WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless product authentication

  1. Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ENACEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.

  2. Study of Wireless Authentication Center with Mixed Encryption in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available WSN (wireless sensor network has been used in a wide range of applications nowadays. Sensor networks may often relay critical data; thus, security must be a high priority. However, due to their limited computational, energy, and storage resources, sensor nodes are vulnerable to attack. So how to protect sensor nodes from attacks without raising computational capability and energy consumption is a worthwhile issue. A WAC (wireless authentication center with mixed encryption named “MEWAC” is proposed. MEWAC is based on MCU (Microcontroller Unit and WiFi (Wireless Fidelity module and uses RSA, AES (Advanced Encryption Standard, and SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1 to provide high performance authentication and data encryption services for sensor nodes. The experimental results show that MEWAC has the advantages of low cost, low power consumption, good performance, and stability; moreover, the authentication protocol improves the security of WSN and reduces the overhead in node authentication.

  3. A Multifactor Secure Authentication System for Wireless Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sugata; Tiwari, Ayu; Sanyal, Sudip

    Organizations are deploying wireless based online payment applications to expand their business globally, it increases the growing need of regulatory requirements for the protection of confidential data, and especially in internet based financial areas. Existing internet based authentication systems often use either the Web or the Mobile channel individually to confirm the claimed identity of the remote user. The vulnerability is that access is based on only single factor authentication which is not secure to protect user data, there is a need of multifactor authentication. This paper proposes a new protocol based on multifactor authentication system that is both secure and highly usable. It uses a novel approach based on Transaction Identification Code and SMS to enforce another security level with the traditional Login/password system. The system provides a highly secure environment that is simple to use and deploy with in a limited resources that does not require any change in infrastructure or underline protocol of wireless network. This Protocol for Wireless Payment is extended as a two way authentications system to satisfy the emerging market need of mutual authentication and also supports secure B2B communication which increases faith of the user and business organizations on wireless financial transaction using mobile devices.

  4. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  5. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  6. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an effcient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable effciency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model.

  7. Research and Mass Deployment of Non-cognitive Authentication Strategy Based on Campus Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangfu Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet +, the dependence on wireless networks and wireless terminals are increasing. Campus wireless network has become the main network of teachers and students in campus on the internet. As there are uneven clients and a wide variety of intelligent terminals now. Simplified authentication and network security become the most urgent problem for wireless network. This paper used the Portal + Mac authentication method to realize the non-cognitive authentication of teachers and students on basis of the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of mainstream authentication of campus wireless network, such as 802.1X authentication, Portal authentication, Mac authentication and DHCP authentication. Teachers and students only need portal certification at the first time, then surf the internet with non-perceived authentication at the second time and later. This method increases network security, and is better to meet the needs of teachers and students.

  8. Offloading of a Wireless Node Authentication with Core Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    An example technique may include controlling receiving, by a second node from a first node in a wireless network, a request to offload authentication of the first node with the core network to the second node, controlling receiving, by the second node from the first node, data to be forwarded...... to the core network, performing, by the second node based on the request, an authentication with the core network on behalf of the first node while the first node is not connected with the second node, and controlling forwarding the received data from the second node to the core network while the first node...

  9. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORGERSON, MARK D.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  10. Data-Dependent Fingerprints for Wireless Device Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    conventional wireless local area network ( WLAN ). To verify that the node can be trusted, the DMN transmits a challenge, which is essentially a request for...varactor diode chosen for the application is the Skyworks SMV1236, which is a silicon hyperabrupt junction device with a high quality factor. The...and computes the MSD between each estimate and the correct response vector x using (7), with the result allowing application of the authentication

  11. RUASN: A Robust User Authentication Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been considered as a potential solution for real-time monitoring applications and these WSNs have potential practical impact on next generation technology too. However, WSNs could become a threat if suitable security is not considered before the deployment and if there are any loopholes in their security, which might open the door for an attacker and hence, endanger the application. User authentication is one of the most important security services to protect WSN data access from unauthorized users; it should provide both mutual authentication and session key establishment services. This paper proposes a robust user authentication framework for wireless sensor networks, based on a two-factor (password and smart card concept. This scheme facilitates many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, secure session key establishment and it allows users to choose/update their password regularly, whenever needed. Furthermore, we have provided the formal verification using Rubin logic and compare RUASN with many existing schemes. As a result, we found that the proposed scheme possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low computation cost.

  12. Wireless technology infrastructures for authentication of patients: PKI that rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Ulrich; Kohane, Isaac; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2005-01-01

    As the public interest in consumer-driven electronic health care applications rises, so do concerns about the privacy and security of these applications. Achieving a balance between providing the necessary security while promoting user acceptance is a major obstacle in large-scale deployment of applications such as personal health records (PHRs). Robust and reliable forms of authentication are needed for PHRs, as the record will often contain sensitive and protected health information, including the patient's own annotations. Since the health care industry per se is unlikely to succeed at single-handedly developing and deploying a large scale, national authentication infrastructure, it makes sense to leverage existing hardware, software, and networks. This report proposes a new model for authentication of users to health care information applications, leveraging wireless mobile devices. Cell phones are widely distributed, have high user acceptance, and offer advanced security protocols. The authors propose harnessing this technology for the strong authentication of individuals by creating a registration authority and an authentication service, and examine the problems and promise of such a system.

  13. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  14. EAP-Kerberos: A Low Latency EAP Authentication Method for Faster Handoffs in Wireless Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelli, Saber; Okabe, Nobuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    The wireless medium is a key technology for enabling ubiquitous and continuous network connectivity. It is becoming more and more important in our daily life especially with the increasing adoption of networking technologies in many fields such as medical care and transportation systems. Although most wireless technologies nowadays provide satisfying bandwidth and higher speeds, several of these technologies still lack improvements with regard to handoff performance. In this paper, we focus on wireless network technologies that rely on the Extensible Authentication Protocol for mutual authentication between the station and the access network. Such technologies include local area wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) as well as broadband wireless networks (IEEE 802.16). We present a new EAP authentication method based on a three party authentication scheme, namely Kerberos, that considerably shortens handoff delays. Compared to other methods, the proposed method has the advantage of not requiring any changes on the access points, making it readily deployable at reasonable costs.

  15. Secure and Authenticated Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alfandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Securing communications in wireless sensor networks is increasingly important as the diversity of applications increases. However, even today, it is equally important for the measures employed to be energy efficient. For this reason, this publication analyzes the suitability of various cryptographic primitives for use in WSNs according to various criteria and, finally, describes a modular, PKI-based framework for confidential, authenticated, secure communications in which most suitable primitives can be employed. Due to the limited capabilities of common WSN motes, criteria for the selection of primitives are security, power efficiency and memory requirements. The implementation of the framework and the singular components have been tested and benchmarked in our testbed of IRISmotes.

  16. A Mutual Authentication Framework for Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Jangirala; Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2017-05-01

    Wireless medical sensor networks (WMSN) comprise of distributed sensors, which can sense human physiological signs and monitor the health condition of the patient. It is observed that providing privacy to the patient's data is an important issue and can be challenging. The information passing is done via the public channel in WMSN. Thus, the patient, sensitive information can be obtained by eavesdropping or by unauthorized use of handheld devices which the health professionals use in monitoring the patient. Therefore, there is an essential need of restricting the unauthorized access to the patient's medical information. Hence, the efficient authentication scheme for the healthcare applications is needed to preserve the privacy of the patients' vital signs. To ensure secure and authorized communication in WMSN, we design a symmetric key based authentication protocol for WMSN environment. The proposed protocol uses only computationally efficient operations to achieve lightweight attribute. We analyze the security of the proposed protocol. We use a formal security proof algorithm to show the scheme security against known attacks. We also use the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) simulator to show protocol secure against man-in-the-middle attack and replay attack. Additionally, we adopt an informal analysis to discuss the key attributes of the proposed scheme. From the formal proof of security, we can see that an attacker has a negligible probability of breaking the protocol security. AVISPA simulator also demonstrates the proposed scheme security against active attacks, namely, man-in-the-middle attack and replay attack. Additionally, through the comparison of computational efficiency and security attributes with several recent results, proposed scheme seems to be battered.

  17. An authentication scheme to healthcare security under wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Chih; Liao, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jen-Yan; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Horng, Gwo-Boa

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, Taiwan has been seeing an extension of the average life expectancy and a drop in overall fertility rate, initiating our country into an aged society. Due to this phenomenon, how to provide the elderly and patients with chronic diseases a suitable healthcare environment has become a critical issue presently. Therefore, we propose a new scheme that integrates healthcare services with wireless sensor technology in which sensor nodes are employed to measure patients' vital signs. Data collected from these sensor nodes are then transmitted to mobile devices of the medical staff and system administrator, promptly enabling them to understand the patients' condition in real time, which will significantly improve patients' healthcare quality. As per the personal data protection act, patients' vital signs can only be accessed by authorized medical staff. In order to protect patients', the system administrator will verify the medical staff's identity through the mobile device using a smart card and password mechanism. Accordingly, only the verified medical staff can obtain patients' vital signs data such as their blood pressure, pulsation, and body temperature, etc.. Besides, the scheme includes a time-bounded characteristic that allows the verified staff access to data without having to have to re-authenticate and re-login into the system within a set period of time. Consequently, the time-bounded property also increases the work efficiency of the system administrator and user.

  18. Enhanced Security and Pairing-free Handover Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shu, Guangqiang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    With the widely deployment of mobile wireless networks, we aim to propose a secure and seamless handover authentication scheme that allows users to roam freely in wireless networks without worrying about security and privacy issues. Given the open characteristic of wireless networks, safety and efficiency should be considered seriously. Several previous protocols are designed based on a bilinear pairing mapping, which is time-consuming and inefficient work, as well as unsuitable for practical situations. To address these issues, we designed a new pairing-free handover authentication scheme for mobile wireless networks. This scheme is an effective improvement of the protocol by Xu et al., which is suffer from the mobile node impersonation attack. Security analysis and simulation experiment indicate that the proposed protocol has many excellent security properties when compared with other recent similar handover schemes, such as mutual authentication and resistance to known network threats, as well as requiring lower computation and communication cost.

  19. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  20. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-07-09

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption.

  1. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-01-01

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. PMID:27409616

  2. Authenticated Encryption for Low-Power Reconfigurable Wireless Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    this enabling technology, these radios have to propose cryptographic services such as con- fidentiality, integrity and authentication. Therefore, integration of security services to these low-power devices is very challenging and crucial as they have limited resources and computational capabilities....... In this paper, we present a crypto solution for reconfigurable devices. The solution is a single pass Authenticated Encryption (AE) scheme that is designed for protecting both message confidentiality and its authenticity. This makes AE very attractive for low-cost low-power hardware implementation. For test...

  3. A New Privacy-Preserving Handover Authentication Scheme for Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Jiayuan

    2017-06-20

    Handover authentication is a critical issue in wireless networks, which is being used to ensure mobile nodes wander over multiple access points securely and seamlessly. A variety of handover authentication schemes for wireless networks have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, existing handover authentication schemes are vulnerable to a few security attacks, or incur high communication and computation costs. Recently, He et al. proposed a handover authentication scheme PairHand and claimed it can resist various attacks without rigorous security proofs. In this paper, we show that PairHand does not meet forward secrecy and strong anonymity. More seriously, it is vulnerable to key compromise attack, where an adversary can recover the private key of any mobile node. Then, we propose a new efficient and provably secure handover authentication scheme for wireless networks based on elliptic curve cryptography. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed scheme can resist key compromise attack, and achieves forward secrecy and strong anonymity. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of computation and communication.

  4. A Lightweight Authentication and Key Management Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security problem is one of the most popular research fields in wireless sensor networks for both the application requirement and the resource-constrained essence. An effective and lightweight Authentication and Key Management Scheme (AKMS is proposed in this paper to solve the problem of malicious nodes occurring in the process of networking and to offer a high level of security with low cost. For the condition that the mobile sensor nodes need to be authenticated, the keys in AKMS will be dynamically generated and adopted for security protection. Even when the keys are being compromised or captured, the attackers can neither use the previous keys nor misuse the authenticated nodes to cheat. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides more efficient security with less energy consumption for wireless sensor networks especially with mobile sensors.

  5. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Pin; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2015-11-30

    Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost.

  6. A Novel Physical Layer Assisted Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical-layer authentication can address physical layer vulnerabilities and security threats in wireless sensor networks, and has been considered as an effective complementary enhancement to existing upper-layer authentication mechanisms. In this paper, to advance the existing research and improve the authentication performance, we propose a novel physical layer assisted authentication scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks. In our proposed scheme, we explore the reciprocity and spatial uncorrelation of the wireless channel to verify the identities of involved transmitting users and decide whether all data frames are from the same sender. In our proposed scheme, a new method is developed for the legitimate users to compare their received signal strength (RSS records, which avoids the information from being disclosed to the adversary. Our proposed scheme can detect the spoofing attack even in a high dynamic environment. We evaluate our scheme through experiments under indoor and outdoor environments. Experiment results show that our proposed scheme is more efficient and achieves a higher detection rate as well as keeping a lower false alarm rate.

  7. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-05-19

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  8. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-12-14

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.'s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment.

  9. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  10. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.’s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment. PMID:27983616

  11. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  12. A Novel Physical Layer Assisted Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuhua

    2017-02-04

    Physical-layer authentication can address physical layer vulnerabilities and security threats in wireless sensor networks, and has been considered as an effective complementary enhancement to existing upper-layer authentication mechanisms. In this paper, to advance the existing research and improve the authentication performance, we propose a novel physical layer assisted authentication scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks. In our proposed scheme, we explore the reciprocity and spatial uncorrelation of the wireless channel to verify the identities of involved transmitting users and decide whether all data frames are from the same sender. In our proposed scheme, a new method is developed for the legitimate users to compare their received signal strength (RSS) records, which avoids the information from being disclosed to the adversary. Our proposed scheme can detect the spoofing attack even in a high dynamic environment. We evaluate our scheme through experiments under indoor and outdoor environments. Experiment results show that our proposed scheme is more efficient and achieves a higher detection rate as well as keeping a lower false alarm rate.

  13. Resource optimized TTSH-URA for multimedia stream authentication in swallowable-capsule-based wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Chunqiu; Zhao, Min

    2014-03-01

    To ease the burdens on the hospitalization capacity, an emerging swallowable-capsule technology has evolved to serve as a remote gastrointestinal (GI) disease examination technique with the aid of the wireless body sensor network (WBSN). Secure multimedia transmission in such a swallowable-capsule-based WBSN faces critical challenges including energy efficiency and content quality guarantee. In this paper, we propose a joint resource allocation and stream authentication scheme to maintain the best possible video quality while ensuring security and energy efficiency in GI-WBSNs. The contribution of this research is twofold. First, we establish a unique signature-hash (S-H) diversity approach in the authentication domain to optimize video authentication robustness and the authentication bit rate overhead over a wireless channel. Based on the full exploration of S-H authentication diversity, we propose a new two-tier signature-hash (TTSH) stream authentication scheme to improve the video quality by reducing authentication dependence overhead while protecting its integrity. Second, we propose to combine this authentication scheme with a unique S-H oriented unequal resource allocation (URA) scheme to improve the energy-distortion-authentication performance of wireless video delivery in GI-WBSN. Our analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed TTSH with URA scheme achieves considerable gain in both authenticated video quality and energy efficiency.

  14. Unlocking the Laboratory: Autonomous Wireless Sensor Authentication in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggard, Meriel; McGoldrick, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate a practical laboratory task where final year undergraduate students design, implement and validate an inferred security wireless sensor access system. Design/methodology/approach: The quality of the learning and technical environment was evaluated from a number of perspectives using a mixed methods…

  15. An Efficient and Secure Certificateless Authentication Protocol for Healthcare System on Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  16. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-03-21

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al's method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration.

  17. Mutual Image-Based Authentication Framework with JPEG2000 in Wireless Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginesu G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, together with the development of wireless connectivity, the need for a reliable and user-friendly authentication system becomes always more important. New applications, as e-commerce or home banking, require a strong level of protection, allowing for verification of legitimate users' identity and enabling the user to distinguis trusted servers from shadow ones. A novel framework for image-based authentication (IBA is then proposed and evaluated. In order to provide mutual authentication, the proposed method integrates an IBA password technique with a challenge-response scheme based on a shared secret key for image scrambling. The wireless environment is mainly addressed by the proposed system, which tries to overcome the severe constraints on security, data transmission capability, and user friendliness imposed by such environment. In order to achieve such results, the system offers a strong solution for authentication, taking into account usability and avoiding the need for hardware upgrades. Data and application scalability is provided through the JPEG2000 standard and JPIP framework.

  18. An Anonymous Mutual Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Wearable Sensors in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chen

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN have led to significant progress in medical and health care systems. However, such networks still suffer from major security and privacy threats, especially for the data collected in medical or health care applications. Lack of security and existence of anonymous communication in WBAN brings about the operation failure of these networks. Recently, Li et al. proposed a lightweight protocol for wearable sensors in wireless body area networks. In their paper, the authors claimed that the protocol may provide anonymous mutual authentication and resist against various types of attacks. This study shows that such a protocol is still vulnerable to three types of attacks, i.e., the offline identity guessing attack, the sensor node impersonation attack and the hub node spoofing attack. We then present a secure scheme that addresses these problems, and retains similar efficiency in wireless sensors nodes and mobile phones.

  19. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-03-24

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes.

  20. E-SAP: efficient-strong authentication protocol for healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN) can sense humans' physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals' hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients' medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1) a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard) professional authentication; (2) mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4) establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5) professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost). Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  1. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  2. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.’s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.’s protocol. However, Shi et al.’s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.’s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  3. Cryptanalysis and Security Improvements of ‘Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Khan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the field. Since sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules; authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environments is a paramount security concern. Recently, M.L. Das proposed a two-factor user authentication scheme in WSNs and claimed that his scheme is secure against different kinds of attack. However, in this paper, we show that the M.L. Das-scheme has some critical security pitfalls and cannot be recommended for real applications. We point out that in his scheme: users cannot change/update their passwords, it does not provide mutual authentication between gateway node and sensor node, and is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attack and privileged-insider attack. To overcome the inherent security weaknesses of the M.L. Das-scheme, we propose improvements and security patches that attempt to fix the susceptibilities of his scheme. The proposed security improvements can be incorporated in the M.L. Das-scheme for achieving a more secure and robust two-factor user authentication in WSNs.

  4. Security enhanced user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-06-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  5. Cryptanalysis and security improvements of 'two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the field. Since sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules; authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environments is a paramount security concern. Recently, M.L. Das proposed a two-factor user authentication scheme in WSNs and claimed that his scheme is secure against different kinds of attack. However, in this paper, we show that the M.L. Das-scheme has some critical security pitfalls and cannot be recommended for real applications. We point out that in his scheme: users cannot change/update their passwords, it does not provide mutual authentication between gateway node and sensor node, and is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attack and privileged-insider attack. To overcome the inherent security weaknesses of the M.L. Das-scheme, we propose improvements and security patches that attempt to fix the susceptibilities of his scheme. The proposed security improvements can be incorporated in the M.L. Das-scheme for achieving a more secure and robust two-factor user authentication in WSNs.

  6. An efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework for heterogeneous wireless sensor network-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-02-11

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications.

  7. An Efficient and Adaptive Mutual Authentication Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN applications since wireless sensors’ sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring. The proposed framework offers: (i key initialization; (ii secure network (cluster formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment; (iii key revocation; and (iv new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications.

  8. Securing the communication of medical information using local biometric authentication and commercial wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir I; Yu, Paul L; Baras, John S

    2010-09-01

    Medical information is extremely sensitive in nature - a compromise, such as eavesdropping or tampering by a malicious third party, may result in identity theft, incorrect diagnosis and treatment, and even death. Therefore, it is important to secure the transfer of medical information from the patient to the recording system. We consider a portable, wireless device transferring medical information to a remote server. We decompose this problem into two sub-problems and propose security solutions to each of them: (1) to secure the link between the patient and the portable device, and (2) to secure the link between the portable device and the network. Thus we push the limits of the network security to the edge by authenticating the user using their biometric information; authenticating the device to the network at the physical layer; and strengthening the security of the wireless link with a key exchange mechanism. The proposed authentication methods can be used for recording the readings of medical data in a central database and for accessing medical records in various settings.

  9. An Efficient and Adaptive Mutual Authentication Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network-Based Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications. PMID:24521942

  10. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-04-25

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.'s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme.

  11. Development of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Narimanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research is to develop an anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system. The main requirements for this system are formulated, the choice of method of consumer product authentication is substantiated. The scheme of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system is developed basing on previously proposed method of checking the QR-code integrity and authenticity. The proposed within the system consumer product authentication technology is simple, economical for implementation, does not require the external changes of product packaging, does not affect existing production process. The technology can be recommended for the use to private businesses and government institutions that are interested in the security of their products from counterfeiting, as well as tracking and removing from circulation the counterfeit consumer products.

  12. Authentication of gold products by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jesus, A.S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The falsification of valuable gold items is a threat to the authenticity of gold products. To solve this, there is a continuous search for reliable, practicle and cost-effective means of identifying forgeries. Because nuclear techniques as applied to elemental analysis have a high degree of specificity, are non-destructive and permit the availability of results within a relatively short time, a few of these techniques were investigated and reviewed in the article. Work on some promising methods in the author's laboratory is also discussed. Constraints such as those imposed by the time taken by the measurement, negligible residual activity within a relatively short time were also considered. The techniques that were investigated include: the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through a medium; scattering of electromagnetic radiation; x-ray fluorescence analysis; neutron activation analysis; activation by the inelastic scattering of gamma radiation; activation by the inelastic scattering of fast neutrons; absorption and scattering of fast neutrons; self-attenuation of gamma radiation. The shape of the object being investigated, should also be considered. It is concluded that a system based on the inelastic scattering of neutrons emitted by a 241 Am/Be source (halflife = 433 years) is practical and capable of authenticating gold and gold alloy coins such as Krugerrands. The feasibility study on the assaying of gold jewelry by means of nuclear methods also showed it to be impractical

  13. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved.

  14. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  15. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  16. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method with MAP (message authentication and passing for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  17. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  18. An Enhanced Three-Factor User Authentication Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme.

  19. An Enhanced Three-Factor User Authentication Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Xu, Guoai; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-19

    As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme.

  20. Sustainable and Practical Firmware Upgrade for Wireless Access Point Using Password-Based Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Jang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless access points (WAPs are devices that provide Internet connectivity to devices such as desktops, laptops, smartphones, and tablets. Hence, it is important to provide sufficient availability to devices and security for the traffic that is routed by a WAP. However, attackers can decrease the network bandwidth or obtain the traffic including private data such as search histories, login information, and device usage patterns by exploiting the vulnerabilities in firmware upgrades to install malicious firmware. To address this problem, we propose a sustainable and practical firmware upgrade for a WAP using password-based authentication. The proposed upgrade protocol ensures security by adding freshness to the firmware whenever a firmware upgrade occurs. This freshness is different for each event and each firmware; therefore, even if the freshness of one firmware is exposed, the others are secure. In addition, confidentiality, integrity, and authentication are ensured. Furthermore, the proposed protocol can be easily implemented and adapted to WAPs. Experiments are performed to evaluate the upgrade time, resource usage, and code size in wired and wireless connected environments by implementing a prototype and analyzing the security of the protocol. The results show that the proposed upgrade is secure and practical.

  1. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling; Peng, Daiyuan; Peng, Tu; Liang, Hongbin; Liu, Zhicai

    2017-11-21

    Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation-the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  2. A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-11-06

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes.

  3. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation—the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  4. Efficient Anonymous Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are widely used in telemedicine, which can be utilized for real-time patients monitoring and home health-care. The sensor nodes in WBANs collect the client’s physiological data and transmit it to the medical center. However, the clients’ personal information is sensitive and there are many security threats in the extra-body communication. Therefore, the security and privacy of client’s physiological data need to be ensured. Many authentication protocols for WBANs have been proposed in recent years. However, the existing protocols fail to consider the key update phase. In this paper, we propose an efficient authenticated key agreement scheme for WBANs and add the key update phase to enhance the security of the proposed scheme. In addition, session keys are generated during the registration phase and kept secretly, thus reducing computation cost in the authentication phase. The performance analysis demonstrates that our scheme is more efficient than the currently popular related schemes.

  5. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  6. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000. Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure schemes.

  7. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  8. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  9. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  10. Security analysis and improvements of two-factor mutual authentication with key agreement in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, Donghoon; Jeon, Woongryul; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-04-09

    User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker's own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  11. An Advanced Temporal Credential-Based Security Scheme with Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ta Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs. Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.’s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users’ attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.’s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  12. An advanced temporal credential-based security scheme with mutual authentication and key agreement for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2013-07-24

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs). Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.'s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users' attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.'s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  13. An Improved Digital Signature Protocol to Multi-User Broadcast Authentication Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bashirpour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, users can use broadcast authentication mechanisms to connect to the target network and disseminate their messages within the network. Since data transfer for sensor networks is wireless, as a result, attackers can easily eavesdrop deployed sensor nodes and the data sent between them or modify the content of eavesdropped data and inject false data into the sensor network. Hence, the implementation of the message authentication mechanisms (in order to avoid changes and injecting messages into the network of wireless sensor networks is essential. In this paper, we present an improved protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC to accelerate authentication of multi-user message broadcasting. In comparison with previous ECC-based schemes, complexity and computational overhead of proposed scheme is significantly decreased. Also, the proposed scheme supports user anonymity, which is an important property in broadcast authentication schemes for WSNs to preserve user privacy and user untracking.

  14. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2016-06-08

    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas's currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs.

  15. An Identity-Based Anti-Quantum Privacy-Preserving Blind Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongfei; Tan, Yu-An; Zhu, Liehuang; Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Quanxin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2018-05-22

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, IoT devices are crucial for the Smart City; these devices change people's lives such as e-payment and e-voting systems. However, in these two systems, the state-of-art authentication protocols based on traditional number theory cannot defeat a quantum computer attack. In order to protect user privacy and guarantee trustworthy of big data, we propose a new identity-based blind signature scheme based on number theorem research unit lattice, this scheme mainly uses a rejection sampling theorem instead of constructing a trapdoor. Meanwhile, this scheme does not depend on complex public key infrastructure and can resist quantum computer attack. Then we design an e-payment protocol using the proposed scheme. Furthermore, we prove our scheme is secure in the random oracle, and satisfies confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms the other traditional existing identity-based blind signature schemes in signing speed and verification speed, outperforms the other lattice-based blind signature in signing speed, verification speed, and signing secret key size.

  16. An Identity-Based Anti-Quantum Privacy-Preserving Blind Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless sensor networks, IoT devices are crucial for the Smart City; these devices change people’s lives such as e-payment and e-voting systems. However, in these two systems, the state-of-art authentication protocols based on traditional number theory cannot defeat a quantum computer attack. In order to protect user privacy and guarantee trustworthy of big data, we propose a new identity-based blind signature scheme based on number theorem research unit lattice, this scheme mainly uses a rejection sampling theorem instead of constructing a trapdoor. Meanwhile, this scheme does not depend on complex public key infrastructure and can resist quantum computer attack. Then we design an e-payment protocol using the proposed scheme. Furthermore, we prove our scheme is secure in the random oracle, and satisfies confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms the other traditional existing identity-based blind signature schemes in signing speed and verification speed, outperforms the other lattice-based blind signature in signing speed, verification speed, and signing secret key size.

  17. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas’s currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs. PMID:27338382

  18. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless sensor networks are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things. Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas’s currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs.

  19. Authenticating the origin of different shrimp products on the Tunisian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAIS

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... methods (with various modifications) and the use of commercial kit such as Chelex ... Authenticity determination of prawn and shrimp species in commercial frozen, pre-cooked products. .... primers have equal length (23 nucleotides), GC content ..... Temperatures in Diffusion-Generated Chemical Gradients.

  20. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-08-16

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  2. Fuzzy Extractor and Elliptic Curve Based Efficient User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Maurya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of service and reduce the possibility of security attacks, a secure and efficient user authentication mechanism is required for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the Internet of Things (IoT. Session key establishment between the sensor node and the user is also required for secure communication. In this paper, we perform the security analysis of A.K.Das’s user authentication scheme (given in 2015, Choi et al.’s scheme (given in 2016, and Park et al.’s scheme (given in 2016. The security analysis shows that their schemes are vulnerable to various attacks like user impersonation attack, sensor node impersonation attack and attacks based on legitimate users. Based on the cryptanalysis of these existing protocols, we propose a secure and efficient authenticated session key establishment protocol which ensures various security features and overcomes the drawbacks of existing protocols. The formal and informal security analysis indicates that the proposed protocol withstands the various security vulnerabilities involved in WSNs. The automated validation using AVISPA and Scyther tool ensures the absence of security attacks in our scheme. The logical verification using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic confirms the correctness of the proposed protocol. Finally, the comparative analysis based on computational overhead and security features of other existing protocol indicate that the proposed user authentication system is secure and efficient. In future, we intend to implement the proposed protocol in real-world applications of WSNs and IoT.

  3. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  4. Grassland-based products: quality and authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppa, M.; Cabiddu, A.; Elsässer, M.; Hulin, S.; Lind, V.; Martin, B.; Mosquera-Losada, M.R.; Peeters, A.; Prache, S.; Pol, van den A.; Peratoner, G.

    2017-01-01

    There is increased consumer demand for food products with a perceived positive image. Product quality can be assessed in terms of food safety, nutritional composition, technological and sensory characteristics and ethics. In order to summarise the current knowledge linking quality traits and

  5. Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network-Fujisaki Okamoto(FO) Authentication Scheme against Sybil Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Raja, K; Maraline Beno, M

    2017-07-01

    In the wireless sensor network(WSN) security is a major issue. There are several network security schemes proposed in research. In the network, malicious nodes obstruct the performance of the network. The network can be vulnerable by Sybil attack. When a node illicitly assertions multiple identities or claims fake IDs, the WSN grieves from an attack named Sybil attack. This attack threatens wireless sensor network in data aggregation, synchronizing system, routing, fair resource allocation and misbehavior detection. Henceforth, the research is carried out to prevent the Sybil attack and increase the performance of the network. This paper presents the novel security mechanism and Fujisaki Okamoto algorithm and also application of the work. The Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) algorithm is ID based cryptographic scheme and gives strong authentication against Sybil attack. By using Network simulator2 (NS2) the scheme is simulated. In this proposed scheme broadcasting key, time taken for different key sizes, energy consumption, Packet delivery ratio, Throughput were analyzed.

  6. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  7. Security Analysis and Improvements of Two-Factor Mutual Authentication with Key Agreement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker’s own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  8. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  9. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  10. User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wagenknecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open source software package for web single sign-on (SSO across or within organizational boundaries. It allows service providers to make fine-grained authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources. The Shibboleth system is a widely used AAI, but only supports protection of browser-based web resources. We have implemented a Shibboleth AAI extension to protect web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. Besides user authentication for browser-based web resources, this extension also provides user and machine authentication for web service-based resources. Although implemented for a Shibboleth AAI, the architecture can be easily adapted to other AAIs.

  11. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  12. Securing the Communication of Medical Information using Local Biometric Authentication and Commercial Wireless Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    from the sensor) as a second-tier authentication is problematic because the monitored data are often pathological (i.e. revealing disease symptoms...Standards and Technology, March 2006. 17. Tan B and Schuckers S. Liveness detection for fingerprint scanners based on the statistics of wavelet signal

  13. Building secure wireless access point based on certificate authentication and firewall captive portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewito B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area network or WLAN more vulnerability than wired network even though WLAN has many advantages over wired. Wireless networks use radio transmissions to carry data between end users and access point. Therefore, it is possible for someone to sit in your office building's lobby or parking lot or parking lot to eavesdrop on the wireless network communication. This paper discussed securing wires local area network used WPA2 Enterprise based PEAP MS-CHAP and Captive portal firewall. We also divided the network for employer and visitor to increase the level of security. Our experiment showed that the WLAN could be broken using the attacker tool such as airodump, aireply, and aircrack.

  14. Sustainable Development Mechanism of Food Culture’s Translocal Production Based on Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using the in-depth interview method, this study discusses how northeastern Cuisine in Guangzhou balances the inheritance and innovation of authenticity, how producers and customers negotiate, and how to realize sustainable development. The main conclusions are: first, there are two different paths of translocal food culture production, which are “authentic food culture production” and “differentiated food culture production”. Second, what translocal enterprises produce is not objective authenticity, but constructive authenticity, or even existential authenticity. Third, compared with differentiated food culture production, authentic food culture production is helpful for the sustainable development of local food culture production. It protects the locality while transmitting and developing the local culture. Fourth, translocal food culture production is a process in which the producers and consumers continue to interact to maintain a state of equilibrium, which informs the sustainable development mechanism with a high degree of authenticity.

  15. Geospatial Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server.

  16. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000 model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks.

  17. A Secure Localization Approach Using Mutual Authentication and Insider Node Validation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is a concerning issue in the applications of wireless sensor networks. Along with the accuracy of the location estimation of the sensor nodes, the security of the estimation is another priority. Wireless sensor networks often face various attacks where the attackers try to manipulate the estimated location or try to provide false beacons. In this paper, we have proposed a methodology that will address this problem of security aspects in localization of the sensor nodes. Moreover, we have considered the network environment with random node deployment and mobility as these two conditions are less addressed in previous research works. Further, our proposed algorithm provides low overhead due to the usage of less control messages in a limited transmission range. In addition, we have also proposed an algorithm to detect the malicious anchor nodes inside the network. The simulated results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient in terms of time consumption, localization accuracy, and localization ratio in the presence of malicious nodes.

  18. Authentication of the botanical origin of Western herbal products using Cimicifuga and Vitex products as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Sayaka

    2016-07-01

    Various herbal medicines have been developed and used in various parts of the world for thousands of years. Although locally grown indigenous plants were originally used for traditional herbal preparations, Western herbal products are now becoming popular in Japan with the increasing interest in health. At the same time, there are growing concerns about the substitution of ingredients and adulteration of herbal products, highlighting the need for the authentication of the origin of plants used in herbal products. This review describes studies on Cimicifuga and Vitex products developed in Europe and Japan, focusing on establishing analytical methods to evaluate the origins of material plants and finished products. These methods include a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system method. A genome-based authentication method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based authentication for black cohosh products, and the identification of two characteristic diterpenes of agnus castus fruit and a shrub chaste tree fruit-specific triterpene derivative are also described.

  19. Authentication of Fish Products by Large-Scale Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Deelder, André M.

    2013-01-01

    Authentication of food is a major concern worldwide to ensure that food products are correctly labeled in terms of which animals are actually processed for consumption. Normally authentication is based on species recognition by comparison of selected sequences of DNA or protein. We here present...... a new robust, proteome-wide tandem mass spectrometry method for species recognition and food product authentication. The method does not use or require any genome sequences or selection of tandem mass spectra but uses all acquired data. The experimental steps were performed in a simple, standardized...

  20. The Product Authentication Application Design Based on NFC

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    With the enormous development in the field of NFC (Near Field Communication) technology and the wide use of Android phones, people nowadays are able to accessible to NFC equipped phone. Users are able to handle varied comprehensive tasks in daily life. For example, the images, electronic business cards or other files on one phone can be exchanged to another phone quite easily and fleetly via the NFC communication. Meanwhile, unlike other wireless technologies, NFC focuses on the security cont...

  1. Benefits and Limitations of DNA Barcoding and Metabarcoding in Herbal Product Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta Cristina; Heinrich, Michael; Ichim, Mihael Cristin; de Boer, Hugo

    2018-03-01

    Herbal medicines play an important role globally in the health care sector and in industrialised countries they are often considered as an alternative to mono-substance medicines. Current quality and authentication assessment methods rely mainly on morphology and analytical phytochemistry-based methods detailed in pharmacopoeias. Herbal products however are often highly processed with numerous ingredients, and even if these analytical methods are accurate for quality control of specific lead or marker compounds, they are of limited suitability for the authentication of biological ingredients. To review the benefits and limitations of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding in complementing current herbal product authentication. Recent literature relating to DNA based authentication of medicinal plants, herbal medicines and products are summarised to provide a basic understanding of how DNA barcoding and metabarcoding can be applied to this field. Different methods of quality control and authentication have varying resolution and usefulness along the value chain of these products. DNA barcoding can be used for authenticating products based on single herbal ingredients and DNA metabarcoding for assessment of species diversity in processed products, and both methods should be used in combination with appropriate hyphenated chemical methods for quality control. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding have potential in the context of quality control of both well and poorly regulated supply systems. Standardisation of protocols for DNA barcoding and DNA sequence-based identification are necessary before DNA-based biological methods can be implemented as routine analytical approaches and approved by the competent authorities for use in regulated procedures. © 2017 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Authentication of traditional game meat products by the use of species-specific PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Cristina; Melo, Vítor S.; Mafra, I.; Amaral, J.S.; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity evaluation in meat products encompasses many issues, including the fraudulent substitution of higher commercial valued meats by cheaper meats and the presence of undeclared species. Due to its characteristic and intensive flavour and its healthier composition, game meats are considered as delicacy products and command higher prices compared to other meats, thus being susceptible targets for frauds. The manufacture of traditional meat products is a long-established practice in ...

  3. Organic cattle products: Authenticating production origin by analysis of serum mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Herrero-Latorre, Carlos; López-Alonso, Marta; Losada, David E; Iglesias, Roberto; Miranda, Marta

    2018-10-30

    An authentication procedure for differentiating between organic and non-organic cattle production on the basis of analysis of serum samples has been developed. For this purpose, the concentrations of fourteen mineral elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in 522 serum samples from cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from non-organic farms), determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, were used. The chemical information provided by serum analysis was employed to construct different pattern recognition classification models that predict the origin of each sample: organic or non-organic class. Among all classification procedures considered, the best results were obtained with the decision tree C5.0, Random Forest and AdaBoost neural networks, with hit levels close to 90% for both production types. The proposed method, involving analysis of serum samples, provided rapid, accurate in vivo classification of cattle according to organic and non-organic production type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2018-06-13

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  5. Lost in Translation: Product Label Language and the Mediating Role of Authenticity on Purchase Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Traganou, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Should an exported product that is produced in a specific country keep the native language on its label or not? In this study, we explore how the role of native language of an origin-labelled product impacts consumer response. Based on an online experiment with consumers in the US (N=981) using...... as stimuli an olive oil product originating from Tunisia, our findings suggest that the presence of native language on a product’s label has a positive effect on product authenticity, which, in turn, increases purchase intention. However, this process is conditional on country of origin (COO) preferences...

  6. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME?chiral?GC?MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne?Mette S.; Frandsen, Henrik L.; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)???ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mi...

  7. Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    D?Amato, Maria Eugenia; Alechine, Evguenia; Cloete, Kevin Wesley; Davison, Sean; Corach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild animals? meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum lik...

  8. Authenticating the Origin of Different Shrimp Products on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a polymerase chain reaction using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene to identify commercial food products of wide range of Penaeidae and Pandalidae shrimp species commercialised in the Tunisian market. Phylogenetic analyses ...

  9. Application of high-resolution melting analysis for authenticity testing of valuable Dendrobium commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoman; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Daiyin; Luo, Yuqin; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2018-01-01

    The accurate identification of botanical origin in commercial products is important to ensure food authenticity and safety for consumers. The Dendrobium species have long been commercialised as functional food supplements and herbal medicines in Asia. Three valuable Dendrobium species, namely Dendrobium officinale, D. huoshanense and D. moniliforme, are often mutually adulterated in trade products in pursuit of higher profit. In this paper, a rapid and reliable semi-quantitative method for identifying the botanical origin of Dendrobium products in terminal markets was developed using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis with specific primer pairs to target the trnL-F region. The HRM analysis method detected amounts of D. moniliforme adulterants as low as 1% in D. huoshanense or D. officinale products. The results have demonstrated that HRM analysis is a fast and effective tool for the differentiation of these Dendrobium species both for their authenticity as well as for the semi-quantitative determination of the purity of their processed products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2014-02-15

    With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What's in the box? Authentication of Echinacea herbal products using DNA metabarcoding and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta Cristina; Ţebrencu, Carmen Elena; Ichim, Mihael Cristin; Ciupercǎ, Oana Teodora; Brysting, Anne Krag; de Boer, Hugo

    2018-05-15

    Differences in regulatory policies between countries as well as a lack of appropriate standardized methods for the authentication and quality control of herbal products directly impact their quality and safety. Echinacea products are among the top-selling herbal products in Europe and the United States with indications for a broad range of ailments. The increased use of Echinacea species has led to concerns about adulterated products resulting from challenges in morphology-based identification, due to overlapping morphological variation, frequent hybridization between species, and deliberate adulteration. This study addressed the need for a novel analytical strategy in the authentication of herbal products. A combination of high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and DNA metabarcoding was employed. Fifty-three Echinacea herbal products marketed across Europe were tested to evaluate the accuracy of these methods in plant identification and their potential for detecting substitutes, adulterants and other unreported plant constituents. HPTLC provides high resolution in the detection of Echinacea phytochemical target compounds, but does not offer information on the other species within the product. Alternatively, we showed that the limitation of HPTLC in detecting non-targeted species can be overcome by the complementary use of DNA metabarcoding. Using DNA metabarcoding, Echinacea species were detected in 34 out of the 38 retained products (89%), but with a lack of discriminatory resolution at the species level due to the low level of molecular divergence within the Echinacea genus. All of the tested herbal products showed considerable discrepancies between ingredients listed on the label and the ones detected using DNA metabarcoding, registering an overall ingredient fidelity of only 43%. The results confirm that DNA metabarcoding can be used to test for the presence of Echinacea species and simultaneously to detect other species present in even highly

  12. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...... distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labelled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products labelled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed...

  13. 3D Product authenticity model for online retail: An invariance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algharabat, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of different levels of invariance analysis on three dimensional (3D product authenticity model (3DPAM constructs in the e- retailing context. A hypothetical retailer website presents a variety of laptops using 3D product visualisations. The proposed conceptual model achieves acceptable fit and the hypothesised paths are all valid. We empirically investigate the invariance across the subgroups to validate the results of our 3DPAM. We concluded that the 3D product authenticity model construct was invariant for our sample across different gender, level of education and study backgrounds. These findings suggested that all our subgroups conceptualised the 3DPAM similarly. Also the results show some non-invariance results for the structural and latent mean models. The gender group posits a non-invariance latent mean model. Study backgrounds group reveals a non-invariance result for the structural model. These findings allowed us to understand the 3DPAMs validity in the e-retail context. Managerial implications are explained.

  14. PCR-RFLP Using BseDI Enzyme for Pork Authentication in Sausage and Nugget Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erwanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP using BseDI restriction enzyme had been applied for identifying the presence of pork in processed meat (beef sausage and chicken nugget including before and after frying. Pork sample in various levels (1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 25 % was prepared in a mixture with beef and chicken meats and processed for sausage and nugget. The primers CYTb1 and CYTb2 were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene and PCR successfully amplified fragments of 359 bp. To distinguish existence of porcine species, the amplified PCR products of mitochondrial DNA were cut by BseDI restriction enzyme. The result showed pig mitochondrial DNA was cut into 131 and 228 bp fragments. The PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of porcine species. It is a potentially reliable technique for pork detection in animal food processed products for Halal authentication.

  15. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  16. Authentication of Ficus Deltoidea Variety Kunstleri for Deltozide Phyto pharmaceutical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anee Suryani Sued; Zainah Adam; Fazliana Mohd Saaya

    2016-01-01

    Plant authentication is a quality assurance process that ensures the correct plant species and plant parts are used as raw materials for herbal medicines. Identification methods employed in the authentication of herbal materials are macroscopic identification and microscopic examination. Macroscopic examination involves the comparison of morphological characters that are visible with the naked eye or under low magnification with descriptions of the plant or botanical drug in floras or monographs. Characters such as size, shape and colour of leaves (or leaf fragments), flowers or fruits are commonly used in macroscopic identification. Microscopic examination focuses on anatomical structures in the plant material that are visible only with the help of a microscope. Features such as trichome (hair) shape and structure, the arrangement of stomata in the epidermis, the presence or absence of compounds such as mucilage, starch or lignin, or the presence of tissues with characteristic cells might be used in the microscopic identifications of herbal drugs. Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has been classified into various varieties such as var. deltoidea, var. angustifolia, var.bilobata, var. intermedia, var.kunstleri, var. motleyana, and var. trengganuensis. Morphological variations and unclear boundaries between varieties can lead to the misleading identification. Thus, correct identification of F. deltoidea varieties is important. The present study aims to examine the macroscopic morphology and microscopic anatomy of F. deltoidea var. kunstleri leaf, as the main phyto-ingredient in DELTOZIDE phyto pharmaceutical product. (author)

  17. A DNA Mini-Barcoding System for Authentication of Processed Fish Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokralla, Shadi; Hellberg, Rosalee S; Handy, Sara M; King, Ian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2015-10-30

    Species substitution is a form of seafood fraud for the purpose of economic gain. DNA barcoding utilizes species-specific DNA sequence information for specimen identification. Previous work has established the usability of short DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-for identification of specimens harboring degraded DNA. This study aims at establishing a DNA mini-barcoding system for all fish species commonly used in processed fish products in North America. Six mini-barcode primer pairs targeting short (127-314 bp) fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) DNA barcode region were developed by examining over 8,000 DNA barcodes from species in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Seafood List. The mini-barcode primer pairs were then tested against 44 processed fish products representing a range of species and product types. Of the 44 products, 41 (93.2%) could be identified at the species or genus level. The greatest mini-barcoding success rate found with an individual primer pair was 88.6% compared to 20.5% success rate achieved by the full-length DNA barcode primers. Overall, this study presents a mini-barcoding system that can be used to identify a wide range of fish species in commercial products and may be utilized in high throughput DNA sequencing for authentication of heavily processed fish products.

  18. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nessen, Merel A.; Zwaan, van der Dennis J.; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and

  19. Documenting the 'terroir' aspects of award-winning Danish conserves: a model for the development of authentic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Sorensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    An example of the qualities embedded in the foods produced by small companies based on small Danish islands and reflections on the association between the qualities of the products and their geographical origin is presented. This case study discusses how it can be ensured that qualities in the pr...... in the products that can be tasted and documented truly reflect geographical origin, and ways in which authenticity can be guarded and exploited in marketing while at the same time increasing production volume....

  20. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor.

  1. Wireless Time Tracking Improves Productivity at CSU Long Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmack, Scott; Walsh, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Describes California State University Long Beach's implementation of new maintenance management software, which integrated maintenance, inventory control, and key control and allows technicians to enter and receive information through handheld wireless devices for more accurate time accounting. The school estimates a 10 percent increase in…

  2. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  3. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  4. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat species from minced meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Kamuni, Veeranna; Muthukumar, Muthupalani; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Kiran, Mohan; Rapole, Srikanth

    2018-02-01

    Fraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes. The matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo-sheep-goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples. The study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. BEST PRACTICES IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: THE ZYRAY WIRELESS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koekemoer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Successful high-tech start-up companies are rare. This case study investigates the New Product Development (NPD process of Zyray Wireless, a very successful startup 3G technology company that originated in South Africa but relocated to California in the USA. The research looked into the differences between generally accepted NPD best practices and those implemented by this start-up company. Zyray Wireless scored above the industry average in the following categories: customer involvement, project selection, product strategy, technological leadership, and product goal. The best practices for metrics, human resource development, documentation, and change control implemented by Zyray Wireless scored at or below the industry average. The best practice results showed that this very successful start-up company focused more on strategy and engineering and less on process control than average.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suksesvolle nuwe hoë-tegnologie maatskappye is skaars. Hierdie gevallestudie het die Nuwe Produk Ontwikkelingproses (NPO ondersoek van Zyray Wireless, ʼn baie suksesvolle nuwe maatskappy wat in Suid-Afrika ontstaan het maar na Kalifornië in die VSA verskuif is. Die navorsing het na die verskille gekyk tussen algemeen aanvaarde NPO beste praktyke en dié wat deur hierdie maatskappy geïmplementeer is. Zyray Wireless het bo die industriegemiddelde gepresteer in die volgende kategorieë: kliëntbetrokkenheid, projekkeuse, produkstrategie, tegnologiese leierskap, en produkdoelwitte. Die beste praktyke vir maatstawwe, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling, dokumentasie, en veranderingsbeheer wat deur Zyray Wireless geïmplementeer is, het onder die industriegemiddeldes gepresteer. Die beste praktykresultate het getoon dat hierdie baie suksesvolle nuwe maatskappy meer gefokus het op strategie en ingenieurswese en minder op prosesbeheer as die gemiddelde.

  6. Qubit authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curty, Marcos; Santos, David J.; Perez, Esther; Garcia-Fernandez, Priscila

    2002-01-01

    Secure communication requires message authentication. In this paper we address the problem of how to authenticate quantum information sent through a quantum channel between two communicating parties with the minimum amount of resources. Specifically, our objective is to determine whether one elementary quantum message (a qubit) can be authenticated with a key of minimum length. We show that, unlike the case of classical-message quantum authentication, this is not possible

  7. EAP-Based Authentication for Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakti, Muhammad Agni Catur; Abdullah, Azween; Jung, Low Tan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless network has been deployed worldwide, but some security issues in wireless network might haveprevented its further acceptance. One of the solutions to overcome the limitation of wireless network security isthe IEEE 802.1X specification, a mechanism for port-based network access control, which is based onExtensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). It is an authentication framework that can support multipleauthentication methods. EAP can run over many types of data-link layer and it is fl...

  8. How wireless remote technology reduces cost, boosts productivity and improves safety in upstream oil and gas operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wommack, K. [Viatran, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    This article demonstrated how wireless communications can help oil and gas producers obtain the most current information on the status of their operations to help optimize operations and protect workers and equipment. Wireless communication can provide benefits at nearly every phase of upstream production. When combined with pressure, temperature, flow, level and other sensing devices, wireless communications provide an effective and economical way to deliver data on well or pipeline operations to site managers; optimize well-production, minimize workovers and prevent blowdowns at the wellhead; track oil and water production; measure differential pressure, line pressure and line temperature; and monitor the motorized choke and control valve position. Wireless technology offers significant savings through improved maintenance efficiency. With wireless systems in remote locations, there are seldom problems in the transmission path. Wireless technology makes it much easier and affordable to manage well operations from a safe distance. By eliminating the need for wires in a fracing operation, wireless can help fracing companies maintain a safe operating distance from their target wells, and move operations from well to well with ease. A wireless communication system for transmitting process data from field sensors to a field processing device consists of radio transmitters, a communications gateway and a user interface. The communications hub receives encrypted messages from the remote devices and transmits them to a flow computer, SCADA system, or Distributed Control System. Data is then transmitted to a central office. 1 fig.

  9. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  10. Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Maria Eugenia; Alechine, Evguenia; Cloete, Kevin Wesley; Davison, Sean; Corach, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Wild animals' meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based method implemented in BLOG. The Kimura-2-parameter intra- and interspecific variation was evaluated for all matched species. The combined application of similarity, phylogenetic and character-based methods proved successful in species identification. Game meat samples showed 76.5% substitution, no beef samples were substituted. The substitutions showed a variety of domestic species (cattle, horse, pig, lamb), common game species in the market (kudu, gemsbok, ostrich, impala, springbok), uncommon species in the market (giraffe, waterbuck, bushbuck, duiker, mountain zebra) and extra-continental species (kangaroo). The mountain zebra Equus zebra is an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red listed species. We also detected Damaliscus pygargus, which is composed of two subspecies with one listed by IUCN as 'near threatened'; however, these mitochondrial fragments were insufficient to distinguish between the subspecies. The genetic distance between African ungulate species often overlaps with within-species distance in cases of recent speciation events, and strong phylogeographic structure determines within-species distances that are similar to the commonly accepted distances between species. The reliability of commercial labeling of game meat in South Africa is very poor. The extensive substitution of wild game has important implications for conservation and commerce, and for the consumers making decisions on the basis of

  11. Sequential Uniformly Reweighted Sum-Product Algorithm for Cooperative Localization in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical models have been widely applied in solving distributed inference problems in wireless networks. In this paper, we formulate the cooperative localization problem in a mobile network as an inference problem on a factor graph. Using a sequential schedule of message updates, a sequential uniformly reweighted sum-product algorithm (SURW-SPA) is developed for mobile localization problems. The proposed algorithm combines the distributed nature of belief propagation (BP) with the improved p...

  12. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  13. Embedding X.509 Digital Certificates in Three-Dimensional Models for Authentication, Authorization, and Traceability of Product Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Krima, Sylvere; Camelio, Jaime A

    2017-03-01

    Exchange and reuse of three-dimensional (3D)-product models are hampered by the absence of trust in product-lifecycle-data quality. The root cause of the missing trust is years of "silo" functions (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, quality assurance) using independent and disconnected processes. Those disconnected processes result in data exchanges that do not contain all of the required information for each downstream lifecycle process, which inhibits the reuse of product data and results in duplicate data. The X.509 standard, maintained by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), was first issued in 1988. Although originally intended as the authentication framework for the X.500 series for electronic directory services, the X.509 framework is used in a wide range of implementations outside the originally intended paradigm. These implementations range from encrypting websites to software-code signing, yet X.509 certificate use has not widely penetrated engineering and product realms. Our approach is not trying to provide security mechanisms, but equally as important, our method aims to provide insight into what is happening with product data to support trusting the data. This paper provides a review of the use of X.509 certificates and proposes a solution for embedding X.509 digital certificates in 3D models for authentication, authorization, and traceability of product data. This paper also describes an application within the Aerospace domain. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and provides recommendations for further research into using X.509 certificates in product lifecycle management (PLM) workflows to enable a product lifecycle of trust.

  14. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products tested

  15. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  16. Speaker Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qi (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on use of voice as a biometric measure for personal authentication. In particular, "Speaker Recognition" covers two approaches in speaker authentication: speaker verification (SV) and verbal information verification (VIV). The SV approach attempts to verify a speaker’s identity based on his/her voice characteristics while the VIV approach validates a speaker’s identity through verification of the content of his/her utterance(s). SV and VIV can be combined for new applications. This is still a new research topic with significant potential applications. The book provides with a broad overview of the recent advances in speaker authentication while giving enough attention to advanced and useful algorithms and techniques. It also provides a step by step introduction to the current state of the speaker authentication technology, from the fundamental concepts to advanced algorithms. We will also present major design methodologies and share our experience in developing real and successful speake...

  17. Nontargeted, Rapid Screening of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Products for Authenticity Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Conformity Index and Multivariate Statistical Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kia, Ali-Reza Fardin; Srigley, Cynthia; Chung, Jin Kyu; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2016-10-01

    A rapid tool for evaluating authenticity was developed and applied to the screening of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) retail products by using Fourier-transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in combination with univariate and multivariate data analysis methods. Using disposable glass tubes, spectra for 62 reference EVOO, 10 edible oil adulterants, 20 blends consisting of EVOO spiked with adulterants, 88 retail EVOO products and other test samples were rapidly measured in the transmission mode without any sample preparation. The univariate conformity index (CI) and the multivariate supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification tool were used to analyze the various olive oil products which were tested for authenticity against a library of reference EVOO. Better discrimination between the authentic EVOO and some commercial EVOO products was observed with SIMCA than with CI analysis. Approximately 61% of all EVOO commercial products were flagged by SIMCA analysis, suggesting that further analysis be performed to identify quality issues and/or potential adulterants. Due to its simplicity and speed, FT-NIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used as a complementary tool to conventional official methods of analysis to rapidly flag EVOO products that may not belong to the class of authentic EVOO. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-05-01

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. DNA Barcoding as a Reliable Method for the Authentication of Commercial Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nicolè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal DNA barcoding allows researchers to identify different species by analyzing a short nucleotide sequence, typically the mitochondrial gene cox1. In this paper, we use DNA barcoding to genetically identify seafood samples that were purchased from various locations throughout Italy. We adopted a multi-locus approach to analyze the cob, 16S-rDNA and cox1 genes, and compared our sequences to reference sequences in the BOLD and GenBank online databases. Our method is a rapid and robust technique that can be used to genetically identify crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. This approach could be applied in the future for conservation, particularly for monitoring illegal trade of protected and endangered species. Additionally, this method could be used for authentication in order to detect mislabeling of commercially processed seafood.

  20. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessen, Merel A; van der Zwaan, Dennis J; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-05-11

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and spectral library matching, essentially spectral counting, to compare and identify samples without the need for genomic sequence information in food species populations. Here, we present an interlaboratory comparison demonstrating how a method based on this principle performs in a realistic context. We also increasingly challenge the method by using data from different types of mass spectrometers, by trying to distinguish closely related and commercially important flatfish, and by analyzing heavily contaminated samples. The method was found to be robust in different laboratories, and 94-97% of the analyzed samples were correctly identified, including all processed and contaminated samples.

  1. Patient safety with blood products administration using wireless and bar-code technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanned patient wristband ID bar code is automatically compared to scanned identification barcode on requisition, sample, and/or product, and the system presents either a confirmation or an error message to the user. Following an eight-month, 5 unit, staged pilot, a 'big bang,' hospital-wide implementation occurred on February 7, 2005. Preliminary results from pilot data indicate that the new barcode process captures errors 3 to 10 times better than the old manual process.

  2. Wireless Communication Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Communication Technologies. Since 1999, the wireless LAN has experienced a tremendous growth. Reasons: Adoption of industry standards. Interoperability testing. The progress of wireless equipments to higher data rates. Rapid decrease in product ...

  3. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Software Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, J.K.; Geelhood, B.D.; Hamilton, V.A.; Ingraham, J.; MacArthur, D.W.; Mitchell, D.J.; Mullens, J.A.; Vanier, P. E.; White, G.K.; Whiteson, R.

    2001-01-01

    The effort to define guidance for authentication of software for arms control and nuclear material transparency measurements draws on a variety of disciplines and has involved synthesizing established criteria and practices with newer methods. Challenges include the need to protect classified information that the software manipulates as well as deal with the rapid pace of innovation in the technology of nuclear material monitoring. The resulting guidance will shape the design of future systems and inform the process of authentication of instruments now being developed. This paper explores the technical issues underlying the guidance and presents its major tenets

  5. [Evaluation of an Experimental Production Wireless Dose Monitoring System for Radiation Exposure Management of Medical Staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Murazaki, Hiroo; Kuramoto, Taku; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Ishigaki, Yung

    2015-08-01

    Because of the more advanced and more complex procedures in interventional radiology, longer treatment times have become necessary. Therefore, it is important to determine the exposure doses received by operators and patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an experimental production wireless dose monitoring system for pulse radiation in diagnostic X-ray. The energy, dose rate, and pulse fluoroscopy dependence were evaluated as the basic characteristics of this system for diagnostic X-ray using a fully digital fluoroscopy system. The error of 1 cm dose equivalent rate was less than 15% from 35.1 keV to 43.2 keV with energy correction using metal filter. It was possible to accurately measure the dose rate dependence of this system, which was highly linear until 100 μSv/h. This system showed a constant response to the pulse fluoroscopy. This system will become useful wireless dosimeter for the individual exposure management by improving the high dose rate and the energy characteristics.

  6. Strengthening Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The basics of authentication are straightforward. One can prove his or her identity in three ways: (1) something one "has" (for example, a key or a birth certificate); (2) something one "knows" (such as a password); or (3) something one "is" (such as one's fingerprints, used in biometric technologies). In the world of computers and networks, the…

  7. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) products - an assessment of their authenticity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Agapouda, Anastasia; Frommenwiler, Débora A; Scotti, Francesca; Reich, Eike; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    St John's wort products (Hypericum perforatum L.) are widely available for sale in many countries including the UK via the internet. In the UK, these products are required to hold either a marketing authorisation or Traditional herbal registration (THR) to be sold legally. The THR and other regulatory schemes help to ensure product safety and quality providing an example of best practice but there is a risk if both regulated and un-regulated products continue to be available to consumers. The project is embedded in a larger study aiming to investigate the quality of different herbal medicinal products along diverse value chains. Here we focus on a comparison of the quality of the finished products and assess phytochemical variation between registered products (THRs) and products obtained from the market without any registration. 47 commercial products (granulated powders and extracts) were sourced from different suppliers. We analysed these samples using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and 1 H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multi-variate analysis software following a method previously developed by our group. The consistency of the products varies significantly. Adulteration of the products (36%), possibly with other Hypericum species obtained from China or use of chemically distinct H. perforatum cultivars or chemotypes, and adulteration of the products (19%) with food dyes (tartrazine, amaranth, brilliant blue, sunset yellow) were the principle findings of this study. There is significant compositional variation among commercial finished products and two main causative quality problems were identified as adulteration by incorrect species or adulteration with food dyes. Generally, food supplements and unlicensed products were found to be of poorer quality than the regulated ones including THRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Pervasive wireless environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Trappe, Wade; Cheng, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides a new approach to prevent user spoofing by using the physical properties associated with wireless transmissions to detect the presence of user spoofing. The most common method, applying cryptographic authentication, requires additional management and computational power that cannot be deployed consistently. The authors present the new approach by offering a summary of the recent research and exploring the benefits and potential challenges of this method. This brief discusses the feasibility of launching user spoofing attacks and their impact on the wireless and sen

  9. System and method for authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Miller, Seth A.

    2015-12-29

    Described are methods and systems for determining authenticity. For example, the method may include providing an object of authentication, capturing characteristic data from the object of authentication, deriving authentication data from the characteristic data of the object of authentication, and comparing the authentication data with an electronic database comprising reference authentication data to provide an authenticity score for the object of authentication. The reference authentication data may correspond to one or more reference objects of authentication other than the object of authentication.

  10. A ring test of a wireless in vitro gas production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Hindrichsen, Ida Katarina Auf der M.

    2013-01-01

    ) or sheep (SP). Curves, corrected for blanks, were fitted using an exponential regression model with a lag time. The following variables were considered: (i) GP24 and GP48: raw values at 24 and 48 h (mL/g DM), corrected for blanks; (ii) A: asymptotic GP (mL/g DM); (iii) T1/2: time when half A is produced (h......); (iv) GPMR: maximum predicted GP rate (mL/h); (v) L: lag time (h). A mixed model including laboratories as random effect was used. A significant interaction between substrate and laboratories was found for all variables except A. The most repeatable and reproducible results were observed for A and GP48......The in vitro gas production (GP) technique has been widely used for feed evaluation. However, variability in results limits useful comparisons. Results from a ring test undertaken in four laboratories (Italy - IT, Spain - SP, Wales - WA and Denmark - DK) using the same wireless equipment (ANKOM...

  11. Image authentication using distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Chung; Varodayan, David; Girod, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach using distributed source coding for image authentication. The key idea is to provide a Slepian-Wolf encoded quantized image projection as authentication data. This version can be correctly decoded with the help of an authentic image as side information. Distributed source coding provides the desired robustness against legitimate variations while detecting illegitimate modification. The decoder incorporating expectation maximization algorithms can authenticate images which have undergone contrast, brightness, and affine warping adjustments. Our authentication system also offers tampering localization by using the sum-product algorithm.

  12. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  13. ESnet authentication services and trust federations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muruganantham, Dhivakaran; Helm, Mike; Genovese, Tony [ESnet, Energy Sciences Network, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50A-3111 Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    ESnet provides authentication services and trust federation support for SciDAC projects, collaboratories, and other distributed computing applications. The ESnet ATF team operates the DOEGrids Certificate Authority, available to all DOE Office of Science programs, plus several custom CAs, including one for the National Fusion Collaboratory and one for NERSC. The secure hardware and software environment developed to support CAs is suitable for supporting additional custom authentication and authorization applications that your program might require. Seamless, secure interoperation across organizational and international boundaries is vital to collaborative science. We are fostering the development of international PKI federations by founding the TAGPMA, the American regional PMA, and the worldwide IGTF Policy Management Authority (PMA), as well as participating in European and Asian regional PMAs. We are investigating and prototyping distributed authentication technology that will allow us to support the 'roaming scientist' (distributed wireless via eduroam), as well as more secure authentication methods (one-time password tokens)

  14. ESnet authentication services and trust federations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muruganantham, Dhivakaran; Helm, Mike; Genovese, Tony

    2005-01-01

    ESnet provides authentication services and trust federation support for SciDAC projects, collaboratories, and other distributed computing applications. The ESnet ATF team operates the DOEGrids Certificate Authority, available to all DOE Office of Science programs, plus several custom CAs, including one for the National Fusion Collaboratory and one for NERSC. The secure hardware and software environment developed to support CAs is suitable for supporting additional custom authentication and authorization applications that your program might require. Seamless, secure interoperation across organizational and international boundaries is vital to collaborative science. We are fostering the development of international PKI federations by founding the TAGPMA, the American regional PMA, and the worldwide IGTF Policy Management Authority (PMA), as well as participating in European and Asian regional PMAs. We are investigating and prototyping distributed authentication technology that will allow us to support the 'roaming scientist' (distributed wireless via eduroam), as well as more secure authentication methods (one-time password tokens)

  15. Chromatography in authenticity and traceability tests of vegetable oils and dairy products: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 183-190 ISSN 0269-3879 Grant - others:CZ-HU(CZ) Cooperation programme Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chromatography * dairy products * vegetable oils Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.218, year: 2005

  16. Authentic Tasks to Foster Oral Production among English as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ortiz, Sandra Milena; Artunduaga Cuéllar, Marco Tulio

    2018-01-01

    Attaining oral production is a challenge for most English language teachers because most of the strategies implemented in class do not engage students in speaking activities. Tasks are an optimal alternative to engage learners in communicative exchanges. This article presents the results of a qualitative action research study examining the effects…

  17. Authentic Teachers: Student Criteria Perceiving Authenticity of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Authenticity is seen by many as a key for good learning and education. There is talk of authentic instruction, authentic learning, authentic problems, authentic assessment, authentic tools and authentic teachers. The problem is that while authenticity is an often-used adjective describing almost all aspects of teaching and learning, the concept…

  18. Multielement fingerprinting as a tool in origin authentication of PGI food products: Tropea red onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, Emilia; Naccarato, Attilio; Sindona, Giovanni; Stabile, Gaetano; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2011-08-10

    Tropea red onion ( Allium cepa L. var. Tropea) is among the most highly appreciated Italian products. It is cultivated in specific areas of Calabria and, due to its characteristics, was recently awarded with the protected geographical indications (PGI) certification from the European Union. A reliable classification of onion samples in groups corresponding to "Tropea" and "non-Tropea" categories is now available to the producers. This important goal has been achieved through the evaluation of three supervised chemometric approaches. Onion samples with PGI brand (120) and onion samples not cultivated following the production regulations (80) were digested by a closed-vessel microwave oven system. ICP-MS equipped with a dynamic reaction cell was used to determine the concentrations of 25 elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Pr, Rb, Sm, Sr, Tl, Y, and Zn). The multielement fingerprint was processed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) (standard and stepwise), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The cross-validation procedure has shown good results in terms of the prediction ability for all of the chemometric models: standard LDA, 94.0%; stepwise LDA, 94.5%; SIMCA, 95.5%; and BP-ANN, 91.5%.

  19. Tibetan Interpretations of Authenticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The four means of authentication are arguments for the authentication of Buddhist teachings in a Tibetan tradition. Different traditions emphasize different means of authentication. These reveal interesting facts about the self-image of these traditions.......The four means of authentication are arguments for the authentication of Buddhist teachings in a Tibetan tradition. Different traditions emphasize different means of authentication. These reveal interesting facts about the self-image of these traditions....

  20. HPLC-DAD-MS(n) characterisation of carotenoids from apricots and pumpkins for the evaluation of fruit product authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christina; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2008-09-15

    Carotenoids including carotenoid esters from six apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and from eight cultivars from three pumpkin species (Cucurbita maxima Duch., Cucurbita pepo L., and Cucurbita moschata Duch.) were extracted without saponification, separated on a C-30 reversed-phase column and characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The predominant free carotenoids were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. In contrast to previously published data, α-carotene could not be detected in apricots. Although the pumpkins showed significant differences in their free carotenoid profiles, major unesterified compounds different from those found in apricots could be determined. However, due to the natural heterogeneity, authentication of the apricot products cannot be accomplished exclusively using the profile of free carotenoids. Therefore, the investigations were extended to carotenoid esters. The xanthophyll ester profiles in pumpkins significantly differed from those in apricots in that the latter also contained both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas in pumpkins exclusively saturated fatty acids were detected. Admixtures of lower cost pumpkins could be detected in quantities of ⩾5% by increased contents of lutein and zeaxanthin, and by the appearance of antheraxanthin and α-carotene, respectively, depending on the added pumpkin cultivar, as well as the presence of characteristic lutein and antheraxanthin esters. However, pronounced differences in the carotenoid profiles of the investigated pumpkins and the partly minor amount of characteristic compounds lead to limitations of the detection of 5% level of admixture of pumpkin to apricot and of the method in general. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  2. AIS authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Users are invited to use the NICE password for AIS authentication. As announced in CNL June-August 2006 (see http://www.cerncourier.com/articles/cnl/3/6/14/1) it is possible to use the NICE username and password to log on to AIS. The procedure is now fully operational and users can themselves reset the AIS password such that the NICE password will be used for authentication required by AIS applications. We strongly recommend CERN users who have a NICE account (this is the case of most users) to do this, with the objective to reduce the number of passwords they need to remember. This can be achieved very easily, directly from the Change Password option on the AIS login (https://aislogin.cern.ch/). Users should just select the '[Change Password]' option displayed at the bottom of the page, provide the 'Old Password' and then click on the button 'Use Nice password' followed by 'Submit'. Change Password option on the AIS login windowSetting the AIS password - Use Nice Password It should be noted that the proce...

  3. Authenticity analyses of Phyllanthus amarus using barcoding coupled with HRM analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; Chomdej, Siriwadee; Ongchai, Siriwan

    2015-11-15

    The Phyllanthus genus, a plant used in traditional Thai medicine, has according to several pharmacopeias hepatoprotective properties. Not only is the anatomical morphology of these species relatively similar but they also share the Thai common names Look-Tai-Bai (ลูกใต้ใบ) and Yah-Tai-Bai (หญ้าใต้ใบ), which might cause confusion for laypersons. This study attempted to develop a method for accurate identification of Phyllanthus species, especially Phyllanthus amarus, and to detect contaminants in P. amarus products by using DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis (bar-HRM). Two plastid loci (rbcL and trnL) were chosen for DNA barcoding to generate a suitable primer for distinguishing Phyllanthus species by HRM analysis. The five species of Phyllanthus were subjected to amplification for testing the specificity and discrimination power of the designed primers derived from rbcL and trnL regions. Sensitivity of the method (DNA barcoding conjugated with HRM) to detect adulterant in P. amarus samples was evaluated. The commercial P. amarus products obtained from a local market were authenticated. The primer pair derived from trnL DNA barcoding (PhylltrnL) had more specificity and power of discrimination for Phyllanthus species than that derived from rbcL DNA barcoding (PhyllrbcL). The result showed that Tm of P. amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus airy-shawii, and Phyllanthus virgatus was 74.3±0.08, 73.04±0.07, 73.36±0.05, 72.21±0.06, 72.77±0.15°C, respectively. This method proved to be a very sensitive tool that can be used for rapid detection of contamination as low as 1% of other Phyllanthus species in P. amarus admixtures. All commercial products of P. amarus obtained from a local market in Thailand were found to contain pure raw materials of P. amarus without any substitution or contamination. Our results indicated that the use of DNA barcoding coupled with HRM was an

  4. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...... and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...

  5. "Thick" Authenticity: New Media and Authentic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David Williamson; Resnick, Mitchel

    1999-01-01

    Discusses authenticity as it is applied to educational interventions and argues that the concept should be analyzed more closely. Describes four kinds of authenticity; analyzes how computational media are well-suited to support different aspects of authentic learning; and discusses connectivity, modeling, and pluralism. Contains 75 references.…

  6. Post-Session Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session....... In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of authentication is different from session-less authentication (e.g., in RFID) and pre-session authentication (e.g., for access control.) Post......-session authentication, although a new term, is not a new concept; it is the basis of at least a few practical schemes. We, for the first time, systematically study it and present the underlying authentication model. Further, we show that an important class of problems is solvable using post-session authentication...

  7. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant increase in utilisation of embedded-microcontrollers in broad range of applications extending from commercial products to industrial process system monitoring. Furthermore, improvements in speed, size and power consumption of microcontrollers with added wireless capabilities has provided new generation of applications. These include versatile and\\ud low cost solutions in wireless sensor networking applications such as wireless system monitoring and ...

  8. Activity report for feasibility study on PKI authentication method with IC card in authentication system sub group of J-PARC information system group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Naoya; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Kiyoharu; Manabe, Atsushi; Yuasa, Fukuko

    2009-06-01

    The Authentication System Sub Group of J-PARC Information System Group completed the mapping of the several authentication methods in terms of the level of security. Of the methods, the PKI authentication method with IC card provides the Super High Security Level and will be adopted as the authentication method of several J-PARC Information Systems. We study the feasibility of this method with following four examples; (1) 'The EAP-TLS wireless LAN authentication method'. (2) 'The Web-SSL client authentication method in SSL-VPN connection'. (3) 'The PKI authentication method with a certificate issued by NAREGI-CA software stored in IC card.' (4) 'The PKI authentication method with Dual interface FeliCa card'. In each example, we confirmed the feasibility of the method in a practical way. In this report we present the details of the study. (author)

  9. The potential of three different PCR-related approaches for the authentication of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay-Knapp, Kirsten; Orland, Annika; König, Gabriele M; Knöss, Werner

    2018-04-01

    Herbal substances and preparations thereof play an important role in healthcare systems worldwide. Due to the variety of these products regarding origin, composition and processing procedures, appropriate methodologies for quality assessment need to be considered. A majority of herbal substances is administered as multicomponent mixtures, especially in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine, but also in finished medicinal products. Quality assessment of complex mixtures of herbal substances with conventional methods is challenging. Thus, emphasis of the present work was directed on the development of complementary methods to elucidate the composition of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products. An indispensable prerequisite for the safe and effective use of herbal medicines is the unequivocal authentication of the medicinal plants used therein. In this context, we investigated the potential of three different PCR-related methods in the characterization and authentication of herbal substances. A multiplex PCR assay and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay were established to analyze defined mixtures of the herbal substances Quercus cortex, Juglandis folium, Aristolochiae herba, Matricariae flos and Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizoma and a finished herbal medicinal product. Furthermore, a standard cloning approach using universal primers targeting the ITS region was established in order to allow the investigation of herbal mixtures with unknown content. The cloning approach had some limitations regarding the detection/recovery of the components in defined mixtures of herbal substances, but the complementary use of two sets of universal primer pairs increased the detection of components out of the mixture. While the multiplex PCR did not retrace all components in the defined mixtures of herbal substances, the established qPCR resulted in simultaneous and specific detection of the five target sequences in all defined

  10. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in the...

  11. Authenticating the Leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann

    As authentic leadership, with its dictum of being true to the self, has become increasingly influential among practitioners and mainstream leadership scholars, critical writers have drawn attention to the negative consequences of this development. Yet, few scholars have investigated the problem...... of authentication within discourse of authentic leadership. If authentic leadership is to make any sense, it is necessary to be able to distinguish the authentic from the inauthentic leader – in other words, it is necessary to authenticate the leader. This paper uses Gilles Deleuze’s reading of Plato as the point...... of departure for discussing the problem of authentication – separating the authentic leader form the inauthentic one – in the leadership guru Bill George’s model of authentic leadership. By doing so, the paper offers a way of conceptualizing the problem of authenticating leaders, as well as challenging...

  12. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  13. Post-Session Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed , Naveed; Jensen , Christian ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Full Papers; International audience; Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session. In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of a...

  14. Authentication Using Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Fusek, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This project deals with authentication by a mobile device. The mobile device with the operating system Android 5.0 was chosen as authentication device. The user can perform authentication with emulation of contactless chip cards by using Host-based Card Emulation, which runs via Near Field Communication, where cryptographic keys are stored in a secure environment KeyStore. The project continues with implementation of authentication via Bluetooth LE and describes application for authentization...

  15. First Application of Newly Developed FT-NIR Spectroscopic Methodology to Predict Authenticity of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Retail Products in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoba, Magdi M; Azizian, Hormoz; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kramer, John K G

    2017-05-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) has been a worldwide problem and a concern for government regulators for a long time. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to protect the US public against intentional adulteration of foods and has jurisdiction over deceptive label declarations. To detect EMA of olive oil and address food safety vulnerabilities, we used a previously developed rapid screening methodology to authenticate EVOO. For the first time, a recently developed FT-NIR spectroscopic methodology in conjunction with partial least squares analysis was applied to commercial products labeled EVOO purchased in College Park, MD, USA to rapidly predict whether they are authentic, potentially mixed with refined olive oil (RO) or other vegetable oil(s), or are of lower quality. Of the 88 commercial products labeled EVOO that were assessed according to published specified ranges, 33 (37.5%) satisfied the three published FT-NIR requirements identified for authentic EVOO products which included the purity test. This test was based on limits established for the contents of three potential adulterants, oils high in linoleic acid (OH-LNA), oils high in oleic acid (OH-OLA), palm olein (PO), and/or RO. The remaining 55 samples (62.5%) did not meet one or more of the criteria established for authentic EVOO. The breakdown of the 55 products was EVOO potentially mixed with OH-LNA (25.5%), OH-OLA (10.9%), PO (5.4%), RO (25.5%), or a combination of any of these four (32.7%). If assessments had been based strictly on whether the fatty acid composition was within the established ranges set by the International Olive Council (IOC), less than 10% would have been identified as non-EVOO. These findings are significant not only because they were consistent with previously published data based on the results of two sensory panels that were accredited by IOC but more importantly each measurement/analysis was accomplished in less than 5

  16. Authentication of synthetic environmental contaminants and their (bio)transformation products in toxicology: polychlorinated biphenyls as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueshu; Holland, Erika B; Feng, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Dong, Yao; Pessah, Isaac N; Duffel, Michael W; Robertson, Larry W; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-10

    Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment. Based on our experience with the synthesis of PCBs and their metabolites, we herein propose guidelines for the "authentication" of synthetic PCBs and, by extension, other organic toxicants, and provide a checklist for documenting the authentication of toxicants reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The objective is to expand guidelines proposed for different types of biomedical and preclinical studies to include a thorough authentication of specialty chemicals, such as PCBs and their derivatives, with the goal of ensuring transparent and open reporting of scientific results in toxicology and the environmental health sciences.

  17. [Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2013-05-01

    The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs.

  18. Authenticating the Leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmann Johnsen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In the wake of a series of corporate scandals, there has been a growing call for authentic leadership in order to ensure ethical conduct in contemporary organizations. Authentic leadership, however, depends upon the ability to draw a distinction between the authentic and inauthentic leader......’s inverted Platonism, the paper challenges the practice by which authentic leaders are distinguished from inauthentic leaders. In conclusion, the paper suggests that an adequate concept of authentic leadership should consider how ethics can occur when the authentic leader is able to critically reflect his...

  19. Managing authenticity: the paradox of great leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

    2005-12-01

    Leaders and followers both associate authenticity with sincerity, honesty, and integrity. It's the real thing--the attribute that uniquely defines great managers. But while the expression of a genuine self is necessary for great leadership, the concept of authenticity is often misunderstood, not least by leaders themselves. They often assume that authenticity is an innate quality--that a person is either genuine or not. In fact, the authors say, authenticity is largely defined by what other people see in you and, as such, can to a great extent be controlled by you. In this article, the authors explore the qualities of authentic leadership. To illustrate their points, they recount the experiences of some of the authentic leaders they have known and studied, including the BBC's Greg Dyke, Nestlé's Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, and Marks & Spencer's Jean Tomlin. Establishing your authenticity as a leader is a two-part challenge. You have to consistently match your words and deeds; otherwise, followers will never accept you as authentic. But it is not enough just to practice what you preach. To get people to follow you, you also have to get them to relate to you. This means presenting different faces to different audiences--a requirement that many people find hard to square with authenticity. But authenticity is not the product of manipulation. It accurately reflects aspects of the leader's inner self, so it can't be an act. Authentic leaders seem to know which personality traits they should reveal to whom, and when. Highly attuned to their environments, authentic leaders rely on an intuition born of formative, sometimes harsh experiences to understand the expectations and concerns of the people they seek to influence. They retain their distinctiveness as individuals, yet they know how to win acceptance in strong corporate and social cultures and how to use elements of those cultures as a basis for radical change.

  20. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haisu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  1. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haisu [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Tzortzakis, Stelios, E-mail: stzortz@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-23

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  2. Sum of ratios of products forα-μ random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi; Wang, Tian; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

  3. Sum of ratios of products forα-μ random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-09-01

    The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

  4. The Effect of Text Chat Assisted with Word Processors on Saudi English Major Students' Writing Accuracy and Productivity of Authentic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mosa Batianeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstractــ-This study explored the effects of using online chat and word processors on students' writing skills that include; organizing a text, spelling, punctuation, grammar, phrasal verbs, idioms, idiomatic expressions, pragmatics, creativity, vocabulary growth, content, relational words, conjunctions, authenticity, figures of speech, imagination, coherence, style, socio-cultural aspects, language use, and the production of authentic text. The study group consisted of students in the Department of Languages and Translation at Taibah University who registered for the Writing Two course in the first semester of the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Fourty subjects were divided into two sections: section one was assigned as an experimental group (supported by Facebook and Skype and section two was assigned as a control group and was asked to write their essays with paper and pencil. Facebook and Skype accounts were created for every student in the experimental group. Data was analyzed from pre-test and post-test results to evaluate the question posed by the study: Does the use of online text chat assisted with word processors help undergraduate students develop their writing skills more than traditional methods of teaching? The results revealed that students who worked with Facebook and Skype showed a significant improvement in their writing skills when compared to the control group. In light of these findings, it is recommended that online discussions via Facebook, Skype, and other social media sites should be utilized when teaching writing and the other language skills.

  5. Authentication Assurance Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Cash, James R.; Devaney, David M.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Hansen, Randy R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Pitts, W. Karl

    2002-01-01

    This Common Criteria approach has been applied to create a definition of Authentication Assurance Levels that can quantify the level of assurance reached for a system subject to a set of authentication procedures. The arms-control authentication application of the Common Criteria expands on more typical information security evaluations in that it must contend with information barriers and preclude sophisticated intentional subversion attempts.

  6. Authentication and consensus overhead in vehicular ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Jonathan; Mammeri, Zoubir

    Vehicular ad hoc networks aim at increasing passenger safety by exchanging warning messages between vehicles wirelessly. A main challenge is to resist to various malicious abuses and security attacks. However, any security mechanism comes with overhead. We analyze how the authentication algorithm

  7. Multi-factor authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  8. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  9. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yo-Hsuan; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Tang, Ssu-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people’s modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT) environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments. PMID:29621168

  10. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Hsuan Chuang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people’s modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments.

  11. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yo-Hsuan; Lo, Nai-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Tang, Ssu-Wei

    2018-04-05

    Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people's modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT) environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments.

  12. Pre-Authentication Schemes for UMTS-WLAN Interworking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Shidhani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interworking Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs introduce new challenges including the design of secured and fast handover protocols. Handover operations within and between networks must not compromise the security of the networks involved. In addition, handovers must be instantaneous to sustain the quality of service (QoS of the applications running on the User Equipment (UE. There is a need to design fast and secured handover protocols to operate in UMTS-WLAN interworking architectures. This paper proposes two secured pre-authentication protocols in the UMTS-WLAN interworking architectures. Performance analysis of the proposed protocols show superior results in comparison to existing protocols in terms of authentication signaling cost, authentication delay and load on critical nodes involved in the authentication procedure. Additionally, the security of the proposed protocols was verified by the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA security analyzer.

  13. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  14. [Problems of food authenticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2004-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning food authenticity were presented. Typical examples of food adulteration were described. The most known are adulteration of vegetable and fruit products, adulteration of wine, honeys, olive oil etc. The modern analytical techniques for detection of food adulteration were discussed. Among physicochemical methods isotopic techniques (SCIRA, IRMS, SNIF-NMR) were cited. The main spectral methods are: IACPAES, PyMs, FTIR, NIR. The chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC, HPAEC, HPTLC) with several kinds of detectors were described and the ELISA and PCR techniques are mentioned, too. The role of chemometrics as a way of several analytical data processing was highlighted. It was pointed out at the necessity of more rigorous control of food to support of all activity in area of fight with fraud in food industry.

  15. "Seeing" the Difference: The Importance of Visibility and Action as a Mark of "Authenticity" in Co-production Comment on "Collaboration and Co-production of Knowledge in Healthcare: Opportunities and Challenges".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Langley, Joe; Wolstenholme, Dan; Hampshaw, Susan

    2016-10-17

    The Rycroft-Malone paper states that co-production relies on 'authentic' collaboration as a context for action. Our commentary supports and extends this assertion. We suggest that 'authentic' co-production involves processes where participants can 'see' the difference that they have made within the project and beyond. We provide examples including: the use of design in health projects which seek to address power issues and make contributions visible through iteration and prototyping; and the development of 'actionable outputs' from research that are the physical embodiment of co-production. Finally, we highlight the elements of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) architecture that enables the inclusion of such collaborative techniques that demonstrate visible co-production. We reinforce the notion that maintaining collaboration requires time, flexible resources, blurring of knowledge producer-user boundaries, and leaders who promote epistemological tolerance and methodological exploration. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  16. Authentication over Noisy Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Lifeng; Gamal, Hesham El; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios,...

  17. Authentication: Hot and cool

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, E; Cohen, SA

    2012-01-01

    Seeking to shift the discussion of the concept of authenticity in tourism scholarship from the dominant concern with tourist experiences to the more sociological problem of the processes of authentication of tourist attractions, we conceptualize two analytically distinct, but practically often intersecting, modes of authentication of attractions, “cool” and “hot”. Through a range of examples, we demonstrate the implications of the two modes for the dynamics of the constitution of tourist attr...

  18. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  19. Electronic Devices, Methods, and Computer Program Products for Selecting an Antenna Element Based on a Wireless Communication Performance Criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method of operating an electronic device includes providing a plurality of antenna elements, evaluating a wireless communication performance criterion to obtain a performance evaluation, and assigning a first one of the plurality of antenna elements to a main wireless signal reception...... and transmission path and a second one of the plurality of antenna elements to a diversity wireless signal reception path based on the performance evaluation....

  20. Hash-chain-based authentication for IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PINTO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of everyday interconnected devices continues to increase and constitute the Internet of Things (IoT. Things are small computers equipped with sensors and wireless communications capabilities that are driven by energy constraints, since they use batteries and may be required to operate over long periods of time. The majority of these devices perform data collection. The collected data is stored on-line using web-services that, sometimes, operate without any special considerations regarding security and privacy. The current work proposes a modified hash-chain authentication mechanism that, with the help of a smartphone, can authenticate each interaction of the devices with a REST web-service using One Time Passwords (OTP while using open wireless networks. Moreover, the proposed authentication mechanism adheres to the stateless, HTTP-like behavior expected of REST web-services, even allowing the caching of server authentication replies within a predefined time window. No other known web-service authentication mechanism operates in such manner.

  1. Sensing pressure for authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; White, N.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    The use of signals resulting from tapping a rhythm on a pressure sensor is explored for authentication. The features used for authentication can be divided into rhythm and waveform features. This paper studies the use of waveform features. A verification scheme based on prototype waveforms is

  2. Authenticity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Authenticity at work, loosely defined as the degree to which an individual stays true to their core self, has impact on workers in the workplace. This thesis shows that authenticity at work can be measured with a reliable and valid instrument: the IAM Work. Furthermore, results of this thesis show

  3. AUTHENTICITY IN THE BLOGOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waclaw Branicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this article is to answer the question of whether writing a blog defined as a personal diary can help to better understand himself. Self-awareness is a prerequisite for authentic existence. In the first part analyzed the concept of authenticity. Pointed out the relationship of authenticity to the categories of freedom, truth and responsibility. The second part presents the relationship between authentic existence and the process of self-disclosure, which may take place in the blogosphere. In the third part presents the question whether a writing blog affects the level authenticity of existence. It was recognized that a key element of this phenomenon is the sense of responsibility.

  4. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  5. "Seeing" the Difference: The Importance of Visibility and Action as a Mark of "Authenticity" in Co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Langley, Joe; Wolstenholme, Dan; Hampshaw, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Rycroft-Malone paper states that co-production relies on ‘authentic’ collaboration as a context for action. Our commentary supports and extends this assertion. We suggest that ‘authentic’ co-production involves processes where participants can ‘see’ the difference that they have made within the project and beyond. We provide examples including: the use of design in health projects which seek to address power issues and make contributions visible through iteration and prototyping; and the development of ‘actionable outputs’ from research that are the physical embodiment of co-production. Finally, we highlight the elements of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) architecture that enables the inclusion of such collaborative techniques that demonstrate visible co-production. We reinforce the notion that maintaining collaboration requires time, flexible resources, blurring of knowledge producer-user boundaries, and leaders who promote epistemological tolerance and methodological exploration. PMID:28812827

  6. Real-time PCR method applied to seafood products for authentication of European sole (Solea solea) and differentiation of common substitute species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Beatriz; Lago, Fátima C; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Judged by quality and taste, the European sole (Solea solea) is considered one of the finest flatfish and is, thus, of considerable commercial value. In the present work, a specific fast real-time PCR was developed for the authentication of S. solea, i.e. to distinguish it from other related species and avoid substitution of this species, either deliberately or unintentionally. The method is based on a species-specific set of primers and MGB Taqman probe which amplifies a 116-bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1) ribosomal DNA region. This assay combines the high specificity and sensitivity of real-time PCR with the rapidity of the fast mode, allowing the detection of S. solea in a short period of time. The present methodology was validated for application to all types of manufactured products for the presence of S. solea, with successful results. Subsequently, the method was applied to 40 commercial samples to determine whether correct labeling had been employed in the market. It was demonstrated that the assay is a useful tool in monitoring and verifying food labeling regulations.

  7. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  8. Discovering your authentic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Bill; Sims, Peter; McLean, Andrew N; Mayer, Diana

    2007-02-01

    The ongoing problems in business leadership over the past five years have underscored the need for a new kind of leader in the twenty-first century: the authentic leader. Author Bill George, a Harvard Business School professor and the former chairman and CEO of Medtronic, and his colleagues, conducted the largest leadership development study ever undertaken. They interviewed 125 business leaders from different racial, religious, national, and socioeconomic backgrounds to understand how leaders become and remain authentic. Their interviews showed that you do not have to be born with any particular characteristics or traits to lead. You also do not have to be at the top of your organization. Anyone can learn to be an authentic leader. The journey begins with leaders understanding their life stories. Authentic leaders frame their stories in ways that allow them to see themselves not as passive observers but as individuals who learn from their experiences. These leaders make time to examine their experiences and to reflect on them, and in doing so they grow as individuals and as leaders. Authentic leaders also work hard at developing self-awareness through persistent and often courageous self-exploration. Denial can be the greatest hurdle that leaders face in becoming self-aware, but authentic leaders ask for, and listen to, honest feedback. They also use formal and informal support networks to help them stay grounded and lead integrated lives. The authors argue that achieving business results over a sustained period of time is the ultimate mark of authentic leadership. It may be possible to drive short-term outcomes without being authentic, but authentic leadership is the only way to create long-term results.

  9. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  10. A Review Of Authentication Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh A. Lal; Salendra Prasad; Mohammed Farik

    2015-01-01

    Authentication is process of granting a user access to an information system. There are three main types of authentication mechanisms password entry smart card and biometric. Each authentication mechanism functions differently and has their strengths and weakness. In this paper we review different types of authentication mechanisms their vulnerabilities and recommend novel solutions.

  11. A Review Of Authentication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh A. Lal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication is process of granting a user access to an information system. There are three main types of authentication mechanisms password entry smart card and biometric. Each authentication mechanism functions differently and has their strengths and weakness. In this paper we review different types of authentication mechanisms their vulnerabilities and recommend novel solutions.

  12. Richard Peters and Valuing Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, M. A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Peters has been praised for the authenticity of his philosophy, and inquiry into aspects of the development of his philosophy reveals a profound authenticity. Yet authenticity is something he seems not to favour. The apparent paradox is resolved by observing historical changes in the understanding of authenticity as an important value.…

  13. Secure Rateless Deluge: Pollution-Resistant Reprogramming and Data Dissemination for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Zhang, Yu; Jin meifang, J.; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    A network reprogramming protocol is made for updating the firmware of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in situ. For security reasons, every firmware update must be authenticated to prevent an attacker from installing its code in the network. While existing schemes can provide authentication services,

  14. STUDENTS’ POTENTIAL FOR AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdja Solesa-Grijak; Dragan Solesa; Nedjo Kojic

    2015-01-01

    To know yourself and to act accordingly has been seen as a moral imperative throughout history. The aim of this research was to determine potential of students for authentic leadership and relation between their authentic personality and potential for authentic leadership. The sample consisted of students (N=133) from Serbia (male – 59% and female – 41%). The average age of students was M=21.9. Instruments used were Authenticity Scale (Wood et al., 2008) and Authentic Leadership Self-Assessme...

  15. Identification and Authentication Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... We will accomplish the audit objective in two phases. In this phase, we reviewed current DoD Component policies on the use of identification and authentication controls to access information systems...

  16. Validation of Remote Sensing Retrieval Products using Data from a Wireless Sensor-Based Online Monitoring in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Cheng, Xiao; Yang, Rongjin; Liu, Qiang; Qiu, Yubao; Zhang, Jialin; Cai, Erli; Zhao, Long

    2016-01-01

    Of the modern technologies in polar-region monitoring, the remote sensing technology that can instantaneously form large-scale images has become much more important in helping acquire parameters such as the freezing and melting of ice as well as the surface temperature, which can be used in the research of global climate change, Antarctic ice sheet responses, and cap formation and evolution. However, the acquirement of those parameters is impacted remarkably by the climate and satellite transit time which makes it almost impossible to have timely and continuous observation data. In this research, a wireless sensor-based online monitoring platform (WSOOP) for the extreme polar environment is applied to obtain a long-term series of data which is site-specific and continuous in time. Those data are compared and validated with the data from a weather station at Zhongshan Station Antarctica and the result shows an obvious correlation. Then those data are used to validate the remote sensing products of the freezing and melting of ice and the surface temperature and the result also indicated a similar correlation. The experiment in Antarctica has proven that WSOOP is an effective system to validate remotely sensed data in the polar region. PMID:27869668

  17. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa [NIGL, BGS, Keyworth, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Richards, Gemma J. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom); Brereton, Nicola [The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Knowles, Toby G. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  18. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J.; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  19. Seamless and secure communications over heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of the requirements, challenges, design issues and major techniques for seamless and secure communications over heterogeneous wireless networks. It summarizes and provides detailed insights into the latest research on handoff management, mobility management, fast authentication and security management to support seamless and secure roaming for mobile clients. The reader will also learn about the challenges in developing relevant technologies and providing ubiquitous Internet access over heterogeneous wireless networks. The authors have extensive experience in im

  20. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane A; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Authentication of pure L-leucine products manufactured in China by discriminating between plant and animal sources using nitrogen stable isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria; Tang, Shijiang

    2013-03-01

     L-leucine products among other branched chain amino acid supplements are highly susceptible to economically motivated adulteration. Curbing this menace is critical and timely. Hence, the δ(15) N composition of the L-leucine derived from plants and animals sources was estimated. The trophic enrichment phenomenon of δ(15) N composition was utilized to elucidate the sources. We finally established the distinction between the respective sources. Samples of plant sources (maize and soybean) and that of animal sources (pig fur and duck feather) were analyzed for δ(15) N isotopic signatures. An elemental analyzer which was connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer operated in the continuous flow mode was utilized. The raw materials were obtained from China. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated lower δ(15) N values of range -0.7344‰ to 2.384‰ and 1.032‰ to 2.064‰ for maize and soybean samples, respectively. Whereas, a range of 3.860‰ to 6.011‰ and 5.875‰ to 6.011‰ was, respectively, detected in pig fur and duck feather samples. The δ(15) N difference in plants and animals samples was significant (F = 165.0; P = 1.675 E-10 for maize and pig fur samples; F = 212.8; P = 0.0001284 for soybean and duck feather samples). It was observed that δ(15) N trophic enrichment is helpful in elucidating the respective sources. The authors can emphatically assert that the range of δ(15) N composition of L-leucine derived from plants sources within the study area is -1.000‰ to 3.000‰ whereas the range in animal sources is 4.000‰ to 9.000‰. Practical Application This study provides a reliable approach in verifying the authenticity of not only L-leucine products but also other branched chain amino acid supplements and thereby would help in fraud detection of any economically motivated adulteration and mislabeling of these products. When coupled with H and O stable

  2. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  3. Authenticity analyses of Rhizoma Paridis using barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Fang, Hai-Lan; Xiong, Chao; Li, Xi-Wen; Wang, Ping; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Rhizoma Paridis (Chonglou) is a commonly used and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. -Mazz. and Paris polyphylla Smith var . chinensis (Franch.) Hara are the two main sources of Chonglou under the monograph of Rhizoma Paridis in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the local marketplace, however, this medicine is prone to be accidentally contaminated, deliberately substituted or admixed with other species that are similar to Rhizoma Paridis in shape and color. Consequently, these adulterations might compromise quality control and result in considerable health concerns for consumers. This study aims to develop a rapid and sensitive method for accurate identification of Rhizoma Paridis and its common adulterants. DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting analysis was applied in this research to distinguish Rhizoma Paridis from its adulteration. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode was selected for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of the selected species. DNA of the tested herbal medicines was isolated and their melting profiles were generated and compared with the standard melting profile of P. polyphylla var. chinensis . The results indicate that the ITS2 molecular regions coupled with HRM analysis can effectively differentiate nine herbal species, including two authentic origins of Chonglou and their seven common adulterants. Ten herbal medicines labeled "Chonglou" obtained from a local market were collected and identified with our methods, and their sequence information was analyzed to validate the accuracy of HRM analysis. DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis is a accurate, reliable, rapid, cost-effective and robust tool, which could contribute to the quality control of Rhizoma Paridis in the supply chain of the natural health product industry (NHP).

  4. Consideration of historical authenticity in heritage tourism planning and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Wiles; Gail Vander Stoep

    2008-01-01

    A review of heritage tourism literature reveals a fundamental tension over the use, function, and degree of authenticity of historic resources used for tourism development. Using a case study approach, this paper explores how stakeholder beliefs regarding historical authenticity influence the heritage tourism products, services, and experiences created for visitors and...

  5. Secure and robust authentication for DC MicroGrids based on power talk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for secure and reliable authentication of Distributed Energy Resources to the centralized secondary/tertiary control system of a DC MicroGrid (MG), networked using the IEEE 802.11 wireless interface. The key idea is to perform the authentication using power talk...... - a powerline communication technique executed by the primary control loops of the power electronic converters. In addition, the scheme also promotes direct and active participation of the control system in the authentication process, a feature not commonly encountered in current networked control systems...

  6. Wireless Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    completely change the entire landscape. For example, under the quantum computing regime, factoring prime numbers requires only polynomial time (i.e., Shor’s...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0206 Wireless Cybersecurity Biao Chen Syracuse University April 2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 21-02-2013 FINAL REPORT 01-04-2009 TO 30-11-2012 Wireless Cybersecurity

  7. Papers of the PTAC wireless, telecommunications and e-business forum : using wireless, SCADA, and well data life cycle management technology to boost productivity and reduce costs in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of this forum was the use of wireless, telecommunications and e-business as a means of improving efficiency and productivity in the upstream oil and gas industry. The use of new communications technologies in asset monitoring and business performance was discussed, as well as industrial automation and wireless connectivity in conjunction with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. New technologies in the areas of maintenance and decision support and synergy integration were introduced. New health, safety and environmental performance tools were presented. Issues concerning secure communications and document exchange expenses were also introduced, as well as different methods of closing data gaps between joint interest partners. Specific tools and software concerning compliance management with web-based and remote field data capture technology were discussed, as well as the collection and display of well-site data using newly developed BlueGauge technology. Eleven papers were presented in this forum, of which three were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  8. Papers of the PTAC wireless, telecommunications and e-business forum : using wireless, SCADA, and well data life cycle management technology to boost productivity and reduce costs in the upstream oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The main focus of this forum was the use of wireless, telecommunications and e-business as a means of improving efficiency and productivity in the upstream oil and gas industry. The use of new communications technologies in asset monitoring and business performance was discussed, as well as industrial automation and wireless connectivity in conjunction with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. New technologies in the areas of maintenance and decision support and synergy integration were introduced. New health, safety and environmental performance tools were presented. Issues concerning secure communications and document exchange expenses were also introduced, as well as different methods of closing data gaps between joint interest partners. Specific tools and software concerning compliance management with web-based and remote field data capture technology were discussed, as well as the collection and display of well-site data using newly developed BlueGauge technology. Eleven papers were presented in this forum, of which three were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  10. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  11. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  12. Brand new authentic places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    the relation and interplay between the two. This study strives to fill this gap by ethnographically tracing the process from design to occupancy including the role of branding as a means to create authenticity. The concept of authenticity is often associated with old houses and neighbourhoods, but also in new......How are places and material surroundings ascribed with meaning when new residential neighbourhoods are designed, branded and taken into use? Existing research on housing, neighbourhoods and urban design tends to take the perspective of either the architect or the user rather than to explore...... neighbourhoods stories of authenticity seems to be of great importance giving value and identity to place and people. By way of design and branding new places are implied with notions of the real, the original and the unique referring to e.g. its historical past, architectural uniqueness, sustainability or sense...

  13. Authentic leadership to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Vlado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic leadership is the latest evolutionary stage in leadership development and emphasizes the leader's authenticity. The construct of authenticity was researched by ancient Greek philosophers as 'know thy-self ', and 'thy true self '. Authentic leadership began to develop after 2004. The main reason why the researchers place so much attention to authentic leadership is fact that authentic leadership reaches all of the employees in organizations. Authentic leaders must identify the strengths of their followers and help them with their development and integration towards a common goal, purpose, vision and identity of the organization. Authentic leadership is seen as the final stage in the development of leadership styles, properties of this leadership style, and the consequences of this style have not been fully explored. In our paper we will explore this new style of leadership and its implications.

  14. Two-factor authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Stanislav, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the book, readers will learn about the various technical methods by which two-factor authentication is implemented, security concerns with each type of implementation, and contextual details to frame why and when these technologies should be used. Readers will also be provided with insight about the reasons that two-factor authentication is a critical security control, events in history that have been important to prove why organization and individual would want to use two factor, and core milestones in the progress of growing the market.

  15. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  16. Converse PUF-based authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocabas, U.; Peter, Andreas; Katzenbeisser, S.; Sadeghi, A.

    Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are key tools in the construction of lightweight authentication and key exchange protocols. So far, all existing PUF-based authentication protocols follow the same paradigm: A resource-constrained prover, holding a PUF, wants to authenticate to a resource-rich

  17. Topic Map for Authentic Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Wandsvik, Atle; Zare, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    E-business is a new trend in Internet use. Authentic travel is an approach to travel and travel business which helps the traveler experience what is authentic in the travel destination. But how can the traveler find those small authentic spots and organize them together to compose a vacation? E-business techniques, combined withTopic Maps, can help.

  18. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  19. Tools for Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work

  20. Learners' Perspectives on Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Monika M. Th.

    A survey investigated the attitudes of second language learners about authentic texts, written and oral, used for language instruction. Respondents were 186 randomly-selected university students of German. The students were administered a 212-item questionnaire (the items are appended) that requested information concerning student demographic…

  1. Tools for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  2. Facilitating Authentic Becoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A "Model of Authentic Becoming" that conceptualizes learning as a continuous and ongoing embodied and relational process, and uses social constructionism assumptions as well as Kolb's experiential learning model as its point of departure, is presented. Through a focus on the subjective, embodied, and relational nature of organizational life, the…

  3. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  4. India: a Case of Fragile Wireless Service and Technology Adoption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); J. Motiwalla

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWireless penetration and the Indian economy have grown significantly over the past few years, but how robust and sustainable is the adoption of wireless services and products? Several papers have discussed India as a wireless service and product market, and sometimes tried to assess

  5. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  6. South African managers in public service: On being authentic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Barnard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work.

  7. South African managers in public service: on being authentic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Antoni; Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work-life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work.

  8. Wireless Tots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lee-Allison

    2003-01-01

    The first wireless technology program for preschoolers was implemented in January at the Primrose School at Bentwater in Atlanta, Georgia, a new corporate school operated by Primrose School Franchising Co. The new school serves as a testing and training facility for groundbreaking educational approaches, including emerging innovations in…

  9. Wireless Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  10. Authentic feminist? Authenticity and feminist identity in teenage feminists' talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder-Dawe, Octavia; Gavey, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    This article explores how young people's feminist identities take shape in conjunction with a contemporary ideal of personal authenticity: to know and to express the 'real me'. Drawing from interviews with 18 teenagers living in Auckland, New Zealand, we examine a novel convergence of authenticity and feminism in participants' identity talk. For social psychologists interested in identity and politics, this convergence is intriguing: individualizing values such as authenticity are generally associated with disengagement with structural critique and with a repudiation of politicized and activist identities. Rather than seeking to categorize authentic feminism as an instance of either 'good/collective' or 'bad/individualized' feminist politics, we use discourse analysis to examine how the identity position of authentic feminist was constructed and to explore implications for feminist politics. On one hand, interviewees mobilized authentic feminism to affirm their commitment to normative liberal values of authenticity and self-expression. At the same time, the position of authentic feminist appeared to authorize risky feminist identifications and to justify counter-normative feelings, desires, and actions. To conclude, we explore how encountering others' intolerance of authentic feminism exposed interviewees to the limits of authenticity discourse, propelling some towards new understandings of the social world and their space for action within it. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  12. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An’s scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user’s ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An’s scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge’s scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge’s scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost. PMID:28459867

  13. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  14. Haunted by the authentic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    and individual interviews with relevant guests at the Italian restaurant Sticchi’s in Aalborg, Denmark. Guests have been selected for qualitative interviews on the basis of the quantitative questionnaire that random guests have filled out in February 2013. Moreover, netnographic observation of the restaurant......Research description and purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to explore Danish guests’ experience when consuming ‘authentic’ Italian food in Italian restaurants in Denmark. In this context, the aim of the research is to engage in a discussion of the concept of authenticity in ethnic food...... consumption, and the guests’ experience with and reaction to the authentic culinary experience in ethnic restaurants in the consumers’ home country. Design/Methodology: The paper methodology is based on the use of mixed methods. A collection of primary quantitative and qualitative data through a questionnaire...

  15. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  16. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  17. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study of employm......Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study...... of employment and work parameters in light of religious teachings on the social question at national, organizational, or firm-specific levels. The function of a criterion variable is described, noting that the switch from a dependent variable approach introduces an open-system dynamism to social science...

  18. FPGA Authentication Methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Punnoose, Ratish J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mannos, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Neil [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Evans, Neil [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing designers of equipment to be used in a nuclear arms control treaty is how to convince the other party in the treaty to trust its results and functionality. Whether the host provides equipment meant to prove treaty obligations and the inspector needs to gain that trust (commonly referred to as authentication), or the inspector provides this equipment and the host needs to gain this trust (commonly considered to be included in certification), one party generally has higher confidence in the equipment at the start of a treaty regime and the other party needs to gain that confidence prior to use. While we focus on authentication in this document—that is, the inspector gaining confidence in host-provided equipment—our conclusions will likely apply to host certification of inspector-provided equipment.

  19. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop ...

  20. The influence of trait-emotional intelligence on authentic leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Authentic leadership is a relatively new construct that has recently gained increasing attention resulting from challenges faced by organisations relating to ethical meltdowns, corruption and fraud. Research purpose: This study seeks to explore the relationship between components of emotional intelligence and authentic leadership. Motivation for the study: Several authors called for more empirical investigations into the antecedents of authentic leadership. Despite the important role that emotions play in leadership, empirical studies were lacking about the influence of different components of emotional intelligence to authentic leadership. Research design, approach and method: Data were collected, using questionnaires obtained from 341 full-time employed applicants to MBA and leadership programmes in a South African Business School. Relationships between variables were analysed, using Pearson product-moment correlations and stepwise multiple regression. Main findings: The results indicated that emotional intelligence has positive statistically significant associations with authentic leadership. Specifically, those who scored high on all the emotional intelligence components also scored high on authentic leadership. In addition, the emotional intelligence component of empathy was a statistically significant predictor of authentic leadership. Practical/managerial implications: Initial findings suggest the potential value of recognising and developing the emotional intelligence of leaders to enable them to lead their organisations authentically to desired, successful outcomes. As empathy has been shown to be the most important emotional intelligence predictor of authentic leadership, leaders need to understand when subordinates perceive a leader as displaying empathic emotion. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature and empirical research on the antecedents of authentic leadership.

  1. Integration of RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miodrag; Bolic; Amiya; Nayak; Ivan; Stojmenovi.

    2007-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two important wireless technologies that have wide variety of applications and provide limitless future potentials. However,RFID and sensor networks almost are under development in parallel way. Integration of RFID and wireless sensor networks attracts little attention from research community. This paper first presents a brief introduction on RFID,and then investigates recent research works,new products/patents and applications that integrate RFID with sensor networks. Four types of integration are discussed. They are integrating tags with sensors,integrating tags with wireless sensor nodes,integrating readers with wireless sensor nodes and wire-less devices,and mix of RFID and sensors. New challenges and future works are discussed in the end.

  2. k-Times Anonymous Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Furukawa, Jun; Sako, Kazue

    We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features: 1) no one, not even an authority, can identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, 2) anyone can trace, without help from the authority, dishonest users who have been authenticated beyond the allowable number by using the records of these authentications. Our scheme can be applied to e-voting, e-cash, electronic coupons, and trial browsing of content. In these applications, our scheme, unlike the previous one, conceals users' participation from protocols and guarantees that they will remain anonymous to everyone.

  3. An Anonymous Access Authentication Scheme Based on Proxy Ring Signature for CPS-WMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Access security and privacy have become a bottleneck for the popularization of future Cyber-Physical System (CPS networks. Furthermore, users’ need for privacy-preserved access during movement procedure is more urgent. To address the anonymous access authentication issue for CPS Wireless Mesh Network (CPS-WMN, a novel anonymous access authentication scheme based on proxy ring signature is proposed. A hierarchical authentication architecture is presented first. The scheme is then achieved from the aspect of intergroup and intragroup anonymous mutual authentication through proxy ring signature mechanism and certificateless signature mechanism, respectively. We present a formal security proof of the proposed protocol with SVO logic. The simulation and performance analysis demonstrate that the proposed scheme owns higher efficiency and adaptability than the typical one.

  4. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING NONPARAMETRIC METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    S V Sheela; K R Radhika

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determine...

  5. Utilizing a vast and complex wireless communication network in a sustainable biosystem for the production of fiber for use in bioenergy, paper and solid wood production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, N. [GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm, Boardman, OR (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a tree farm in eastern Oregon that using a sophisticated communication system to irrigate and chemigate the trees. The GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm (GWR BTF) covers about 100 km{sup 2}. A wireless network of 134 radio modems supports the irrigation and chemigation on 1,930 hectares of very high-value agriculture crops, including organic crops. This large network comprises 2 totally independent licensed wireless networks using a combination of Standard and High-Power industrial strength radio modems. One of the most advanced and sophisticated Irrigation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (I-SCADA) systems in the world uses this dual wireless network to operate the worlds largest contiguous drip irrigated farm and also the largest Tree Farm in US. This I-SCADA system has more than 2,800 sensors that remotely monitor a massive irrigation system of 19 individual pump stations with 100 pumps, 46 center pivots, 369 individual blocks of fields, 850 kilometers of buried pipe and 31,000 kilometres of drip line. The reliability of the I-SCADA system and wireless network has enabled BTF to sustain its position as a world leader in large scale drip irrigation efficiency.

  6. Authentication method for authenticating a first party to a second party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    An authentication system and method is presented for authenticating a first party to a second party, where an operation is performed on condition that the authentication succeeds. The authentication method verifies whether the first party is authenticated. If the first party is not authenticated,

  7. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Franziska Bork

    2013-01-01

    ' was understood in the Enlightenment and what techniques were used to stage the body when the concept gained currency, for instance in the writings of Rousseau. My analysis makes clear that 'bodily authenticity' on the two TV shows is achieved by strictly following gender-normative codes of beauty...... the 'authentic' ideal in a total of seven pieces. These strategies are hyperbole which exaggerates the beauty code implicit in 'authentic appearance'; multiplicity which undermines 'authenticity's' essentialism and estrangement which denies the notion of individual authorship. In conclusion, I place the staging...

  8. Race for the wireless robot platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    With the world going wireless, Norwegian energy champion Statoil Hydro is pushing forward with an unmanned, robot-operated production platform called Mesa Verde. Enlisted to solve safety and operational issues and help the oil company gain a cost edge on global competitors is an Emerson-Cisco wireless alliance itself facing stiff competition

  9. Authentication, privacy, security can exploit brainwave by biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Sweet, Charles; Sweet, James; Noel, Steven; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    We seek to augment the current Common Access Control (CAC) card and Personal Identification Number (PIN) verification systems with an additional layer of classified access biometrics. Among proven devices such as fingerprint readers and cameras that can sense the human eye's iris pattern, we introduced a number of users to a sequence of 'grandmother images', or emotionally evoked stimuli response images from other users, as well as one of their own, for the purpose of authentication. We performed testing and evaluation of the Authenticity Privacy and Security (APS) brainwave biometrics, similar to the internal organ of the human eye's iris which cannot easily be altered. `Aha' recognition through stimulus-response habituation can serve as a biomarker, similar to keystroke dynamics analysis for inter and intra key fluctuation time of a memorized PIN number (FIST). Using a non-tethered Electroencephalogram (EEG) wireless smartphone/pc monitor interface, we explore the appropriate stimuli-response biomarker present in DTAB low frequency group waves. Prior to login, the user is shown a series of images on a computer display. They have been primed to click their mouse when the image is presented. DTAB waves are collected with a wireless EEG and are sent via Smartphone to a cloud based processing infrastructure. There, we measure fluctuations in DTAB waves from a wireless, non-tethered, single node EEG device between the Personal Graphic Image Number (PGIN) stimulus image and the response time from an individual's mental performance baseline. Towards that goal, we describe an infrastructure that supports distributed verification for web-based EEG authentication. The performance of machine learning on the relative Power Spectral Density EEG data may uncover features required for subsequent access to web or media content. Our approach provides a scalable framework wrapped into a robust Neuro-Informatics toolkit, viable for use in the Biomedical and mental health

  10. PhytoAuthent: Molecular authentication of complex herbal food supplements for safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ichim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The PhytoAuthent project was structured to gather, test, develop and apply, in real life case scenarios, molecular techniques, such as biochemical fingerprinting and DNA sequence-based methods, for plant identification of constituents in complex herbal products. The project had a strong focus on applied aspects like protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination of herbal products.

  11. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  12. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  13. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y; Newe, T [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2007-07-15

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided.

  14. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

  15. Authentic, Original, and Valuable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....

  16. Diffie-Hellman Key Based Authentication in Proxy Mobile IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunGon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication service providers have been showing strong interest in Proxy Mobile IPv6 for providing network-based IP mobility management. This could be a prominent way to support IP mobility to mobile nodes, because Proxy Mobile IPv6 requires minimal functionalities on the mobile node. While several extensions for Proxy Mobile IPv6 are being developed in the Internet Engineering Task Force, there has been little attentions paid to developing efficient authentication mechanisms. An authentication scheme for a mobility protocol must protect signaling messages against various security threats, e.g., session stealing attack, intercept attack by redirection, replay attack, and key exposure, while minimizing authentication latency. In this paper, we propose a Diffie-Hellman key based authentication scheme that utilizes the low layer signaling to exchange Diffie-Hellman variables and allows mobility service provisioning entities to exchange mobile node's profile and ongoing sessions securely. By utilizing the low layer signaling and context transfer between relevant nodes, the proposed authentication scheme minimizes authentication latency when the mobile node moves across different networks. In addition, thanks to the use of the Diffie-Hellman key agreement, pre-established security associations between mobility service provisioning entities are not required in the proposed authentication scheme so that network scalability in an operationally efficient manner is ensured. To ascertain its feasibility, security analysis and performance analysis are presented.

  17. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.’s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.’s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client’s privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay. PMID:27171160

  18. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs, and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  19. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera: a quality control study of products commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia M. S. de Ferrante

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (carqueja is a medicinal plant used for stomach pain, bad digestion, heart bum, kidney problems and constipation. The objective of the present work was a quality study of carqueja commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Paraná-Brazil using gas chromatography techniques (GC/FID for analyses of the essential oil, which was extracted through hydrodistillation using a Clevenger system. Macro and microscopic analyses were also done. Some samples were contaminated by other species of plants, fungi and small insects, some of them could be identified. Among all samples, 21 showed similar chromatographic profile to the standard oil, and 7 had different profile in relation to the standard. The chromatogram analyses showed that most of the analyzed samples had the similar profile as the standard oil of Baccharis trimera. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera may be useful as a rapid tool to ensure quality control and safety monitoring of this kind of herbal pharmaceuticals.

  20. Picturing the authenticity of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraemer, U.A.F.; Salmela, M.; Mayer, V.

    2009-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we talk about authentic and inauthentic emotions. Is this just a façon de parler that does not have any reference in the "real world?" I will support the thesis that it makes sense to talk about the authenticity of emotions in our everyday practice, disregarding the question

  1. Authenticity and Empathy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Lauren; Kukar, Polina

    2018-01-01

    The educational enthusiasm for both authenticity and empathy makes a number of assumptions about universal virtues, self-hood, the role of emotion in education, and the role of the teacher. In this article, we argue that authenticity and empathy are both nebulous virtues that teachers and students are called to embody with little reflection on how…

  2. AVNG authentication features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Greg [LLNL; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement (called authentication). An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information. To achieve both goals, the IB allows only very limited, previously agreed-on information to be displayed to the monitoring party. In addition to this limited information from the potentially classified measurement, other measurements are performed and procedures are put in place for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. In this presentation, we will discuss the techniques used in the AVNG attribute measuring system to facilitate authentication of the verification measurements by the monitors. These techniques include measuring unclassified items while allowing more information to be displayed; having the monitor understand the system function, design, and implementation; and randomly selecting the order of measurements.

  3. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  4. Authenticity and commoditization at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    This paper investigates how interest and affect are entangled in the built environment of new Danish homes. The paper unfolds tensions and conflicts in the process from design through branding to occupancy of the house, and the relationship between authenticity and commoditization is explored....... In Denmark, the concept of authenticity is often associated with old houses. By way of design and branding, though, new neighbourhoods are made authentic, referring to their historical past, architectural uniqueness or sense of community. Based on a fieldwork in three new residential buildings in Copenhagen......, the paper explores the inherent paradox of the staging of authenticity. Rather than viewing the house solely from the perspective of the resident, the study ethnographically traces the entire process from design to occupancy in order to investigate how notions of value and authenticity are negotiated...

  5. Securing Wireless Local Area Networks with GoC PKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    profit de la technologie d’infrastructure à clé publique (ICP) du Gouvernement du Canada (GC) pour une authentification forte des utilisateurs...environnements protégés du GC lorsqu’il fonctionne en mode entreprise et qu’il est combiné à des certificats délivrés par l’ICP du GC et à une...on the WPA2 secured wireless link. The VPN gateway carries out VPN authentication with the same user certificates used to perform WLAN authentication

  6. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  7. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  8. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Information authentication using an optical dielectric metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Mei, Shengtao

    2017-01-01

    Metasurfaces that consist of a monolayer of photonic artificial atoms are emerging as attractive materials for optical wavefront-shaping and polarization-control devices. By integrating nanophotonics with a phase-encoding technique, we demonstrate theoretically an information authentication method using dielectric metasurfaces that can be verified without information disclosure at visible wavelengths. The required secured diffraction pattern can be simply achieved by a metasurface hologram with a small number of pixels, which means increased efficiency and lower costs of production. Although the decrypted image is noisy, it can be authenticated by recognition algorithms where the primary image is used as a reference. The results show that the dielectric metasurface approach, providing great flexibility in the design of the wavefront of light and compatible with the CMOS technology, can be potentially applied in optical information security. (letter)

  10. Applications of medical wireless LAN systems (MedLAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Banitsas, KA; Istepanian, RSH; Tachakra, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Journal of Medical Marketing. The definitive publisher-authenticated version "Konstantinos A. Banitsas, R.S.H. Istepanian, Sapal Tachakra. Applications of medical Wireless LAN systems (MedLAN). Journal of Medical Marketing, Volume 2, Number 2, 1 January 2002 , pp. 136-142(7)" is available online at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/pal/jomm/2002/00000002/00000002/art00008. In this paper the Wireless LAN (WLAN)...

  11. Physical layer approaches for securing wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the outstanding work of physical-layer (PHY) security, including  the recent achievements of confidentiality and authentication for wireless communication systems by channel identification. A practical approach to building unconditional confidentiality for Wireless Communication security by feedback and error correcting code is introduced and a framework of PHY security based on space time block code (STBC) MIMO system is demonstrated.  Also discussed is a scheme which combines cryptographic techniques implemented in the higher layer with the physical layer security approach

  12. AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Pavlovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates authentic leadership models in the organizational culture of a school. The aim of this quantitative research is to define the factors of authentic leadership in educational institutions in order to provide answers to the questions related to the existence of specific authentic leadership in a school. The sample included 227 randomly selected directors of secondary and primary schools in the former Yugoslav republics: Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republic Srpska. The research included the use of an ALQ questionnaire for the estimation of leadership behavior. The components of authentic leadership are defined using factor analysis and other statistics techniques. The findings developed in this research indicated the fact that directors in educational institutions have a specific authentic leadership style. We suggest the concept of authentic leadership based on the four following factors: Communication-conformist, self-consciousness, self-discovery, and self-concept. Supporting these factors provides the directors with the possibility of obtaining a high level of authentic leadership.

  13. Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Joao G.M.; Schwalbach, Peter; Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

  14. AARC: First draft of the Blueprint Architecture for Authentication and Authorisation Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Biancini, A.; Florio, L.; Haase, M.; Hardt, M.; Jankowski, M.; Jensen, J.; Kanellopoulos, C.; Liampotis, N.; Licehammer, S.; Memon, S.; van Dijk, N.; Paetow, S.; Prochazka, M.; Sallé, M.; Solagna, P.

    2016-01-01

    AARC (Authentication and Authorisation for Research Communities) is a two-year EC-funded project to develop and pilot an integrated cross-discipline authentication and authorisation framework, building on existing authentication and authorisation infrastructures (AAIs) and production federated infrastructure. AARC also champions federated access and offers tailored training to complement the actions needed to test AARC results and to promote AARC outcomes. This article describes a high-level ...

  15. Wireless Crew Communication Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Ronald D.; Romero, Andy; Juge, David

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing discussions with crew currently onboard the ISS as well as the crew debriefs from completed ISS missions indicate that issues associated with the lack of wireless crew communication results in increased crew task completion times and lower productivity, creates cable management issues, and increases crew frustration.

  16. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36... Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of... recognized in another jurisdiction. Documents which may require authentication include legal instruments...

  17. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Margaret M; O'Neil, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women.

  18. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Margaret M.; O?Neil, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women.

  19. [Development of Bluetooth wireless sensors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, C; Schwaibold, M; Roth, H; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication could help to overcome current obstacles in medical devices and could enable medical services to offer completely new scenarios in health care. The Bluetooth technology which is the upcoming global market leader in wireless communication turned out to be perfectly suited not only for consumer market products but also in the medical environment [1]. It offers a low power, low cost connection in the medium range of 1-100 m with a bandwidth of currently 723.2 kbaud. This paper describes the development of a wireless ECG device and a Pulse Oximeter. Equipped with a Bluetooth port, the measurement devices are enabled to transmit data between the sensor and a Bluetooth-monitor. Therefore, CSR's Bluetooth protocol embedded two-processor and embedded single-processor architecture has been used.

  20. Security Gaps In Authentication Factor Credentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication factors refer to user login credentials that a user supplies to an authentication process for it to decide whether to grant or deny access. While two-factor and three-factor authentication generally provides better security than one-factor authentication the aim of this paper is to review security in individual authentication factor credentials that are in use nowadays. These credentials will be discussed in factor categories knowledge factor possession factor and inherence factor. The paper details current security gaps and some novel approaches to diminish the gaps in these authentication factors. We believe that our recommendations will inspire development of better authentication credentials and systems.

  1. An Efficient User Authentication and User Anonymity Scheme with Provably Security for IoT-Based Medical Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Wu, Tsu-Yang; Chen, Chin-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-06-23

    In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients' physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients. Therefore, before users can access medical care services in IoT-based medical care system, they must be authenticated. Typically, user authentication and data encryption are most critical for securing network communications over a public channel between two or more participants. In 2016, Liu and Chung proposed a bilinear pairing-based password authentication scheme for wireless healthcare sensor networks. They claimed their authentication scheme cannot only secure sensor data transmission, but also resist various well-known security attacks. In this paper, we demonstrate that Liu-Chung's scheme has some security weaknesses, and we further present an improved secure authentication and data encryption scheme for the IoT-based medical care system, which can provide user anonymity and prevent the security threats of replay and password/sensed data disclosure attacks. Moreover, we modify the authentication process to reduce redundancy in protocol design, and the proposed scheme is more efficient in performance compared with previous related schemes. Finally, the proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model under ECDHP.

  2. An Efficient User Authentication and User Anonymity Scheme with Provably Security for IoT-Based Medical Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Yang; Chen, Chin-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients’ physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients. Therefore, before users can access medical care services in IoT-based medical care system, they must be authenticated. Typically, user authentication and data encryption are most critical for securing network communications over a public channel between two or more participants. In 2016, Liu and Chung proposed a bilinear pairing-based password authentication scheme for wireless healthcare sensor networks. They claimed their authentication scheme cannot only secure sensor data transmission, but also resist various well-known security attacks. In this paper, we demonstrate that Liu–Chung’s scheme has some security weaknesses, and we further present an improved secure authentication and data encryption scheme for the IoT-based medical care system, which can provide user anonymity and prevent the security threats of replay and password/sensed data disclosure attacks. Moreover, we modify the authentication process to reduce redundancy in protocol design, and the proposed scheme is more efficient in performance compared with previous related schemes. Finally, the proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model under ECDHP. PMID:28644381

  3. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  4. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  5. Holograms and authentication: meeting future demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Ian M.

    2004-06-01

    The use of holograms as authentication or security devices is the most valuable application of holograms yet devised. In 20 years, this has developed from the first use of a hologram on credit cards, to the situation today where governments turn to holograms as a key security feature on the protected documents they issue, including banknotes, identity documents and tax banderols. At the same time, holograms (and related devices) are the most recognised visible feature used to authenticate and protect branded and OEM products; this sector covers the gamut from CD jewel-box seals to the protection of safety-related items such as medicines and vehicle replacement parts. There has been creative synergy between the commercial suppliers of such holograms and the practical holography community. But new technologies are coming forward to challenge the role of holograms, a challenge that is aided by the counterfeiting of security holograms. What are the characteristics of those technologies and can holograms provide similar resources to users? Examples of collaboration between hologram producers and producers of other technologies to create combination devices suggest a possible route forward for holography to maintain its role in authentication and security. By scrutinising and adapting to needs, often by combination with other techniques, holographers may be able to retain their role in this important application.

  6. Robustness of digital artist authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten

    In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...... is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection....

  7. HERMA-Heartbeat Microwave Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James Paul (Inventor); Chow, Edward (Inventor); McKee, Michael Ray (Inventor); Haque, Salman-ul Mohammed (Inventor); Tkacenko, Andre (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods for identifying and/or authenticating individuals utilizing microwave sensing modules are disclosed. A HEaRtbeat Microwave Authentication (HERMA) system can enable the active identification and/or authentication of a user by analyzing reflected RF signals that contain a person's unique characteristics related to their heartbeats. An illumination signal is transmitted towards a person where a reflected signal captures the motion of the skin and tissue (i.e. displacement) due to the person's heartbeats. The HERMA system can utilize existing transmitters in a mobile device (e.g. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Cellphone signals) as the illumination source with at least one external receive antenna. The received reflected signals can be pre-processed and analyzed to identify and/or authenticate a user.

  8. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure c......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  9. Secure Certificateless Authentication and Road Message Dissemination Protocol in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowen Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of Internet-of-Thing (IoT, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have attracted increasing attentions from both academia and industry fields in recent years. With the extensive VANETs deployment in transportation systems of more and more countries, drivers’ driving experience can be drastically improved. In this case, the real-time road information needs to be disseminated to the correlated vehicles. However, due to inherent wireless communicating characteristics of VANETs, authentication and group key management strategies are indispensable for security assurance. Furthermore, effective road message dissemination mechanism is of significance. In this paper, we address the above problems by developing a certificateless authentication and road message dissemination protocol. In our design, certificateless signature and the relevant feedback mechanism are adopted for authentication and group key distribution. Subsequently, message evaluating and ranking strategy is introduced. Security analysis shows that our protocol achieves desirable security properties. Additionally, performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is efficient compared with the state of the art.

  10. Quantum direct communication with authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2006-01-01

    We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states

  11. Biometric authentication and authorisation infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Olden, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, replacing traditional authentication methods with authentication and authorization infrastructures (AAIs) comes down to trading several passwords for one master password, which allows users to access all services in a federation. Having only one password may be comfortable for the user, but it also raises the interest of potential impostors, who may try to overcome the weak security that a single password provides. A solution to this issue would be a more-factor AAI, combining the p...

  12. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  13. 27 CFR 70.52 - Signature presumed authentic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature presumed authentic. 70.52 Section 70.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Collection-General Provisions § 70.52 Signature presumed...

  14. Attacks on IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milan Tepšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Security of wireless computer networks was initially secured with the WEP security protocol, which relies on the RC4 encryption algorithm and the CRC algorithm to check the integrity. The basic problems of the WEP are a short initialization vector, unsafe data integrity checking, using a common key, the lack of mechanisms for management and exchange of keys, the lack of protection from the endless insertion of the same package into the network, the lack of authentication of access points and the like. The consequences of these failures are easy attacks against the WEP network, namely their complete insecurity. Therefore, the work began on the IEEE 802.11i protocol, which should radically improve the security of wireless networks. Since the development of a protocol lasted, the WPA standard was released to offset the security gap caused by the WEP. The WPA also relies on RC4 and CRC algorithms, but brings temporary keys and the MIC algorithm for data integrity. The 802.1X authentication was introduced and common keys are no longer needed, since it is possible to use an authentication server. The length of the initialization vector was increased and the vector is obtained based on the packet serial number, in order to prevent the insertion of the same packet into the network. The weakness of the WPA security mechanism is the use of a common key. WPA2 (802.11i later appeared. Unlike the WPA mechanism that worked on old devices with the replacement of software, WPA2 requires new network devices that can perform AES encryption. AES replaces the RC4 algorithm and delivers much greater security. Data integrity is protected by encryption. Despite progress, there are still weaknesses in wireless networks. Attacks for denial of service are possible as well as spoofing package headers attacks. For now, it is not advisable to use wireless networks in environments where unreliability and unavailability are not tolerated. Introduction In the entire history of

  15. Authenticity in art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    After a general introductory chapter, the subject is treated under three headings: paintings, ceramics and metals. The scientific tests for authenticity are described in their application to one or more of these branches of art. The traditional method of visual stylistic judgement is compared with and supplemented by scientific methods which (as well as 'wet' chemical analysis, optical microscopy, ultraviolet, infrared, electron and X-ray microscopy, X-ray crystallography and X-ray fluorescence, and direct age determination) include the following or more direct 'nuclear' interest: neutron (or proton, deuteron and high-energy photon) activation analysis for determining impurity and trace element content, gamma radiography for bronzes, neutron autoradiography or examining paintings, radiocarbon dating, other isotope dating (e.g. with lead isotopes and the radium-lead ratio), high temperature thermoluminescence for ceramics, and mass spectroscopy to determine isotope ratios indicative of particular sources of materials. As well as the reference in each chapter there is an additional bibliography. (U.K.)

  16. A lightweight and secure two factor anonymous authentication protocol for Global Mobility Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Global Mobility Networks(GLOMONETs) in wireless communication permits the global roaming services that enable a user to leverage the mobile services in any foreign country. Technological growth in wireless communication is also accompanied by new security threats and challenges. A threat-proof authentication protocol in wireless communication may overcome the security flaws by allowing only legitimate users to access a particular service. Recently, Lee et al. found Mun et al. scheme vulnerable to different attacks and proposed an advanced secure scheme to overcome the security flaws. However, this article points out that Lee et al. scheme lacks user anonymity, inefficient user authentication, vulnerable to replay and DoS attacks and Lack of local password verification. Furthermore, this article presents a more robust anonymous authentication scheme to handle the threats and challenges found in Lee et al.’s protocol. The proposed protocol is formally verified with an automated tool(ProVerif). The proposed protocol has superior efficiency in comparison to the existing protocols. PMID:29702675

  17. A New Ultra-lightweight Authentication Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID system has been widely used in almost every aspects of the society. At present, the problem of security and privacy become a key factor of severely blocking the widespread of its usage. However, due to restraints on RFID tag’s manufacturing cost, the traditional methods of encryption are not good candidate to defend the security of wireless communication channel between reader and tag. Designing lightweight or ultra-lightweight RFID authentication protocol has become a hot research topic recently. This paper proposes a new ultra-lightweight RFID authentication protocol with high robustness and execution efficiency. The proposed protocol requires only simple bit-wise operations, it has the characteristics of low storage requirement and communication cost. At the same time, through elaborate mechanism design, avoid the vulnerability of the existing ultra-lightweight authentication protocols.

  18. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  19. Wireless communication technology NFC

    OpenAIRE

    MÁROVÁ, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this bachelor thesis is to handle the issue of new wireless communication technology NFC (Near Field Communication) including a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of NFC with other wireless technologies (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.). NFC is a technology for wireless communications between different electronic devices, one of which is typically a mobile phone. Near Field Communication allows wireless communication at very short distance by approaching or enclosing two devices and can...

  20. Wireless steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Akopian, David; D'Souza, Sunil

    2006-02-01

    Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends in mobile phone technology indicate that tasks achievable by mobile devices will soon exceed our imagination. This paper undertakes a case study of the development and implementation of one of the first known steganography (data hiding) applications on a mobile device. Steganography is traditionally accomplished using the high processing speeds of desktop or notebook computers. With the introduction of mobile platform operating systems, there arises an opportunity for the users to develop and embed their own applications. We take advantage of this opportunity with the introduction of wireless steganographic algorithms. Thus we demonstrates that custom applications, popular with security establishments, can be developed also on mobile systems independent of both the mobile device manufacturer and mobile service provider. For example, this might be a very important feature if the communication is to be controlled exclusively by authorized personnel. The paper begins by reviewing the technological capabilities of modern mobile devices. Then we address a suitable development platform which is based on Symbian TM/Series60 TM architecture. Finally, two data hiding applications developed for Symbian TM/Series60 TM mobile phones are presented.

  1. Cloud-assisted mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Shih, Dong-Her; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2018-04-01

     With the rapid development of wireless communication technologies and the growing prevalence of smart devices, telecare medical information system (TMIS) allows patients to receive medical treatments from the doctors via Internet technology without visiting hospitals in person. By adopting mobile device, cloud-assisted platform and wireless body area network, the patients can collect their physiological conditions and upload them to medical cloud via their mobile devices, enabling caregivers or doctors to provide patients with appropriate treatments at anytime and anywhere. In order to protect the medical privacy of the patient and guarantee reliability of the system, before accessing the TMIS, all system participants must be authenticated.  Mohit et al. recently suggested a lightweight authentication protocol for cloud-based health care system. They claimed their protocol ensures resilience of all well-known security attacks and has several important features such as mutual authentication and patient anonymity. In this paper, we demonstrate that Mohit et al.'s authentication protocol has various security flaws and we further introduce an enhanced version of their protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which can ensure patient anonymity and patient unlinkability and prevent the security threats of report revelation and report forgery attacks.  The security analysis proves that our enhanced protocol is secure against various known attacks as well as found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. Compared with existing related protocols, our enhanced protocol keeps the merits of all desirable security requirements and also maintains the efficiency in terms of computation costs for cloud-assisted TMIS.  We propose a more secure mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which fixes the mentioned security weaknesses found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. According to our analysis, our authentication protocol satisfies most functionality features

  2. 40 CFR 1612.4 - Requests for authentication or certification of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for authentication or certification of records. 1612.4 Section 1612.4 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD PRODUCTION OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 1612.4 Requests for authentication or...

  3. Implementation of diffie-Hellman key exchange on wireless sensor using elliptic curve cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Tange, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a low-cost public key cryptography (PKC) based solution for security services such as authentication as required for wireless sensor networks. We have implemented a software approach using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) over GF (2m) in order to obtain stronger cryptography...

  4. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  5. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alsharabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  6. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding innetwork processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks. PMID:27873963

  7. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  8. The Wireless ATM Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palitefka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the proposed wireless ATM structure is provided. Wireless communication have been developed to a level where offered services can now be extended beyond voice and data. There are already wireless LANs, cordless systems offering data services and mobile data. Wireless LAN systems are basically planned for local, on-promises and in-house networking providing short distance radio or infrared links between computer system. The main challenge of wireless ATM is to harmonise the development of broadband wireless system with service B -ISDN/ATM and ATM LANs, and offer multimedia multiservice features for the support of time-sensitive voice communication, video, desktop multimedia applications, and LAN data traffic for the wireless user.

  9. Designing Pu600 for Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include an authentication component. Demonstrating assurance that software and hardware performs as expected without hidden 'back-doors' is crucial to a project's success. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that the system performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. Pu600 is a mature software solution for determining the presence of Pu and the ratio of Pu240 to Pu239 by analyzing the gamma ray spectra in the 600 KeV region. The project's goals are to explore hardware and software technologies which can by applied to Pu600 which ease the authentication of a complete, end-to-end solution. We will discuss alternatives and give the current status of our work

  10. Designing Pu600 for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2008-07-10

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include an authentication component. Demonstrating assurance that software and hardware performs as expected without hidden 'back-doors' is crucial to a project's success. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that the system performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. Pu600 is a mature software solution for determining the presence of Pu and the ratio of Pu240 to Pu239 by analyzing the gamma ray spectra in the 600 KeV region. The project's goals are to explore hardware and software technologies which can by applied to Pu600 which ease the authentication of a complete, end-to-end solution. We will discuss alternatives and give the current status of our work.

  11. Designing assignment using authentic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina

    2017-12-01

    This research is conducted to get an overview of the use of authentic assessment in the department of chemistry education, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research was conducted on the students of semester five, odd semester of academic year 2016/2017. Authentic assessment is an assessment process that is capable of measuring the knowledge, attitudes and skills of learners. Chemistry teacher candidates are required to be equipped with teaching and judging skills. Teachers were required can design and carry out assessment of the process and learning outcomes of students in an objective, accountable, and informative. Teacher creativity is required in the assessment. Therefore, authentic assessment is very appropriate used to improve the competence of students in education department as teachers candidates in the preparation of learning assessments.

  12. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  13. IPTV Service Framework Based on Secure Authentication and Lightweight Content Encryption for Screen-Migration in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, the advancing of smart devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, PC, etc. capabilities and the increase of internet bandwidth enables IPTV service provider to extend their services to smart mobile devices. User can just receive their IPTV service using any smart devices by accessing the internet via wireless network from anywhere anytime in the world which is convenience for users. However, wireless network communication has well a known critical security threats and vulnerabilities to user smart devices and IPTV service such as user identity theft, reply attack, MIM attack, and so forth. A secure authentication for user devices and multimedia protection mechanism is necessary to protect both user devices and IPTV services. As result, we proposed framework of IPTV service based on secure authentication mechanism and lightweight content encryption method for screen-migration in Cloud computing. We used cryptographic nonce combined with user ID and password to authenticate user device in any mobile terminal they passes by. In addition we used Lightweight content encryption to protect and reduce the content decode overload at mobile terminals. Our proposed authentication mechanism reduces the computational processing by 30% comparing to other authentication mechanism and our lightweight content encryption reduces encryption delay to 0.259 second.

  14. Introduction to Methods Demonstrations for Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Pitts, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    During the Trilateral Initiative Technical Workshop on Authentication and Certification, PNNL will demonstrate some authentication technologies. This paper briefly describes the motivation for these demonstrations and provide background on them

  15. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of providing a robust non-invasive authentication service for mobile users in a smart environment. We base our work on the persistent authentication model (PAISE), which relies on available sensors to track principals from the location where they authenticate, e.......g., through a smart card based access control system, to the location where the authentication is required by a location-based service. The PAISE model is extended with remote biometrics to prevent the decay of authentication confidence when authenticated users encounter and interact with other users...... in the environment. The result is a calm approach to authentication, where mobile users are transparently authenticated towards the system, which allows the provision of location-based services. The output of the remote biometrics are fused using error-rate-based fusion to solve a common problem that occurs in score...

  16. Authentic Leadership: Application to Women Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Hopkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview and critique of authentic leadership, with particular arguments given to support the premise that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership.

  17. Polymeric self-authenticating banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Paul

    1998-04-01

    This paper discusses a new concept in overt security called the self-authenticating banknote. The self-authenticating banknote concept is built around the transparent window feature of the polymer banknote. This feature allows the incorporation of transmission based optical devices on a banknote so that the user, by folding the note over on itself and looking through an optical device which is a part of the note itself, can visually inspect and verify certain security features on the banknote. This paper presents a number of examples of optical devices which are presently being developed for this purpose.

  18. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  19. The Authentic Personality: A Theoretical and Empirical Conceptualization and the Development of the Authenticity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…

  20. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Graham, James G; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2017-11-22

    This article reviews and develops a perspective for the meaning of authenticity in the context of quality assessment of botanical materials and the challenges associated with discerning adulterations vs. contaminations vs. impurities. Authentic botanicals are by definition non-adulterated, a mutually exclusive relationship that is confirmed through the application of a multilayered set of analytical methods designed to validate the (chemo)taxonomic identity of a botanical and certify that it is devoid of any adulteration. In practice, the ever-increasing sophistication in the process of intentional adulteration, as well as the growing number of botanicals entering the market, altogether necessitate a constant adaptation and reinforcement of authentication methods with new approaches, especially new technologies. This article summarizes the set of analytical methods - classical and contemporary - that can be employed in the authentication of botanicals. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. An NMR-based untargeted metabolomic model is proposed as a rapid, systematic, and complementary screening for the discrimination of authentic vs. potentially adulterated botanicals. Such analytical model can help advance the evaluation of botanical integrity in natural product research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  2. A secure RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-05-01

    With the fast advancement of the wireless communication technology and the widespread use of medical systems, the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in healthcare environments. As the first important protocol for ensuring secure communication in healthcare environment, the RFID authentication protocols derive more and more attentions. Most of RFID authentication protocols are based on hash function or symmetric cryptography. To get more security properties, elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) has been used in the design of RFID authentication protocol. Recently, Liao and Hsiao proposed a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC and claimed their protocol could withstand various attacks. In this paper, we will show that their protocol suffers from the key compromise problem, i.e. an adversary could get the private key stored in the tag. To enhance the security, we propose a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC. Detailed analysis shows the proposed protocol not only could overcome weaknesses in Liao and Hsiao's protocol but also has the same performance. Therefore, it is more suitable for healthcare environments.

  3. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  4. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  5. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  6. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  7. Wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed.

  8. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS. It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.

  9. Physical trust-based persistent authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Jensen, Christian D.; Arimura, Shiori

    2015-01-01

    propose a new type of persistent authentication, called Persistent Authentication Based On physical Trust (PABOT). PABOT uses a context of “physical trust relationship” that is built by visual contact between users, and thus can offer a persistent authentication mechanism with better usability and higher...

  10. Authentic Montessori: The Teacher Makes the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel, Alexa C.

    2013-01-01

    What are the elements that make up authentic Montessori? Is Montessori something concrete or abstract? Are there intangibles that make Montessori what it is? Many classrooms today have Montessori materials and small tables and chairs. Are they authentic Montessori? When examining areas that traditionally make defining authentic Montessori…

  11. Developmental Changes in Judgments of Authentic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of an understanding of authenticity among 112 children (preschoolers, kindergarten, 1st graders, and 4th graders) and 119 college students. Participants were presented with pairs of photographs depicting authentic and non-authentic objects and asked to pick which one belongs in a museum and which one they would…

  12. 7 CFR 1.22 - Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authentication. 1.22 Section 1.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.22 Authentication. When a request is received for an authenticated copy of a document that the agency determines to make...

  13. 22 CFR 92.37 - Authentication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication procedure. 92.37 Section 92.37... Notarial Acts § 92.37 Authentication procedure. (a) The consular officer must compare the foreign official...) Where the State law requires the consular officer's certificate of authentication to show that the...

  14. Wireless Sensor Network Localisation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsen, Håkon Kløvstad

    2007-01-01

    The recent years WSNs have had a tremendous growth in interest. Many see the huge potential in this technology and the vast possibilities with small wireless autonomous nodes. WSN nodes have a few limitations like their small size and limited power consumption. A network might exist for years without any major maintenance, putting tight restrictions on available power. The price is also an important aspect, and cheap production technologies like CMOS is preferred. The applications vary fr...

  15. Authentication via wavefront-shaped optical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray

    2018-02-01

    Authentication/tamper-indication is required in a wide range of applications, including nuclear materials management and product counterfeit detection. State-of-the-art techniques include reflective particle tags, laser speckle authentication, and birefringent seals. Each of these passive techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages, including the need for complex image comparisons, limited flexibility, sensitivity to environmental conditions, limited functionality, etc. We have developed a new active approach to address some of these short-comings. The use of an active characterization technique adds more flexibility and additional layers of security over current techniques. Our approach uses randomly-distributed nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix (tag/seal) which is attached to the item to be secured. A spatial light modulator is used to adjust the wavefront of a laser which interacts with the tag/seal, and a detector is used to monitor this interaction. The interaction can occur in various ways, including transmittance, reflectance, fluorescence, random lasing, etc. For example, at the time of origination, the wavefront-shaped reflectance from a tag/seal can be adjusted to result in a specific pattern (symbol, words, etc.) Any tampering with the tag/seal would results in a disturbance of the random orientation of the nanoparticles and thus distort the reflectance pattern. A holographic waveplate could be inserted into the laser beam for verification. The absence/distortion of the original pattern would then indicate that tampering has occurred. We have tested the tag/seal's and authentication method's tamper-indicating ability using various attack methods, including mechanical, thermal, and chemical attacks, and have verified our material/method's robust tamper-indicating ability.

  16. The embodiment of authentic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole; Smith-Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Meloy, Faye A

    2014-01-01

    Development of student leadership capacity and efficacy is critical to the nursing profession, and vital to this process is a strong foundation in critical thinking that includes a depth of understanding of self (i.e., authentic leadership development). This article will (a) present a theoretical overview of authentic leadership as compared with other popular leadership theories, (b) provide an overview of development/implementation of an authentic leadership course, the first in a series of six one-credit courses as an integral component of the Macy Undergraduate Leadership Fellows Program for upper-level nursing students, and (c) discuss related implications for nursing education. Findings from an investigator-developed quantitative pre-post survey and qualitative evaluation questions are provided. Student feedback regarding the comprehensive nature of the course was extremely positive and affirmed the value of introspection associated with authentic leadership in ongoing personal and professional development. Critical pedagogy and action-oriented learning strategies also proved beneficial to student engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Authentic Instruction and Technology Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydis, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Technology integration is an important aspect of student competence in the 21st century. The use of technology in teaching and learning is a valuable practice for supporting student learning and engagement. Modelling the pedagogical practices that integrate authentic, performance-based opportunities for technology integration was the focus of a…

  18. An Authentic Interpretation of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Antić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic interpretation of laws is a legal institute whereby a legislator gives the authentic meaning to a specific legal norm in case of its incorrect or diversified interpretation in practice. It has the same legal force as the law. Retroactivity and influence on pending cases are its inherent characteristics. Due to these characteristics and their relation to the principles of the rule of law, legal certainty and separation of powers, it is subjected to severe criticism not only by legal theory but also legal practice. The author analyses the institute of authentic interpretation from historical and comparative point of view and through the Croatian normative regulation, practice of the Croatian Parliament and academic debate, including opinions in favour as well as against it. On these grounds the author concludes that higher quality of law making procedure could make the authentic interpretation dispensable. On the other hand, should this institute be kept in the legal order it is essential to receive more effective constitutional control.

  19. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  20. Immersive Learning: Realism, Authenticity & Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For almost 20 years the Digital Design Studio has been exploring and applying virtual reality for a wide range of industrial, commercial and educational applications. Drawing from a range of recent projects, we explore the complex relationships between realism, authenticity and audience for effective engagement and education in immersive learning.

  1. Improving Usability of Passphrase Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Vedel, Michael; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    . This is done to ensure an appropriate degree of security, but instead, it makes it difficult for users to remember their password, which results in passwords that are either insecure, but easy to remember, or written down on paper. In this paper we address the problem of usability in user authentication...

  2. Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

  3. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  4. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  5. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  6. An Approach for Prevention of MitM Attack Based on Rogue AP in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of WLAN, more and more schools and businesses have begun to provide the WLAN for users. However, WLAN is considerably more susceptible to MitM (man- in-the-middle attack. To overcome it, we propose a dynamic password technology named Two-way Dynamic Authentication Technology (TDAT. It uses two-factor during the initial authentication, and uses a two-way hash chain during the cross-domain authentication. TDAT effectively protects users' authentication credentials and improves users' experience. In an actual wireless network environment, we implement a MitM attack framework based on Rogue AP. Then we effectively prevent this MitM attack by using TDAT. Moreover we analyze the security of TDAT by using BAN logic.

  7. Staging constructions of authenticity in organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity in organizations has gained increased focus in recent years. Authentic management and leadership are ways to motivate and make sustainable changes in the organization. But authenticity is also strategically worked with in order to serve social and political functions...... that are emotionally charged. Through a socio-material perspective this paper seeks to explore how change processes in organizations challenges the idea of authentic leadership as a merely individual ability or personality trait and suggest that the authentic leader is distributed into the practices of change...

  8. Wireless security in mobile health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats.

  9. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  10. Securing DSR with mobile agents in wireless ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abosamra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc wireless network consists of a set of wireless nodes communicating with each other without a pre-defined infrastructure. They communicate by forwarding packets which can reach wireless nodes that do not exist in the range of the direct radio transmission. Designing ad hoc network routing protocols is a challenging task because of its decentralized infrastructure which makes securing ad hoc networks more and more challenging. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol is a popular routing protocol designed for use in wireless ad hoc networks. Mobile agent is a promising technology used in diverse fields of network applications. In this paper, we try to implement DSR using mobile agents for securing this type of wireless network. Hybrid encryption technique (symmetric key encryption/public key encryption is used to improve performance; where symmetric keys are used to encrypt routing data to authenticate and authorize node sending data, while, public keys are used for the exchange of symmetric keys between nodes. We found that DSR may be secured using mobile agents with competitive performance.

  11. Beyond Commodification and Politicisation: Production and Consumption Practices of Authenticity in the White Tai Tourist Market in the Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achariya Nate-Chei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an ethnographic enquiry conducted over the last four years and shows the setting of a close interaction between hosts and guests in the White Tai villages in Mai Chau district, in the northwest uplands of Vietnam. The author argues that tourism is utilised as a medium to demonstrate a culture of hospitality. A new trend in tourism production and consumption is brought into discussion; in relation to this, this paper looks at what is really happening in the tourism spaces of the White Tai villages through the experiences not only of tourists but also of villagers. The author identifies several types of host-guest relationships and argues that there is a transformation of the host-guest relationship within these tourist spaces, a transformation evident in the new production and consumption practices of the market. Such relationships must be understood by looking beyond conceptions of commodification and politicisation of ethnicity. --- Basierend auf einer vierjährigen ethnographischen Feldforschung schildert dieser Beitrag die Interaktionen zwischen Bereisten und Reisenden anhand von White Tai-Dörfern im Mai Chau-Bezirk im nordwestlichen Hügelland Vietnams. Die Autorin argumentiert, dass Tourismus als Medium zur Demonstration von Gastfreundlichkeit eingesetzt werde. Neben einer Diskussion zu touristischer Pro- duktion und Konsum, werden in diesem Artikel auch die Erfahrungen und Wahrnehmungen der TouristInnen und DorfbewohnerInnen analysiert sowie verschiedene Typen von Beziehungen zwischen GastgeberInnen und Gästen identifiziert. Es wird dabei argumentiert, dass im Kontext touristischer Räume eine Transformation dieser Beziehungen stattfinde, die in den neuen Produktions- und Konsumpraktiken evident sei. Solche Beziehungen können nur verstanden werden, wenn ein altbekanntes Verständnis von Kommodifizierung und Politisierung von Ethnizität erweitert werde.

  12. Analysis and Testing of Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Evenson, Darin; Rundquist, Victor; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Wireless networks are being used to connect mobile computing elements in more applications as the technology matures. There are now many products (such as 802.11 and 802.11b) which ran in the ISM frequency band and comply with wireless network standards. They are being used increasingly to link mobile Intranet into Wired networks. Standard methods of analyzing and testing their performance and compatibility are needed to determine the limits of the technology. This paper presents analytical and experimental methods of determining network throughput, range and coverage, and interference sources. Both radio frequency (BE) domain and network domain analysis have been applied to determine wireless network throughput and range in the outdoor environment- Comparison of field test data taken under optimal conditions, with performance predicted from RF analysis, yielded quantitative results applicable to future designs. Layering multiple wireless network- sooners can increase performance. Wireless network components can be set to different radio frequency-hopping sequences or spreading functions, allowing more than one sooner to coexist. Therefore, we ran multiple 802.11-compliant systems concurrently in the same geographical area to determine interference effects and scalability, The results can be used to design of more robust networks which have multiple layers of wireless data communication paths and provide increased throughput overall.

  13. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  14. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  15. A Novel Approach to Many-to-Many User Authentication in Different Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to many-to-many user authentication in heterogeneous information systems. The described solution is based on the use of wireless keys – special devices that identify the user by transmitting the requested key information over a wireless network. The key feature of the proposed approach is noninteractive operating mode that allows to use a special encryption algorithm instead of two-way authentication. The algorithm is built on the basis of existing cryptographic primitives that prevents unauthorized system participants from getting access to the data of other users, even with physical access to the memory of the key. This approach does not require computational power or the battery on the key side and does not involve the user in the authentication process that allows implementing a method on passive NFC tags. To proof the concept, software implementation of the described system was developed and a qualitative comparison of the resulting solutions with existing analogues was conducted.

  16. Game meat authentication through rare earth elements fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danezis, G.P.; Pappas, A.C.; Zoidis, E.; Papadomichelakis, G.; Hadjigeorgiou, I.; Zhang, P.; Brusic, V.; Georgiou, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate labelling of meat (e.g. wild versus farmed, geographical and genetic origin, organic versus conventional, processing treatment) is important to inform the consumers about the products they buy. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi-element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elemental signatures showed excellent ability to discriminate the wild rabbit from non-wild rabbit meat. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of metabolic markers -rare earth signatures, as well as other trace element signatures for game meat authentication. - Highlights: • Elemental metabolomics is a powerful new methodology for authentication of game rabbit meat. • New method for meat authentication utilizing rare earths elemental signatures. • Samples are compared to group signatures using angular and Euclidean distances. • Meat reference materials (>70 elements) can be used for cross-comparison between studies.

  17. ECG-cryptography and authentication in body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Fang, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs.

  18. A Forward Authentication Key Management Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jen-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Key encryption technology is a basic technique for protecting the secrecy of transmitted data among sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks. However, sensor nodes are inherently limited by insufficient hardware resources such as memory capacity and battery lifetime. As a result, few current key management schemes are appropriate for wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes a new key management method that uses dynamic key management schemes for heterogeneous sensor networks. The proposed scheme loads a hash function into the base station, cluster heads, and sensor nodes. The cluster heads and sensor nodes then generate their own keychains to provide forward authentication in case of key changes, security breaches, key changes due to security breaches. The cluster heads and sensor nodes establish pairwise keys to ensure transmission secrecy. The proposed scheme decreases the number of keys required for sensor nodes and cluster heads and is robust to the following attacks: guessing attacks, replay attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, node capture attacks, and denial-of-service attacks.

  19. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Garcia-Carrillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet-of-Things (IoT landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN, the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP, which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  20. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-11-17

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  1. A Remote WIRELESS Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Uiterwijk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuing need for available distance learning facilities has led to the development of a remote lab facility focusing on wireless technology. In the field of engineering there is a student need of gaining experience in set-up, monitoring and maintenance of 802.11A/B/G based wireless LAN environments.

  2. Warming Up to Wireless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    In districts big and small across the U.S., students, teachers, and administrators alike have come to appreciate the benefits of wireless technology. Because the technology delivers Internet signals on airborne radio frequencies, wireless networking allows users of all portable devices to move freely on a school's campus and stay connected to the…

  3. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  4. Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed an Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Agency standard weights and safeguards samples can be stored in the ASCS to provide continuity of knowledge. The ASCS consists of an optically clear cover, a base containing the Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) transmitter, and the AIMS receiver unit for data collection. The ASCS will provide the Inspector with information concerning the status of the system, during a surveillance period, such as state of health, tampering attempts, and movement of the container system. The secure container is located inside a Glove Box with the receiver located remotely from the Glove Box. AIMS technology uses rf transmission from the secure container to the receiver to provide a record of state of health and tampering. The data is stored in the receiver for analysis by the Inspector during a future inspection visit. 2 refs

  5. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate what ‘authenticity’ means in a contemporary popular context and how it is used in the staging of bodies. Furthermore, I analyse works of dance and fashion from the past fifteen years with a focus on their strategies of challenging the notion of ‘bodily authenticity...... self’. I scrutinise the staging techniques and the codes of appearance that bodies have to comply with in order to be deemed ‘authentic’ on the shows. To define them and place them in the history of the idea of ‘bodily authenticity’, I complement my study with an outline of how ‘authenticity...... and by a depiction of 'working hard'. But various techniques also mask the hard work, for example by showing a participant ‘having fun’ performing it. Contemporary works of dance and fashion challenge the problematic implications in the notion of ‘bodily authenticity’. I analyse three strategies of undermining...

  6. Multi-Factor Authentication: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ometov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, digitalization decisively penetrates all the sides of the modern society. One of the key enablers to maintain this process secure is authentication. It covers many different areas of a hyper-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. This work sheds light on the evolution of authentication systems towards Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA. Particularly, MFA is expected to be utilized for human-to-everything interactions by enabling fast, user-friendly, and reliable authentication when accessing a service. This paper surveys the already available and emerging sensors (factor providers that allow for authenticating a user with the system directly or by involving the cloud. The corresponding challenges from the user as well as the service provider perspective are also reviewed. The MFA system based on reversed Lagrange polynomial within Shamir’s Secret Sharing (SSS scheme is further proposed to enable more flexible authentication. This solution covers the cases of authenticating the user even if some of the factors are mismatched or absent. Our framework allows for qualifying the missing factors by authenticating the user without disclosing sensitive biometric data to the verification entity. Finally, a vision of the future trends in MFA is discussed.

  7. Signature-based User Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Hámorník, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    This work aims on missing handwritten signature authentication in Windows. Result of this work is standalone software that allow users to log into Windows by writing signature. We focus on security of signature authentification and best overall user experience. We implemented signature authentification service that accept signature and return user access token if signature is genuine. Signature authentification is done by comparing given signature to signature patterns by their similarity. Si...

  8. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM USING RPI

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema A. Shaikh*; Prof.S.O.Rajankar

    2016-01-01

    A biometric authentication system acquires biometric sample such as fingerprint. The fingerprint signifies physiological features of an individual.This is a system which maintains the attendance records of students automatically. In this designing of an efficient module that comprises of a fingerprint sensor to manage the attendance records of students. This module enrolls the student’s as well as staff’s fingerprints. This enrolling is a onetime process and their fingerprints will be stored...

  9. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    present a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed mechanism, which employs camera based tracking with a single stationary 3D camera that uses the "time of flight" principle. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed mechanism indicates that persistent authentication is technically possible...... with the proposed hardware. The proposed model is sufficiently general to allow the addition of more cameras or supplemental tracking technologies, which will improve the robustness and scalability of the proposed mechanism....

  10. Survey of user authentication mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Magno, Marianna B.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The use of a password as the only traditional user authentication mechanism has been criticized for its weakness in computer security. One problem is for the user to select short, easy to remember passwords. Another problem is the selection of a password that is too long which the user tends to forget. Long passwords tend to be written down carelessly somewhere in the work space. Such practices can create serious security loopholes. Co...

  11. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  12. Researches on the Security of Cluster-based Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the in-depth application of sensor networks, the security issues have gradually become the bottleneck of wireless sensor applications. To provide a solution for security scheme is a common concern not only of researchers but also of providers, integrators and users of wireless sensor networks. Based on this demand, this paper focuses on the research of strengthening the security of cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Based on the systematic analysis of the clustering protocol and its security enhancement scheme, the paper introduces the broadcast authentication scheme, and proposes an SA-LEACH network security enhancement protocol. The performance analysis and simulation experiments prove that the protocol consumes less energy with the same security requirements, and when the base station is comparatively far from the network deployment area, it is more advantageous in terms of energy consumption and t more suitable for wireless sensor networks.

  13. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  14. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  15. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    According to advancements in the wireless technologies, study of biometrics-based multi-server authenticated key agreement schemes has acquired a lot of momentum. Recently, Wang et al. presented a three-factor authentication protocol with key agreement and claimed that their scheme was resistant to several prominent attacks. Unfortunately, this paper indicates that their protocol is still vulnerable to the user impersonation attack, privileged insider attack and server spoofing attack. Furthermore, their protocol cannot provide the perfect forward secrecy. As a remedy of these aforementioned problems, we propose a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments. Compared with various related schemes, our protocol achieves the stronger security and provides more functionality properties. Besides, the proposed protocol shows the satisfactory performances in respect of storage requirement, communication overhead and computational cost. Thus, our protocol is suitable for expert systems and other multi-server architectures. Consequently, the proposed protocol is more appropriate in the distributed networks.

  16. UPPGHA: Uniform Privacy Preservation Group Handover Authentication Mechanism for mMTC in LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine Type Communication (MTC, as one of the most important wireless communication technologies in the future wireless communication, has become the new business growth point of mobile communication network. It is a key point to achieve seamless handovers within Evolved-Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN for massive MTC (mMTC devices in order to support mobility in the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A networks. When mMTC devices simultaneously roam from a base station to a new base station, the current handover mechanisms suggested by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP require several handover signaling interactions, which could cause the signaling load over the access network and the core network. Besides, several distinct handover procedures are proposed for different mobility scenarios, which will increase the system complexity. In this paper, we propose a simple and secure uniform group-based handover authentication scheme for mMTC devices based on the multisignature and aggregate message authentication code (AMAC techniques, which is to fit in with all of the mobility scenarios in the LTE-A networks. Compared with the current 3GPP standards, our scheme can achieve a simple authentication process with robust security protection including privacy preservation and thus avoid signaling congestion. The correctness of the proposed group handover authentication protocol is formally proved in the Canetti-Krawczyk (CK model and verified based on the AVISPA and SPAN.

  17. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical

  18. Heidegger's Concept of Authenticity and Sport Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    Carolyne Thomas regarded the aesthetic experience in sport as authentic in the meaning from Martin Heidegger's Being and Time. To examine the adequacy of the interpretation, the comparison between Thomas' concept of authenticity and the Heidegger's was attempted in this paper. Thomas' concept of authenticity is opposite to accidentality. It is also positive realization of a self, positive movement toward a capable being, a unique self, a unique experience, and honesty in a sport situation...

  19. Obfuscated authentication systems, devices, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Robert C; Hutchinson, Robert L

    2013-10-22

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward authentication systems, devices, and methods. Obfuscated executable instructions may encode an authentication procedure and protect an authentication key. The obfuscated executable instructions may require communication with a remote certifying authority for operation. In this manner, security may be controlled by the certifying authority without regard to the security of the electronic device running the obfuscated executable instructions.

  20. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min-Jie, Wang; Wei, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We propose two schemes of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) combined ideas of user authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] and direct communication with dense coding [Phys. Rev. A. 68 (2003) 042317]. In these protocols, the privacy of authentication keys and the properties of the EPR pairs not only ensure the realization of identity authentication but also further improve the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the messages were broken. (general)

  1. Authentic leadership: What's in the construct?

    OpenAIRE

    Endrissat, Nada; Müller, Werner R.

    2006-01-01

    In a qualitative leadership study conducted in the German-speaking part of Switzerland the quest to be oneself i.e., to be authentic was found to be central for leadership. We will present the results in detail and highlight the difficulties leaders experience when trying to be authentic in their daily interaction. By providing a contextually rich description of authentic leadership from practitioners' point of views, our study contributes to the current endeavor to understand and define auth...

  2. Two-phase hybrid cryptography algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawya Rizk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, cryptography plays an important role. In this paper, a new security algorithm using combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques is proposed to provide high security with minimized key maintenance. It guarantees three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES are combined to provide encryption. XOR-DUAL RSA algorithm is considered for authentication and Message Digest-5 (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time, the size of cipher text, and the energy consumption in WSN. It is also robust against different types of attacks in the case of image encryption.

  3. Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Hannes; Anseel, F.; Gardner, W.; Sels, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Authentic leadership occurs when individuals enact their true selves in their role as a leader. This article examines the role of authentic followership in the previously established relationship between authentic leadership and follower in-role and extrarole performance behaviors. Consideration of followers who enact their true selves is important to understand how authentic leadership fosters follower self-determined work motivation and thus work role performance. Using self-determination t...

  4. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOENEMAN, J. LEE; SMARTT, HEIDI ANNE; HOFER, DENNIS

    2000-01-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements

  5. Multifactor Authentication: Its Time Has Come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Reno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Transactions of any value must be authenticated to help prevent online crime. Even seemingly innocent interactions, such as social media postings, can have serious consequences if used fraudulently. A key problem in modern online interactions is establishing the identity of the user without alienating the user. Historically, almost all online authentications have been implemented using simple passwords, but increasingly these methods are under attack. Multifactor authentication requires the presentation of two or more of the three authentication factor types: “What you know”, “What you have”, and “What you are”. After presentation, each factor must be validated by the other party for authentication to occur. Multifactor authentication is a potential solution to the authentication problem, and it is beginning to be implemented at websites operated by well-known companies. This article surveys the different mechanisms used to implement multifactor authentication. How a site chooses to implement multifactor authentication affects security as well as the overall user experience.

  6. ARE AUTHENTIC LEADERS SATISFIED WITH THEIR JOB?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Pavlovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A crisis in management has led to the appearance of Authentic leadership. The aim of this work is to determine the characteristics of Authentic leadership in educational institutions and to respond to the question as to whether authentic leaders are satisfied with their job. The third aim is to determine differences among the researched regions. The sample included 227 randomly selected directors from primary and secondary schools in Serbia, Montenegro and the Republika Srpska. The research used an ALQ questionnaire for the estimation of leadership behaviour. Descriptions for the results prediction and multiple linear regressions were used. A multivariance analysis of variance was used to compare the groups. The research results showed that every fourth director is an authentic leader. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on job satisfaction through two aspects: internalised perspective and balanced processing. There are no differences in Authentic leadership in the researched areas. The results could be useful for educational institutions in countries where the research was conducted. Further research could be carried out in other countries while cultural differences should be taken into account. One limiting factor consists of the fact that the analysed data are obtained only from school directors. Leaders of educational institutions should provide management through the development of their own authenticity and the authenticity of their followers. The characteristics of Authentic leadership were reviewed and tested practically in the West-Balkan environment.

  7. User Authentication based on Continuous Touch Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Kroeze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones have until now been protected by traditional authentication methods, including passwords or pattern locks. These authentication mechanisms are difficult to remember and are often disabled, leaving the device vulnerable if stolen. This paper investigates the possibility of unobtrusive, continuous authentication for smartphones based on biometric data collected using a touchscreen. The possibility of authenticating users on a smartphone was evaluated by conducting an experiment simulating real-world touch interaction. Touch data was collected from 30 participants during normal phone use. The touch features were analysed in terms of the information provided for authentication. It was found that features such as finger pressure, location of touch interaction and shape of the finger were important discriminators for authentication. The touch data was also analysed using two classification algorithms to measure the authentication accuracy. The results show that touch data is sufficiently distinct between users to be used in authentication without disrupting normal touch interaction. It is also shown that the raw touch data was more effective in authentication than the aggregated gesture data.

  8. User Authentication in Smartphones for Telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine A; Zhou, Leming; Watzlaf, Valerie J M

    2017-01-01

    Many functions previously conducted on desktop computers are now performed on smartphones. Smartphones provide convenience, portability, and connectivity. When smartphones are used in the conduct of telehealth, sensitive data is invariably accessed, rendering the devices in need of user authentication to ensure data protection. User authentication of smartphones can help mitigate potential Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) breaches and keep sensitive patient information protected, while also facilitating the convenience of smartphones within everyday life and healthcare. This paper presents and examines several types of authentication methods available to smartphone users to help ensure security of sensitive data from attackers. The applications of these authentication methods in telehealth are discussed.

  9. Authentic Leadership and Spiritual Capital Development: Agenda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authentic Leadership and Spiritual Capital Development: Agenda for Building ... indicate that many business companies and government organizations which ... for the successful building of quality management and effective organizations.

  10. Identification and authentication. Common biometric methods review

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Major biometric methods used for identification and authentication purposes in modern computing systems are considered in the article. Basic classification, application areas and key differences are given.

  11. Authentic leadership: develop the leader within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasinski, Lesia

    2014-03-01

    Great leadership usually starts with a willing heart, a positive attitude, and a desire to make a difference. Strong leadership is important, in today's health care climate, to ensure optimal patient outcomes and the fostering of future generations of knowledgeable, motivated and enthusiastic perioperative nurses. This article will explore key elements necessary for the development of authentic leadership. While highlighting the role that personal development plays in leadership skills, this article will also discuss ways to cultivate authenticity in leadership. The following questions will be addressed: What is authentic leadership? How does one become an authentic leader?

  12. Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Jabr Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A is the third generation partnership project for cellular network that allows subscribers to roam into networks (i.e., the Internet and wireless connections using spacial purpose base-stations, such as wireless access points and home node B. In such LTE-A based networks, neither base-stations, nor the Internet and wireless connections are trusted because base-stations are operated by un-trusted subscribers. Attackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to violate the privacy of the LTE-A subscribers. On the other hand, the tradeoff between privacy and authentication is another challenge in such networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two anonymous authentication schemes based on one-time pseudonymes and Schnorr Zero Knowledge Protocols. Instead of the international mobile subscriber identity, these schemes enable the user equipment, base-stations and mobility management entity to mutually authenticate each others and update the location of the user equipment without evolving the home subscriber server. The security analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes thwart security and privacy attacks, such as malicious, international mobile subscriber identity catching, and tracking attacks. Additionally, our proposed schemes preserve the location privacy of user equipment since no entity except the mobility management entity and Gate-Way Mobile Location Center can link between the pseudonymes and the international mobile subscriber identity. Also attackers have no knowledge about international mobile subscriber identity. Hence, the proposed schemes achieve backward/forward secrecy. Furthermore, the performance evaluation shows that the proposed handover schemes impose a small overhead on the mobile nodes and it has smaller computation and communication overheads than those in other schemes.

  13. Authenticity Lies in the Eye of the Beholder The Perception of Teachers' Authenticity by their Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Everything and everybody is urged to be authentic. Brands now need to create authentic experiences in music, artists survive if they are perceived as being real and nowadays, even in political elections, the perception of authenticity is an issue, certainly in the 2016 elections in the United

  14. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  15. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  16. Performance Evaluation of Public Key Based Authentication in Future Mobile Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambourakis Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile hosts are evolving into full-IP enabled devices, there is a greater demand to provide a more flexible, reconfigurable, and scalable security mechanism in mobile communication systems beyond 3G (B3G. Work has already begun on such an “all-IP” end-to-end solution, commonly referred to as 4G systems. Fully fledged integration between heterogeneous networks, such as 2.5G, UMTS, WLAN, Bluetooth, and the Internet, demands fully compatible, time-tested, and reliable mechanisms to depend on. SSL protocol has proved its effectiveness in the wired Internet and it will probably be the most promising candidate for future wireless environments. In this paper, we discuss existing problems related to authentication and key agreement (AKA procedures, such as compromised authentication vectors attacks, as they appear in current 2/2.5G/3G mobile communication systems, and propose how SSL, combined with public key infrastructure (PKI elements, can be used to overcome these vulnerabilities. In this B3G environment, we perceive authentication as a service, which has to be performed at the higher protocol layers irrespective of the underlying network technology. Furthermore, we analyze the effectiveness of such a solution, based on measurements of a “prototype” implementation. Performance measurements indicate that SSL-based authentication can be possible in terms of service time in future wireless systems, while it can simultaneously provide both the necessary flexibility to network operators and a high level of confidence to end users.

  17. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  18. Game meat authentication through rare earth elements fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Papadomichelakis, G; Hadjigeorgiou, I; Zhang, P; Brusic, V; Georgiou, C A

    2017-10-23

    Accurate labelling of meat (e.g. wild versus farmed, geographical and genetic origin, organic versus conventional, processing treatment) is important to inform the consumers about the products they buy. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi-element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elemental signatures showed excellent ability to discriminate the wild rabbit from non-wild rabbit meat. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of metabolic markers -rare earth signatures, as well as other trace element signatures for game meat authentication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alienation, authenticity and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    While many commentators have held that the concept "alienation" is of crucial importance when attempting to understand human existence, others have held that it is an inherently empty concept that we should abandon. In this article, I refute the latters' charge by showing that each conception of "alienation" is underpinned by a normative ontological conception of the preferable, or authentic, self and show that the concept "alienation" has ethical, existential and socio-political uses. From this I conclude that, when properly understood, the concept "alienation" can provide us with vital insights into human existence.

  20. Anonymous Authentication Systems Based on Private Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Toru; Inenaga, Shunsuke; Ikeda, Daisuke; Baba, Kensuke; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on authentication with three types of entities: a user who sends an authentication request, an authentication-server who receives and verifies the request, and a database who supplies the authentication-server with information for verifying the request. This paper presents novel authentication protocols that satisfy the following important properties: (1) secure against replay attacks, (2) the database(s) cannot identify which user is authenticating and (3) the authenticati...

  1. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  2. Wireless power transfer via radiowaves

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara , Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technologies have enabled various engineering applications with potential product implementation. WPT can be utilized to charge batteries in various pieces of equipment without the need for a wired connection. Energy can be harvested from ambient RF and microwave radiation and 1 million kW microwaves can be transmitted from space to the ground.This book covers all the theory and technologies of WPT, such as microwave generators with semi-conductors and microwave tubes, antennas, phased arrays, beam efficiency, and rectifiers (rectenna). The

  3. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav V. Sampangi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG, and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  4. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-09-15

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  5. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  6. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Secure Wireless Mote-Based Medical Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasri, Kriangsiri; Wang, Lan

    2009-01-01

    A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data are highly sensitive. We identify the unique security challenges of such a sensor network and propose a set of resource-efficient mechanisms to address these challenges. Our solution includes (1) a novel two-tier scheme for verifying the authenticity of patient data, (2) a secure key agreement protocol to set up shared keys between sensor nodes and base stations, and (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for protecting data confidentiality and integrity. We have implemented the proposed mechanisms on a wireless mote platform, and our results confirm their feasibility. PMID:22454585

  8. Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...

  9. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; Mosk, Allard

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this

  10. Pathways to Authenticity in Operatic Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.; Westney, WIlliam

    is authentic in the sense of being believable, honest and compelling. Mastering pronunciation and knowing the literal narrative of an opera is one thing, but how can an opera singer find ways to transcend the libretto in order to really grip an audience through authenticity of a deeper and more personal kind...

  11. Athos: Efficient Authentication of Outsourced File Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Goodrich, Michael T.; Papamanthou, Charalampos

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of authenticated storage, where we wish to construct protocols that allow to outsource any complex file system to an untrusted server and yet ensure the file-system's integrity. We introduce Athos, a new, platform-independent and user-transparent architecture for authenticated...

  12. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...

  13. Novel continuous authentication using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Prakash; Patidar, Rinku; Mishra, Vikas; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    We explore whether a classifier can consistent1y verify c1ients and interact with the computer using camera and behavior of users. In this paper we propose a new way of authentication of user which wi1l capture many images of user in random time and ana1ysis of its touch biometric behavior. In this system experiment the touch conduct of a c1ient/user between an en1istment stage is stored in the database and it is checked its mean time behavior during equa1 partition of time. This touch behavior wi1l ab1e to accept or reject the user. This wi1l modify the use of biometric more accurate to use. In this system the work p1an going to perform is the user wi1l ask single time to a1low to take it picture before 1ogin. Then it wi1l take images of user without permission of user automatica1ly and store in the database. This images and existing image of user wi1l be compare and reject or accept wi1l depend on its comparison. The user touch behavior wi1l keep storing with number of touch make in equa1 amount of time of the user. This touch behavior and image wi1l fina1ly perform authentication of the user automatically.

  14. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  15. Authentication in the context of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, D.D.; Sonnier, C.S.; Augustson, R.

    1991-01-01

    The International atomic Energy Agency held its first Advisory Group meeting on the subject of authentication in 1981. This meeting concentrated on the application of authentication to in-plant Non-Destructive Assay equipment supplied by the Facility Operator/State. In the decade since this meeting, a considerable amount of interest has developed over the use of authentication technology as a vital element of effective International Safeguards. Attendant with this interest, confusion has developed over the meaning and the need for the application of the technology as it exists today, and it may exist in the future. This paper addresses the subject of authentication, with emphasis on its basic definition and the applications of authentication technology in International Safeguards

  16. User Authentication in Smartphones for Telehealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Smith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many functions previously conducted on desktop computers are now performed on smartphones. Smartphones provide convenience, portability, and connectivity.  When smartphones are used in the conduct of telehealth, sensitive data is invariably accessed, rendering the devices in need of user authentication to ensure data protection. User authentication of smartphones can help mitigate potential Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA breaches and keep sensitive patient information protected, while also facilitating the convenience of smartphones within everyday life and healthcare. This paper presents and examines several types of authentication methods available to smartphone users to help ensure security of sensitive data from attackers. The applications of these authentication methods in telehealth are discussed.  Keywords: Authentication, Biometrics, HIPAA, Mobile security, Telehealth

  17. [Molecular authentication of Jinyinhua formula granule by using allele-specific PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Tu, Li-Chan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Jin, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Traditional authentication method is hard to identify herb's authenticity of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formula granules because they have lost all their morphological characteristics. In this study, a new allele-specific PCR method was established for identifying the authentication of Jinyinhua formula granule (made from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos) based on an SNP site in trnL-trnF fragment. Genomic DNA was successfully extracted from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and its formula granules by using an improved spin column method and then PCR was performed with the designed primer. Approximately 110 bp specific bands was obtained only in the authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and its formula granules, while no bands were found in fake mixed products. In addition, the PCR product sequence was proved from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos trnL-trnF sequence by using BLAST method. Therefore, DNA molecular authentication method could make up the limitations of character identification method and microscopic identification, and quickly identify herb's authenticity of TCM formula granules, with enormous potential for market supervision and quality control. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Data security in wireless local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishk, A.M.A

    2010-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for performance and data security improvement in wireless local area network (W LAN) has motivated increasing the difficulties to crack the system by man-in -the middle attacks. There are two primary and main objectives of this thesis to enhance data security in WLAN. The first objective is the enhancement of identities-exchange and key-exchange during authentication process. The second objective is the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm based on key-updating to enhance the performance of data-security in WLAN. The current asymmetrical encryption algorithms are used to authenticate the devices in WLAN to each other. They are used to exchange the identities and the keys in a secret channel during the authentication process. This thesis investigates the problems of identities- exchange. The enhancement of the identities-exchange and key-exchange stages during the authentication process has been suggested and studied in the thesis to solve the drawbacks of the traditional asymmetrical encryption algorithms.Next the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption to encrypt the data during the data exchange process gives a new approach to increase the difficulties to the man in the middle attacks to crack the system.The key updating with each packet is the new approach to solve the problem of the fixed key used to encrypt / decrypt the data with all packets in WLAN.A Comparative study between the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithms and the other algorithms is presented in the thesis. Proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm is applied on a text, voice, and image messages as practical applications of the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm. Finally, the man-in-the middle attacks can broadcast noise signals in WLAN channels to prevent the data to reach correctly to the end-user. The quality of the received image is measured for the proposed and the traditional symmetrical encryption algorithms to

  19. Evolution of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    Mobile and wireless content, services and networks - Short-term and long-term development trends......Mobile and wireless content, services and networks - Short-term and long-term development trends...

  20. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  1. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  2. Perfumed historic buildings: Issues of authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary historical preservation practice includes olfactory preservation as an experimental method of architectural preservation. The implementation of manufactured scents in historic buildings raises important issues of authenticity. This paper focuses on three important issues in the relation between olfactory preservation and authenticity: the importance of phenomenology in memory evocation; the relative character of the authenticity concept; and the significance of social values in historic preservation. This requires a critical examination of charters, documents and theoretical interpretations which reflect a broader concept of authenticity. The paper discusses certain articles of the Venice Charter, the Nara Document on Authenticity, as well as the sense of smell in architectural experience through critical analysis of the theories of John Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, Roger Scruton and Juhani Pallasmaa and their concepts of authenticity. Authenticity issues are illustrated by the examples of olfactory preservation: olfactory reconstruction of Philip Johnson’s Glass House; interior restoration and olfactory reconstruction of the Arts Club in Mayfair, London; and the creation process of the perfume brand Arquiste, a meaningful example which relocates the olfactory reconstruction context. These critical analyses raise the question of scent in historic buildings as a value in itself.

  3. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  4. WiMax taking wireless to the max

    CERN Document Server

    Pareek, Deepak

    2006-01-01

    With market value expected to reach 5 billion by 2007 and the endorsement of some of the biggest names in telecommunications, World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is poised to change the broadband wireless landscape. But how much of WiMAX's touted potential is merely hype? Now that several pre-WiMAX networks have been deployed, what are the operators saying about QoS and ROI? How and when will device manufacturers integrate WiMAX into their products? What is the business case for using WiMAX rather than any number of other established wireless alternatives?WiMAX: Taking Wireless

  5. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body area network (BAN is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  6. Towards distortion-free robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltuc, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented

  7. Instant Java password and authentication security

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoral, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book takes a hands-on approach to Java-based password hashing and authentication, detailing advanced topics in a recipe format.This book is ideal for developers new to user authentication and password security, and who are looking to get a good grounding in how to implement it in a reliable way.It's assumed that the reader will have some experience in Java already, as well as being familiar with the basic idea behind user authentication.

  8. Final report for the network authentication investigation and pilot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Miller, Marc M.; Wiener, Dallas J; Witzke, Edward L.

    2006-11-01

    New network based authentication mechanisms are beginning to be implemented in industry. This project investigated different authentication technologies to see if and how Sandia might benefit from them. It also investigated how these mechanisms can integrate with the Sandia Two-Factor Authentication Project. The results of these investigations and a network authentication path forward strategy are documented in this report.

  9. 22 CFR 92.38 - Forms of certificate of authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forms of certificate of authentication. 92.38... SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.38 Forms of certificate of authentication. The form of a certificate of authentication depends on the statutory requirements of the jurisdiction where the authenticated...

  10. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  11. From Wireless Sensor Networks to Wireless Body Area Networks: Formal Modeling and Verification on Security Using PAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking has successfully been applied on verification of security protocols, but the modeling process is always tedious and proficient knowledge of formal method is also needed although the final verification could be automatic depending on specific tools. At the same time, due to the appearance of novel kind of networks, such as wireless sensor networks (WSN and wireless body area networks (WBAN, formal modeling and verification for these domain-specific systems are quite challenging. In this paper, a specific and novel formal modeling and verification method is proposed and implemented using an expandable tool called PAT to do WSN-specific security verification. At first, an abstract modeling data structure for CSP#, which is built in PAT, is developed to support the node mobility related specification for modeling location-based node activity. Then, the traditional Dolev-Yao model is redefined to facilitate modeling of location-specific attack behaviors on security mechanism. A throughout formal verification application on a location-based security protocol in WSN is described in detail to show the usability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Furthermore, also a novel location-based authentication security protocol in WBAN can be successfully modeled and verified directly using our method, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first effort on employing model checking for automatic analysis of authentication protocol for WBAN.

  12. Hadoop-Based Healthcare Information System Design and Wireless Security Communication Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human health information from healthcare system can provide important diagnosis data and reference to doctors. However, continuous monitoring and security storage of human health data are challenging personal privacy and big data storage. To build secure and efficient healthcare application, Hadoop-based healthcare security communication system is proposed. In wireless biosensor network, authentication and key transfer should be lightweight. An ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography based lightweight digital signature and key transmission method are proposed to provide wireless secure communication in healthcare information system. Sunspot wireless sensor nodes are used to build healthcare secure communication network; wireless nodes and base station are assigned different tasks to achieve secure communication goal in healthcare information system. Mysql database is used to store Sunspot security entity table and measure entity table. Hadoop is used to backup and audit the Sunspot security entity table. Sqoop tool is used to import/export data between Mysql database and HDFS (Hadoop distributed file system. Ganglia is used to monitor and measure the performance of Hadoop cluster. Simulation results show that the Hadoop-based healthcare architecture and wireless security communication method are highly effective to build a wireless healthcare information system.

  13. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  14. Make me authentic, but not here: Reflexive struggles with academic identity and authentic leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkins, Leah; Nicholds, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a reflexive auto-ethnography of the experience of teaching authentic leadership to MBA students. It traces parallels between the challenges of authentic leadership and the challenges of academic identity work, grounded specifically in the experience of having to teach something one does not fully endorse. Both authentic leadership and academic identity work emerge as struggle – riddled with false starts, best intentions and self-deception, and entwined in the politics of...

  15. Review: Authentication and traceability of foods from animal origin by polymerase chain reaction-based capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2011-01-31

    This work presents an overview of the applicability of PCR-based capillary electrophoresis (CE) in food authentication and traceability of foods from animal origin. Analytical approaches for authenticating and tracing meat and meat products and fish and seafood products are discussed. Particular emphasis will be given to the usefulness of genotyping in food tracing by using CE-based genetic analyzers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wireless sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  17. Wireless Testbed Bonsai

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    wireless sensor device network, and a about 200 Stargate nodes higher-tier multi-hop peer- to-peer 802.11b wireless network. Leading up to the full ExScal...deployment, we conducted spatial scaling tests on our higher-tier protocols on a 7 × 7 grid of Stargates nodes 45m and with 90m separations respectively...onW and its scaled version W̃ . III. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Description of Kansei testbed. A stargate is a single board linux-based computer [7]. It uses a

  18. Wireless telecommunication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terré, Michel; Vivier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Wireless telecommunication systems generate a huge amount of interest. In the last two decades, these systems have experienced at least three major technological leaps, and it has become impossible to imagine how society was organized without them. In this book, we propose a macroscopic approach on wireless systems, and aim at answering key questions about power, data rates, multiple access, cellular engineering and access networks architectures.We present a series of solved problems, whose objective is to establish the main elements of a global link budget in several radiocommunicati

  19. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  20. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  1. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  2. A User Authentication Based on Personal History- A User Authentication System Using E-mail History -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Nishigaki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user authentication using personal history of each user. Here, authentication is done by giving answers to questions about the history of user's daily life. Users do not have to memorize any password, since the passwords are what users already know by experience. In addition, everyday-life experience increases day by day, and thus the question could change on every authentication trial. In this paper, a user authentication system using user's e-mail history is shown as a prototype of our proposal, and some basic experiments to evaluate the availability of the system are carried out.

  3. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery Packs; Notice of Investigation... within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software... certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or battery packs that...

  4. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-706] In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery Packs: Notice of Commission... United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless...

  5. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel Multifactor Authentication System Ensuring Usability and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Gloriya; Thomas, Shiney

    2013-01-01

    User authentication is one of the most important part of information security. Computer security most commonly depends on passwords to authenticate human users. Password authentication systems will be either been usable but not secure, or secure but not usable. While there are different types of authentication systems available alphanumeric password is the most commonly used authentication mechanism. But this method has significant drawbacks. An alternative solution to the text based authenti...

  7. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  8. Possibility of spoof attack against robustness of multibiometric authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mahdi; Shokouhi, Shahriar Baradaran

    2011-07-01

    Multibiometric systems have been recently developed in order to overcome some weaknesses of single biometric authentication systems, but security of these systems against spoofing has not received enough attention. In this paper, we propose a novel practical method for simulation of possibilities of spoof attacks against a biometric authentication system. Using this method, we model matching scores from standard to completely spoofed genuine samples. Sum, product, and Bayes fusion rules are applied for score level combination. The security of multimodal authentication systems are examined and compared with the single systems against various spoof possibilities. However, vulnerability of fused systems is considerably increased against spoofing, but their robustness is generally higher than single matcher systems. In this paper we show that robustness of a combined system is not always higher than a single system against spoof attack. We propose empirical methods for upgrading the security of multibiometric systems, which contain how to organize and select biometric traits and matchers against various possibilities of spoof attack. These methods provide considerable robustness and present an appropriate reason for using combined systems against spoof attacks.

  9. Multi-factor authentication using quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen; Thrasher, James T.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Yard, Jon T.; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Somma, Rolando D.

    2018-02-06

    Multi-factor authentication using quantum communication ("QC") includes stages for enrollment and identification. For example, a user enrolls for multi-factor authentication that uses QC with a trusted authority. The trusted authority transmits device factor information associated with a user device (such as a hash function) and user factor information associated with the user (such as an encrypted version of a user password). The user device receives and stores the device factor information and user factor information. For multi-factor authentication that uses QC, the user device retrieves its stored device factor information and user factor information, then transmits the user factor information to the trusted authority, which also retrieves its stored device factor information. The user device and trusted authority use the device factor information and user factor information (more specifically, information such as a user password that is the basis of the user factor information) in multi-factor authentication that uses QC.

  10. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Yoshito [University of Alaska; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Gregory, Don A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  11. Identity-Based Authentication for Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Dai, Yuanshun; Tian, Ling; Yang, Haomiao

    Cloud computing is a recently developed new technology for complex systems with massive-scale services sharing among numerous users. Therefore, authentication of both users and services is a significant issue for the trust and security of the cloud computing. SSL Authentication Protocol (SAP), once applied in cloud computing, will become so complicated that users will undergo a heavily loaded point both in computation and communication. This paper, based on the identity-based hierarchical model for cloud computing (IBHMCC) and its corresponding encryption and signature schemes, presented a new identity-based authentication protocol for cloud computing and services. Through simulation testing, it is shown that the authentication protocol is more lightweight and efficient than SAP, specially the more lightweight user side. Such merit of our model with great scalability is very suited to the massive-scale cloud.

  12. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  13. ECG authentication in post-exercise situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongsuk Sung; Jeehoon Kim; Myungjun Koh; Kwangsuk Park

    2017-07-01

    Human authentication based on electrocardiogram (ECG) has been a remarkable issue for recent ten years. This paper proposed an authentication technology with the ECG data recorded after the harsh exercise. 55 subjects voluntarily attended to this experiment. A stepper was used as an exercise equipment. The subjects are asked to do stepper for 5 minutes and their ECG signals are acquired before and after the exercise in rest, sitting posture. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used for both feature extraction and classification. Even though, within the first 1 minute recording, the subject recognition accuracy was 59.64%, which is too low to utilize, after one minute the accuracy was higher than 90% and it increased up to 96.22% within 5 minutes, which is plausible to use in authentication circumstances. Therefore, we have concluded that ECG authentication techniques will be able to be used after 1 minute of catching breath.

  14. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  15. Group Authentication Scheme for Neighbourhood Area Networks (NANs in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Alohali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A Neighbourhood Area Network is a functional component of the Smart Grid that interconnects the end user domain with the Energy Services Provider (ESP domain. It forms the “edge” of the provider network, interconnecting homes instrumented with Smart Meters (SM with the ESP. The SM is a dual interface, wireless communication device through which information is transacted across the user (a home and ESP domains. The security risk to the ESP increases since the components within the home, interconnected to the ESP via the SM, are not managed by the ESP. Secure operation of the SM is a necessary requirement. The SM should be resilient to attacks, which might be targeted either directly or via the network in the home. This paper presents and discusses a security scheme for groups of SMs in a Neighbourhood Area Network that enable entire groups to authenticate themselves, rather than one at a time. The results show that a significant improvement in terms of resilience against node capture attacks, replay attacks, confidentiality, authentication for groups of SMs in a NAN that enable entire groups to authenticate themselves, rather than one at a time.

  16. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  17. Authentic Leadership: Practices to Promote Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Vickie

    Integrity is a highly desired leadership trait. Authentic leaders reflect on their behavior and seek feedback about how their actions affect others. How can a nurse develop as an authentic leader who consistently demonstrates integrity? The following are discussed: Reflection; Connection to Christ and others; Social and Emotional Intelligence providing perceptive competency and social awareness; Aesthetic Qualities whereby leaders apply experiential knowing in leadership situations; and effective expression of Gratitude as a meaningful act of valuing others.

  18. Capturing Cognitive Processing Time for Active Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    the password with password -based access control to generate a hardened password [4]. Here, we present a biometric -based active authentication...typing rhythm (CTR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Behavioral Biometrics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF... biometrics , extracted from keystroke dynamics, as “something a user is” for active authentication. This scheme performs continual verification in the

  19. Context-Aware Multimodal FIDO Authenticator for Sustainable IT Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing sustainable IT services have several problems related to user authentication such as the inefficiency of managing the system security, low security, and low usability. In this paper, we propose a Fast IDentity Online (FIDO authenticator that performs continuous authentication with implicit authentication based on user context and multimodal authentication. The proposed FIDO authenticator, a context-aware multimodal FIDO authentication (CAMFA method, combines information such as the user context, state of the mobile device, and user biometrics, then applies implicit and explicit authentication methods to meet the level of authentication required by the service provider. This reduces the user’s explicit authentication burden and continually authenticates users at risk during the session. Moreover, it is able to respond to attacks such as the theft of the authentication method or session hijacking. To study the effectiveness of CAMFA, we ran a user study by collecting data from 22 participants over 42 days of activity on a practical Android platform. The result of the user study demonstrates that the number of explicit authentication requests could be reduced by half. Based on the results of this study, an advanced user authentication that provides multimodal and continuous authentication could be applied to sustainable IT services.

  20. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rob; McLachlan, Jane L; Renaud, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised 'facelock', in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems.

  1. Authenticated join processing in outsourced databases

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yin

    2009-01-01

    Database outsourcing requires that a query server constructs a proof of result correctness, which can be verified by the client using the data owner\\'s signature. Previous authentication techniques deal with range queries on a single relation using an authenticated data structure (ADS). On the other hand, authenticated join processing is inherently more complex than ranges since only the base relations (but not their combination) are signed by the owner. In this paper, we present three novel join algorithms depending on the ADS availability: (i) Authenticated Indexed Sort Merge Join (AISM), which utilizes a single ADS on the join attribute, (ii) Authenticated Index Merge Join (AIM) that requires an ADS (on the join attribute) for both relations, and (iii) Authenticated Sort Merge Join (ASM), which does not rely on any ADS. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform two benchmark algorithms, often by several orders of magnitude, on all performance metrics, and effectively shift the workload to the outsourcing service. Finally, we extend our techniques to complex queries that combine multi-way joins with selections and projections. ©2009 ACM.

  2. Authenticated join processing in outsourced databases

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yin; Papadias, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Database outsourcing requires that a query server constructs a proof of result correctness, which can be verified by the client using the data owner's signature. Previous authentication techniques deal with range queries on a single relation using an authenticated data structure (ADS). On the other hand, authenticated join processing is inherently more complex than ranges since only the base relations (but not their combination) are signed by the owner. In this paper, we present three novel join algorithms depending on the ADS availability: (i) Authenticated Indexed Sort Merge Join (AISM), which utilizes a single ADS on the join attribute, (ii) Authenticated Index Merge Join (AIM) that requires an ADS (on the join attribute) for both relations, and (iii) Authenticated Sort Merge Join (ASM), which does not rely on any ADS. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform two benchmark algorithms, often by several orders of magnitude, on all performance metrics, and effectively shift the workload to the outsourcing service. Finally, we extend our techniques to complex queries that combine multi-way joins with selections and projections. ©2009 ACM.

  3. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  4. Miniaturized wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Lecointre , Aubin; Dragomirescu , Daniela; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia; Pons , Patrick; Aubert , Hervé; Müller , A.; Berthou , Pascal; Gayraud , Thierry; Plana , Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses an overview of the wireless sensor networks. It is shown that MEMS/NEMS technologies and SIP concept are well suited for advanced architectures. It is also shown analog architectures have to be compatible with digital signal techniques to develop smart network of microsystem.

  5. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  6. Future of wireless communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, M

    1996-12-31

    This document reproduces slides from a conference presentation giving an overview of current and upcoming wireless communication methods of interest to Canadian electric utilities. Both voice and data communication methods are considered, including cellular telephone, satellite communications, personal communication services, regulated licensed arrowband data systems, and integrated services.

  7. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  8. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  9. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Weber, John Mark [Dynetics, Inc.; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Pan, W. David [University of Alabama, Huntsville

    2012-01-01

    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  10. Building the Wireless Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerraughty, James F.; Shanafelt, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    This prototype is a continuation of a series of wireless prototypes which began in August 2001 and was reported on again in August 2002. This is the final year of this prototype. This continuation allowed Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA) to refine the existing WLAN for the Saint…

  11. Wireless networks; Traadloese nettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks - WLAN, is being installed in homes, offices, schools and city areas with an increasing speed. Computers communicate with each other through networks by using radio signals. Base stations make sure there is sufficient radio coverage in the current areas. The effects on human and if it is dangerous is discussed

  12. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  13. Authenticity: is it real or is it marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, David

    2008-03-01

    Marty Echt, the new head of marketing at Hunsk Engines, is determined to bring the motorcycle maker back to its roots. He says it's not enough to project authenticity to customers--employees must personally subscribe to the brand's values. Should the company's CEO support Marty's "real deal" vision? Five experts comment on this fictional case study. Bruce Weindruch, the founder and CEO of the History Factory, says that an authenticity-based campaign can be effective--but only if it's truly drawn from history. Marketers like Marty often remember their organization's past in a golden haze. Weindruch recommends exploring old engineering drawings, ads, and product photos in order to understand what customers and employees really valued back in the day. Gillian Arnold, a consultant to luxury fashion and fine jewelry brands, thinks Marty's approach is right: People in key marketing posts must be passionate about their products and know them inside and out. She argues that the CEO needs to commit more fully to the new campaign and address the significant gap between the staff and the brand. James H. Gilmore and B. Joseph Pine II, the cofounders of Strategic Horizons, point out that Hunsk needs to manage customers' perceptions rather than trying to be a "real company" or forming a management team whose personal interests match the brand. People purchase a product if it conforms to their self-image; that alone determines the brand's authenticity. Glenn Brackett of Sweetgrass Rods, a maker of bamboo fly-fishing rods, says Marty seems to be one of the few people who understand Hunsk motorcycles. If employees bring blood, sweat, heart, and soul to a product, it will manifest that spirit, and customers will line up for it.

  14. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  15. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  16. Robust image authentication in the presence of noise

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the problems that hinder image authentication in the presence of noise. It considers the advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithms for image authentication and shows new approaches and solutions for robust image authentication. The state of the art algorithms are compared and, furthermore, innovative approaches and algorithms are introduced. The introduced algorithms are applied to improve image authentication, watermarking and biometry.    Aside from presenting new directions and algorithms for robust image authentication in the presence of noise, as well as image correction, this book also:   Provides an overview of the state of the art algorithms for image authentication in the presence of noise and modifications, as well as a comparison of these algorithms, Presents novel algorithms for robust image authentication, whereby the image is tried to be corrected and authenticated, Examines different views for the solution of problems connected to image authentication in the pre...

  17. Privacy-Preserving Biometric Authentication: Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pagnin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging direction for authenticating people is the adoption of biometric authentication systems. Biometric credentials are becoming increasingly popular as a means of authenticating people due to the wide range of advantages that they provide with respect to classical authentication methods (e.g., password-based authentication. The most characteristic feature of this authentication method is the naturally strong bond between a user and her biometric credentials. This very same advantageous property, however, raises serious security and privacy concerns in case the biometric trait gets compromised. In this article, we present the most challenging issues that need to be taken into consideration when designing secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols. More precisely, we describe the main threats against privacy-preserving biometric authentication systems and give directions on possible countermeasures in order to design secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols.

  18. Interception and modification of network authentication packets with the purpose of allowing alternative authentication modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alexander Dale [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-09-02

    Methods and systems in a data/computer network for authenticating identifying data transmitted from a client to a server through use of a gateway interface system which are communicately coupled to each other are disclosed. An authentication packet transmitted from a client to a server of the data network is intercepted by the interface, wherein the authentication packet is encrypted with a one-time password for transmission from the client to the server. The one-time password associated with the authentication packet can be verified utilizing a one-time password token system. The authentication packet can then be modified for acceptance by the server, wherein the response packet generated by the server is thereafter intercepted, verified and modified for transmission back to the client in a similar but reverse process.

  19. Towards Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    SPENZA, DORA

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing aims at creating smart environments in which computational and communication capabilities permeate the word at all scales, improving the human experience and quality of life in a totally unobtrusive yet completely reliable manner. According to this vision, an huge variety of smart devices and products (e.g., wireless sensor nodes, mobile phones, cameras, sensors, home appliances and industrial machines) are interconnected to realize a network of distributed agents that co...

  20. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.