exchange mobile node's profile and ongoing sessions securely. By utilizing the low layer signaling and context transfer between relevant nodes, the proposed authentication scheme minimizes authentication latency when the mobile node moves across different networks. In addition, thanks to the use of the Diffie-Hellman key agreement, pre-established security associations between mobility service provisioning entities are not required in the proposed authentication scheme so that network scalability in an operationally efficient manner is ensured. To ascertain its feasibility, security analysis and performance analysis are presented.

  7. Authentic, Original, and Valuable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....

  8. Physical layer approaches for securing wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the outstanding work of physical-layer (PHY) security, including  the recent achievements of confidentiality and authentication for wireless communication systems by channel identification. A practical approach to building unconditional confidentiality for Wireless Communication security by feedback and error correcting code is introduced and a framework of PHY security based on space time block code (STBC) MIMO system is demonstrated.  Also discussed is a scheme which combines cryptographic techniques implemented in the higher layer with the physical layer security approach

  9. Wireless networks and security issues, challenges and research trends

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib

    2013-01-01

     “Wireless Networks and Security” provides a broad coverage of wireless security issues including cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, epidemics, security performance analysis, security issues in applications. The contributions identify various vulnerabilities in the physical layer, MAC layer, network layer, transport layer, and application layer, and focus on ways of strengthening security mechanisms and services throughout the layers. This carefully edited monograph is targeting  for researchers, post-graduate students in universities, academics, and industry practitioners or professionals.  

  10. Survey of Security Technologies on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their low cost and adaptability, wireless sensor networks are widely used in civil, military, and commercial fields and other fields. However, since the sensor node in the calculation of the capacity, battery capacity, and storage capacity are restricted by the limitations and inherent characteristics of the sensor networks, compared to traditional networks, which makes wireless sensor networks face more security threats. This paper summarized research progress of sensor network security issues as three aspects, key management, authentication, and secure routing, analyzed and commented on these results advantages and disadvantages and pointed out the future direction of the hot research field.

  11. Wireless Crew Communication Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Ronald D.; Romero, Andy; Juge, David

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing discussions with crew currently onboard the ISS as well as the crew debriefs from completed ISS missions indicate that issues associated with the lack of wireless crew communication results in increased crew task completion times and lower productivity, creates cable management issues, and increases crew frustration.

  12. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Franziska Bork

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate what 'authenticity' means in a contemporary popular context and how it is used in the staging of bodies. Furthermore, I analyse works of dance and fashion from the past fifteen years with a focus on their strategies of challenging the notion of 'bodily authenticity'. ...

  13. Authenticity, Culture and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; Dasli, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In philosophy, authenticity has been used with two meanings: one entails the notion of correspondence; the other entails the notion of genesis (Cooper, 1983: 15). As in certain branches of philosophy, language teaching has perhaps clung too long to the first of these notions of authenticity at the expense of the other. This paper reviews four key…

  14. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  15. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  16. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  17. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Antonios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Tserkezou, Persefoni

    2016-05-18

    Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problem concerning most foodstuffs, and in particular meat products. Since high-priced meat demand premium prices, producers of meat-based products might be tempted to blend these products with lower cost meat. Moreover, the labeled meat contents may not be met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect and lead to deterioration of product quality. For the consumer, it is of outmost importance to guarantee both authenticity and compliance with product labeling. The purpose of this article is to review the state of the art of meat authenticity with analytical and immunochemical methods with the focus on the issue of geographic origin and sensory characteristics. This review is also intended to provide an overview of the various currently applied statistical analyses (multivariate analysis (MAV), such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, etc.) and their effectiveness for meat authenticity.

  18. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  19. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  20. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many wireless technologies are already available for sensor applications. It is inevitable that many non-interoperable wireless technologies between 400 MHz and 5.8...

  1. Information authentication using an optical dielectric metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Mei, Shengtao

    2017-09-01

    Metasurfaces that consist of a monolayer of photonic artificial atoms are emerging as attractive materials for optical wavefront-shaping and polarization-control devices. By integrating nanophotonics with a phase-encoding technique, we demonstrate theoretically an information authentication method using dielectric metasurfaces that can be verified without information disclosure at visible wavelengths. The required secured diffraction pattern can be simply achieved by a metasurface hologram with a small number of pixels, which means increased efficiency and lower costs of production. Although the decrypted image is noisy, it can be authenticated by recognition algorithms where the primary image is used as a reference. The results show that the dielectric metasurface approach, providing great flexibility in the design of the wavefront of light and compatible with the CMOS technology, can be potentially applied in optical information security.

  2. Attacks on IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milan Tepšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Security of wireless computer networks was initially secured with the WEP security protocol, which relies on the RC4 encryption algorithm and the CRC algorithm to check the integrity. The basic problems of the WEP are a short initialization vector, unsafe data integrity checking, using a common key, the lack of mechanisms for management and exchange of keys, the lack of protection from the endless insertion of the same package into the network, the lack of authentication of access points and the like. The consequences of these failures are easy attacks against the WEP network, namely their complete insecurity. Therefore, the work began on the IEEE 802.11i protocol, which should radically improve the security of wireless networks. Since the development of a protocol lasted, the WPA standard was released to offset the security gap caused by the WEP. The WPA also relies on RC4 and CRC algorithms, but brings temporary keys and the MIC algorithm for data integrity. The 802.1X authentication was introduced and common keys are no longer needed, since it is possible to use an authentication server. The length of the initialization vector was increased and the vector is obtained based on the packet serial number, in order to prevent the insertion of the same packet into the network. The weakness of the WPA security mechanism is the use of a common key. WPA2 (802.11i later appeared. Unlike the WPA mechanism that worked on old devices with the replacement of software, WPA2 requires new network devices that can perform AES encryption. AES replaces the RC4 algorithm and delivers much greater security. Data integrity is protected by encryption. Despite progress, there are still weaknesses in wireless networks. Attacks for denial of service are possible as well as spoofing package headers attacks. For now, it is not advisable to use wireless networks in environments where unreliability and unavailability are not tolerated. Introduction In the entire history of

  3. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... is observed which may be due to problems of integrating cognate with non-cognate morphemes. The results show that fast non-selective access to the bilingual lexicon is conditioned by the communicative context. Importantly, a range of variables are statistically controlled in the regression analyses, including...

  4. AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Pavlovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates authentic leadership models in the organizational culture of a school. The aim of this quantitative research is to define the factors of authentic leadership in educational institutions in order to provide answers to the questions related to the existence of specific authentic leadership in a school. The sample included 227 randomly selected directors of secondary and primary schools in the former Yugoslav republics: Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republic Srpska. The research included the use of an ALQ questionnaire for the estimation of leadership behavior. The components of authentic leadership are defined using factor analysis and other statistics techniques. The findings developed in this research indicated the fact that directors in educational institutions have a specific authentic leadership style. We suggest the concept of authentic leadership based on the four following factors: Communication-conformist, self-consciousness, self-discovery, and self-concept. Supporting these factors provides the directors with the possibility of obtaining a high level of authentic leadership.

  5. Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Joao G.M.; Schwalbach, Peter; Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

  6. An Efficient User Authentication and User Anonymity Scheme with Provably Security for IoT-Based Medical Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Wu, Tsu-Yang; Chen, Chin-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-06-23

    In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients' physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients. Therefore, before users can access medical care services in IoT-based medical care system, they must be authenticated. Typically, user authentication and data encryption are most critical for securing network communications over a public channel between two or more participants. In 2016, Liu and Chung proposed a bilinear pairing-based password authentication scheme for wireless healthcare sensor networks. They claimed their authentication scheme cannot only secure sensor data transmission, but also resist various well-known security attacks. In this paper, we demonstrate that Liu-Chung's scheme has some security weaknesses, and we further present an improved secure authentication and data encryption scheme for the IoT-based medical care system, which can provide user anonymity and prevent the security threats of replay and password/sensed data disclosure attacks. Moreover, we modify the authentication process to reduce redundancy in protocol design, and the proposed scheme is more efficient in performance compared with previous related schemes. Finally, the proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model under ECDHP.

  7. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  8. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Margaret M.; O’Neil, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254

  9. Investigation of production method, geographical origin and species authentication in commercially relevant shrimps using stable isotope ratio and/or multi-element analyses combined with chemometrics: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortea, Ignacio; Gallardo, José M

    2015-03-01

    Three factors defining the traceability of a food product are production method (wild or farmed), geographical origin and biological species, which have to be checked and guaranteed, not only in order to avoid mislabelling and commercial fraud, but also to address food safety issues and to comply with legal regulations. The aim of this study was to determine whether these three factors could be differentiated in shrimps using stable isotope ratio analysis of carbon and nitrogen and/or multi-element composition. Different multivariate statistics methods were applied to different data subsets in order to evaluate their performance in terms of classification or predictive ability. Although the success rates varied depending on the dataset used, the combination of both techniques allowed the correct classification of 100% of the samples according to their actual origin and method of production, and 93.5% according to biological species. Even though further studies including a larger number of samples in each group are needed in order to validate these findings, we can conclude that these methodologies should be considered for studies regarding seafood product authenticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical trust-based persistent authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Jensen, Christian D.; Arimura, Shiori

    2015-01-01

    Recently companies have applied two-factor user authentication. Persistent Authentication is one of the interesting authentication mechanisms to establish security and usability of two-factor authentication systems. However, there is room to improve its feasibility and usability. In this paper, we...... propose a new type of persistent authentication, called Persistent Authentication Based On physical Trust (PABOT). PABOT uses a context of “physical trust relationship” that is built by visual contact between users, and thus can offer a persistent authentication mechanism with better usability and higher...

  11. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  12. A New Ultralightweight RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol: SASI Using Recursive Hash

    OpenAIRE

    Mujahid, Umar; Najam-ul-Islam, M.; Jafri, Atif Raza; Qurat-ul-Ain; Ali Shami, M.

    2016-01-01

    RFID is one of the most prominent identification schemes in the field of pervasive systems. Nonline of sight capability makes RFID systems much better choice than its contended systems (such as barcode, magnetic tape, etc.). Since the RFID uses wireless channel for communication with its associated devices, there should be some optimal encryption methods to secure the communicating data from adversaries. Several researchers have proposed ultralightweight mutual authentication protocols (UMAPs...

  13. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  14. Implementation of diffie-Hellman key exchange on wireless sensor using elliptic curve cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Tange, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a low-cost public key cryptography (PKC) based solution for security services such as authentication as required for wireless sensor networks. We have implemented a software approach using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) over GF (2m) in order to obtain stronger cryptography...

  15. Robustness of digital artist authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten

    is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection.......In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...

  16. The fantasy of authenticity: touring with Lacan

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Daniel C.; Rickly, J.M.; Vidon, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Amidst the plethora of research regarding the meaning of authenticity, there remains uncertainty as to the work authenticity performs in tourism. Existential authenticity conceptually shifts focus from the objects of touristic practice to a sense of Being, suggesting that authenticity can be achieved, albeit only in the liminal moments of tourism experiences. Psychoanalysis would contend otherwise – authenticity will always be beyond our reach. In a 2006 publication, Tim Oakes broaches the to...

  17. Holograms and authentication: meeting future demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Ian M.

    2004-06-01

    The use of holograms as authentication or security devices is the most valuable application of holograms yet devised. In 20 years, this has developed from the first use of a hologram on credit cards, to the situation today where governments turn to holograms as a key security feature on the protected documents they issue, including banknotes, identity documents and tax banderols. At the same time, holograms (and related devices) are the most recognised visible feature used to authenticate and protect branded and OEM products; this sector covers the gamut from CD jewel-box seals to the protection of safety-related items such as medicines and vehicle replacement parts. There has been creative synergy between the commercial suppliers of such holograms and the practical holography community. But new technologies are coming forward to challenge the role of holograms, a challenge that is aided by the counterfeiting of security holograms. What are the characteristics of those technologies and can holograms provide similar resources to users? Examples of collaboration between hologram producers and producers of other technologies to create combination devices suggest a possible route forward for holography to maintain its role in authentication and security. By scrutinising and adapting to needs, often by combination with other techniques, holographers may be able to retain their role in this important application.

  18. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  19. Quantum direct communication with authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2006-01-01

    We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states

  20. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  1. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  2. Underwater optical wireless communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  3. RESH: A Secure Authentication Algorithm Based on Regeneration Encoding Self-Healing Technology in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real application environment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the uncertain factor of data storage makes the authentication information be easily forged and destroyed by illegal attackers. As a result, it is hard for secure managers to conduct forensics on transmitted information in WSN. This work considers the regeneration encoding self-healing and secret sharing techniques and proposes an effective scheme to authenticate data in WSN. The data is encoded by regeneration codes and then distributed to other redundant nodes in the form of fragments. When the network is attacked, the scheme has the ability against tampering attack or collusion attack. Furthermore, the damaged fragments can be restored as well. Parts of fragments, encoded by regeneration code, are required for secure authentication of the original distributed data. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme reduces hardware communication overhead by five percent in comparison. Additionally, the performance of local recovery achieves ninety percent.

  4. Physical Layer Authentication Enhancement Using Maximum SNR Ratio Based Cooperative AF Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazi Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical layer authentication techniques developed in conventional macrocell wireless networks face challenges when applied in the future fifth-generation (5G wireless communications, due to the deployment of dense small cells in a hierarchical network architecture. In this paper, we propose a novel physical layer authentication scheme by exploiting the advantages of amplify-and-forward (AF cooperative relaying, which can increase the coverage and convergence of the heterogeneous networks. The essence of the proposed scheme is to select the best relay among multiple AF relays for cooperation between legitimate transmitter and intended receiver in the presence of a spoofer. To achieve this goal, two best relay selection schemes are developed by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the legitimate link to the spoofing link at the destination and relays, respectively. In the sequel, we derive closed-form expressions for the outage probabilities of the effective SNR ratios at the destination. With the help of the best relay, a new test statistic is developed for making an authentication decision, based on normalized channel difference between adjacent end-to-end channel estimates at the destination. The performance of the proposed authentication scheme is compared with that in a direct transmission in terms of outage and spoofing detection.

  5. Authenticity in art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    After a general introductory chapter, the subject is treated under three headings: paintings, ceramics and metals. The scientific tests for authenticity are described in their application to one or more of these branches of art. The traditional method of visual stylistic judgement is compared with and supplemented by scientific methods which (as well as 'wet' chemical analysis, optical microscopy, ultraviolet, infrared, electron and X-ray microscopy, X-ray crystallography and X-ray fluorescence, and direct age determination) include the following or more direct 'nuclear' interest: neutron (or proton, deuteron and high-energy photon) activation analysis for determining impurity and trace element content, gamma radiography for bronzes, neutron autoradiography or examining paintings, radiocarbon dating, other isotope dating (e.g. with lead isotopes and the radium-lead ratio), high temperature thermoluminescence for ceramics, and mass spectroscopy to determine isotope ratios indicative of particular sources of materials. As well as the reference in each chapter there is an additional bibliography. (U.K.)

  6. Sistem Autentikasi Hotspot Menggunakan LDAP dan Radius pada Jaringan Internet Wireless Prodi Teknik Sistem Komputer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Herdinal Muttaqin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network is a network utilizing radio waves that propagate openly. This network requires security to simplify the process by using user Authentication. One of technology that could be used in order to make it safer is a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP and Remote Authentication Dila In User Service (RADIUS. Computer Systems Engineering Department is one of the study program in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Diponegoro that reserve the internet service everyday for students need. However, internet wireless network in this department is not yet safe enough,for the necessary to secure it’s need creating a security system with LDAP and RADIUS.The results of this study is a network authentication server using OpenLDAP and FreeRadius Hotspot that will be integrated with an account of Academic Information System, which is implemented on Prodi Computer Systems Engineering Department of the University of Diponegoro.

  7. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  8. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alsharabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  9. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  10. Cloud-assisted mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Shih, Dong-Her; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2018-04-01

     With the rapid development of wireless communication technologies and the growing prevalence of smart devices, telecare medical information system (TMIS) allows patients to receive medical treatments from the doctors via Internet technology without visiting hospitals in person. By adopting mobile device, cloud-assisted platform and wireless body area network, the patients can collect their physiological conditions and upload them to medical cloud via their mobile devices, enabling caregivers or doctors to provide patients with appropriate treatments at anytime and anywhere. In order to protect the medical privacy of the patient and guarantee reliability of the system, before accessing the TMIS, all system participants must be authenticated.  Mohit et al. recently suggested a lightweight authentication protocol for cloud-based health care system. They claimed their protocol ensures resilience of all well-known security attacks and has several important features such as mutual authentication and patient anonymity. In this paper, we demonstrate that Mohit et al.'s authentication protocol has various security flaws and we further introduce an enhanced version of their protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which can ensure patient anonymity and patient unlinkability and prevent the security threats of report revelation and report forgery attacks.  The security analysis proves that our enhanced protocol is secure against various known attacks as well as found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. Compared with existing related protocols, our enhanced protocol keeps the merits of all desirable security requirements and also maintains the efficiency in terms of computation costs for cloud-assisted TMIS.  We propose a more secure mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which fixes the mentioned security weaknesses found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. According to our analysis, our authentication protocol satisfies most functionality features

  11. Mobile RFID of Wireless Mesh Network for Intelligent Safety Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwen-Fu Horng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Wi-Fi phone with RFID (Radio frequency identification of student entered the school, via Wireless Access Points (APs of school will transmit MAC address with RFID of Wi-Fi phone to Internet Data Center (IDC for server and then the message exchanged by using GSM (or 3G has been transmitted message (or mail to the mobile user of parents (or client user. The wireless access points support broadcasting multiple SSIDs, each of which can have a different set of security and network setting. The RADIUS server is used to authenticate the Wireless Access Point (AP and mobile nodes. In safety case system, we used the several authentication and encryption options for the WLAN. We will discuss the use of Wi-Fi protected Access (WPA, RFID, IP Security (IPSec, and Secure Socket Layer (SSL, and there are high Quality of service (QoS and performance.

  12. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  13. Wireless physical layer security

    OpenAIRE

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2016-01-01

    Security is a very important issue in the design and use of wireless networks. Traditional methods of providing security in such networks are impractical for some emerging types of wireless networks due to the light computational abilities of some wireless devices [such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, certain sensors, etc.] or to the very large scale or loose organizational structure of some networks. Physical layer security has the potential to address these concerns by taking...

  14. Authentication codes that permit arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Objective of authentication is to detect attempted deceptions in a communications channel. Traditionally this has been restricted to providing the authorized receiver with a capability of detecting unauthentic messages. The known codes have all left open the possibility for either the transmitter to disavow a message that he actually sent to the receiver, i.e., an authentic message, or else for the receiver to falsely attribute a message of his own devising to the transmitter. Of course the party being deceived would know that he was the victim of a deception by the other, but would be unable to ''prove'' this to a third party. Ideally, authentication should provide a means to detect attempted deceptions by insiders (the transmitter or receiver) as well as outsiders (the opponent). It has been an open question of whether it was possible to devise authentication codes that would permit a third party, an arbiter, to decide (in probability) whether the transmitter or the receiver was cheating in the event of a dispute. We answer this question in that both permits the receiver to detect outsider deceptions, as well affirmative by first constructing an example of an authentication code as permitting a designated arbiter to detect insider deceptions and then by generalizing this construction to an infinite class of such codes.

  15. Wireless security in mobile health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats.

  16. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  17. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been of considerable interest to bioethicists, in large part because of the effects that the intervention can occasionally have on central features of the recipient's personality. These effects raise questions regarding the philosophical concept of authenticity. In this article, we expand on our earlier work on the concept of authenticity in the context of deep brain stimulation by developing a diachronic, value-based account of authenticity. Our account draws on both existentialist and essentialist approaches to authenticity, and Laura Waddell Ekstrom's coherentist approach to personal autonomy. In developing our account, we respond to Sven Nyholm and Elizabeth O'Neill's synchronic approach to authenticity, and explain how the diachronic approach we defend can have practical utility, contrary to Alexandre Erler and Tony Hope's criticism of autonomy-based approaches to authenticity. Having drawn a distinction between the authenticity of an individual's traits and the authenticity of that person's values, we consider how our conception of authenticity applies to the context of anorexia nervosa in comparison to other prominent accounts of authenticity. We conclude with some reflections on the prudential value of authenticity, and by highlighting how the language of authenticity can be invoked to justify covert forms of paternalism that run contrary to the value of individuality that seems to be at the heart of authenticity.

  19. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  20. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  1. IPTV Service Framework Based on Secure Authentication and Lightweight Content Encryption for Screen-Migration in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, the advancing of smart devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, PC, etc. capabilities and the increase of internet bandwidth enables IPTV service provider to extend their services to smart mobile devices. User can just receive their IPTV service using any smart devices by accessing the internet via wireless network from anywhere anytime in the world which is convenience for users. However, wireless network communication has well a known critical security threats and vulnerabilities to user smart devices and IPTV service such as user identity theft, reply attack, MIM attack, and so forth. A secure authentication for user devices and multimedia protection mechanism is necessary to protect both user devices and IPTV services. As result, we proposed framework of IPTV service based on secure authentication mechanism and lightweight content encryption method for screen-migration in Cloud computing. We used cryptographic nonce combined with user ID and password to authenticate user device in any mobile terminal they passes by. In addition we used Lightweight content encryption to protect and reduce the content decode overload at mobile terminals. Our proposed authentication mechanism reduces the computational processing by 30% comparing to other authentication mechanism and our lightweight content encryption reduces encryption delay to 0.259 second.

  2. Designing assignment using authentic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina

    2017-12-01

    This research is conducted to get an overview of the use of authentic assessment in the department of chemistry education, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research was conducted on the students of semester five, odd semester of academic year 2016/2017. Authentic assessment is an assessment process that is capable of measuring the knowledge, attitudes and skills of learners. Chemistry teacher candidates are required to be equipped with teaching and judging skills. Teachers were required can design and carry out assessment of the process and learning outcomes of students in an objective, accountable, and informative. Teacher creativity is required in the assessment. Therefore, authentic assessment is very appropriate used to improve the competence of students in education department as teachers candidates in the preparation of learning assessments.

  3. Analysis and Testing of Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Evenson, Darin; Rundquist, Victor; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Wireless networks are being used to connect mobile computing elements in more applications as the technology matures. There are now many products (such as 802.11 and 802.11b) which ran in the ISM frequency band and comply with wireless network standards. They are being used increasingly to link mobile Intranet into Wired networks. Standard methods of analyzing and testing their performance and compatibility are needed to determine the limits of the technology. This paper presents analytical and experimental methods of determining network throughput, range and coverage, and interference sources. Both radio frequency (BE) domain and network domain analysis have been applied to determine wireless network throughput and range in the outdoor environment- Comparison of field test data taken under optimal conditions, with performance predicted from RF analysis, yielded quantitative results applicable to future designs. Layering multiple wireless network- sooners can increase performance. Wireless network components can be set to different radio frequency-hopping sequences or spreading functions, allowing more than one sooner to coexist. Therefore, we ran multiple 802.11-compliant systems concurrently in the same geographical area to determine interference effects and scalability, The results can be used to design of more robust networks which have multiple layers of wireless data communication paths and provide increased throughput overall.

  4. Polymeric self-authenticating banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Paul

    1998-04-01

    This paper discusses a new concept in overt security called the self-authenticating banknote. The self-authenticating banknote concept is built around the transparent window feature of the polymer banknote. This feature allows the incorporation of transmission based optical devices on a banknote so that the user, by folding the note over on itself and looking through an optical device which is a part of the note itself, can visually inspect and verify certain security features on the banknote. This paper presents a number of examples of optical devices which are presently being developed for this purpose.

  5. A secure RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-05-01

    With the fast advancement of the wireless communication technology and the widespread use of medical systems, the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in healthcare environments. As the first important protocol for ensuring secure communication in healthcare environment, the RFID authentication protocols derive more and more attentions. Most of RFID authentication protocols are based on hash function or symmetric cryptography. To get more security properties, elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) has been used in the design of RFID authentication protocol. Recently, Liao and Hsiao proposed a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC and claimed their protocol could withstand various attacks. In this paper, we will show that their protocol suffers from the key compromise problem, i.e. an adversary could get the private key stored in the tag. To enhance the security, we propose a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC. Detailed analysis shows the proposed protocol not only could overcome weaknesses in Liao and Hsiao's protocol but also has the same performance. Therefore, it is more suitable for healthcare environments.

  6. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  7. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  8. Measuring Teacher Authenticity: Criteria Students Use in Their Perception of Teacher Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Authenticity is an often-heard term with respect to education. Tasks should be authentic, the learning environment should be authentic and, above all, the teacher should be authentic. Previous qualitative research has shown that there are four primary criteria that students in formal educational settings use when forming their perceptions of…

  9. Measuring teacher authenticity: Criteria students use in their perception of teacher authenticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity is an often-heard term with respect to education. Tasks should be authentic, the learning environment should be authentic and, above all, the teacher should be authentic. Previous qualitative research has shown that there are four primary criteria that students in formal educational

  10. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Graham, James G; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2017-11-22

    This article reviews and develops a perspective for the meaning of authenticity in the context of quality assessment of botanical materials and the challenges associated with discerning adulterations vs. contaminations vs. impurities. Authentic botanicals are by definition non-adulterated, a mutually exclusive relationship that is confirmed through the application of a multilayered set of analytical methods designed to validate the (chemo)taxonomic identity of a botanical and certify that it is devoid of any adulteration. In practice, the ever-increasing sophistication in the process of intentional adulteration, as well as the growing number of botanicals entering the market, altogether necessitate a constant adaptation and reinforcement of authentication methods with new approaches, especially new technologies. This article summarizes the set of analytical methods - classical and contemporary - that can be employed in the authentication of botanicals. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. An NMR-based untargeted metabolomic model is proposed as a rapid, systematic, and complementary screening for the discrimination of authentic vs. potentially adulterated botanicals. Such analytical model can help advance the evaluation of botanical integrity in natural product research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  12. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS. It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.

  13. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  14. Impact on Student Motivation by Using a QR-Based U-Learning Material Production System to Create Authentic Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kai-Yi; Lee, Ko-Fong; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a QR-based U-Learning Material Production System (QR-ULMPS) that provides teachers with an education tool to motivate college level students enrolled in a liberal arts course. QR-ULMPS was specifically designed to support the development of u-learning materials and create an engaging context-aware u-learning environment for…

  15. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  16. 29 CFR 18.50 - Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authenticity. 18.50 Section 18.50 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.50 Authenticity. The authenticity of all documents submitted as proposed...

  17. 28 CFR 68.46 - Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authenticity. 68.46 Section 68.46... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.46 Authenticity. The authenticity of all documents submitted as proposed exhibits in advance of the hearing shall be deemed admitted...

  18. Authentic Montessori: The Teacher Makes the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel, Alexa C.

    2013-01-01

    What are the elements that make up authentic Montessori? Is Montessori something concrete or abstract? Are there intangibles that make Montessori what it is? Many classrooms today have Montessori materials and small tables and chairs. Are they authentic Montessori? When examining areas that traditionally make defining authentic Montessori…

  19. 1 authentic leadership and spiritual capital development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-01

    May 1, 2008 ... The purpose of this paper is to examine authentic leadership and spiritual capital as key elements for the successful building of quality management and effective organizations. It highlights the nexus between authentic leadership and spiritual capital, describes the common features of authentic leadership.

  20. Analytical Methods in Tracing Honey Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifković, Jelena; Andrić, Filip; Ristivojević, Petar; Guzelmeric, Etil; Yesilada, Erdem

    2017-07-01

    Honey is a precious natural product that is marketed with a wide range of nutritional and medicinal properties. However, it is also a product subjected to frequent adulteration through mislabeling and mixing with cheaper and lower-quality honeys and various sugar syrups. In that sense, honey authentication regarding its genuine botanical and geographical origins, as well as the detection of any adulteration, is essential in order to protect consumer health and to avoid competition that could create a destabilized market. Various analytical techniques have been developed to detect adulterations in honey, including measuring the ratios of stable isotopes (mostly 13C/12C) and the use of different spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrochemical methods. This review aims to provide a cross-section of contemporary analytical methods used for the determination of honey authenticity in order to help the scientific community engaged in the field of honey chemistry make appropriate choices and select the best applications that should lead to improvements in the detection and elimination of fraudulent practices in honey manufacturing.

  1. Delegation Based User Authentication Framework over Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsung Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To address the ever increasing demand for wireless bandwidth, cognitive radio networks (CRNs have been proposed to improve the efficiency of channel utilization. CRN permits unlicensed users to utilize the idle spectrum as long as it does not introduce interference to the primary users due to the Federal Communications Commission’s recent regulatory policies. In this paper, we first identify some required distinctive security and privacy features for CRNs focused on ECMA-392, which is the first industrial standard for personal or portable devices in the television white spaces. After that, we propose a delegation based user authentication framework as a basic security and privacy module with full consideration of the required features over CRNs. The proposed framework provides privacy preserving yet accountable security within the CRN entities. Security and privacy analyses show that the proposed framework supports unlinkability, context privacy, anonymity, no registration and conditional traceability, which are the required security and privacy aspects in CRNs.

  2. Authentication via wavefront-shaped optical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray

    2018-02-01

    Authentication/tamper-indication is required in a wide range of applications, including nuclear materials management and product counterfeit detection. State-of-the-art techniques include reflective particle tags, laser speckle authentication, and birefringent seals. Each of these passive techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages, including the need for complex image comparisons, limited flexibility, sensitivity to environmental conditions, limited functionality, etc. We have developed a new active approach to address some of these short-comings. The use of an active characterization technique adds more flexibility and additional layers of security over current techniques. Our approach uses randomly-distributed nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix (tag/seal) which is attached to the item to be secured. A spatial light modulator is used to adjust the wavefront of a laser which interacts with the tag/seal, and a detector is used to monitor this interaction. The interaction can occur in various ways, including transmittance, reflectance, fluorescence, random lasing, etc. For example, at the time of origination, the wavefront-shaped reflectance from a tag/seal can be adjusted to result in a specific pattern (symbol, words, etc.) Any tampering with the tag/seal would results in a disturbance of the random orientation of the nanoparticles and thus distort the reflectance pattern. A holographic waveplate could be inserted into the laser beam for verification. The absence/distortion of the original pattern would then indicate that tampering has occurred. We have tested the tag/seal's and authentication method's tamper-indicating ability using various attack methods, including mechanical, thermal, and chemical attacks, and have verified our material/method's robust tamper-indicating ability.

  3. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  4. Authentic Supervision Reconciles the Irreconcilables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.; Seyfarth, John T.

    1983-01-01

    Successful supervisors share a characteristic of "authenticity," rather than a particular pattern of behavior. From a background of Gestalt psychology, four steps are offered to help supervisors become aware of their own needs and feelings and recognize the "shoulds" that prevent real contact with others. (MLF)

  5. Authenticity and Relationships with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frego, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Although authenticity makes one vulnerable, the author believes that its impact on learning and on enjoyment of the teaching and learning process justifies the risk. This chapter describes how to offer a relationship to each student, focusing on appropriate caring for individuals and for learning. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Immersive Learning: Realism, Authenticity & Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For almost 20 years the Digital Design Studio has been exploring and applying virtual reality for a wide range of industrial, commercial and educational applications. Drawing from a range of recent projects, we explore the complex relationships between realism, authenticity and audience for effective engagement and education in immersive learning.

  7. Embodying Authenticity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Orienting to the community of higher education involves a learning experience that is authentic and embodied for one new college administrator. Reflecting on her experience, she articulates how her relationship to her body helps to understand and respond to the tensions of engaging with a scholarly community.

  8. Towards an Authentic Indian Environmentalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    An attempt must therefore be made to formulate a more authentic Indian environmental perspective.To do this ... (of government forests), global warming and ozone depletion that feature in the media and existing school textbooks.To get started .... Not only that, numerous water parks and golf courses are springing up for the ...

  9. Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

  10. Authenticity or School-only?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fougt, Simon Skov

    Challenging the apparent distinction among educational researchers between ‘authenticity’ outside schools and ‘school-only’ inside schools, this paper investigates the concept of meaningfulness from different perspectives with a focus on formal learning in schools, as it states that teaching...... and learning inside school also can be authentic....

  11. The embodiment of authentic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole; Smith-Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Meloy, Faye A

    2014-01-01

    Development of student leadership capacity and efficacy is critical to the nursing profession, and vital to this process is a strong foundation in critical thinking that includes a depth of understanding of self (i.e., authentic leadership development). This article will (a) present a theoretical overview of authentic leadership as compared with other popular leadership theories, (b) provide an overview of development/implementation of an authentic leadership course, the first in a series of six one-credit courses as an integral component of the Macy Undergraduate Leadership Fellows Program for upper-level nursing students, and (c) discuss related implications for nursing education. Findings from an investigator-developed quantitative pre-post survey and qualitative evaluation questions are provided. Student feedback regarding the comprehensive nature of the course was extremely positive and affirmed the value of introspection associated with authentic leadership in ongoing personal and professional development. Critical pedagogy and action-oriented learning strategies also proved beneficial to student engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving Usability of Passphrase Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Vedel, Michael; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    . This is done to ensure an appropriate degree of security, but instead, it makes it difficult for users to remember their password, which results in passwords that are either insecure, but easy to remember, or written down on paper. In this paper we address the problem of usability in user authentication...

  13. A novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush species. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons - 28040 - Madrid - SPAIN (Martin, Rosario) SPAIN

  14. Researches on the Security of Cluster-based Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the in-depth application of sensor networks, the security issues have gradually become the bottleneck of wireless sensor applications. To provide a solution for security scheme is a common concern not only of researchers but also of providers, integrators and users of wireless sensor networks. Based on this demand, this paper focuses on the research of strengthening the security of cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Based on the systematic analysis of the clustering protocol and its security enhancement scheme, the paper introduces the broadcast authentication scheme, and proposes an SA-LEACH network security enhancement protocol. The performance analysis and simulation experiments prove that the protocol consumes less energy with the same security requirements, and when the base station is comparatively far from the network deployment area, it is more advantageous in terms of energy consumption and t more suitable for wireless sensor networks.

  15. Authenticity as an aim of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Claudio

    2008-12-01

    This paper will present a series of predominantly clinical observations concerning the lengthy work a patient carries out, with the help of the analyst, in order to achieve greater personal authenticity. When this work is drawing to a close and the patient has gained a degree of authenticity, this authenticity remains within him, almost without his realizing it. The power of authenticity is instead revealed through the patient's most intimate and important relationships. In the long term, the patient's authenticity also alters his perception of himself and of his role in the world. He feels more alive and less overcome by a sense of futility, if earlier this had been the case.

  16. Quantum identity authentication with single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang ho; Heo, Jino; Jang, Jin Gak; Kwon, Daesung

    2017-10-01

    Quantum identity authentication with single photons is proposed in the paper. It can verify a user's identity without exposing to an authentication key information. The protocol guarantees high efficiency in that it can verify two bits of authentication information using just a single photon. The security of our authentication scheme is analyzed and confirmed in the case of a general attack. Moreover, the proposed protocol is practicable with current technology. Our quantum identity authentication protocol does not require quantum memory registration and any entangled photon sources.

  17. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia.

  18. Technical note: Advantages and limitations of authenticating Palmera goat dairy products by pyrosequencing the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaoui, B; Manunza, A; Castelló, A; D'Andrea, M; Pilla, F; Capote, J; Jordana, J; Ferrando, A; Martínez, A; Cabrera, B; Delgado, J V; Landi, V; Gómez, M; Pons, A; El Ouni, M; Vidal, O; Amills, M

    2014-11-01

    Inferring the breed of origin of dairy products can be achieved through molecular analysis of genetic markers with a population-specific pattern of segregation. The goal of the current work was to generate such markers in goats by resequencing several pigmentation genes [melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT), tyrosinase (TYR), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TYRP2)]. This experiment revealed 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including 5 missense mutations and 1 nonsense mutation. These markers were genotyped in 560 goats from 18 breeds originally from Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, the Canary Islands, and North Africa. Although the majority of SNP segregated at moderate frequencies in all populations (including 2 additional markers that were used as a source of information), we identified a c.764G>A SNP in MC1R that displayed highly divergent allelic frequencies in the Palmera breed compared with the Majorera and Tinerfeña breeds from the Canary Islands. Thus, we optimized a pyrosequencing-based technique that allowed us to estimate, very accurately, the allele frequencies of this marker in complex DNA mixtures from different individuals. Once validated, we applied this method to generating breed-specific DNA profiles that made it possible to detect fraudulent cheeses in which Palmero cheese was manufactured with milk from Majorera goats. One limitation of this approach, however, is that it cannot be used to detect illegal manufacturing where Palmero dairy products are produced by mixing milk from Palmera and Majorera goats, because the c.764G>A SNP segregates in both breeds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond Commodification and Politicisation: Production and Consumption Practices of Authenticity in the White Tai Tourist Market in the Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achariya Nate-Chei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an ethnographic enquiry conducted over the last four years and shows the setting of a close interaction between hosts and guests in the White Tai villages in Mai Chau district, in the northwest uplands of Vietnam. The author argues that tourism is utilised as a medium to demonstrate a culture of hospitality. A new trend in tourism production and consumption is brought into discussion; in relation to this, this paper looks at what is really happening in the tourism spaces of the White Tai villages through the experiences not only of tourists but also of villagers. The author identifies several types of host-guest relationships and argues that there is a transformation of the host-guest relationship within these tourist spaces, a transformation evident in the new production and consumption practices of the market. Such relationships must be understood by looking beyond conceptions of commodification and politicisation of ethnicity. --- Basierend auf einer vierjährigen ethnographischen Feldforschung schildert dieser Beitrag die Interaktionen zwischen Bereisten und Reisenden anhand von White Tai-Dörfern im Mai Chau-Bezirk im nordwestlichen Hügelland Vietnams. Die Autorin argumentiert, dass Tourismus als Medium zur Demonstration von Gastfreundlichkeit eingesetzt werde. Neben einer Diskussion zu touristischer Pro- duktion und Konsum, werden in diesem Artikel auch die Erfahrungen und Wahrnehmungen der TouristInnen und DorfbewohnerInnen analysiert sowie verschiedene Typen von Beziehungen zwischen GastgeberInnen und Gästen identifiziert. Es wird dabei argumentiert, dass im Kontext touristischer Räume eine Transformation dieser Beziehungen stattfinde, die in den neuen Produktions- und Konsumpraktiken evident sei. Solche Beziehungen können nur verstanden werden, wenn ein altbekanntes Verständnis von Kommodifizierung und Politisierung von Ethnizität erweitert werde.

  20. Determination of authenticity of engraved scrimshaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Donald E.

    2000-03-01

    Scrimshaw is an occupational art form originated by, or indigenous to, whalemen, utilizing the hard by-products of the whale fishery, ivory, bone and baleen, in some cases combined with other found material. It is comprised of three types: 1) decorative, e.g. engraved or carved teeth or tusks; 2) utilitarian, e.g. tools and tool handles, and 3) a combination of these, e.g. busks, swifts an dippers. This paper is concerned with engraved scrimshaw, principally decorative, and in particular, determination of authenticity. The value of scrimshaw in general, and engraved scrimshaw in particular, has increased markedly in the last quarter century, encouraging forgery, thus making verification of authenticity of increasing importance. Two of the pioneers in the field of scientific detection of forgery of scrimshaw, or scrimshaw forensics, are Dr. Janet West of the Scott Polar Institute, Cambridge University, and Desmund T. Liddy of Australia. It is on their work that our project at the Kendall Whaling Museum is based. All of the methodologies discussed herein discussed herein are visual, the attributes visible to the unaided eye in many cases, augmented by low power stereo microscopy in others.

  1. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  2. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  3. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  4. Optical and wireless technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Ghanshyam; Minzioni, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents selected papers from 1st International Conference on Optical and Wireless Technologies, providing insights into the analytical, experimental, and developmental aspects of systems, techniques, and devices in these spheres. It explores the combined use of various optical and wireless technologies in next-generation networking applications, and discusses the latest developments in applications such as photonics, high-speed communication systems and networks, visible light communication, nanophotonics, and wireless and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The book will serve as a valuable reference resource for academics and researchers across the globe.

  5. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical

  6. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  7. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  8. ECG-cryptography and authentication in body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Fang, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs.

  9. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-11-17

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  10. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Garcia-Carrillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet-of-Things (IoT landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN, the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP, which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  11. Two-phase hybrid cryptography algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawya Rizk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, cryptography plays an important role. In this paper, a new security algorithm using combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques is proposed to provide high security with minimized key maintenance. It guarantees three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES are combined to provide encryption. XOR-DUAL RSA algorithm is considered for authentication and Message Digest-5 (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time, the size of cipher text, and the energy consumption in WSN. It is also robust against different types of attacks in the case of image encryption.

  12. Improving Usability of Passphrase Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Vedel, Michael; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    . This is done to ensure an appropriate degree of security, but instead, it makes it difficult for users to remember their password, which results in passwords that are either insecure, but easy to remember, or written down on paper. In this paper we address the problem of usability in user authentication.......We promote the use of passphrases, which provide better security and are often easier to remember than passwords. Passphrases will be significantly longer than passwords, which makes them more difficult to enter correctly on a keyboard. We solve this problem by proposing a new passphrase validation algorithm......The combination of user-names and passwords has become the predominant method of user authentication in computer systems. Most users have multiple accounts on different systems, which impose different constraints on the length and complexity of passwords that the user is allowed to select...

  13. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate what ‘authenticity’ means in a contemporary popular context and how it is used in the staging of bodies. Furthermore, I analyse works of dance and fashion from the past fifteen years with a focus on their strategies of challenging the notion of ‘bodily authenticity...... self’. I scrutinise the staging techniques and the codes of appearance that bodies have to comply with in order to be deemed ‘authentic’ on the shows. To define them and place them in the history of the idea of ‘bodily authenticity’, I complement my study with an outline of how ‘authenticity...... and by a depiction of 'working hard'. But various techniques also mask the hard work, for example by showing a participant ‘having fun’ performing it. Contemporary works of dance and fashion challenge the problematic implications in the notion of ‘bodily authenticity’. I analyse three strategies of undermining...

  14. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddan, Gavriel; Meron, Gavriel; Glukhovsky, Arkady; Swain, Paul

    2000-05-01

    We have developed a new type of endoscopy, which for the first time allows painless endoscopic imaging of the whole of the small bowel. This procedure involves a wireless capsule endoscope and we describe here its successful testing in humans.

  15. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  16. Digital image authentication from thumbnails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2010-01-01

    We describe how to exploit the formation and storage of an embedded image thumbnail for image authentication. The creation of a thumbnail is modeled with a series of filtering operations, contrast adjustment, and compression. We automatically estimate these model parameters and show that these parameters differ significantly between camera manufacturers and photo-editing software. We also describe how this signature can be combined with encoding information from the underlying full resolution image to further refine the signature's distinctiveness.

  17. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    present a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed mechanism, which employs camera based tracking with a single stationary 3D camera that uses the "time of flight" principle. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed mechanism indicates that persistent authentication is technically possible...... with the proposed hardware. The proposed model is sufficiently general to allow the addition of more cameras or supplemental tracking technologies, which will improve the robustness and scalability of the proposed mechanism....

  18. National Authentication Framework Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Identifiers RA Registration Authority SAML Security Assertion Markup Language SFA Single-factor Authentication SMS Short Messaging System SOA ...Internet 2.0 and the growing interest in systems developed based upon the Service- Oriented Architecture ( SOA ). While core specifications upon which...August 2009. [4] S. Harris, CISSP: Exam Guide, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008, pp. 1145. [5] J. Brainard, A. Juels, R. L. Rivest, M. Szydlo

  19. Multi-Factor Authentication: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ometov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, digitalization decisively penetrates all the sides of the modern society. One of the key enablers to maintain this process secure is authentication. It covers many different areas of a hyper-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. This work sheds light on the evolution of authentication systems towards Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA. Particularly, MFA is expected to be utilized for human-to-everything interactions by enabling fast, user-friendly, and reliable authentication when accessing a service. This paper surveys the already available and emerging sensors (factor providers that allow for authenticating a user with the system directly or by involving the cloud. The corresponding challenges from the user as well as the service provider perspective are also reviewed. The MFA system based on reversed Lagrange polynomial within Shamir’s Secret Sharing (SSS scheme is further proposed to enable more flexible authentication. This solution covers the cases of authenticating the user even if some of the factors are mismatched or absent. Our framework allows for qualifying the missing factors by authenticating the user without disclosing sensitive biometric data to the verification entity. Finally, a vision of the future trends in MFA is discussed.

  20. The Challenge of Wireless Connectivity to Support Intelligent Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Viviane S. B.; Garcia, Luis G. U.; Caldwell, George

    2016-01-01

    and increase productivity, from extraction all the way to the delivery of a processed product to the customer. In this context, one of the key enablers is wireless connectivity since it allows mining equipment to be remotely monitored and controlled. Simply put, dependable wireless connectivity is essential...... mining paradigm. By means of simulations, we analyze the effects on the wireless network along 7 years of constant topographic changes in an open-pit mine coupled with much higher data requirements. The authors also present a new network topology that is able to partially meet the requirements posed...

  1. A Clock Fingerprints-Based Approach for Wireless Transmitter Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caidan; Xie, Liang; Huang, Lianfen; Yao, Yan

    Cognitive radio (CR) was proposed as one of the promising solutions for low spectrum utilization. However, security problems such as the primary user emulation (PUE) attack severely limit its applications. In this paper, we propose a clock fingerprints-based authentication approach to prevent PUE attacks in CR networks with the help of curve fitting and classifier. An experimental setup was constructed using the WLAN cards and software radio devices, and the corresponding results show that satisfied identification can be achieved for wireless transmitters.

  2. Wireless world widens nurse call options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    With wireless technology now an integral part of all our lives, and miniaturisation of computing power having made even hand-held portable devices such as mobile phones powerful tools in their own right, HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, spoke to specialist in wireless nurse call systems, Courtney-Thorne, to discuss some of its key recent product innovations, and see what impact it feels developments such as 'cloud' technology will have on the bringing of more technology into the nurse call sector as 'nurse and carer tools'.

  3. Wireless power transfer via radiowaves

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara , Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technologies have enabled various engineering applications with potential product implementation. WPT can be utilized to charge batteries in various pieces of equipment without the need for a wired connection. Energy can be harvested from ambient RF and microwave radiation and 1 million kW microwaves can be transmitted from space to the ground.This book covers all the theory and technologies of WPT, such as microwave generators with semi-conductors and microwave tubes, antennas, phased arrays, beam efficiency, and rectifiers (rectenna). The

  4. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    According to advancements in the wireless technologies, study of biometrics-based multi-server authenticated key agreement schemes has acquired a lot of momentum. Recently, Wang et al. presented a three-factor authentication protocol with key agreement and claimed that their scheme was resistant to several prominent attacks. Unfortunately, this paper indicates that their protocol is still vulnerable to the user impersonation attack, privileged insider attack and server spoofing attack. Furthermore, their protocol cannot provide the perfect forward secrecy. As a remedy of these aforementioned problems, we propose a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments. Compared with various related schemes, our protocol achieves the stronger security and provides more functionality properties. Besides, the proposed protocol shows the satisfactory performances in respect of storage requirement, communication overhead and computational cost. Thus, our protocol is suitable for expert systems and other multi-server architectures. Consequently, the proposed protocol is more appropriate in the distributed networks.

  5. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  6. Wireless Networks Security

    OpenAIRE

    Jenko, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we deal with security, penetration testing and different types of attacks on wireless networks. We theoretically familiarize with the field of wireless networks, security mechanisms and the most used security standards. Then we systematically overview the field of penetration testing. We divide the penetration testing on types and different methodologies. We explain the tasks of the provider and the subscriber in penetration testing. Description of the process of conducting the...

  7. UPPGHA: Uniform Privacy Preservation Group Handover Authentication Mechanism for mMTC in LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine Type Communication (MTC, as one of the most important wireless communication technologies in the future wireless communication, has become the new business growth point of mobile communication network. It is a key point to achieve seamless handovers within Evolved-Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN for massive MTC (mMTC devices in order to support mobility in the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A networks. When mMTC devices simultaneously roam from a base station to a new base station, the current handover mechanisms suggested by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP require several handover signaling interactions, which could cause the signaling load over the access network and the core network. Besides, several distinct handover procedures are proposed for different mobility scenarios, which will increase the system complexity. In this paper, we propose a simple and secure uniform group-based handover authentication scheme for mMTC devices based on the multisignature and aggregate message authentication code (AMAC techniques, which is to fit in with all of the mobility scenarios in the LTE-A networks. Compared with the current 3GPP standards, our scheme can achieve a simple authentication process with robust security protection including privacy preservation and thus avoid signaling congestion. The correctness of the proposed group handover authentication protocol is formally proved in the Canetti-Krawczyk (CK model and verified based on the AVISPA and SPAN.

  8. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  9. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  10. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav V. Sampangi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG, and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  11. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-09-15

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  12. Staging constructions of authenticity in organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2018-01-01

    that are emotionally charged. Through a socio-material perspective this paper seeks to explore how change processes in organizations challenges the idea of authentic leadership as a merely individual ability or personality trait and suggest that the authentic leader is distributed into the practices of change......Authenticity in organizations has gained increased focus in recent years. Authentic management and leadership are ways to motivate and make sustainable changes in the organization. But authenticity is also strategically worked with in order to serve social and political functions....... The paper explores how staged organizational change where authentic role-play and scripts from everyday life combined with meta-reflection and feedback construct new forms of reflection where its ethical side-effects should be discussed....

  13. An Examination of Career Indecision and Application to Dispositional Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity has been viewed as a dimension related to life satisfaction, but we propose that authenticity is related to career outcomes. In this study, we examined the relation between authenticity and career indecision. Authenticity was assessed by the Authenticity Scale and it was found to be moderately related to different indices of career…

  14. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOENEMAN, J. LEE; SMARTT, HEIDI ANNE; HOFER, DENNIS

    2000-01-27

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements.

  15. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOENEMAN, J. LEE; SMARTT, HEIDI ANNE; HOFER, DENNIS

    2000-01-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements

  16. Authenticity is in the Eye of the Beholder: Student and Teacher Perceptions of Assessment Authenticity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, Judith; Bastiaens, Theo; Kirschner, Paul A.; Kester, Liesbeth

    2008-01-01

    Gulikers, J. T. M., Bastiaens, Th. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Kester, L. (2008). Authenticity is in the Eye of the Beholder: Student and Teacher Perceptions of Assessment Authenticity. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60(4)

  17. Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Jabr Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A is the third generation partnership project for cellular network that allows subscribers to roam into networks (i.e., the Internet and wireless connections using spacial purpose base-stations, such as wireless access points and home node B. In such LTE-A based networks, neither base-stations, nor the Internet and wireless connections are trusted because base-stations are operated by un-trusted subscribers. Attackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to violate the privacy of the LTE-A subscribers. On the other hand, the tradeoff between privacy and authentication is another challenge in such networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two anonymous authentication schemes based on one-time pseudonymes and Schnorr Zero Knowledge Protocols. Instead of the international mobile subscriber identity, these schemes enable the user equipment, base-stations and mobility management entity to mutually authenticate each others and update the location of the user equipment without evolving the home subscriber server. The security analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes thwart security and privacy attacks, such as malicious, international mobile subscriber identity catching, and tracking attacks. Additionally, our proposed schemes preserve the location privacy of user equipment since no entity except the mobility management entity and Gate-Way Mobile Location Center can link between the pseudonymes and the international mobile subscriber identity. Also attackers have no knowledge about international mobile subscriber identity. Hence, the proposed schemes achieve backward/forward secrecy. Furthermore, the performance evaluation shows that the proposed handover schemes impose a small overhead on the mobile nodes and it has smaller computation and communication overheads than those in other schemes.

  18. The Duality of Authenticity in ELT

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, J. John Love

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find out the dual-perspectives on authenticity in English language teaching.Problem: The concept of authenticity has generated quite a ripple in ESL/EFL classrooms. Contrasting perspectives have emerged over the years in reaction to this concept. Some regard authenticity as an inevitable part of teaching as it provides students with opportunities to interact with reality in the classroom itself, whereas, some others consider it an ambitious construct and suggest ap...

  19. Disambiguating authenticity: Interpretations of value and appeal

    OpenAIRE

    O?Connor, Kieran; Carroll, Glenn R.; Kov?cs, Bal?zs

    2017-01-01

    While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity-type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic-we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed ...

  20. Design and implementation of a secure wireless mote-based medical sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasri, Kriangsiri; Wang, Lan

    2009-01-01

    A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data are highly sensitive. We identify the unique security challenges of such a sensor network and propose a set of resource-efficient mechanisms to address these challenges. Our solution includes (1) a novel two-tier scheme for verifying the authenticity of patient data, (2) a secure key agreement protocol to set up shared keys between sensor nodes and base stations, and (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for protecting data confidentiality and integrity. We have implemented the proposed mechanisms on a wireless mote platform, and our results confirm their feasibility.

  1. Design and Implementation of a SecureWireless Mote-Based Medical Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data are highly sensitive. We identify the unique security challenges of such a sensor network and propose a set of resource-efficient mechanisms to address these challenges. Our solution includes (1 a novel two-tier scheme for verifying the authenticity of patient data, (2 a secure key agreement protocol to set up shared keys between sensor nodes and base stations, and (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for protecting data confidentiality and integrity. We have implemented the proposed mechanisms on a wireless mote platform, and our results confirm their feasibility.

  2. A Review Of Multimodal Biometric Authentication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication is the process of validating the identity of a person based on certain input that the person provides. Authentication has become a major topic of research due to the increasing number of attacks on computer networks around the globe. This review paper focuses on multimodal biometric authentication systems in use today. The aim is to elicit the best combination of authentication factors for multimodal use. We study the strengths and weakness of selected biometric mechanisms and recommend novel solutions to include in multimodal biometric systems to improve on the current biometric drawbacks. We believe this paper will provide security researchers some useful insight whilst designing better biometric systems.

  3. User Authentication in Smartphones for Telehealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, KATHERINE A.; ZHOU, LEMING; WATZLAF, VALERIE J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Many functions previously conducted on desktop computers are now performed on smartphones. Smartphones provide convenience, portability, and connectivity. When smartphones are used in the conduct of telehealth, sensitive data is invariably accessed, rendering the devices in need of user authentication to ensure data protection. User authentication of smartphones can help mitigate potential Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) breaches and keep sensitive patient information protected, while also facilitating the convenience of smartphones within everyday life and healthcare. This paper presents and examines several types of authentication methods available to smartphone users to help ensure security of sensitive data from attackers. The applications of these authentication methods in telehealth are discussed. PMID:29238444

  4. Performance Evaluation of Public Key Based Authentication in Future Mobile Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambourakis Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile hosts are evolving into full-IP enabled devices, there is a greater demand to provide a more flexible, reconfigurable, and scalable security mechanism in mobile communication systems beyond 3G (B3G. Work has already begun on such an “all-IP” end-to-end solution, commonly referred to as 4G systems. Fully fledged integration between heterogeneous networks, such as 2.5G, UMTS, WLAN, Bluetooth, and the Internet, demands fully compatible, time-tested, and reliable mechanisms to depend on. SSL protocol has proved its effectiveness in the wired Internet and it will probably be the most promising candidate for future wireless environments. In this paper, we discuss existing problems related to authentication and key agreement (AKA procedures, such as compromised authentication vectors attacks, as they appear in current 2/2.5G/3G mobile communication systems, and propose how SSL, combined with public key infrastructure (PKI elements, can be used to overcome these vulnerabilities. In this B3G environment, we perceive authentication as a service, which has to be performed at the higher protocol layers irrespective of the underlying network technology. Furthermore, we analyze the effectiveness of such a solution, based on measurements of a “prototype” implementation. Performance measurements indicate that SSL-based authentication can be possible in terms of service time in future wireless systems, while it can simultaneously provide both the necessary flexibility to network operators and a high level of confidence to end users.

  5. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  6. Authenticity Lies in the Eye of the Beholder The Perception of Teachers' Authenticity by their Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Everything and everybody is urged to be authentic. Brands now need to create authentic experiences in music, artists survive if they are perceived as being real and nowadays, even in political elections, the perception of authenticity is an issue, certainly in the 2016 elections in the United

  7. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  8. Parallelizable and Authenticated Online Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Luykx, Atul

    2013-01-01

    -purpose CPUs or dedicated hardware.We propose the first parallelizable online cipher, COPE. It performs two calls to the underlying block cipher per plaintext block and is fully parallelizable in both encryption and decryption. COPE is proven secure against chosenplaintext attacks assuming the underlying block...... cipher is a strong PRP. We then extend COPE to create COPA, the first parallelizable, online authenticated cipher with nonce-misuse resistance. COPA only requires two extra block cipher calls to provide integrity. The privacy and integrity of the scheme is proven secure assuming the underlying block...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Wireless networking is currently being deployed for various applications. However, the application of wireless networking in healthcare remains a challenge mainly because of security and reliability concerns. This paper presents experimental results of performance analysis of a wireless network for healthcare ...

  10. Data security in wireless local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishk, A.M.A

    2010-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for performance and data security improvement in wireless local area network (W LAN) has motivated increasing the difficulties to crack the system by man-in -the middle attacks. There are two primary and main objectives of this thesis to enhance data security in WLAN. The first objective is the enhancement of identities-exchange and key-exchange during authentication process. The second objective is the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm based on key-updating to enhance the performance of data-security in WLAN. The current asymmetrical encryption algorithms are used to authenticate the devices in WLAN to each other. They are used to exchange the identities and the keys in a secret channel during the authentication process. This thesis investigates the problems of identities- exchange. The enhancement of the identities-exchange and key-exchange stages during the authentication process has been suggested and studied in the thesis to solve the drawbacks of the traditional asymmetrical encryption algorithms.Next the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption to encrypt the data during the data exchange process gives a new approach to increase the difficulties to the man in the middle attacks to crack the system.The key updating with each packet is the new approach to solve the problem of the fixed key used to encrypt / decrypt the data with all packets in WLAN.A Comparative study between the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithms and the other algorithms is presented in the thesis. Proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm is applied on a text, voice, and image messages as practical applications of the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm. Finally, the man-in-the middle attacks can broadcast noise signals in WLAN channels to prevent the data to reach correctly to the end-user. The quality of the received image is measured for the proposed and the traditional symmetrical encryption algorithms to

  11. Wireless Luminescence Integrated Sensors (WLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M.L.; Sayler, G.S. (Univ. Tennessee)

    2003-11-10

    The goal of this project was the development of a family of wireless, single-chip, luminescence-sensing devices to solve a number of difficult distributed measurement problems in areas ranging from environmental monitoring and assessment to high-throughput screening of combinatorial chemistry libraries. These wireless luminescence integrated sensors (WLIS) consist of a microluminometer, wireless data transmitter, and RF power input circuit all realized in a standard integrated circuit (IC) process with genetically engineered, whole-cell, bioluminescent bioreporters encapsulated and deposited on the IC. The end product is a family of compact, low-power, rugged, low-cost sensors. As part of this program they developed an integrated photodiode/signal-processing scheme with an rms noise level of 175 electrons/second for a 13-minute integration time, and a quantum efficiency of 66% at the 490-nm bioluminescent wavelength. this performance provided a detection limit of < 1000 photons/second. Although sol-gel has previously been used to encapsulate yeast cells, the reaction conditions necessary for polymerization (primarily low pH) have beforehand proven too harsh for bacterial cell immobilizations. Utilizing sonication methods, they have were able to initiate polymerization under pH conditions conductive to cell survival. both a toluene bioreporter (Pseudomonas putida TVA8) and a naphthalene bioreporter (Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44) were successfully encapsulated in sol-gel and shown to produce a fairly significant bioluminescent response. In addition to the previously developed naphthalene- and toluene-sensitive bioreporters, they developed a yeast-based xenoestrogen reporter. This technology has been licensed by Micro Systems Technologies, a startup company in Dayton, Ohio for applications in environmental containments monitoring, and for detecting weapons of mass destruction (i.e. homeland security).

  12. WiMax taking wireless to the max

    CERN Document Server

    Pareek, Deepak

    2006-01-01

    With market value expected to reach 5 billion by 2007 and the endorsement of some of the biggest names in telecommunications, World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is poised to change the broadband wireless landscape. But how much of WiMAX's touted potential is merely hype? Now that several pre-WiMAX networks have been deployed, what are the operators saying about QoS and ROI? How and when will device manufacturers integrate WiMAX into their products? What is the business case for using WiMAX rather than any number of other established wireless alternatives?WiMAX: Taking Wireless

  13. Fiber wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalathas, A.; Bakaul, M.; Lim, C.; Novak, D.; Waterhouse, R.

    2005-11-01

    Broadband wireless networks based on a number of new frequency windows at higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies have been actively pursued to provide ultra-high bandwidth services over a wireless networks. These networks will have a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput. Significant reductions in antenna base-station complexity can be achieved if most of the signal routing and switching functions centralized at a central office in the network. In such a network, fiber feed networks can be effectively deployed to provide high bandwidth interconnections between multiple antenna base-stations and the central office. With wavelength division multiplexing, efficient optical fiber feed network architectures could be realised to provide interconnection to a large number of antenna base-stations. In this paper, we present an over view of our recent research into system technologies for fiber wireless networks.

  14. Developing Science Learning Material with Authentic Inquiry Learning Approach to Improve Problem Solving and Scientific Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Widowati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to (1 produce science material learning based Authentic Inquiry Learning which is appropriate to improve problem solving and students scientific attitude; (2 know the potency of developing scientific attitude in science learning material based authentic inquiry learning; and (3 know the potency of developing scientific attitude in science learning material based authentic inquiry learning. The research method was Research and Development (R & D, by pointing to Four D models and Borg & Gall Model. There were 4 main phases (define, design, develop, disseminate and additional phases (preliminary field testing, main product revision, main field testing, and operational product revision. The instruments used included product validation questionnaire, problem solving test, observation sheet of problem solving, and scientific attitude questionnaire. Result data of validation, problem solving test, scientific attitude questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that : (1 science learning material based authentic inquiry learning that was developed was considered as very good by expert lecturers and teachers, and it was appropriate to use in learning process; (2 science learning material based authentic inquiry learning could improve students’ problem solving; (3 science learning material based authentic inquiry learning could improve students’ scientific attitude.

  15. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  16. Continuous user authentication using temporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinuma, Koichiro; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-04-01

    Conventional computer systems authenticate users only at the initial log-in session, which can be the cause of a critical security flaw. To resolve this problem, systems need continuous user authentication methods that continuously monitor and authenticate users based on some biometric trait(s). We propose a new method for continuous user authentication based on a Webcam that monitors a logged in user's face and color of clothing. Our method can authenticate users regardless of their posture in front of the workstation (laptop or PC). Previous methods for continuous user authentication cannot authenticate users without biometric observation. To alleviate this requirement, our method uses color information of users' clothing as an enrollment template in addition to their face information. The system cannot pre-register the clothing color information because this information is not permanent. To deal with the problem, our system automatically registers this information every time the user logs in and then fuses it with the conventional (password) identification system. We report preliminary authentication results and future enhancements to the proposed system.

  17. Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...

  18. Ignoring Authentic African Literature Means Ignoring Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2005-01-01

    Africa produces imaginative and authentic literature whose texture makes it impossible to think of Africans as statistics. African writers, however have to struggle to get recognized in America due to their culture and other racial and social differences, hence suggesting that efforts should be made to give authentic African literature its due.

  19. Making it Real: Authenticity, Process and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Richard; MacDonald, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Authenticity has been a part of the intellectual resources of language teaching since the 1890s but its precise meaning and implications are contested. This commentary argues for a view of authenticity which recognizes the limits of the concept as a guide for pedagogic practice and acknowledges the fact that texts are processes rather than…

  20. Test-Task Authenticity: The Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    Leung and Lewkowicz remind us that the debate over the past two decades that is most relevant to ELT (English languge teaching) pedagogy and curriculum concerns test-task authenticity. This paper first reviews how the authenticity debate in the literature of second language acquisition, pedagogy and testing has evolved. Drawing on a body of…

  1. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...

  2. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  3. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  4. Wireless telecommunication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terré, Michel; Vivier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Wireless telecommunication systems generate a huge amount of interest. In the last two decades, these systems have experienced at least three major technological leaps, and it has become impossible to imagine how society was organized without them. In this book, we propose a macroscopic approach on wireless systems, and aim at answering key questions about power, data rates, multiple access, cellular engineering and access networks architectures.We present a series of solved problems, whose objective is to establish the main elements of a global link budget in several radiocommunicati

  5. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  6. The Duality of Authenticity in ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. John Love Joy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to find out the dual-perspectives on authenticity in English language teaching.Problem: The concept of authenticity has generated quite a ripple in ESL/EFL classrooms. Contrasting perspectives have emerged over the years in reaction to this concept. Some regard authenticity as an inevitable part of teaching as it provides students with opportunities to interact with reality in the classroom itself, whereas, some others consider it an ambitious construct and suggest approaching it with caution.Method: In order to verify these perspectives, a survey of literature has been done to trace the genesis of authenticity and its various facets.Conclusion: As a result, we have found that a balanced outlook on authenticity is required by the teachers to promote better teaching-learning experiences.

  7. User Authentication in Smartphones for Telehealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Smith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many functions previously conducted on desktop computers are now performed on smartphones. Smartphones provide convenience, portability, and connectivity.  When smartphones are used in the conduct of telehealth, sensitive data is invariably accessed, rendering the devices in need of user authentication to ensure data protection. User authentication of smartphones can help mitigate potential Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA breaches and keep sensitive patient information protected, while also facilitating the convenience of smartphones within everyday life and healthcare. This paper presents and examines several types of authentication methods available to smartphone users to help ensure security of sensitive data from attackers. The applications of these authentication methods in telehealth are discussed.  Keywords: Authentication, Biometrics, HIPAA, Mobile security, Telehealth

  8. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    .g., through a smart card based access control system, to the location where the authentication is required by a location-based service. The PAISE model is extended with remote biometrics to prevent the decay of authentication confidence when authenticated users encounter and interact with other users...... in the environment. The result is a calm approach to authentication, where mobile users are transparently authenticated towards the system, which allows the provision of location-based services. The output of the remote biometrics are fused using error-rate-based fusion to solve a common problem that occurs in score...... level fusion, i.e., the scores of each biometric system are usually incompatible, as they have different score ranges as well as different probability distributions. We have integrated remote biometrics with the PAISE prototype and the experimental results on a publicly available dataset, show...

  9. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery Packs; Notice of Investigation... within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software... certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or battery packs that...

  10. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-706] In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery Packs: Notice of Commission... United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless...

  11. Efficient integration of secure and safety critical industrial wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Mats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless communication has gained more interest in industrial automation due to flexibility, mobility, and cost reduction. Wireless systems, in general, require additional and different engineering and maintenance tasks, for example cryptographic key management. This is an important aspect that needs to be addressed before wireless systems can be deployed and maintained efficiently in the industry. In this paper, we take an holistic approach that addresses safety and security regardless of the underlying media. In our proposed framework we introduce security modules which can be retrofitted to provide end-to-end integrity and authentication measures by utilizing the black channel concept. With the proposed approach, we can extend and provide end-to-end security as well as functional safety using existing automation equipment and standards, such as Profisafe, Profinet IO, and WirelessHART. Furthermore, we improve the WirelessHART standard with periodic and deterministic downlink transmissions to enable efficient usage of wireless actuators, as well as improving the performance of functional safety protocols.

  12. Hadoop-Based Healthcare Information System Design and Wireless Security Communication Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human health information from healthcare system can provide important diagnosis data and reference to doctors. However, continuous monitoring and security storage of human health data are challenging personal privacy and big data storage. To build secure and efficient healthcare application, Hadoop-based healthcare security communication system is proposed. In wireless biosensor network, authentication and key transfer should be lightweight. An ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography based lightweight digital signature and key transmission method are proposed to provide wireless secure communication in healthcare information system. Sunspot wireless sensor nodes are used to build healthcare secure communication network; wireless nodes and base station are assigned different tasks to achieve secure communication goal in healthcare information system. Mysql database is used to store Sunspot security entity table and measure entity table. Hadoop is used to backup and audit the Sunspot security entity table. Sqoop tool is used to import/export data between Mysql database and HDFS (Hadoop distributed file system. Ganglia is used to monitor and measure the performance of Hadoop cluster. Simulation results show that the Hadoop-based healthcare architecture and wireless security communication method are highly effective to build a wireless healthcare information system.

  13. Resource management in wireless networking

    CERN Document Server

    Cardei, Mihaela; Du, Ding-Zhu

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book that provides readers with a deep technical overview of recent advances in resource management for wireless networks at different layers of the protocol stack. The subject is explored in various wireless networks, such as ad hoc wireless networks, 3G/4G cellular, IEEE 802.11, and Bluetooth personal area networks.Survey chapters give an excellent introduction to key topics in resource management for wireless networks, while experts will be satisfied by the technical depth of the knowledge imparted in chapters exploring hot research topics.The subject area discussed in this book is very relevant today, considering the recent remarkable growth of wireless networking and the convergence of wireless personal communications, internet technologies and real-time multimedia.This volume is a very good companion for practitioners working on implementing solutions for multimedia and Quality of Service - sensitive applications over wireless networks.Written for:Researchers, faculty members, students...

  14. From Wireless Sensor Networks to Wireless Body Area Networks: Formal Modeling and Verification on Security Using PAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking has successfully been applied on verification of security protocols, but the modeling process is always tedious and proficient knowledge of formal method is also needed although the final verification could be automatic depending on specific tools. At the same time, due to the appearance of novel kind of networks, such as wireless sensor networks (WSN and wireless body area networks (WBAN, formal modeling and verification for these domain-specific systems are quite challenging. In this paper, a specific and novel formal modeling and verification method is proposed and implemented using an expandable tool called PAT to do WSN-specific security verification. At first, an abstract modeling data structure for CSP#, which is built in PAT, is developed to support the node mobility related specification for modeling location-based node activity. Then, the traditional Dolev-Yao model is redefined to facilitate modeling of location-specific attack behaviors on security mechanism. A throughout formal verification application on a location-based security protocol in WSN is described in detail to show the usability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Furthermore, also a novel location-based authentication security protocol in WBAN can be successfully modeled and verified directly using our method, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first effort on employing model checking for automatic analysis of authentication protocol for WBAN.

  15. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...

  16. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  17. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  18. Subsurface Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, J. J.; Davies, J. L.; Kruger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional thinking holds that underground- and underwater radio communication is not possible, except at very low frequencies employing very long antennas and high transmit power. However, researchers at The University of Iowa have demonstrated that using inexpensive, low-power radios, it is in fact possible to achieve reliable underground radio communication over distances of several meters. This allows for creating underground wireless sensor networks. A proof-of-concept network was established at The University of Iowa, where nodes that measure soil moisture content are buried over a 20×20 m area (up to 1 m deep). The nodes organize themselves into a wireless sensor network, reconfigure routes as radio link quality waxes and wanes, cooperate in routing data packets to a surface base station, and so on. In an agricultural research setting, an advantage of such buried wireless sensor networks is that, if nodes were buried deep enough, they may be left in place during agricultural field work. Power consumption is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. This is especially true in a buried network where battery replacement is a major undertaking. The focus of continuing research is developing methods of inductively recharging buried sensor batteries.

  19. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Weber, John Mark [Dynetics, Inc.; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Pan, W. David [University of Alabama, Huntsville

    2012-01-01

    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  20. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  1. An underwater optical wireless communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2009-08-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  2. A Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Adopting Error Correction Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance.

  3. A secure RFID authentication protocol adopting error correction code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shuai-Min; Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu; Sun, Hung-Min

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance.

  4. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body area network (BAN is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  5. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  6. Design and development of wireless baby monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Jen, Yi-Kuo Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Philips DAP SCD510, SCD520, SCD530, and SCD540 1.8GHz/1.9GHz DECT Digital Wireless Baby Monitors are part of the next generation digital baby monitor products that emphasize on small form factor, innovative feature set, and cost effective bill of materials. New product features include wideband audio, ambient relative humidity measurement, and carbon monoxide detection. The objectives of this project are to design and develop these four baby monitor products and begin mass production for ...

  7. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  8. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  9. Perfumed historic buildings: Issues of authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary historical preservation practice includes olfactory preservation as an experimental method of architectural preservation. The implementation of manufactured scents in historic buildings raises important issues of authenticity. This paper focuses on three important issues in the relation between olfactory preservation and authenticity: the importance of phenomenology in memory evocation; the relative character of the authenticity concept; and the significance of social values in historic preservation. This requires a critical examination of charters, documents and theoretical interpretations which reflect a broader concept of authenticity. The paper discusses certain articles of the Venice Charter, the Nara Document on Authenticity, as well as the sense of smell in architectural experience through critical analysis of the theories of John Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, Roger Scruton and Juhani Pallasmaa and their concepts of authenticity. Authenticity issues are illustrated by the examples of olfactory preservation: olfactory reconstruction of Philip Johnson’s Glass House; interior restoration and olfactory reconstruction of the Arts Club in Mayfair, London; and the creation process of the perfume brand Arquiste, a meaningful example which relocates the olfactory reconstruction context. These critical analyses raise the question of scent in historic buildings as a value in itself.

  10. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  11. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  12. Towards distortion-free robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltuc, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented

  13. Staging constructions of authenticity in organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2018-01-01

    that are emotionally charged. Through a socio-material perspective this paper seeks to explore how change processes in organizations challenges the idea of authentic leadership as a merely individual ability or personality trait and suggest that the authentic leader is distributed into the practices of change....... The paper explores how staged organizational change where authentic role-play and scripts from everyday life combined with meta-reflection and feedback construct new forms of reflection where its ethical side-effects should be discussed....

  14. Instant Java password and authentication security

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoral, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book takes a hands-on approach to Java-based password hashing and authentication, detailing advanced topics in a recipe format.This book is ideal for developers new to user authentication and password security, and who are looking to get a good grounding in how to implement it in a reliable way.It's assumed that the reader will have some experience in Java already, as well as being familiar with the basic idea behind user authentication.

  15. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škorić, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum readout of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: A verifier can check if received classical data were sent by the PUF holder. We call this modification QR-d or, in the case of the optical-PUF implementation, QSA-d. We discuss how QSA-d can be operated in a parallel way. We also present a protocol for authenticating quantum states.

  16. Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how...... as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures...

  17. Final report for the network authentication investigation and pilot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Miller, Marc M.; Wiener, Dallas J; Witzke, Edward L.

    2006-11-01

    New network based authentication mechanisms are beginning to be implemented in industry. This project investigated different authentication technologies to see if and how Sandia might benefit from them. It also investigated how these mechanisms can integrate with the Sandia Two-Factor Authentication Project. The results of these investigations and a network authentication path forward strategy are documented in this report.

  18. Make me authentic, but not here: Reflexive struggles with academic identity and authentic leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkins, Leah; Nicholds, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a reflexive auto-ethnography of the experience of teaching authentic leadership to MBA students. It traces parallels between the challenges of authentic leadership and the challenges of academic identity work, grounded specifically in the experience of having to teach something one does not fully endorse. Both authentic leadership and academic identity work emerge as struggle – riddled with false starts, best intentions and self-deception, and entwined in the politics of...

  19. The Lure of Wireless Encryption

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Following our article entitled “Jekyll or Hyde? Better browse securely” in the last issue of the Bulletin, some people wondered why the CERN wireless network is not encrypted…   There are many arguments why it is not. The simplest is usability: the communication and management of the corresponding access keys would be challenging given the sheer number of wireless devices the CERN network hosts. Keys would quickly become public, e.g. at conferences, and might be shared, written on whiteboards, etc. Then there are all the devices which cannot be easily configured to use encryption protocols - a fact which would create plenty of calls to the CERN Service Desk… But our main argument is that wireless encryption is DECEPTIVE. Wireless encryption is deceptive as it only protects the wireless network against unauthorised access (and the CERN network already has other means to protect against that). Wireless encryption however, does not really help you. You ...

  20. A User Authentication Based on Personal History- A User Authentication System Using E-mail History -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Nishigaki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user authentication using personal history of each user. Here, authentication is done by giving answers to questions about the history of user's daily life. Users do not have to memorize any password, since the passwords are what users already know by experience. In addition, everyday-life experience increases day by day, and thus the question could change on every authentication trial. In this paper, a user authentication system using user's e-mail history is shown as a prototype of our proposal, and some basic experiments to evaluate the availability of the system are carried out.

  1. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing

  2. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  3. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  5. Athos: Efficient Authentication of Outsourced File Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Goodrich, Michael T.; Papamanthou, Charalampos

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of authenticated storage, where we wish to construct protocols that allow to outsource any complex file system to an untrusted server and yet ensure the file-system's integrity. We introduce Athos, a new, platform-independent and user-transparent architecture for authenticated...... outsourced storage. Using light-weight cryptographic primitives and efficient data-structuring techniques, we design authentication schemes that allow a client to efficiently verify that the file system is fully consistent with the exact history of updates and queries requested by the client. In Athos, file-system...... operations are verified in time that is logarithmic in the size of the file system using optimal storage complexity-constant storage overhead at the client and asymptotically no extra overhead at the server. We provide a prototype implementation of Athos validating its performance and its authentication...

  6. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  7. IPCT: A scheme for mobile authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Shankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile is becoming a part of everyone's life and as their power of computation and storage is rising and cost is coming down. Most of mobile phone users have a lot of private data which they want to protect from others (La Polla et al., 2013. It means user must be authenticated properly for accessing the mobile resources. Normally user is authenticated using text passwords, PIN, face recognition or patterns etc. All these methods are used but they have some shortcomings. In this paper we have seen various existing methods of mobile authentications and proposed our improved mobile authentication IPCT scheme. We have compared our Image Pass Code with tapping scheme with existing techniques and shown that our scheme is better than existing techniques.

  8. Multi-factor authentication using quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen; Thrasher, James T.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Yard, Jon T.; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Somma, Rolando D.

    2018-02-06

    Multi-factor authentication using quantum communication ("QC") includes stages for enrollment and identification. For example, a user enrolls for multi-factor authentication that uses QC with a trusted authority. The trusted authority transmits device factor information associated with a user device (such as a hash function) and user factor information associated with the user (such as an encrypted version of a user password). The user device receives and stores the device factor information and user factor information. For multi-factor authentication that uses QC, the user device retrieves its stored device factor information and user factor information, then transmits the user factor information to the trusted authority, which also retrieves its stored device factor information. The user device and trusted authority use the device factor information and user factor information (more specifically, information such as a user password that is the basis of the user factor information) in multi-factor authentication that uses QC.

  9. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  10. Possibility of spoof attack against robustness of multibiometric authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mahdi; Shokouhi, Shahriar Baradaran

    2011-07-01

    Multibiometric systems have been recently developed in order to overcome some weaknesses of single biometric authentication systems, but security of these systems against spoofing has not received enough attention. In this paper, we propose a novel practical method for simulation of possibilities of spoof attacks against a biometric authentication system. Using this method, we model matching scores from standard to completely spoofed genuine samples. Sum, product, and Bayes fusion rules are applied for score level combination. The security of multimodal authentication systems are examined and compared with the single systems against various spoof possibilities. However, vulnerability of fused systems is considerably increased against spoofing, but their robustness is generally higher than single matcher systems. In this paper we show that robustness of a combined system is not always higher than a single system against spoof attack. We propose empirical methods for upgrading the security of multibiometric systems, which contain how to organize and select biometric traits and matchers against various possibilities of spoof attack. These methods provide considerable robustness and present an appropriate reason for using combined systems against spoof attacks.

  11. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-24

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14 th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19 th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  12. An Assessment of Emerging Wireless Broadband Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountanas, Leonidas

    2001-01-01

    ... technologies in providing broadband services today, emerging wireless broadband technologies are expected to significantly increase their market share over the next years, Deploying a wireless network...

  13. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID, Media Access Control (MAC address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  14. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  15. Authentic Material and Automaticity for Teaching English

    OpenAIRE

    Widyastuti, Widyastuti

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how to make students of Science Education in first year feel interesting in English lesson, understanding the text well and can communicate English fluency. It has been suggested that Authentic Material and Automaticity Theory not only creates a friendly and fun condition in teaching reading but helps students to study comprehensibly so they are able to understand the text, structure, vocabulary easily, read fluently and they also can communicate in English. The authent...

  16. Authentic Leadership: Practices to Promote Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Vickie

    Integrity is a highly desired leadership trait. Authentic leaders reflect on their behavior and seek feedback about how their actions affect others. How can a nurse develop as an authentic leader who consistently demonstrates integrity? The following are discussed: Reflection; Connection to Christ and others; Social and Emotional Intelligence providing perceptive competency and social awareness; Aesthetic Qualities whereby leaders apply experiential knowing in leadership situations; and effective expression of Gratitude as a meaningful act of valuing others.

  17. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recognizing the needs and challenges facing NASA Earth Science for data input, manipulation and distribution, Mobitrum is proposing a ? Wireless Sensor Portal...

  18. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  19. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because....... This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  20. Some Challenges in Wireless Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banerjee, Suman

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies provide users with significant flexibility and portability and hence is being widely adopted as a preferred mode of communication in many military and civilian applications...

  1. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless......Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because...

  2. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  3. Authenticated join processing in outsourced databases

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yin

    2009-01-01

    Database outsourcing requires that a query server constructs a proof of result correctness, which can be verified by the client using the data owner\\'s signature. Previous authentication techniques deal with range queries on a single relation using an authenticated data structure (ADS). On the other hand, authenticated join processing is inherently more complex than ranges since only the base relations (but not their combination) are signed by the owner. In this paper, we present three novel join algorithms depending on the ADS availability: (i) Authenticated Indexed Sort Merge Join (AISM), which utilizes a single ADS on the join attribute, (ii) Authenticated Index Merge Join (AIM) that requires an ADS (on the join attribute) for both relations, and (iii) Authenticated Sort Merge Join (ASM), which does not rely on any ADS. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform two benchmark algorithms, often by several orders of magnitude, on all performance metrics, and effectively shift the workload to the outsourcing service. Finally, we extend our techniques to complex queries that combine multi-way joins with selections and projections. ©2009 ACM.

  4. Authenticity: is it real or is it marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, David

    2008-03-01

    Marty Echt, the new head of marketing at Hunsk Engines, is determined to bring the motorcycle maker back to its roots. He says it's not enough to project authenticity to customers--employees must personally subscribe to the brand's values. Should the company's CEO support Marty's "real deal" vision? Five experts comment on this fictional case study. Bruce Weindruch, the founder and CEO of the History Factory, says that an authenticity-based campaign can be effective--but only if it's truly drawn from history. Marketers like Marty often remember their organization's past in a golden haze. Weindruch recommends exploring old engineering drawings, ads, and product photos in order to understand what customers and employees really valued back in the day. Gillian Arnold, a consultant to luxury fashion and fine jewelry brands, thinks Marty's approach is right: People in key marketing posts must be passionate about their products and know them inside and out. She argues that the CEO needs to commit more fully to the new campaign and address the significant gap between the staff and the brand. James H. Gilmore and B. Joseph Pine II, the cofounders of Strategic Horizons, point out that Hunsk needs to manage customers' perceptions rather than trying to be a "real company" or forming a management team whose personal interests match the brand. People purchase a product if it conforms to their self-image; that alone determines the brand's authenticity. Glenn Brackett of Sweetgrass Rods, a maker of bamboo fly-fishing rods, says Marty seems to be one of the few people who understand Hunsk motorcycles. If employees bring blood, sweat, heart, and soul to a product, it will manifest that spirit, and customers will line up for it.

  5. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  6. Fading and shadowing in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive overview of fading and shadowing in wireless channels. A number of statistical models including simple, hybrid, compound and cascaded ones are presented along with a detailed discussion of diversity techniques employed to mitigate the effects of fading and shadowing. The effects of co-channel interference before and after the implementation of diversity are also analyzed. To facilitate easy understanding of the models and the analysis, the background on probability and random variables is presented with relevant derivations of densities of the sums, products, ratios as well as order statistics of random variables. The book also provides material on digital modems of interest in wireless systems. The updated edition expands the background materials on probability by offering sections on Laplace and Mellin transforms, parameter estimation, statistical testing and receiver operating characteristics. Newer models for fading, shadowing and shadowed fading are included along with th...

  7. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  8. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sookhak

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP. The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS, Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS, Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP, and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR in the geographic routing protocols.

  9. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols.

  10. Geographic Wormhole Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols. PMID:25602616

  11. Next Generation RFID-Based Medical Service Management System Architecture in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Randy S.; Lee, Kijeong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Park, Gil-Cheol

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two important wireless technologies that have wide variety of applications and provide unlimited future potentials most especially in healthcare systems. RFID is used to detect presence and location of objects while WSN is used to sense and monitor the environment. Integrating RFID with WSN not only provides identity and location of an object but also provides information regarding the condition of the object carrying the sensors enabled RFID tag. However, there isn't any flexible and robust communication infrastructure to integrate these devices into an emergency care setting. An efficient wireless communication substrate for medical devices that addresses ad hoc or fixed network formation, naming and discovery, transmission efficiency of data, data security and authentication, as well as filtration and aggregation of vital sign data need to be study and analyze. This paper proposed an efficient next generation architecture for RFID-based medical service management system in WSN that possesses the essential elements of each future medical application that are integrated with existing medical practices and technologies in real-time, remote monitoring, in giving medication, and patient status tracking assisted by embedded wearable wireless sensors which are integrated in wireless sensor network.

  12. Wireless networks of opportunity in support of secure field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Lewis, Mark

    1997-02-01

    Under funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for joint military and law enforcement technologies, demonstrations of secure information transfer in support of law enforcement and military operations other than war, using wireless and wired technology, were held in September 1996 at several locations in the United States. In this paper, the network architecture, protocols, and equipment supporting the demonstration's scenarios are presented, together with initial results, including lessons learned and desired system enhancements. Wireless networks of opportunity encompassed in-building (wireless-LAN), campus-wide (Metricom Inc.), metropolitan (AMPS cellular, CDPD), and national (one- and two-way satellite) systems. Evolving DARPA-sponsored packet radio technology was incorporated. All data was encrypted, using multilevel information system security initiative (MISSI)FORTEZZA technology, for carriage over unsecured and unclassified commercial networks. The identification and authentication process inherent in the security system permitted logging for database accesses and provided an audit trail useful in evidence gathering. Wireless and wireline communications support, to and between modeled crisis management centers, was demonstrated. Mechanisms for the guarded transport of data through the secret-high military tactical Internet were included, to support joint law enforcement and crisis management missions. A secure World Wide Web (WWW) browser forms the primary, user-friendly interface for information retrieval and submission. The WWW pages were structured to be sensitive to the bandwidth, error rate, and cost of the communications medium in use (e.g., the use of and resolution for graphical data). Both still and motion compressed video were demonstrated, along with secure voice transmission from laptop computers in the field. Issues of network bandwidth, airtime costs, and deployment status are discussed.

  13. TCPL: A Defense against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul; Basappa, K. Kari

    2010-01-01

    Do In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack in ad hoc networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits) at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many sensor network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. For example, most existing ad hoc network routing protocols, without some mechanism to defend against the wormhole attack, would be unable to find routes longer than one or two hops, severely disrupting communication. We present a new, general mechanism, called packet leashes, for detecting and thus defending against wormhole attacks, and we present a specific protocol, called TIK, that implements leashes.

  14. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  15. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  16. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  17. Perceptions of Leadership Coaches Regarding Leader Authenticity and Authenticity Development Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify what leadership coaches perceive to be the benefits of authenticity to their clients' success. Another purpose was to identify what barriers leadership coaches perceive as preventing their clients from developing authenticity. A final purpose of this study was to identify which strategies…

  18. Authenticity is in the Eye of the Beholder: Student and Teacher Perceptions of Assessment Authenticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, J.T.M.; Bastiaens, Th.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Kester, L.

    2008-01-01

    In vocational education and training (VET) in the Netherlands, learning and working are integrated from the start. Authentic assessments are used during competence-based VET curricula to achieve correspondence between learning and working. The premise behind this study is that authenticity is

  19. Robust image authentication in the presence of noise

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the problems that hinder image authentication in the presence of noise. It considers the advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithms for image authentication and shows new approaches and solutions for robust image authentication. The state of the art algorithms are compared and, furthermore, innovative approaches and algorithms are introduced. The introduced algorithms are applied to improve image authentication, watermarking and biometry.    Aside from presenting new directions and algorithms for robust image authentication in the presence of noise, as well as image correction, this book also:   Provides an overview of the state of the art algorithms for image authentication in the presence of noise and modifications, as well as a comparison of these algorithms, Presents novel algorithms for robust image authentication, whereby the image is tried to be corrected and authenticated, Examines different views for the solution of problems connected to image authentication in the pre...

  20. Privacy-Preserving Biometric Authentication: Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pagnin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging direction for authenticating people is the adoption of biometric authentication systems. Biometric credentials are becoming increasingly popular as a means of authenticating people due to the wide range of advantages that they provide with respect to classical authentication methods (e.g., password-based authentication. The most characteristic feature of this authentication method is the naturally strong bond between a user and her biometric credentials. This very same advantageous property, however, raises serious security and privacy concerns in case the biometric trait gets compromised. In this article, we present the most challenging issues that need to be taken into consideration when designing secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols. More precisely, we describe the main threats against privacy-preserving biometric authentication systems and give directions on possible countermeasures in order to design secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols.

  1. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  2. Wireless Networks: a brief introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Networks: a brief introduction. Wireless communication: What? Why? How many types? What is cell? Is it different from fixed landline structure? 1G systems: FDMA/FDD and Analog FM [voice comm]. (Introduced in 1983 in Chicago by AMPS). 2G systems: 3 ...

  3. An Analysis Of Wireless Security

    OpenAIRE

    Salendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The WLAN security includes Wired Equivalent Primary WEP and WI-FI protected Access WPA. Today WEP is regarded as very poor security standard. WEP was regarded as very old security standard and has many security issues which users need to be addressed. In this Paper we will discuss Wireless Security and ways to improve on wireless security.

  4. Privacy-Preserving Billing Scheme against Free-Riders for Wireless Charging Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scientists in South Korea developed on-line electric vehicle (OLEV, which is a kind of electric vehicle that can be charged wirelessly while it is moving on the road. The battery in the vehicle can absorb electric energy from the power transmitters buried under the road without any contact with them. Several billing schemes have been presented to offer privacy-preserving billing for OLEV owners. However, they did not consider the existence of free-riders. When some vehicles are being charged after showing the tokens, vehicles that are running ahead or behind can switch on their systems and drive closely for a free charging. We describe a billing scheme against free-riders by using several cryptographic tools. Each vehicle should authenticate with a compensation-prepaid token before it can drive on the wireless-charging-enabled road. The service provider can obtain compensation if it can prove that certain vehicle is a free-rider. Our scheme is privacy-preserving so the charging will not disclose the locations and routine routes of each vehicle. In fact, our scheme is a fast authentication scheme that anonymously authenticates each user on accessing a sequence of services. Thus, it can be applied to sequential data delivering services in future 5G systems.

  5. A Secure Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network in Mobile Emergency Medical Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in medical treatment and emergency applications, the need of integrating wireless body area network (WBAN) with cloud computing can be motivated by providing useful and real time information about patients' health state to the doctors and emergency staffs. WBAN is a set of body sensors carried by the patient to collect and transmit numerous health items to medical clouds via wireless and public communication channels. Therefore, a cloud-assisted WBAN facilitates response in case of emergency which can save patients' lives. Since the patient's data is sensitive and private, it is important to provide strong security and protection on the patient's medical data over public and insecure communication channels. In this paper, we address the challenge of participant authentication in mobile emergency medical care systems for patients supervision and propose a secure cloud-assisted architecture for accessing and monitoring health items collected by WBAN. For ensuring a high level of security and providing a mutual authentication property, chaotic maps based authentication and key agreement mechanisms are designed according to the concept of Diffie-Hellman key exchange, which depends on the CMBDLP and CMBDHP problems. Security and performance analyses show how the proposed system guaranteed the patient privacy and the system confidentiality of sensitive medical data while preserving the low computation property in medical treatment and remote medical monitoring.

  6. Verification of strontium isotopes and its possible source in Indian basmati rice for geographical authentication study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Rai, Vinai K.; Singh, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Due to globalization of food and agriculture product's market, there is increasing awareness of safety and authenticity of the food products. Consumers continuously demand the reassurance of origin and content of their foods. Hence safety and authenticity of food has been a growing analytical challenge. Basmati rice, the unique aromatic quality rice and a nature's gift to Indian sub-continent is produced and consumed on a large scale. Due to its profitable market as well as great demand overseas true Basmati rice market is facing unfair competition by unscrupulous producers for profit. Very few researches for geographical authentication are available for Indian basmati rice. Sr isotope composition of rice could be used as a geographical source indicator; however, little information is available on the possible source (lithogenic, biogenic, silicate, carbonate) of Sr in Rice or any other food stuff for tracing the geographical origin using Strontium isotopes as tracer. Hence in order to determine suitability of strontium isotopes as tracer and its possible source in rice for geographical authentication study, strontium isotope signature study of authentic Indian Basmati rice along with in situ soil and water of that region have been carried out

  7. ENHANCING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY THROUGH AUTHENTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraeningsih Nuraeningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching vocabulary using textbooks is sometimes boring and less meaningful due to the lack of context that possibly discourages students to learn. At university level, students are supposed to acquire intermediate to upper level of vocabulary mastery. The situation then becomes a challenge for us to cope. Authentic materials, on the other hand provide real language use which can be positively stimulate students’ interest to have sufficient exposure to English. This research is aimed at improving students’ vocabulary mastery through written authentic materials. The design of the research is classroom action research. It was conducted in a Vocabulary Building class B consisting of 43 students. The selected authentic materials are texts taken from newspaper, magazine, the internet, recipe, & forms. The result of the study shows that through authentic materials the students’ vocabulary mastery in cycle I & II improves and the achievement category is sufficient. Otherwise, students’ response towards the use of authentic texts seems increase significantly from cycle I to cycle II.

  8. Disambiguating authenticity: Interpretations of value and appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieran; Carroll, Glenn R; Kovács, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity-type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic-we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed to it through: (1) consumer value ratings, (2) willingness to pay, and (3) behavioral choice. We report empirical analyses from a research program of three multi-method studies using (1) archival data from voluntary consumer evaluations of restaurants in an online review system, (2) a university-based behavioral lab experiment, and (3) an online survey-based experiment. Evidence is consistent across the studies and suggests that perceptions of four distinct subtypes of socially constructed authenticity generate increased appeal and value even after controlling for option quality. Findings suggest additional directions for research on authenticity.

  9. Disambiguating authenticity: Interpretations of value and appeal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O'Connor

    Full Text Available While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity-type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic-we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed to it through: (1 consumer value ratings, (2 willingness to pay, and (3 behavioral choice. We report empirical analyses from a research program of three multi-method studies using (1 archival data from voluntary consumer evaluations of restaurants in an online review system, (2 a university-based behavioral lab experiment, and (3 an online survey-based experiment. Evidence is consistent across the studies and suggests that perceptions of four distinct subtypes of socially constructed authenticity generate increased appeal and value even after controlling for option quality. Findings suggest additional directions for research on authenticity.

  10. Aging and the Ethics of Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne

    2017-05-02

    This article aims to make a philosophical contribution to debates about meaningful sociocultural narratives about aging. It is argued that the moral-philosophical discourse of authenticity may provide valuable resources for counter narratives about later life that are capable of challenging the dominant stereotyping decline- and age-defying cultural narratives. The discussion will draw on classical and contemporary views of authenticity by Rousseau; existentialists such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger; and contemporary thinkers such as Taylor and Meyers. Authenticity discourse is argued to be capable of, on the one hand, acknowledging the positive potentials of growth and development that later life may harbor, while, on the other hand, providing support for recognizing and integrating the inevitable existential vulnerability and finitude that old age also confronts us with. Although authenticity is not a commonly used term in gerontology, some examples show how a language associated with this philosophical discourse has found its way into gerontological thought as well, supporting its relevance for the context of aging. The article concludes with a discussion of four aspects through which the authenticity discourse may contribute to viable cultural narratives about later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. AUTHENTIC TEXTS FOR CRITICAL READING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Amalia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research takes an action research aimed at promoting critical reading (“thinking” while reading skills using authentic materials among the students. This research also aims to reveal the students perception on using critical reading skills in reading activities. Nineteen English Education Department students who took Reading IV class, participated in this project. There were three cycles with three different critical reading strategies were applied. Meanwhile, the authentic materials were taken from newspaper and internet articles. The result revealed that the use of critical reading strategies along with the use of authentic materials has improved students’ critical reading skills as seen from the improvement of each cycle - the students critical reading skill was 54% (fair in the cycle 1 improved to 68% (average in cycle 2, and 82% (good in cycle 3.. In addition, based on the critical reading skill criteria, the students’ critical reading skill has improved from 40% (nearly meet to 80% (exceed. Meanwhile, from the students’ perception questionnaire, it was shown that 63% students agreed the critical reading activity using authentic text could improve critical thinking and 58% students agreed that doing critical reading activity could improve reading comprehension. The result had the implication that the use of authentic texts could improve students’ critical reading skills if it was taught by performing not lecturing them. Selectively choosing various strategies and materials can trigger students’ activeness in responding to a text, that eventually shape their critical reading skills.

  12. Simulations in nursing practice: toward authentic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Aim  This study explores nurses' ethical decision-making in team simulations in order to identify the benefits of these simulations for authentic leadership. Background  While previous studies have indicated that team simulations may improve ethics in the workplace by reducing the number of errors, those studies focused mainly on clinical aspects and not on nurses' ethical experiences or on the benefits of authentic leadership. Methods  Fifty nurses from 10 health institutions in central Israel participated in the study. Data about nurses' ethical experiences were collected from 10 teams. Qualitative data analysis based on Grounded Theory was applied, using the atlas.ti 5.0 software package. Findings  Simulation findings suggest four main benefits that reflect the underlying components of authentic leadership: self-awareness, relational transparency, balanced information processing and internalized moral perspective. Conclusions  Team-based simulation as a training tool may lead to authentic leadership among nurses. Implications for nursing management  Nursing management should incorporate team simulations into nursing practice to help resolve power conflicts and to develop authentic leadership in nursing. Consequently, errors will decrease, patients' safety will increase and optimal treatment will be provided. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Password Authentication Based on Fractal Coding Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Password authentication is a mechanism used to authenticate user identity over insecure communication channel. In this paper, a new method to improve the security of password authentication is proposed. It is based on the compression capability of the fractal image coding to provide an authorized user a secure access to registration and login process. In the proposed scheme, a hashed password string is generated and encrypted to be captured together with the user identity using text to image mechanisms. The advantage of fractal image coding is to be used to securely send the compressed image data through a nonsecured communication channel to the server. The verification of client information with the database system is achieved in the server to authenticate the legal user. The encrypted hashed password in the decoded fractal image is recognized using optical character recognition. The authentication process is performed after a successful verification of the client identity by comparing the decrypted hashed password with those which was stored in the database system. The system is analyzed and discussed from the attacker’s viewpoint. A security comparison is performed to show that the proposed scheme provides an essential security requirement, while their efficiency makes it easier to be applied alone or in hybrid with other security methods. Computer simulation and statistical analysis are presented.

  14. Wireless Headset Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  15. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  16. Dynamic wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oteafy, Sharief M A

    2014-01-01

    In this title, the authors leap into a novel paradigm of scalability and cost-effectiveness, on the basis of resource reuse. In a world with much abundance of wirelessly accessible devices, WSN deployments should capitalize on the resources already available in the region of deployment, and only augment it with the components required to meet new application requirements. However, if the required resources already exist in that region, WSN deployment converges to an assignment and scheduling scheme to accommodate for the new application given the existing resources. Such resources are polled

  17. Wired or Wireless Internet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    This paper finds that network externalities play a minimal role in the choice of internet access technology. Potential adopters of mobile laptop internet view broadband technology as a black box, the technological details of which donot matter. The study uses qualitative techniques to explore how...... the speed of technological obsolescence, market share dominance, and the black boxing of technology influence consumer intention to adopt WiMax and 3G wireless internet for their laptop computers. The results, implications for industry, and areas for further research are discussed....

  18. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  19. An Approach to Improve the Match-on-Card ngerprint Authentication System Security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nair, Kishor Krishnan

    2016-08-18

    Full Text Available difference between the conventional FAS authentication process and FAS using smart card process is all about the authentication location. FAS authentication using smart card token is possible through four authentication approaches. They are the Template...

  20. Wireless network security theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zihong

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Network Security Theories and Applications discusses the relevant security technologies, vulnerabilities, and potential threats, and introduces the corresponding security standards and protocols, as well as provides solutions to security concerns. Authors of each chapter in this book, mostly top researchers in relevant research fields in the U.S. and China, presented their research findings and results about the security of the following types of wireless networks: Wireless Cellular Networks, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs), Bluetooth

  1. Approximate Public Key Authentication with Information Hiding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS,EDWARD V.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes a solution for the problem of authenticating the shapes of statistically variant gamma spectra while simultaneously concealing the shapes and magnitudes of the sensitive spectra. The shape of a spectrum is given by the relative magnitudes and positions of the individual spectral elements. Class-specific linear orthonormal transformations of the measured spectra are used to produce output that meet both the authentication and concealment requirements. For purposes of concealment, the n-dimensional gamma spectra are transformed into n-dimensional output spectra that are effectively indistinguishable from Gaussian white noise (independent of the class). In addition, the proposed transformations are such that statistical authentication metrics computed on the transformed spectra are identical to those computed on the original spectra.

  2. A digital technique for art authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Siwei; Rockmore, Daniel; Farid, Hany

    2004-12-07

    We describe a computational technique for authenticating works of art, specifically paintings and drawings, from high-resolution digital scans of the original works. This approach builds a statistical model of an artist from the scans of a set of authenticated works against which new works then are compared. The statistical model consists of first- and higher-order wavelet statistics. We show preliminary results from our analysis of 13 drawings that at various times have been attributed to Pieter Bruegel the Elder; these results confirm expert authentications. We also apply these techniques to the problem of determining the number of artists that may have contributed to a painting attributed to Pietro Perugino and again achieve an analysis agreeing with expert opinion.

  3. Household wireless electroencephalogram hat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Tran, Binh

    2012-06-01

    We applied Compressive Sensing to design an affordable, convenient Brain Machine Interface (BMI) measuring the high spatial density, and real-time process of Electroencephalogram (EEG) brainwaves by a Smartphone. It is useful for therapeutic and mental health monitoring, learning disability biofeedback, handicap interfaces, and war gaming. Its spec is adequate for a biomedical laboratory, without the cables hanging over the head and tethered to a fixed computer terminal. Our improved the intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the non-uniform placement of the measuring electrodes to create the proximity of measurement to the source effect. We computing a spatiotemporal average the larger magnitude of EEG data centers in 0.3 second taking on tethered laboratory data, using fuzzy logic, and computing the inside brainwave sources, by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Consequently, we can overlay them together by non-uniform electrode distribution enhancing the signal noise ratio and therefore the degree of sparseness by threshold. We overcame the conflicting requirements between a high spatial electrode density and precise temporal resolution (beyond Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 brainwave at 0.3 sec), and Smartphone wireless bottleneck of spatiotemporal throughput rate. Our main contribution in this paper is the quality and the speed of iterative compressed image recovery algorithm based on a Block Sparse Code (Baranuick et al, IEEE/IT 2008). As a result, we achieved real-time wireless dynamic measurement of EEG brainwaves, matching well with traditionally tethered high density EEG.

  4. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-03-01

    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  5. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Jenkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate, even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate. Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate. Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate. In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate. Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems.

  6. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...... for the protocol. All along this process, we discover vulnerabilities and unstated assumptions of the protocol. As the method is intuition based, the quality of results depends on the expertise of the security analyst, however, the structured intuition has two major advantages: Firstly we get a precise...

  7. Group-ID based RFID Mutual Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For passive type RFID tags, EPCglobal Class 1 Generation-2 Revision is used widely as a de facto standard. As it was designed for low cost, it is quite vulnerable to security issues, such as privacy concerns. This paper presents a new RFID mutual authentication protocol, which is designed to be configured on EPC Gen2 platform and to meet various security requirements while providing efficiency using PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator. Group-ID is used to minimize the authentication time. Security analysis of the proposed protocol is discussed.

  8. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-05-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  9. Structural processing for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jianhua; Ge, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents an alternative viewpoint on processing technology for wireless communications based on recent research advances. As a lever in emerging processing technology, the structure perspective addresses the complexity and uncertainty issues found in current wireless applications. Likewise, this brief aims at providing a new prospective to the development of communication technology and information science, while stimulating new theories and technologies for wireless systems with ever-increasing complexity. Readers of this brief may range from graduate students to researchers in related fields.

  10. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  11. Wireless home networking for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, Danny; Ferris, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The perennial bestseller shows you how share your files and Internet connection across a wireless network. Fully updated for Windows 7 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, this new edition of this bestseller returns with all the latest in wireless standards and security. This fun and friendly guide shows you how to integrate your iPhone, iPod touch, smartphone, or gaming system into your home network. Veteran authors escort you through the various financial and logisitical considerations that you need to take into account before building a wireless network at home.: Covers the basics of planning, instal

  12. Microwave materials for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cruickshank, David B

    2011-01-01

    This practical resource offers you an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the use of microwave magnetic materials for cutting-edge wireless applications. The book discusses device applications used in wireless infrastructure base stations, point-to-point radio links, and a range of more specialized microwave systems. You find detailed discussions on the attributes of each family of magnetic materials with respect to specific wireless applications. Moreover, the book addresses two of the hottest topics in the field today - insertion loss and intermodulation. This comprehensive reference also

  13. Progress in analytical methods for the detection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea (Camellia sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Hu Guixian; Shao Shengzhi; Zhang Yongzhi; Zhang Yu; Zhu Jiahong; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the important agricultural products with obvious regional characteristics. Analytical methods are very important for the protection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea. The developments of analytical methods including stable isotope determination, multi-elements determination, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, chemical fingerprint and others were reviewed. Major problems on tea origin and authenticity detection were discussed in this study, and some suggestions were also proposed which would be useful for the protection of geographical origin of tea in China. (authors)

  14. Kerberos authentication: The security answer for unsecured networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engert, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    Traditional authentication schemes do not properly address the problems encountered with today`s unsecured networks. Kerbmm developed by MIT, on the other hand is designed to operate in an open unsecured network, yet provide good authentication and security including encrypted session traffic. Basic Kerberos principles as well as experiences of the ESnet Authentication Pilot Project with Cross Realm. Authentication between four National Laboratories will also be described.

  15. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven H [Rigby, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-05-08

    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  16. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the

  17. User-Centered Authentication: LDAP, WRAP, X.509, XML (SIG LAN: Library Automation and Networks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Presents an abstract for a planned panel session on technologies for user-centered authentication and authorization currently deployed in pilot or production implementations in academic computing. Presentations included: "Implementing LSAP for Single-Password Access to Campus Resources" (Layne Nordgren); "Implementing a Scalable…

  18. Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and validating its unique meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-05-01

    Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensory quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. DNA-based techniques for authentication of processed food and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat-Tung; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2018-02-01

    Authentication of food or food supplements with medicinal values is important to avoid adverse toxic effects, provide consumer rights, as well as for certification purpose. Compared to morphological and spectrometric techniques, molecular authentication is found to be accurate, sensitive and reliable. However, DNA degradation and inclusion of inhibitors may lead to failure in PCR amplification. This paper reviews on the existing DNA extraction and PCR protocols, and the use of small size DNA markers with sufficient discriminative power for molecular authentication. Various emerging new molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification for on-site diagnosis, next-generation sequencing for high-throughput species identification, high resolution melting analysis for quick species differentiation, DNA array techniques for rapid detection and quantitative determination in food products are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low Complexity Signed Response Based Sybil Attack Detection Mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saud Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is always a major concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Identity based attacks such as spoofing and sybil not only compromise the network but also slow down its performance. This paper proposes a low complexity sybil attack detection scheme, that is, based on signed response (SRES authentication mechanism developed for Global System for Mobile (GSM communications. A probabilistic model is presented which analyzes the proposed authentication mechanism for its probability of sybil attack. The paper also presents a simulation based comparative analysis of the existing sybil attack schemes with respect to the proposed scheme. It is observed that the proposed sybil detection scheme exhibits lesser computational cost and power consumption as compared to the existing schemes for the same sybil detection performance.