WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless power storage

  1. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  2. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...... energy density storage unit and power density storage unit in reasonable fashion. Primary control introduces change rate of voltage as virtual information carrier, and urges supercapacitor unit to pick up major dynamic power immediately in the load switching moment, by setting sensitivity of different...... storage interface converters. The steady state error produced in primary control is eliminated by secondary control, in which voltage magnitude is maintained and zero steady state current in supercapacitor is guaranteed. In this framework, autonomous and coordinated control is achieved using only local...

  3. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  4. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  5. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  6. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  7. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  8. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  9. Wireless Power for Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless power transfer allows a convenient, easy to use battery charging of mobile phones and other mobile devices. No hassle with cables and plugs, just place the device on a pad and that’s it. Such asystem even has the potential to become a standard charging solution. Where are the limits for

  10. Optimal Storage Allocation for Wireless Cloud Caching Systems with a Limited Sum Storage Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Bi; Choi, Wan

    2016-01-01

    In wireless cloud storage systems, the recovery failure probability depends on not only wireless channel conditions but also storage size of each distributed storage node. For an efficient utilization of limited storage capacity and the performance characterization of allocation strategies, we asymptotically analyze the recovery failure probability of a wireless cloud storage system with a sum storage capacity constraint for both high SNR regime and low SNR regime. Then, we find the optimal s...

  11. Wireless power transfer via radiowaves

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara , Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technologies have enabled various engineering applications with potential product implementation. WPT can be utilized to charge batteries in various pieces of equipment without the need for a wired connection. Energy can be harvested from ambient RF and microwave radiation and 1 million kW microwaves can be transmitted from space to the ground.This book covers all the theory and technologies of WPT, such as microwave generators with semi-conductors and microwave tubes, antennas, phased arrays, beam efficiency, and rectifiers (rectenna). The

  12. Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alù, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and wireless power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load. This condition, however, can be easily affected by changes in the environment, preventing optimal operation of a WPT system. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced WPT that allows us to bypass this difficulty and achieve dynamic control of power transfer. The approach relies on coherent excitation of the waveguide connected to the antenna load with a backward propagating signal of specific amplitude and phase. This signal creates a suitable interference pattern at the load resulting in a modification of the local wave impedance, which in turn enables conjugate matching and a largely increased amount of extracted energy. We develop a simple theoretical model describing this concept, demonstrate it with full-wave numerical simulations for the canonical example of a dipole antenna, and verify experimentally in both near-field and far-field regimes.

  13. Wireless power pad with local power activation for portable devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.; Zheglov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless power transfer by magnetic induction offers a simple to use way to recharge mobile devices like e.g. mobile phone, music players or medical sensors. As shown by a previous report and an existing Power Pad demonstrator, wireless inductive power transfer is possible with a good power

  14. Energy neutral and low power wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Oner

    Wireless sensor nodes are typically designed to have low cost and small size. These design objectives impose restrictions on the capacity and efficiency of the transceiver components and energy storage units that can be used. As a result, energy becomes a bottleneck and continuous operation of the sensor network requires frequent battery replacements, increasing the maintenance cost. Energy harvesting and energy efficient transceiver architectures are able to overcome these challenges by collecting energy from the environment and utilizing the energy in an intelligent manner. However, due to the nature of the ambient energy sources, the amount of useful energy that can be harvested is limited and unreliable. Consequently, optimal management of the harvested energy and design of low power transceivers pose new challenges for wireless network design and operation. The first part of this dissertation is on energy neutral wireless networking, where optimal transmission schemes under different system setups and objectives are investigated. First, throughput maximization for energy harvesting two-hop networks with decode-and-forward half-duplex relays is studied. For a system with two parallel relays, various combinations of the following four transmission modes are considered: Broadcast from the source, multi-access from the relays, and successive relaying phases I and II. Next, the energy cost of the processing circuitry as well as the transmission energy are taken into account for communication over a broadband fading channel powered by an energy harvesting transmitter. Under this setup, throughput maximization, energy maximization, and transmission completion time minimization problems are studied. Finally, source and channel coding for an energy-limited wireless sensor node is investigated under various energy constraints including energy harvesting, processing and sampling costs. For each objective, optimal transmission policies are formulated as the solutions of a

  15. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  16. Research Of The Efficiency Of The Wireless Power Transfer With The Employment Of DD Inductance Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainyukov Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to using of DD inductance coils for the wireless power transfer. The aim of the given research is to determine influence of the parameters of resonance transformer on the efficiency of the wireless power transfer with the use of the DD inductance coils. Experimental installation of the wireless power transfer by a resonance inductive method was constructed. Experiments were performed with it help. Research results show influence of the distance between the coils of inductance, of the resonance transformer frequency, of the storage source voltage and of the temperature conditions on the efficiency of the wireless power transfer.

  17. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer - Grid Impacts Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, Tony; Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeff

    2015-12-04

    This presentation discusses the current status of analysis of the electricity grid impacts of a dynamic wireless power transfer system deployed to the Atlanta region on select high traffic roadway segments.

  18. Operating Wireless Sensor Nodes without Energy Storage: Experimental Results with Transient Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is increasingly used for powering wireless sensor network nodes. Recently, it has been suggested to combine it with the concept of transient computing whereby the wireless sensor nodes operate without energy storage capabilities. This new combined approach brings benefits, for instance ultra-low power nodes and reduced maintenance, but also raises new challenges, foremost dealing with nodes that may be left without power for various time periods. Although transient computing has been demonstrated on microcontrollers, reports on experiments with wireless sensor nodes are still scarce in the literature. In this paper, we describe our experiments with solar, thermal, and RF energy harvesting sources that are used to power sensor nodes (including wireless ones without energy storage, but with transient computing capabilities. The results show that the selected solar and thermal energy sources can operate both the wired and wireless nodes without energy storage, whereas in our specific implementation, the developed RF energy source can only be used for the selected nodes without wireless connectivity.

  19. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    Advancements in wireless communication and electronics improving form factor and hardware capabilities has expanded the applicability of wireless sensor networks. Despite these advancements, devices are still limited in terms of energy which creates the need for duty-cycling and low-power protocols...... peripherals need to by duty-cycled and the low-power wireless radios are severely influenced by the environmental effects causing bursty and unreliable wireless channels. This dissertation presents a communication stack providing services for low-power communication, secure communication, data collection...... channel. Second, secure communication is implemented with an efficient secure group communication suite including a low-overhead group key distribution scheme, distributing group keys according to the needs of the sensor nodes. Third, data collection is implemented with selective transmission which saves...

  20. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Logistic Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojahan Tampubolon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of using robots in warehouses or supply chain processes is increasing due to the growth of the online retail market. This logistic robot is available in the market and uses a battery as energy storage device. However, this battery is large and heavy. Therefore, it needs a long recharging time. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT can be an alternative to the conventional charging system because of its safety and flexibility that enables in motion charging. DWPT reduces the battery requirement size and capacity. Hence the stored energy can be used effectively for load transportation. A compensation with an inductor and two capacitors in the transmitter side, and a series connected capacitor in the receiver side which is named LCC-S compensation type has the capability to maintain the transmitter current with a fixed frequency operation. It provides less variation of the output voltage in response to the load variation. Moreover, the compensation of the receiver side uses only a single series capacitor which is low-cost. The analysis, modeling, and design procedures are discussed in this paper as well as the hardware implementation and verification of a 1.5 kW maximum power DWPT. The experiment shows the capability of the proposed system and shows maximum efficiency can reach 91.02%.

  1. Thermoelectric Powered High Temperature Wireless Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukkomurler, Ahmet

    This study describes use of a thermoelectric power converter to transform waste heat into electrical energy to power an RF receiver and transmitter, for use in harsh environment wireless temperature sensing and telemetry. The sensing and transmitting module employs a DS-1820 low power digital temperature sensor to perform temperature to voltage conversion, an ATX-34 RF transmitter, an ARX-34 RF receiver module, and a PIC16f84A microcontroller to synchronize data communication between them. The unit has been tested in a laboratory environment, and promising results have been obtained for an actual automotive wireless under hood temperature sensing and telemetry implementation.

  2. Free positioning for inductive wireless power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2012-01-01

    In inductive wireless power transmission system a lateral displacement of the receiver coil to the transmitter coil leads to a change ofthe coupling factor and thus an unwanted variation of the power transfer. Here, an algorithm to determine the turn distribution to achieve homogeneous coupling

  3. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  4. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freid, Sheldon [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Popovic, Zoya [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beckett, David R. [Independent Consultant; Anderson, Scott R. [Independent Consultant; Mann, Diana [Independent Consultant; Walker, Stuart [Independent Consultant

    2008-03-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  5. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  6. Data storage system for wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sacramento, David

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Engenharia Informática, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are starting to have a high impact on our societies and, for next generation WSNs to become more integrated with the Internet, researchers recently proposed to embed Internet Protocol (IP) v6 into such very constrained networks. Also, Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and Observe have been proposed for RESTful services to be pr...

  7. Regulation control and energy management scheme for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.

    2015-12-29

    Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit. The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.

  8. Transmit Power Optimisation in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Terziu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transmit power optimisation in wireless networks based on beamforming have emerged as a promising technique to enhance the spectrum efficiency of present and future wireless communication systems. The aim of this study is to minimise the access point power consumption in cellular networks while maintaining a targeted quality of service (QoS for the mobile terminals. In this study, the targeted quality of service is delivered to a mobile station by providing a desired level of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR. Base-stations are coordinated across multiple cells in a multi-antenna beamforming system. This study focuses on a multi-cell multi-antenna downlink scenario where each mobile user is equipped with a single antenna, but where multiple mobile users may be active simultaneously in each cell and are separated via spatial multiplexing using beamforming. The design criteria is to minimize the total weighted transmitted power across the base-stations subject to SINR constraints at the mobile users. The main contribution of this study is to define an iterative algorithm that is capable of finding the joint optimal beamformers for all basestations, based on a correlation-based channel model, the full-correlation model. Among all correlated channel models, the correlated channel model used in this study is the most accurate, giving the best performance in terms of power consumption. The environment here in this study is chosen to be Non-Light of- Sight (NLOS condition, where a signal from a wireless transmitter passes several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver. Moreover there are many scatterers local to the mobile, and multiple reflections can occur among them before energy arrives at the mobile. The proposed algorithm is based on uplink-downlink duality using the Lagrangian duality theory. Time-Division Duplex (TDD is chosen as the platform for this study since it has been adopted to the latest technologies in Fourth

  9. Body-Attachable and Stretchable Multisensors Integrated with Wirelessly Rechargeable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeil; Kim, Doyeon; Lee, Hyunkyu; Jeong, Yu Ra; Lee, Seung-Jung; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Hyoungjun; Lee, Geumbee; Jeon, Sanggeun; Zi, Goangseup; Kim, Jihyun; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-01-27

    A stretchable multisensor system is successfully demonstrated with an integrated energy-storage device, an array of microsupercapacitors that can be repeatedly charged via a wireless radio-frequency power receiver on the same stretchable polymer substrate. The integrated devices are interconnected by a liquid-metal interconnection and operate stably without noticeable performance degradation under strain due to the skin attachment, and a uniaxial strain up to 50%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  11. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times...

  12. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, au...

  13. Self Adaptive Safe Provisioning of Wireless Power Using DCOPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C.J. van; Yildirim, K.S.; Pawelczak, P.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technologies aim at getting rid of cables used by consumer devices for energy provision. As long distance WPT is becoming mature, the health impact of WPT becomes increasingly important to consider. In this paper we look at how to maximize the wireless power transfer to

  14. Power Analysis of an Enterprise Wireless Communication Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ANALYSIS OF AN ENTERPRISE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE by Howen Q. Fernando September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Ronald Giachetti Second...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE POWER ANALYSIS OF AN ENTERPRISE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...develops and analyzes a model to demonstrate that an enterprise computing architecture for Software Defined Radios results in significant power savings

  15. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  16. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongseog

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment

  17. A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

    2011-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

  18. A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Guobing; Chen, Jiaoliao; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic

  19. Wirelessly powered sensor networks and computational RFID

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Wireless Identification and Sensing Platform (WISP) is the first of a new class of RF-powered sensing and computing systems.  Rather than being powered by batteries, these sensor systems are powered by radio waves that are either deliberately broadcast or ambient.  Enabled by ongoing exponential improvements in the energy efficiency of microelectronics, RF-powered sensing and computing is rapidly moving along a trajectory from impossible (in the recent past), to feasible (today), toward practical and commonplace (in the near future). This book is a collection of key papers on RF-powered sensing and computing systems including the WISP.  Several of the papers grew out of the WISP Challenge, a program in which Intel Corporation donated WISPs to academic applicants who proposed compelling WISP-based projects.  The book also includes papers presented at the first WISP Summit, a workshop held in Berkeley, CA in association with the ACM Sensys conference, as well as other relevant papers. The book provides ...

  20. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  1. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  2. Stochastic Allocation of Transmit Power for Realistic Wireless Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tarhuni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of transmitted power is crucial for the successful operation of multi-user wireless channels communications. There are practical situations in which the transmitted power cannot be adjusted by feedback information; hence, only forward transmit power allocation can be applied, especially in situations where a feedback channel is not available in a wireless network or when wireless nodes are only transmit types. Conventionally, transmitted power can be fixed. Higher gain may be observed if the sensors’ transmitted power is randomized. In this work, random power allocation for a Nakagami-m distributed wireless channel model was investigated, and a number of random distributions were evaluated theoretically and tested by simulations. The outage probability was evaluated theoretically and validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Dynamic Resource Allocation for Multiple-Antenna Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Gang; Ho, Chin Keong; Guan, Yong Liang

    2013-01-01

    We consider a point-to-point multiple-input-single-output (MISO) system where a receiver harvests energy from a wireless power transmitter to power itself for various applications. The transmitter performs energy beamforming by using an instantaneous channel state information (CSI). The CSI is estimated at the receiver by training via a preamble, and fed back to the transmitter. The channel estimate is more accurate when longer preamble is used, but less time is left for wireless power transf...

  4. The security energy encryption in wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadzali, M. N.; Ali, A.; Azizan, M. M.; Albreem, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a concept of security in wireless power transfer (WPT) by applying chaos theory. Chaos theory is applied as a security system in order to safeguard the transfer of energy from a transmitter to the intended receiver. The energy encryption of the wireless power transfer utilizes chaos theory to generate the possibility of a logistic map for the chaotic security key. The simulation for energy encryption wireless power transfer system was conducted by using MATLAB and Simulink. By employing chaos theory, the chaotic key ensures the transmission of energy from transmitter to its intended receiver.

  5. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  6. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  7. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  8. Power requirements and battery life measurement for wireless transmission between two nodes in different mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Karli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of the wireless sensor networks (WSN is to avoid wiring costs, be self-sustainable and be able to function for several years. However, due to the slow progress in battery technology, power continues to be a limited resource in wireless sensor communication and electric energy storage remains to be an important issue. On the other hand, if batteries must be replaced often, many remote sensing applications may become impractical. Therefore, batteries with long life on the order of several years are needed. This paper is an extension of work originally presented in The 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications to investigate further the power requirements for wireless data transfer between two nodes using batteries with different capacities (55 mAh, 550 mAh and 5500 mAh. In particular, the effect of a propagation medium such as air, distilled water and engine oil on the wireless communication inside a one meter long metallic pipe was investigated. Our first result shows a successful transmission of wireless signal through air, distilled water and oil medium with very low transmission losses. The second result shows that an increase in the battery capacity will increase the two-node wireless sensor operation time even in different propagation medium. This result can be used to determine the required battery capacity for extending the WSN operation time.

  9. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  10. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  11. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  12. The promises and prospects of worldwide wireless power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voorhies, K.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The promise of worldwide wireless power transfer began with the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla about 100 years ago. His principal approach is summarized. The viability of such a system must still be demonstrated and many questions remain. Potentially, a wireless system can transfer power more efficiently and flexibly, especially to and from remote regions. This paper includes principle elements of worldwide wireless power transfer: the source: an oscillator/transmitter, the path: the cavity bounded by the earth and the ionosphere, and the receiver: a means of extracting power from the path. The system transfers and stores energy via the resonance modes of the cavity. The key challenges facing demonstration of technical feasibility are in finding an efficient means of coupling power into and out of the earth-ionosphere cavity, and in devising a feasible receiver that is both small and efficient. Along with demonstrating technical feasibility, new research must consider safety, environmental impact, susceptibility to weather, and effects on weather

  13. Implementation of Low Power Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the multi-hop wireless sensor network is created, which is realized by Micaz and Mib520 Board using TinyOS and Cygwin. The mote transmission mode is engaged and off-the-shelf protocols and algorithm, RSSI and PDR, are applied in this wireless network and the performance is improved. Several experiments are proposed to set standard RSSI threshold value to allow the user to send packet with efficient power level.

  14. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  15. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  16. Research Update: Nanogenerators for self-powered autonomous wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Hinchet, Ronan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Largely distributed networks of sensors based on the small electronics have great potential for health care, safety, and environmental monitoring. However, in order to have a maintenance free and sustainable operation, such wireless sensors have to be self-powered. Among various energies present in our environment, mechanical energy is widespread and can be harvested for powering the sensors. Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators (NGs) have been recently introduced for mechanical energy harvesting. Here we introduce the architecture and operational modes of self-powered autonomous wireless sensors. Thereafter, we review the piezoelectric and triboelectric NGs focusing on their working mechanism, structures, strategies, and materials.

  17. Ultra low power signal oriented approach for wireless health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Stevan; Popovici, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. A potential solution to this problem is real time and/or remote patient monitoring by using mobile devices. To achieve this, medical sensors with wireless communication, computational and energy harvesting capabilities are networked on, or in, the human body forming what is commonly called a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). We present the implementation of a novel Wake Up Receiver (WUR) in the context of standardised wireless protocols, in a signal-oriented WBAN environment and present a novel protocol intended for wireless health monitoring (WhMAC). WhMAC is a TDMA-based protocol with very low power consumption. It utilises WBAN-specific features and a novel ultra low power wake up receiver technology, to achieve flexible and at the same time very low power wireless data transfer of physiological signals. As the main application is in the medical domain, or personal health monitoring, the protocol caters for different types of medical sensors. We define four sensor modes, in which the sensors can transmit data, depending on the sensor type and emergency level. A full power dissipation model is provided for the protocol, with individual hardware and application parameters. Finally, an example application shows the reduction in the power consumption for different data monitoring scenarios.

  18. Guidelines for wireless technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Ramesh

    2003-01-01

    As a result of technological breakthroughs, increased demand for the use of wireless technology is common in all industries today, and the electric power industry is no exception. Already, wireless technology has many applications in our industry, including - but not limited to - cellular phone systems, paging systems, two-way radio communication systems, dose management and tracking systems, and operator logs. EPRI has prepared a comprehensive guidelines document to support evaluation of wireless technologies in power plants for integrated (voice/data/video) communication, remote equipment and system monitoring, and to complement an electronic procedures support system (EPSS). The guidelines effort focuses on the development of a rules structure to support the deployment of wireless devices in a plant without compromising continuous, safe, and reliable operation. The guidelines document consists of two volumes. The first volume is introductory in nature and lays out the business case for applying wireless technologies. The intended audience is senior plant management personnel and utility industry executives. This volume contains background information, templates, worksheets, processes, and presentations that will allow internal sponsors to create business cases for piloting wireless projects. The second volume includes guidance on implementation and regulatory issues relevant to plant implementation. It covers the following application areas: implementation of integrated communication capability, equipment monitoring, work quality control, time and knowledge management, and business process automation. It details regulatory issues relevant to the adoption of wireless technology within nuclear power plants and offers guidance on preparing for and executing pilot and implementations of wireless technologies. The paper will cover important aspects on the guidelines. (author)

  19. A solar powered wireless computer mouse: industrial design concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; Veefkind, M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Silvester, S.

    2009-01-01

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared

  20. Wireless power transfer inspired by the modern trends in electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Belov, Pavel; Kapitanova, Polina

    2017-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been looking for an effective way to transfer power without wired connections, but the wireless power transfer technology started to attract extensive interest from the industry side only in 2007 when the first smartphone was released and a consumer electronics revolution was triggered. Currently, the modern technology of wireless power transfer already has a rich research and development history as well as outstanding advances in commercialization. This review is focused on the description of distinctive implementations of this technology inspired by the modern trends in electrodynamics. We compare the performances of the power transfer systems based on three kinds of resonators, i.e., metallic coil resonators, dielectric resonators, and cavity mode resonators. We argue that metamaterials and meta-atoms are powerful tools to improve the functionalities and to obtain novel properties of the systems. We review different approaches to enhance the functionality of the wireless power transfer systems including control of the power transfer path and increase of the operation range and efficiency. Various applications of wireless power transfer are discussed and currently available standards are reviewed.

  1. Power Conservation through Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandris, Dionisis; Tsioumas, Panagiotis; Tzes, Anthony; Nikolakopoulos, George; Vergados, Dimitrios D

    2009-01-01

    The power awareness issue is the primary concern within the domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Most power dissipation ocurrs during communication, thus routing protocols in WSNs mainly aim at power conservation. Moreover, a routing protocol should be scalable, so that its effectiveness does not degrade as the network size increases. In response to these issues, this work describes the development of an efficient routing protocol, named SHPER (Scaling Hierarchical Power Efficient Routing).

  2. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  3. The Study on the Wireless Power Transfer System for Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Nam Kim; Won-Yong Chae; Dong-Sul Shin; Ho-Sung Kim; Hee-Je Kim

    2010-01-01

    A wireless power transfer system can attribute to the fields in robot, aviation and space in which lightening the weight of device and improving the movement play an important role. A wireless power transfer system was investigated to overcome the inconvenience of using power cable. Especially a wireless power transfer technology is important element for mobile robots. We proposed the wireless power transfer system of the half-bridge resonant converter with the frequency ...

  4. Highly Directive Reflect Array Antenna Design for Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-14

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0033 Highly Directive Reflect Array Antenna Design for Wireless Power Transfer Siddhartha Prakash Duttagupta INDIAN INSTITUTE...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...Directive Reflect Array Antenna Design for Wireless Power Transfer 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4076 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  5. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  6. Development and Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems for Wireless ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variations in the magnetic field distribution and power transmission efficiency, resulting from changes in the relative positions of the transmitting and receiving coils, for electromagnetic induction-type wireless power transmission using an elliptical receive coil. Results of simulations using a high-frequency structure simulator were compared to actual measurement results. The simulations showed that the transmission efficiency could be maintained relatively stable even if the alignment between the transmitting and receiving coils was changed to some extent. When the centre of the receiving coil was perfectly aligned with the centre of the transmitting coil, the transmission efficiency was in the maximum; however, the degree of decrease in the transmission efficiency was small even if the centre of the receiving coil moved by ±10 mm from the centre of the transmitting coil. Therefore, it is expected that the performance of the wireless power transmission system will not be degraded significantly even if perfect alignment is not maintained. Animal experiments confirmed good ECG signals for the simulation conditions. The results suggested a standardized application method of wireless transmission in the utilization of wireless power for implantable sensors.

  7. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...

  8. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Chabalko

    Full Text Available Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR, which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power.

  9. Low Power Shoe Integrated Intelligent Wireless Gait Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.; Bakar, N. A.; Anuar, A. F.; Zainol, M. Z.; Hamzah, F.

    2014-04-01

    Gait analysis measurement is a method to assess and identify gait events and the measurements of dynamic, motion and pressure parameters involving the lowest part of the body. This significant analysis is widely used in sports, rehabilitation as well as other health diagnostic towards improving the quality of life. This paper presents a new system empowered by Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU), ultrasonic sensors, piezoceramic sensors array, XBee wireless modules and Arduino processing unit. This research focuses on the design and development of a low power ultra-portable shoe integrated wireless intelligent gait measurement using MEMS and recent microelectronic devices for foot clearance, orientation, error correction, gait events and pressure measurement system. It is developed to be cheap, low power, wireless, real time and suitable for real life in-door and out-door environment.

  10. A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Kirkham, Harold; Clements, Samuel L.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2010-01-27

    A key mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to enhance the security and reliability of the nation’s energy infrastructure. Improving the security of control systems, which enable the automated control of our energy production and distribution, is critical for protecting the energy infrastructure and the integral function that it serves in our lives. The DOE-OE Control Systems Security Program provides research and development to help the energy industry actively pursue advanced security solutions for control systems. The focus of this report is analyzing how, where, and what type of wireless communications are suitable for deployment in the electric power system and to inform implementers of their options in wireless technologies. The discussions in this report are applicable to enhancing both the communications infrastructure of the current electric power system and new smart system deployments. The work described in this report includes a survey of the following wireless technologies: • IEEE 802.16 d and e (WiMAX) • IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) family of a, b, g, n, and s • Wireless sensor protocols that use parts of the IEEE 802.15.4 specification: WirelessHART, International Society of Automation (ISA) 100.11a, and Zigbee • The 2, 3, and 4 generation (G )cellular technologies of GPRS/EDGE/1xRTT, HSPA/EVDO, and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)/HSPA+UMTS.

  11. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2017-01-01

    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.

  12. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad MARSIC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimization ensure the system’s energy autonomous capability demonstrated in this paper by presenting the promising testing results achieved following its integration with structural health monitoring and body area network applications.

  13. Wireless ultrasound-powered biotelemetry for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Bruce C; Larson, Patrick J; Gulick, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A miniature piezoelectric receiver coupled to a diode is evaluated as a simple device for wireless transmission of bioelectric events to the body surface. The device converts the energy of a surface-applied ultrasound beam to a high frequency carrier current in solution. Bioelectrical currents near the implant modulate the carrier amplitude, and this signal is remotely detected and demodulated to recover the biopotential waveform. This technique achieves millivolt sensitivity in saline tank tests, and further attention to system design is expected to improve sensitivity.

  14. Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) The range of power management products available today offers the possibility to find the best solution for each application. To select the right product it is therefore necessary to understand system requirements, how power supply products work, and where they differentiate. This Technical Training Seminar will also present an overview of how to choose the right RF platform based on markets and applications: nowadays almost everbody has at least one wireless product in use, and this tendency seems to increase significantly. Power Management Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to evalu...

  15. Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) The range of power management products available today offers the possibility to find the best solution for each application. To select the right product it is therefore necessary to understand system requirements, how power supply products work, and where they differentiate. This Technical Training Seminar will also present an overview of how to choose the right RF platform based on markets and applications: nowadays almost everbody has at least one wireless product in use, and this tendency seems to increase significantly. Power Management Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to evaluati...

  16. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Song-Hae; Kim, Young-Sik; Lyou, Ho-Sun; Kim, Min-Suk; Lyou, Joon

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency respons...

  17. Wireless connectivity for Hilti power tools with bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyong, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The increase use of ARM cores in industrial embedded systems make them more powerful. And as a method to implement a wireless communication we chose the relatively new Bluetooth Low Energy technology. In this Master Thesis we study the application and performance of Bluetooth technology on industrial power tools. We study and compare the performance of two Bluetooth modules for embedded solutions, one from STMicroelectronics and one from Microchip. And look if they are suitable...

  18. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional....... When identifying the most relevant storage solutions it is necessary to include considerations on many relevant parameters which should be evaluated against the potential drawbacks and benefits of adding storage. Here, the most relevant technologies in relation to power systems with high penetration...

  19. Efficient and Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks through Optimal Power Control and Optimal Handoff-Based Recovery Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in wireless sensor network (WSN technology have provided the availability of small and low-cost sensor with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. Modified triple umpiring system (MTUS has already proved its better performance in Wireless Sensor Networks. In this paper, we extended the MTUS by incorporating optimal signal to noise ratio (SNR-based power control mechanism and optimal handoff-based self-recovery features to form an efficient and secure routing for WSN. Extensive investigation studies using Glomosim-2.03 Simulator show that efficient and secure routing protocol (ESRP with optimal power control mechanism, and handoff-based self-recovery can significantly reduce the power usage.

  20. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Johann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  1. A vibration powered wireless mote on the Forth Road Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yu; Yan, Jize; Feng, Tao; Du, Sijun; Fidler, Paul; Soga, Kenichi; Middleton, Campbell; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2015-01-01

    The conventional resonant-approaches to scavenge kinetic energy are typically confined to narrow and single-band frequencies. The vibration energy harvester device reported here combines both direct resonance and parametric resonance in order to enhance the power responsiveness towards more efficient harnessing of real-world ambient vibration. A packaged electromagnetic harvester designed to operate in both of these resonant regimes was tested in situ on the Forth Road Bridge. In the field-site, the harvester, with an operational volume of ∼126 cm 3 , was capable of recovering in excess of 1 mW average raw AC power from the traffic-induced vibrations in the lateral bracing structures underneath the bridge deck. The harvester was integrated off-board with a power conditioning circuit and a wireless mote. Duty- cycled wireless transmissions from the vibration-powered mote was successfully sustained by the recovered ambient energy. This limited duration field test provides the initial validation for realising vibration-powered wireless structural health monitoring systems in real world infrastructure, where the vibration profile is both broadband and intermittent. (paper)

  2. A vibration powered wireless mote on the Forth Road Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Yan, Jize; Feng, Tao; Du, Sijun; Fidler, Paul; Soga, Kenichi; Middleton, Campbell; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional resonant-approaches to scavenge kinetic energy are typically confined to narrow and single-band frequencies. The vibration energy harvester device reported here combines both direct resonance and parametric resonance in order to enhance the power responsiveness towards more efficient harnessing of real-world ambient vibration. A packaged electromagnetic harvester designed to operate in both of these resonant regimes was tested in situ on the Forth Road Bridge. In the field-site, the harvester, with an operational volume of ∼126 cm3, was capable of recovering in excess of 1 mW average raw AC power from the traffic-induced vibrations in the lateral bracing structures underneath the bridge deck. The harvester was integrated off-board with a power conditioning circuit and a wireless mote. Duty- cycled wireless transmissions from the vibration-powered mote was successfully sustained by the recovered ambient energy. This limited duration field test provides the initial validation for realising vibration-powered wireless structural health monitoring systems in real world infrastructure, where the vibration profile is both broadband and intermittent.

  3. Optimization of Passive Low Power Wireless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Grgić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF to direct current (DC power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at −30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna is built and tested for receiving range performance.

  4. Optimization of Passive Low Power Wireless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimo, Antwi; Grgić, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor) resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at −30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna) is built and tested for receiving range performance. PMID:23202014

  5. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  6. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F., E-mail: mohamad.imani@gmail.com [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  7. Authenticated Encryption for Low-Power Reconfigurable Wireless Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    this enabling technology, these radios have to propose cryptographic services such as con- fidentiality, integrity and authentication. Therefore, integration of security services to these low-power devices is very challenging and crucial as they have limited resources and computational capabilities......With the rapid growth of new wireless communication standards, a solution that is capable of providing a seamless shift between existing wireless protocols and high flexibility as well as capability is crucial. Technology based on reconfigurable devices offers this flexibility. In order to avail....... In this paper, we present a crypto solution for reconfigurable devices. The solution is a single pass Authenticated Encryption (AE) scheme that is designed for protecting both message confidentiality and its authenticity. This makes AE very attractive for low-cost low-power hardware implementation. For test...

  8. Low power design of wireless endoscopy compression/communication architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitouni Abdelkrim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A wireless endoscopy capsule represents an efficient device interesting on the examination of digestive diseases. Many performance criteria’s (silicon area, dissipated power, image quality, computational time, etc. need to be deeply studied.In this paper, our interest is the optimization of the indicated criteria. The proposed methodology is based on exploring the advantages of the DCT/DWT transforms by combining them into single architecture. For arithmetic operations, the MCLA technique is used. This architecture integrates also a CABAC entropy coder that supports all binarization schemes. AMBA/I2C architecture is developed for assuring optimized communication.The comparisons of the proposed architecture with the most popular methods explained in related works show efficient results in terms dissipated power, hardware cost, and computation speed. Keywords: Wireless endoscopy capsule, DCT/DWT image compression, CABAC entropy coder, AMBA/I2C multi-bus architecture

  9. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  10. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  11. Robust Downlink Power Control in Wireless Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biguesh Mehrzad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A serious shortcoming of current downlink power control methods is that their performance may be severely degraded when the downlink channel information is known imprecisely at the transmitter. In this paper, a computationally and implementationally simple centralized downlink power control method is proposed for cellular wireless communication systems using code division multiple access (CDMA or space division multiple access (SDMA. Our method provides a substantially improved robustness against imperfect knowledge of the wireless channel by means of maintaining the required quality of service for the worst-case channel uncertainty. In the SDMA case, the proposed technique can be straightforwardly combined with any of the existing transmit beamforming methods. Simulation results validate substantial robustness improvements achieved by our approach.

  12. Power Consumption Analysis of Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lajara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems—TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki—running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  13. Selected Developments in Wireless Power Transfer Standards and Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kalialakis, Christos; Borges Carvalho, Nuno; Shinohara, Naoki; Georgiadis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Selected advances in the use and developments of Wireless Power Transfer(WPT) standards and regulations in Europe and Japan are reported. The European research program COST-WiPE is described as a means to enhance interaction between research and standardization. WPT electronics are also reviewed in terms of frequency based on recent publications. Furthermore, activities in the context of International Telecommunications Union and especially recent Japanese contributions with a focus on far fi...

  14. Radio link quality estimation in low-power wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey on related work for radio link quality estimation, which covers the characteristics of low-power links, the fundamental concepts of link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks, a taxonomy of existing link quality estimators and their performance analysis. It then shows how link quality estimation can be used for designing protocols and mechanisms such as routing and hand-off. The final part is dedicated to radio interference estimation, generation and mitigation.

  15. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  16. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rubel Basar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  17. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  18. Wireless Powered Cooperative Communications: Power Splitting Relaying With Energy Accumulation (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    ar X iv :1 60 1. 00 37 4v 1 [ cs .I T ] 4 J an 2 01 6 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 34, NO. X, JAN. 2016 1 Wireless ... wireless - powered multi-relay cooperative networks in this paper. Dif- ferent from the conventional battery-free PS relaying strategy, harvested...operations including the charging and discharging. To this end, PS and battery operations are coupled with distributed beamforming. A throughput

  19. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  20. Wireless photonic power and data transfer to dormant devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Need exists for untethered transmission of electrical power and data to remote devices and sensors. Several wireless solutions, based on radiation and non-radiation are in existence. Here the focus is on the use of photonic power which is an optimized optical to electrical conversion solution, used for both wireless and guided transportation. High photonic conversion efficiencies of 50% and greater have been demonstrated for wavelength matched laser diodes and photovoltaic cells. However, these existing solutions do not meet the needs of rapid energy transfer to remote devices, such as munition shells prior to launch. We report on the design and fabrication of a 16-cell array of densely packed photonic power converters that can power a munition shell immediately prior to launch. A laser beam delivers power and data to the PPC array. Thermal simulation, using FEA shows that the each of the cells can be operated at an equivalent irradiance of 1000x suns, giving an energy transfer rate of 17.5 J.s-1 for the array. Thus, two 10 F super-capacitors, typically used in munitions, can be charged is under 5 seconds. Further, using the measured capacitance of 2.4 nF for the array, data can be transported to the munition on the laser power beam, at a rate exceeding 5 Mbps.

  1. Self-Learning Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2018-01-27

    Current trends in interconnecting myriad smart objects to monetize on Internet of Things applications have led to high-density communications in wireless sensor networks. This aggravates the already over-congested unlicensed radio bands, calling for new mechanisms to improve spectrum management and energy efficiency, such as transmission power control. Existing protocols are based on simplistic heuristics that often approach interference problems (i.e., packet loss, delay and energy waste) by increasing power, leading to detrimental results. The scope of this work is to investigate how machine learning may be used to bring wireless nodes to the lowest possible transmission power level and, in turn, to respect the quality requirements of the overall network. Lowering transmission power has benefits in terms of both energy consumption and interference. We propose a protocol of transmission power control through a reinforcement learning process that we have set in a multi-agent system. The agents are independent learners using the same exploration strategy and reward structure, leading to an overall cooperative network. The simulation results show that the system converges to an equilibrium where each node transmits at the minimum power while respecting high packet reception ratio constraints. Consequently, the system benefits from low energy consumption and packet delay.

  2. Power Control and Coding Formulation for State Estimation with Wireless Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan; Ahlen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances made wireless sensors cheap and reliable enough to be brought into industrial use. A major challenge arises from the fact that wireless channels introduce random packet dropouts. Power control and coding are key enabling technologies in wireless communications to ensure eff...

  3. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  4. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  5. Electromagnetic Interference Issues of A Wireless Power Transmission Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2018-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on the inductive charging to transfer electrical power from a source to batteries without any electrical interface. The main problem with them is that inductive charging technologies may have electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues caused by the leakage magnetic...... field and the leakage current flowing through stray capacitors. In this paper, the EMI of wireless power transmission technology is highlighted and for the first time evaluated from a new perspective. The possible parasitic paths are identified simply. Additionally, effective high-frequency models...

  6. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-08-27

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  7. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-10-14

    The fourth quarter of the project was dedicated to the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module and inspection pre assembly of the mechanical components. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of filter control and signal detection software. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Dimensional issues were resolved and revised drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and sent to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) Finalized the requirements and fittings and connections for testing the tool in the Halliburton flow loop. (3) The new acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly will be outsourced for plastic coating in preparation for hostile environment use. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development continued to progress. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the acoustic generator assembly was manufactured and was successfully tested. Spring mandrel design showed increased acoustic output on the pipe and was implemented. (6) PCBA board carrier with board set was tested for function and fit and is 100% complete. (7) Filter control software is complete and software to allow modification of communication parameters dynamically is 50% complete. (8) All mechanical parts to assemble the wireless gauge and power generator have been received and verified to be within specification. (9) Acoustic generator has been assembled in the tool mandrel and tested successfully. (10) The circuit required to harvest the power generated downhole has been designed and the power generator

  8. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwen; Yan, Guozheng; He, Shu; Ke, Quan; Wang, Zhiwu; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Pingping

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro.

  9. Optimizing the wireless power transfer over MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wiedmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimization of the power transfer over wireless channels having multiple-inputs and multiple-outputs (MIMO is studied. Therefore, the transmitter, the receiver and the MIMO channel are modeled as multiports. The power transfer efficiency is described by a Rayleigh quotient, which is a function of the channel's scattering parameters and the incident waves from both transmitter and receiver side. This way, the power transfer efficiency can be maximized analytically by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, which is deduced from the Rayleigh quotient. As a result, the maximum power transfer efficiency achievable over a given MIMO channel is obtained. This maximum can be used as a performance bound in order to benchmark wireless power transfer systems. Furthermore, the optimal operating point which achieves this maximum will be obtained. The optimal operating point will be described by the complex amplitudes of the optimal incident and reflected waves of the MIMO channel. This supports the design of the optimal transmitter and receiver multiports. The proposed method applies for arbitrary MIMO channels, taking transmitter-side and/or receiver-side cross-couplings in both near- and farfield scenarios into consideration. Special cases are briefly discussed in this paper in order to illustrate the method.

  10. Wirelessly powered stimulator and recorder for neuronal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sudip; Sharma, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is widely adopted in neuro-engineering to partially alleviate diseased functions in the brain, retina and cochlea. We present a 32-channel wirelessly powered constant current stimulator and low power recording amplifier for FES based applications. The biphasic stimulator utilizes innovative techniques for matched positive/ negative currents and thus improves charge balance. Electrode discharging scheme is added for stimulation artifact suppression. An improved low power amplifier is incorporated for evoked response measurements. Electrical performance is characterized using simulated electrode-electrolyte impedance. Closed-loop stimulation and recording experiments have been performed. Stimulation current magnitudes of 2 μA-200 μA and up to 400 Hz rate have been realized. Theory and limitation of discharging scheme is explored while suppressing artifacts down to 3 ms. Alternate anodic-first and cathodic-first stimulation pulses are adopted for enhanced charge balancing. The low power amplifier exhibits gain of 1200 and bandwidth 350 Hz-1.02 KHz. A multiplexer/ demultiplexer is used to share the front-end among 32 electrodes. The inductively coupled wireless energy harvester works at 125 KHz-135 KHz that can remotely deliver 1.4 mW at 1cm distance to an equivalent of 10K load. The system can accommodate multielectrodes with impedance up to 100 K Ω. The entire hybrid analog-digital system consumes 360 μW quiescent power. Miniaturization makes it suitable for in-vivo applications.

  11. Wireless power transfer for medical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.  ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies in...

  12. Simultaneous power control and power management algorithm with sector-shaped topology for wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nickray, Mohsen; Afzali-Kusha, Ali; Jäntti, Riku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a topology control technique to reduce the energy consumption of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The technique makes use of both power control and power management methods. The algorithm uses the power management technique to put as many idle nodes as possible into the sleep mode while invoking the power control method to adjust the transmission range of the active nodes. On the contrary to earlier works in which both of these methods were used separately, in this a...

  13. Power Amplifier Design for E-band Wireless System Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2008-01-01

    E-band wireless communications will become important as the microwave backhaul for high-speed data transmission. One of the most critical components is the front-end power amplifier in this system. The paper analyzes different technologies with potential in the E-band frequency range and present...... power and efficiency reported for an InP HBT power amplifier in this frequency range. The predicted power-added efficiency is higher than that of power amplifiers based on SiGe HBT and GaAs pHEMT technologies. The design shows the capabilities of InP DHBT for power amplifier applications...... a power amplifier design satisfying the E-band system specifications. The designed power amplifier achieves a maximum output power of ges 20 dBm with a state-of-the-art power-added efficiency of 15%. The power is realized using InP DHBT technology. To the best of our knowledge it is the highest output...

  14. The design of a wireless batteryless biflash installation with high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, J.; De Geest, W.; Hanselaer, P.

    2011-05-01

    Adding flashlights at crosswalks may make these weak traffic points safer. Unfortunately plugging in traffic lights into the electrical grid is expensive and complex. This paper reports about the energetic, the electronic and the optical design and building of a wireless and batteryless biflash installation in the framework of a flemish SME supporting program. The energy is supplied by a small solar panel and is buffered by supercapacitors instead of batteries. This has the advantage of being maintenance free: the number of charge-discharge cycles is almost unlimited because there is no chemical reaction involved in the storage mechanism. On the other hand the limited energy storage capacity of supercapacitors requires a new approach for the system design. Based on the EN-12352 standard for warning light devices, all design choices were filled in to be as energy efficient as possible. The duty cycle and the light output of the high power led flashlights are minimized. The components for the electronic circuits for the led driver, the control and the RF communication are selected based on their energy consumption and power management techniques are implemented. A lot of energy is saved by making the biflash system active. The leds are only flashing on demand or at preprogrammed moments. A biflash installation is typically installed at both sides of a crosswalk. A call at one of the sides should result in flashing at both sides. To maintain the drag and drop principle, a wireless RF communication system is designed.

  15. Resonant ultrasonic wireless power transmission for bio-implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, Woosub; Hwang, Gunn; Moon, Kee S.; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the ultrasonic wireless power transmission system as part of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system in development to supply the required electric power. Making a small-size implantable BMI, it is essential to design a low power unit with a rechargeable battery. The ultrasonic power transmission system has two piezoelectric transducers, facing each other between skin tissues converting electrical energy to mechanical vibrational energy or vice versa. Ultrasound is free from the electromagnetic coupling effect and medical frequency band limitations which making it a promising candidate for implantable purposes. In this paper, we present the design of piezoelectric composite transducer, the rectifier circuit, and rechargeable battery that all packaged in biocompatible titanium can. An initial prototype device was built for demonstration purpose. The early experimental results demonstrate the prototype device can reach 50% of energy transmission efficiency in a water medium at 20mm distance and 18% in animal skin tissue at 18mm distance, respectively.

  16. Optimization of power allocation in wireless cooperative communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunling; Mou, Yangyang; Pan, Chengsheng

    2017-05-01

    As an important part of resource allocation, power allocation affects the performance of wireless cooperative system to a great extent. However, the existing cooperative communication power allocation scheme using only a single index to optimize the performance of the system makes the optimization effect unideal, put forward a cooperative communication power allocation scheme comprehensively consider of the capacity and error probability as objective function. In this paper, the capacity and error probability of the cooperative communication technology are analyzed and the corresponding theoretical formulas are derived, then prove the nonlinear relationship between the two. On this basis, make the maximizing the capacity and minimizing error probability as objective function, present the power allocation scheme based on particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better effect on cooperative communication system, and is more suitable for the future development of cooperative communication technology.

  17. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless power transfer (WPT technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  18. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Chen, Jian; Deng, Yansha; Wang, Xingwei; Aghvami, Abdol-Hamid

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  19. Applicable approach of the wireless technology for Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Do Young; Lee, Soo Ill

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • To apply wireless technology for Korean NPPs, several stipulations are proposed. • WLAN is proposed as the most appropriate wireless technology for Korean NPPs. • WLAN can be applied to the specific fields except in the control system. • An attitude survey on wireless showed that 94.7% agree with the necessity of wireless. - Abstract: Recently, many nuclear power plants (NPPs) over the world use various types of wireless systems for the advantages. Unfortunately, wireless technologies are not currently installed in any Korean NPPs because it is difficult to solve the negative impact of unexpected outcomes or failures from the influence of the wireless technologies, which is electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI). Moreover, a lack of desire on the part of Korean nuclear industry to implement it leads to give up benefit from the wireless technologies. To install the wireless technologies with maximum benefit and minimum risk, a systematic approach, which quantify the negative impact and prevent the influence, is essential; therefore, this paper describes an applicable research result on the wireless technology for Korean NPPs based on regulatory guides and current wireless hardware and software technologies. Also, survey on the needs for the wireless technology for Korean nuclear power plants was conducted, because the level of awareness of workers in NPPs regarding wireless technologies is very important issue. In this paper, we propose an applicable system to enhance the applicability for the wireless technology for Korean NPPs. The result based on proposed applicable system shows that wireless local area network (WLAN) is the representative candidate for Korean NPPs, which can be applied to the specific fields of radiation monitoring, voice and data communication, component monitoring and instrumentation, and wireless cameras

  20. Capacity Limit, Link Scheduling and Power Control in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different structures and applications, and require different…

  1. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  2. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-08-21

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  3. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  4. Characterization and design of a low-power wireless power delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein, Erez Avigdor

    There is an increased demand for wireless sensors for data gathering and transmission where running wires to power a device or changing/charging batteries is difficult. Often the data is gathered at locations that are difficult to access, that need to be covert, and/or where the sensors cannot be easily maintained. Some examples are implanted sensors for medical diagnostics and therapy, structural monitoring sensors, sensors inside hazardous manufacturing or other hazardous environments, etc. For any low power sensor that operates at a low duty cycle, and in an environment with low levels of light or vibration, RF wireless powering offers the potential for maintenance-free operation. The thesis focuses on a design methodology for low-power non-directional far-field wireless powering. The power receiver consists of one or more antennae which receive plane waves transmitted by the powering source, and deliver the RF power to a rectifying element. The resulting DC power is optimally transferred to the electronic application via a power management circuit. The powering is independent of the electronic application which can include wireless transmission of sensor data. The design and implementation of an integrated rectifier-antenna at low incident power densities (from 25--200 muW/cm2) is presented. Nonlinear source-pull measurements and harmonic balance simulations are used for finding the optimal rectifying device RF and DC impedances for efficient rectification. Experimental results show that an antenna design with a specific complex impedance reaches the highest rectification efficiency. Several examples of the design methodology will be shown. In specific, characterization of a rectifying patch antenna at frequency of 2.45GHz will be detailed, with an optimal RF impedance of 137+j149O and an optimal DC load of 365O resulting in RF to DC conversion efficiency of 63% for the rectifier alone and 56% for the total rectifying antenna.

  5. Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in Crop Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Pilegaard; Green, Ole; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2015-01-01

    In the agricultural domain, proper storage conditions of crops is important to avoid losses due to degradation of crop quality. Currently, monitoring storages is often done manually and by using only a few samples. This makes the process time-consuming and in many cases the few samples taken cannot...... of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that the network works well for the intended application and that the intended users also see a value in the provided service....

  6. Optimization of energy storage in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Chacra, F.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a century, electric transmission and distribution systems have been developed assuming that electric energy was almost impossible to store. Technical progress, new environmental requirements and electrical industry reforms now lead us to believe that storage in the future will be one of the main challenges in the development of power systems. Storage would have potential applications to deal with current technical constraints such as the system load, peak-load value, faults in parts of the system, control issues, etc. and economic ones such as upgrades deferral, renewable energy deployment, etc. In this study, energy storage is considered in two strategic locations in the French power system: HT/MT substations and wind farms. Possible applications and economic flags are formulated and appropriate optimization methods (genetic algorithms, Pareto) are used to maximize the project net present value. This optimization results in defining optimal capacities and control strategies for the energy storage system, taken from a set of storage technologies suitable for this problem, and in assessing the technical-economic impact of energy storage as a solution in power systems. (author)

  7. Implementation Scenarios for Electric Vehicle Roadway Wireless Power Transfer; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, A.; Markel, T.; Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2015-06-05

    Analysis has been performed on the Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) warehouse of collected GPS second-by-second driving profile data of vehicles in the Atlanta, Chicago, Fresno, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and San Francisco Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) to understand in-motion wireless power transfer introduction scenarios. In this work it has been shown that electrification of 1% of road miles could reduce fuel use by 25% for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in these CSAs. This analysis of strategically located infrastructure offers a promising approach to reduced fuel consumption; however, even the most promising 1% of road miles determined by these seven analysis scenarios still represent an impressive 2,700 miles of roadway to electrify. Therefore to mitigate the infrastructure capital costs, integration of the grid-tied power electronics in the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system at the DC-link to photovoltaic and/or battery storage is suggested. The integration of these resources would allow for the hardware to provide additional revenue through grid services at times of low traffic volumes and conversely at time of high traffic volumes these resources could reduce the peak demand that the WPT system would otherwise add to the grid.

  8. An Overview of Resonant Circuits for Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiang Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing concerns for the safety and convenience of the power supply, there is a fast growing interest in wireless power transfer (WPT for industrial devices, consumer electronics, and electric vehicles (EVs. As the resonant circuit is one of the cores of both the near-field and far-field WPT systems, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop a high-efficiency high-frequency resonant circuit, especially for the mid-range near-field WPT system. In this paper, an overview of resonant circuits for the near-field WPT system is presented, with emphasis on the non-resonant converters with a resonant tank and resonant inverters with a resonant tank as well as compensation networks and selective resonant circuits. Moreover, some key issues including the zero-voltage switching, zero-voltage derivative switching and total harmonic distortion are addressed. With the increasing usage of wireless charging for EVs, bidirectional resonant inverters for WPT based vehicle-to-grid systems are elaborated.

  9. Low-power wireless trace gas sensing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clinton J.; So, Stephen; Khan, Amir; Zondlo, Mark A.; Wysocki, Gerard

    2011-06-01

    A basic wireless laser spectroscopic sensor network for monitoring of trace-gases will be presented. The prototype lowpower sensor nodes targeting carbon dioxide are based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and operate using a 2 μm VCSEL and a 3.5 m Herriott multi-pass cell. The sensor system, which employs real-time wireless communications, is controlled by custom electronics and can be operated autonomously. The sensor core electronics performs molecular concentration measurements using wavelength modulation spectroscopy with an active laser frequency locking to the target transition. The operating sensor node consumes approximately 300 mW of electrical power and can work autonomously for up to 100 hours when powered by a 10.5 Ah Lithium-ion polymer battery. Environmentally controlled long term (12 hours) stability tests show sensor node detection limit of ~0.286 ppm with 1 second integration time and the ultimate minimum detectable fractional absorption of 1.5x10-6 is obtained after 3500 seconds averaging time. The sensor node performance results and preliminary tests in a basic network configuration are discussed.

  10. Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)

  11. A Follow-up Study on Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Popovic, “Wireless Powering for Low-Power Distributed Sensors,” Sixth International Symposium Nikola Tesla , 18-20 October 2006. [32] Avago...1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MICROWAVE WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION The concept of power transmission dates back to Heinrich Hertz [1] and Nikola ... Tesla [2]. Tesla aimed to develop a high power transmitter to ascertain the law of propagation of current through the earth and the atmosphere. Although

  12. Simulation Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhiqiang; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Cong, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, more and more implantable medical devices have been used in the medical field. Some of these devices, such as brain pacemakers, require long-term power support. The WPT(wireless power transmission) technology which is more convenient and economical than replacing the battery by surgery, has become the first choice of many patients. In this paper, we design a WPT system that can be used in implantable medical devices, simulate the transmission efficiency of the system in the air and in the head model, and simulate the SAR value when the system working in the head model. The results show that when implantation depth of the secondary coil is 3 mm, the efficiency of the system can reach 45%, and the maximum average SAR value is 2.19 W / kg, slightly higher than the standard of IEEE.

  13. Wireless Power Transfer System Architectures for Portable or Implantable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the near-field inductive coupling wireless power transfer (WPT at the system level, with detailed analyses on each state-of-the-art WPT output voltage regulation topologies. For device miniaturization and power loss reduction, several novel architectures for efficient WPT were proposed in recent years to reduce the number of passive components as well as to improve the system efficiency or flexibility. These schemes are systematically studied and discussed in this paper. The main contribution of this paper is to provide design guidelines for WPT system design. In addition, possible combinations of the WPT building block configurations are summarized, compared, and investigated for potential new architectures.

  14. Finding Minimum-Power Broadcast Trees for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, Payman; Gray, Andrew; Das, Arindam; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Marks, Robert, II

    2004-01-01

    Some algorithms have been devised for use in a method of constructing tree graphs that represent connections among the nodes of a wireless communication network. These algorithms provide for determining the viability of any given candidate connection tree and for generating an initial set of viable trees that can be used in any of a variety of search algorithms (e.g., a genetic algorithm) to find a tree that enables the network to broadcast from a source node to all other nodes while consuming the minimum amount of total power. The method yields solutions better than those of a prior algorithm known as the broadcast incremental power algorithm, albeit at a slightly greater computational cost.

  15. Communication on SWIPT and EH Using Electromagnetic Behaviour for Power Allocation in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohel Rana; Ajij, Sayyad

    2017-12-01

    This review paper focuses on the basic relations between wireless power transfer, wireless information transfer and combined phenomenon of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer. The authors reviewed and discussed electromagnetic fields behaviour (EMB) for enhancing the power allocation strategies (PAS) in energy harvesting (EH) wireless communication systems. Further, this paper presents relations between Friis transmission equation and Maxwell's equations to be used in propagation models for reduction in specific absorption rate (SAR). This paper provides a review of various methods and concepts reported in earlier works. This paper also reviews Poynting vector and power densities along with boundary conditions for antennas and human body. Finally, this paper explores the usage of electromagnetic behaviour for the possible enhancement in power saving methods for electromagnetic behaviour centered-wireless energy harvesting (EMBC-WEH). At the same time, possibilities of PAS for reduction in SAR are discussed.

  16. Development of standard technical report on using and selecting wireless device in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, J. W.

    2011-11-01

    1. Purpose · Development of IEC technical report on wireless device using in nuclear power plants 2. Contents · IEC technical reports of draft for circulation and final draft for next planary meeting · Case study on experiment of wireless devices 3. Implementation methods · Preparation of first draft with experts group, its circulation, discussions on the results of the circulation · Organizing three teams such as preparation, reviews and experiment 4. Results · Maintenance cost will be reduced with application of the wireless technologies in nuclear power plants · Commercial wireless devices will be developed before standard is issued

  17. Decentralized power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) WMNs result in power control problems including interference, un-scalable connectivity and energy consumption. Several previous studies have focused on the single radio wireless configurations while studying power...

  18. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  19. Investigation of negative permeability metamaterials for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Mi, Chunting Chris; He, Fei; Jiang, Meng; Hua, Dengxin

    2017-11-01

    In order to enhance the transmission efficiency of wireless power transfer (WPT), a negative permeability metamaterials (NPM) with a structure of honeycomb composed by units of hexagon-shaped spirals copper is proposed in this paper. The unit parameters of the NPM are optimized, to make sure the negative permeability at the special frequency. The S-parameters of the designed NPM are measured by a network analyzer and the permeability is extracted, it shows the honeycomb NPM has a negative permeability at 6.43 MHz. A two-coil WPT is setup and the transmission efficiency of WPT embedded with NPM at the different position and with different structure are investigated. The measured results show that the 2-slab honeycomb NPM have a good perform compared with the 1-slab NPM, and the efficiency can be increased up to 51%. The results show that honeycomb NPM embedded in the WPT help to improve the transmission efficiency remarkable.

  20. GaN-Based Laser Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Santi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a potential application of gallium nitride-based optoelectronic devices. By using a laser diode and a photodetector, we designed and demonstrated a free-space compact and lightweight wireless power transfer system, whose efficiency is limited by the efficiency of the receiver. We analyzed the effect of the electrical load, temperature, partial absorption and optical excitation distribution on the efficiency, by identifying heating and band-filling as the most impactful processes. By comparing the final demonstrator with a commercial RF-based Qi system, we conclude that the efficiency is still low at close range, but is promising in medium to long range applications. Efficiency may not be a limiting factor, since this concept can enable entirely new possibilities and designs, especially relevant for space applications.

  1. Overvoltage protection system for wireless power transfer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Tang, Lixin; White, Clifford P.

    2017-05-02

    A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching between the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.

  2. A Fully Implantable Pacemaker for the Mouse: From Battery to Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Erik R.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Cui, Sophia X.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice. PMID:24194832

  3. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    devices for microwave ovens are approximately O.O25/W, due to the large manufacturing quantities. Comparable, remanufactured lasers for industrial applications at the 4 kW CW level are of order 25/W. Industrial klystrons cost over 1/W and solid state power amplifiers cost over 3/W. Model tethered helicopters, model airplanes, a smal1 airship and several small rovers have been powered with microwave beams at 2.45, 5.8 and 35 GHz. Smal1 rovers have been powered with laser beams. Two space-to-space microwave power link experiments have been conducted by the Japanese and with Texas A&M assistance in one case. International records for WPT link electric power delivered, range, 1ink efficiency and other salient parameters for both wireless-laser and -microwave power demonstrations win be reviewed. Also, costing models for WPT -system figure- of-merit (FOM) in terms of capital costs, in /MW -km, as a fonction of range and power level are reviewed. Records in Japan. France, Korea, Russia, Canada and the US will be reviewed for various land based WPT demonstrations. SSP applicable elements of technology in fiber and wireless links, cell phones and base stations, aircraft, and spacecraft phased arrays, industrial and scientific klystrons and lasers, military equipment (where information is available in open literature) microwave heating, and other telecommunication activities win be presented, concerning power handling, frequency or wavelength, conversion efficiency, specific mass, specific cost, etc. Previously studied and proposed applications of WPT technology will be presented to show the range of WPT technology being considered for commercial and other applications that will lead to advancing the SOA of WPT technology that win benefit SSP .

  4. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-14

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  5. Rf-to-dc power converters for wireless powering

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2016-12-01

    Various examples are provided related to radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power conversion. In one example, a RF-to-DC converter includes a fully cross-coupled rectification circuit including a pair of forward rectifying transistors and a feedback circuit configured to provide feedback bias signals to gates of the pair of forward rectifying transistors via feedback branch elements. In another example, a method includes receiving a radio frequency (RF) signal; rectifying the RF signal via a fully cross-coupled rectification circuit including a pair of forward rectifying transistors; and providing a DC output voltage from an output connection of the fully cross-coupled rectification circuit, where gating of the pair of forward rectifying transistors is controlled by feedback bias signals provided to gates of the pair of forward rectifying transistors via feedback branch elements.

  6. Development of inductive storage pulsed power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commisso, Robert J.; Boller, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ford, R. D.; Goodrich, P. J.

    1988-04-01

    A pulse generator, Pawn, has been assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory. It employs inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The capacitor bank stores 1 MJ at 44 kV. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to a vacuum storage inductor in 20 microsecs. Wire fuses provide the first stage of pulse compression. Further pulse compression is obtained from a plasma erosion opening switch. Initial results are encouraging. Nearly 0.1 TW of electrical power was delivered to an electron beam diode load in a 100-ns FWHM pulse. A peak voltage at the load of approx. equals 350 kV represents a factor of approx. equals 14 voltage gain over the initial, 25-kV bank voltage.

  7. Low-power wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaloiu-Elefteri, Razvan

    Significant progress has been made in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks in the decade that passed since its inception. This thesis presents several advances intended to make these networks a suitable instrument for environmental monitoring. The thesis first describes Koala, a low-power data-retrieval system that can achieve duty cycles below 1% by using bulk transfers, and Low Power Probing, a novel mechanism to efficiently wake up a network. The second contribution is Serendipity, another data-retrieval system, which takes advantage of the random rendezvous inherent in the Low Power Probing mechanism to achieve a very low duty cycle for low data rate networks. The third part explores the problem of and presents a solution for the interference between WSNs using IEEE 802.15.4 radios and the ubiquitous WiFi networks in the 2.4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. The last contribution of this thesis is Latte, a restricted version of the JavaScript language, that not only can be compiled to C and dynamically loaded on a sensing node, but can also be simulated and debugged in a JavaScript-enabled browser.

  8. Extended Kalman Filtering and Pathloss modeling for Shadow Power Parameter Estimation in Mobile Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pappas, George; A. Zohdy, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In this paper accurate estimation of parameters, higher order state space prediction methods and Extended Kalman filter (EKF) for modeling shadow power in wireless mobile communications are developed. Path-loss parameter estimation models are compared and evaluated. Shadow power estimation methods in wireless cellular communications are very important for use in power control of mobile device and base station. The methods are validated and compared to existing methods, Kalman Filter (KF) with...

  9. Hybrid swarm intelligence optimization approach for optimal data storage position identification in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanasundaram, Ranganathan; Periasamy, Pappampalayam Sanmugam

    2015-01-01

    The current high profile debate with regard to data storage and its growth have become strategic task in the world of networking. It mainly depends on the sensor nodes called producers, base stations, and also the consumers (users and sensor nodes) to retrieve and use the data. The main concern dealt here is to find an optimal data storage position in wireless sensor networks. The works that have been carried out earlier did not utilize swarm intelligence based optimization approaches to find the optimal data storage positions. To achieve this goal, an efficient swam intelligence approach is used to choose suitable positions for a storage node. Thus, hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used to find the suitable positions for storage nodes while the total energy cost of data transmission is minimized. Clustering-based distributed data storage is utilized to solve clustering problem using fuzzy-C-means algorithm. This research work also considers the data rates and locations of multiple producers and consumers to find optimal data storage positions. The algorithm is implemented in a network simulator and the experimental results show that the proposed clustering and swarm intelligence based ODS strategy is more effective than the earlier approaches.

  10. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  11. Efficiently sphere-decodable physical layer transmission schemes for wireless storage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiao-Feng Francis; Barreal, Amaro; Karpuk, David; Hollanti, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    Three transmission schemes over a new type of multiple-access channel (MAC) model with inter-source communication links are proposed and investigated in this paper. This new channel model is well motivated by, e.g., wireless distributed storage networks, where communication to repair a lost node takes place from helper nodes to a repairing node over a wireless channel. Since in many wireless networks nodes can come and go in an arbitrary manner, there must be an inherent capability of inter-node communication between every pair of nodes. Assuming that communication is possible between every pair of helper nodes, the newly proposed schemes are based on various smart time-sharing and relaying strategies. In other words, certain helper nodes will be regarded as relays, thereby converting the conventional uncooperative multiple-access channel to a multiple-access relay channel (MARC). The diversity-multiplexing gain tradeoff (DMT) of the system together with efficient sphere-decodability and low structural complexity in terms of the number of antennas required at each end is used as the main design objectives. While the optimal DMT for the new channel model is fully open, it is shown that the proposed schemes outperform the DMT of the simple time-sharing protocol and, in some cases, even the optimal uncooperative MAC DMT. While using a wireless distributed storage network as a motivating example throughout the paper, the MAC transmission techniques proposed here are completely general and as such applicable to any MAC communication with inter-source communication links.

  12. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  13. Power and delay optimisation in multi-hop wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2014-02-05

    In this paper, we study the optimisation problem of transmission power and delay in a multi-hop wireless network consisting of multiple nodes. The goal is to determine the optimal policy of transmission rates at various buffer and channel states in order to minimise the power consumption and the queueing delay of the whole network. With the assumptions of interference-free links and independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel states, we formulate this problem using a semi-open Jackson network model for data transmission and a Markov model for channel states transition. We derive a difference equation of the system performance under any two different policies. The necessary and sufficient condition of optimal policy is obtained. We also prove that the system performance is monotonic with respect to (w.r.t.) the transmission rate and the optimal transmission rate can be either maximal or minimal. That is, the ‘bang-bang’ control is an optimal control. This optimality structure greatly reduces the problem complexity. Furthermore, we develop an iterative algorithm to find the optimal solution. Finally, we conduct the simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. We hope our work can shed some insights on solving this complicated optimisation problem.

  14. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  15. Optimal Design and Analysis of the Stepped Core for Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key of wireless power transfer technology rests on finding the most suitable means to improve the efficiency of the system. The wireless power transfer system applied in implantable medical devices can reduce the patients’ physical and economic burden because it will achieve charging in vitro. For a deep brain stimulator, in this paper, the transmitter coil is designed and optimized. According to the previous research results, the coils with ferrite core can improve the performance of the wireless power transfer system. Compared with the normal ferrite core, the stepped core can produce more uniform magnetic flux density. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to analyze the system. The simulation results indicate that the core loss generated in the optimal stepped ferrite core can reduce about 10% compared with the normal ferrite core, and the efficiency of the wireless power transfer system can be increased significantly.

  16. Survey of wireless sensor network applications from a power utility’s distribution perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Isaac, SJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The task of monitoring and controlling power distribution networks is very challenging given the huge number of assets involved and their wide geographic distribution; this frames a role for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. This paper...

  17. Renewable power needs smart storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-10-24

    Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

  18. An Improved Rectenna for Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A. Background The concept of wireless power transmission (WPT) dates back to the days of Heinrich Hertz and Nikola Tesla [1], who discovered that...energy could be transported by electromagnetic waves in free space. Tesla considered the use of wireless power transmission employing low-frequency...his article, Brown wrote a description of the development of WPT and the milestones along the way. Previously, Tesla carried out numerous

  19. Wireless Power Transfer to Millimeter-Sized Nodes Using Airborne Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-10-01

    We propose the use of airborne ultrasound for wireless power transfer to mm-sized nodes, with intended application in the next generation of the Internet of Things (IoT). We show through simulation that ultrasonic power transfer can deliver 50 [Formula: see text] to a mm-sized node 0.88 m away from a ~ 50-kHz, 25-cm 2 transmitter array, with the peak pressure remaining below recommended limits in air, and with load power increasing with transmitter area. We report wireless power recovery measurements with a precharged capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer, demonstrating a load power of 5 [Formula: see text] at a simulated distance of 1.05 m. We present aperture efficiency, dynamic range, and bias-free operation as key metrics for the comparison of transducers meant for wireless power recovery. We also argue that long-range wireless charging at the watt level is extremely challenging with existing technology and regulations. Finally, we compare our acoustic powering system with cutting edge electromagnetically powered nodes and show that ultrasound has many advantages over RF as a vehicle for power delivery. Our work sets the foundation for further research into ultrasonic wireless power transfer for the IoT.

  20. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    Design and technical advancements in sensing, processing, and wireless communication capabilities of small, portable devices known as wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) have drawn extensive research attention and are vastly applied in science and engineering applications. The WSNs are typically powered by a chemical battery source that has a load dependent finite lifetime. Most applications, including the nuclear industry applications, require WSNs to operate for an extended period of time beginning with their deployment. To ensure longevity, it is important to develop self-powered WSNs. The benefit of self-powered WSNs goes far beyond the cost savings of removing the need for cable installation and maintenance. Self-powered WSNs will potentially offer significant expansion in remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, and provide important data on plant equipment and component status during normal operation, as well as in case of abnormal operation, station blackouts or post-accident evaluation. Advancements in power harvesting technologies enable electric energy generation from many sources, including kinetic, thermal, and radiated energy. For the ongoing research at Idaho National Laboratory, a solid-state thermoelectric-based technology, the thermoelectric generator (TEG), is used to convert thermal energy to power a WSN. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other

  1. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  2. Orbit-to-ground Wireless Power Transfer test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, C.; Noghanian, S.; Straub, J.; Whalen, D.; Fevig, R.

    Since the 1970s the concept of transferring power from orbit for use on Earth has had a great deal of consideration for future energy and environmental sustainability here on Earth. The cost, size and complexity of a production-grade system are extremely large, and have many environmental considerations. There has never been a publicly disclosed orbit-to-ground power transfer test mission. A proposed project provides an opportunity to test the conceptual operation of such a system, albeit at a much lower power level than the `grand' or `real scale' system. During this test, a small Solar Powered (SP) 6-U CubSat will be deployed into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) (225 or 325 km) to collect and store 1 KW of power from solar energy as the satellite is orbiting. The goal is to transmit 1 KW of wireless power at a microwave frequency of 5.8 or 10 GHz to a ground antenna array system. This paper presents the architecture for the proposed mission and discusses the regulatory, legal, and environmental issues that such a mission poses. Furthermore, the gain of the transmitter is analyzed at 20 and 30 dB as well as the gain of the receiver is analyzed at 30, 40, and 50 dB. A SP 6-U CubeSat will have a Lithium Ion (LIon) battery capable of storing enough energy for 83.33 Whr charge to run the satellites controls, and 1 KW necessary for a 5-minute demonstration and test (in addition to power required for its own operational requirements). Once charged, the satellite will use highly accurate position and attitude knowledge provided by an onboard star-tracker, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and inertial measurement unit to determine the proper orientation for the power transfer test. The onboard Attitude Determination and Control (ADCS) will be utilized to achieve and maintain this orientation during the test period. A cold-gas propulsion system will be available to de-spin the reaction wheels to ensure that sufficient ADCS capabilities exist for attitude-stabilization use during

  3. Low complexity wireless sensors for power-efficient communiation and energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Han

    The modern communication goes towards the direction of green, sustainable solutions; this raises many issues such as better usage of spectrum, lower system complexity, or lower energy consumption. MIMO transmission provides a promising solution with better spectral efficiency, but the required la...... savings, energy harvesting was considered for wireless sensor networks, applied to structural monitoring applications. The analysis shows how this approach can further increase the lifetime of wireless sensor networks.......The modern communication goes towards the direction of green, sustainable solutions; this raises many issues such as better usage of spectrum, lower system complexity, or lower energy consumption. MIMO transmission provides a promising solution with better spectral efficiency, but the required...... large antenna spacing and additional RF chains hinder its application to compact and battery powered devices. Wireless sensor networks are composed of such battery-powered devices, which require better energy efficiency in order to have a longer lifetime. Thus low complexity wireless sensors for power...

  4. Impact of Wireless Power Transfer in Transportation: Future Transportation Enabler, or Near Term Distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While the total liquid fuels consumed in the U.S. for transportation of goods and people is expected to hold steady, or decline slightly over the next few decades, the world wide consumption is projected to increase of over 30% according to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 [1]. The balance of energy consumption for transportation between petroleum fuels and electric energy, and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced consuming either, is of particular interest to government administrations, vehicle OEMs, and energy suppliers. The market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) appears to be inhibited by many factors relating to the energy storage system (ESS) and charging infrastructure. Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been identified as a key enabling technology to increase the acceptance of EVs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in many research areas related to understanding the impacts, opportunities, challenges and costs related to various deployments of WPT technology for transportation use. Though the initial outlook for WPT deployment looks promising, many other emerging technologies have met unfavorable market launches due to unforeseen technology limitations, sometimes due to the complex system in which the new technology was placed. This paper will summarize research and development (R&D) performed at ORNL in the area of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). ORNL s advanced transportation technology R&D activities provide a unique set of experienced researchers to assist in the creation of a transportation system level view. These activities range from fundamental technology development at the component level to subsystem controls and interactions to applicable system level analysis of impending market and industry responses and beyond.

  5. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hae Ye

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smartphones (Wi-Fi standard, Internet Protocol (IP phones, personal digital assistant (PDA for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  6. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk; Lyou, Joon

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs

  7. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP), Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lyou, Joon [Dept. of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  8. Optimal Analytical Solution for a Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer System with One Transmitter and Two Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer from one transmitter to multiple receivers through inductive coupling is slowly entering the market. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer (CWPT using electric coupling might be preferable. In this work, we determine closed-form expressions for a CWPT system with one transmitter and two receivers. We determine the optimal solution for two design requirements: (i maximum power transfer, and (ii maximum system efficiency. We derive the optimal loads and provide the analytical expressions for the efficiency and power. We show that the optimal load conductances for the maximum power configuration are always larger than for the maximum efficiency configuration. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that if the receivers are coupled, this can be compensated for by introducing susceptances that have the same value for both configurations. Finally, we numerically verify our results. We illustrate the similarities to the inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT solution and find that the same, but dual, expressions apply.

  9. Power Management for A Distributed Wireless Health Management Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed wireless architectures for prognostics is an important enabling step in prognostic research in order to achieve feasible real-time system health...

  10. Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this leaflet the pump-storage power plant Cierny Vah is presented. A Cierny Vah pumped storage power plant (PSP) has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system. (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation by especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control, ...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance. After interconnection of the ES with the UCPTE West European Association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: (1) Dynamic services for ES; (2) Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block; (3) Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed; (4) Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. Technical parameters of the upper and lower reservoir are described. The hydro power plant is a body lower reservoir. In it there are six vertical pumping aggregates in the three machine layout: the motor-generator - the turbine - the pump. Between the turbine and the pump there is a hydraulically controlled claw clutch engaging at rest and disengaging also during the aggregate operation. During pumping air is involved inside the turbine. The Francis turbines have a

  11. Energy storage for improvement of wind power characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Results from simulation of the influence of energy storage on the variability and availability of wind energy are presented here. Simulations have been done using a mathematical model of energy storage implemented in MATLAB. The obtained results show the quality improvement, of energy delivered...... by a combination of wind and energy storage, in relation to the size of the energy storage. The introduction of storage enables suppression of wind power fluctuations up to a timescale proportional to the storage energy capacity. Energy storage cannot provide availability of wind power at all times, but it can...... guarantee that a certain fraction of average wind power will be available within a given timeframe. The amount of storage energy capacity necessary for significant improvement of wind power availability, within a given period, is found to be approximately 20% of the energy produced in that period...

  12. The Application of RPL Routing Protocol in Low Power Wireless Sensor and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer information technology, wireless sensor has been successfully changed the mode of human life, at the same time, as one of the technologies continues to improve the future life, how to better integration with the RPL routing protocols together become one of research focuses in the current climate. This paper start from the wireless sensor network, briefly discusses the concept, followed by systematic exposition of RPL routing protocol developed background, relevant standards, working principle, topology and related terms, and finally explore the RPL routing protocol in wireless sensor low power lossy network applications.

  13. Modelling Wireless Power Transfer Using an Array of Tesla Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Casey Thomas

    Wireless power transmission, or WPT, is a well-demonstrated property in electrical science and physics. Coil-and-wave transmission (CWT) consists of two Tesla coils, one powered by a controlled voltage source v src and one connected across a generic load Z 0 , at a mid- to long range distance apart with spherical capacitors at each of their top loads. The literature on the different methods of WPT varies widely, but research of CWT is sparse, lacking especially in the area of computer simulation. Recently, a physical experiment was conducted by Marzolf et al. in [1], and yielded surprising resonant frequencies in the high frequency range. The goal of this research is to answer the question of whether these reosnant frequencies originate in unexplained field effects or in non-ideal circuit behavior, and establish a formal model to indicate at what frequencies the resonant peaks occur as a first approximation. By carefully constructing a simulation of the most geometrically simple, power efficient design in the work of Marzolf et al. using the scientific software Octave, we investigate these frequencies computationally: first, an ideal scenario that has no flux leakage or exterior losses is modelled mathematically and simulated, and then, a non-ideal scenario that accounts for losses in the coils and surroundings is modelled mathematically and simulated. Both models utilize a simple formula for spherical capacitance for the top loads. After running these simulations through detailed sampling up to 4 MHz, the ideal model could not account for the resonant peaks, while the non-ideal model indicated the resonant peaks near the exact frequency ranges that were observed. An unexpected characteristic of these results was that coupling coefficients between the coils of the transmitter and receiver played a noticeable part in the indication of resonant peaks. This demonstrates that unknown field effects are not the primary driver of resonance in the ideal or non

  14. A wireless optical power system for medical implants using low power near-IR laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A; Iqbal, S; Karmaker, M; Zinnat, S F; Ali, M T

    2017-07-01

    An alternative method of transcutaneous wireless optical energy supply to an artificial cardiac pacemaker has been conceived, thereby negating the possibility of electromagnetic interference. In this research, a comparative analysis is made between two distinct arrays of photovoltaic cells, consisting of two different geometries. Being powered by a 5 mW 750 nm laser, that has a different spot size for each topology; both models are tested by their ability to charge a 150 mAh rechargeable LiPo battery, while being embedded underneath a layer of skin tissue. This system in turn, regulates the power supplied to a low power medical implant (charging period of 60 minutes, results indicate that a pacemaker utilizing this system can sustain operation for nearly 85 hours, without any noticeable side-effects or changes in temperature.

  15. Energy storage for improvement of wind power characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Results from simulation of the influence of energy storage on the variability and availability of wind energy are presented here. Simulations have been done using a mathematical model of energy storage implemented in MATLAB. The obtained results show the quality improvement, of energy delivered by a combination of wind and energy storage, in relation to the size of the energy storage. The introduction of storage enables suppression of wind power fluctuations up to a timescale proportional to ...

  16. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  17. Power-reduction techniques for data-center storage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostoen, Tom; Mullender, Sape J.; Berbers, Yolande

    As data-intensive, network-based applications proliferate, the power consumed by the data-center storage subsystem surges. This survey summarizes, organizes, and integrates a decade of research on power-aware enterprise storage systems. All of the existing power-reduction techniques are classified

  18. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  19. Experimental Demonstration of Coexistence of Microwave Wireless Communication and Power Transfer Technologies for Battery-Free Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental demonstrations of a wireless power transfer system equipped with a microwave band communication function. Battery charging using the system is described to evaluate the possibility of the coexistence of both wireless power transfer and communication functions in the C-band. A battery-free wireless sensor network system is demonstrated, and a high-power rectifier for the system is also designed and evaluated in the S-band. We have confirmed that microwave wireless power transfer can coexist with communication function.

  20. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  2. Power Electronics Design of a Solar Powered In-car Wireless Tag for Asset Tracking and Parking Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P; Henaut, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and testing of a power conditioning circuit for a solar powered in-car wireless tag for asset tracking and parking application. Existing long range asset tracking is based on the GSM/GPRS network, which requires expensive subscriptions. The EU FP7 project CEWITT aims at developing a credit card sized autonomous wireless tag with GNSS geo-positioning capabilities to ensure the integrity and cost effectiveness for parking applications. It was found in previous research that solar cells are the most suitable energy sources for this application. This study focused on the power electronics design for the wireless tag. A suitable solar cell was chosen for its high power density. Charging circuit, hysteresis control circuit and LDO were designed and integrated to meet the system requirement. Test results showed that charging efficiency of 80 % had been achieved

  3. Power Electronics Design of a Solar Powered In-car Wireless Tag for Asset Tracking and Parking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Henaut, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the design and testing of a power conditioning circuit for a solar powered in-car wireless tag for asset tracking and parking application. Existing long range asset tracking is based on the GSM/GPRS network, which requires expensive subscriptions. The EU FP7 project CEWITT aims at developing a credit card sized autonomous wireless tag with GNSS geo-positioning capabilities to ensure the integrity and cost effectiveness for parking applications. It was found in previous research that solar cells are the most suitable energy sources for this application. This study focused on the power electronics design for the wireless tag. A suitable solar cell was chosen for its high power density. Charging circuit, hysteresis control circuit and LDO were designed and integrated to meet the system requirement. Test results showed that charging efficiency of 80 % had been achieved.

  4. Accumulate and Jam: Towards Secure Communication via A Wireless-Powered Full-Duplex Jammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying; Chen, He

    2016-12-01

    This paper develops a new cooperative jamming protocol, termed accumulate-and-jam (AnJ), to improve physical layer security in wireless communications. Specifically, a full-duplex (FD) friendly jammer is deployed to secure the direct communication between source and destination in the presence of a passive eavesdropper. We consider the friendly jammer as an energy-constrained node without embedded power supply but with an energy harvesting unit and rechargeable energy storage; it can thus harvest energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted by the source, accumulate the energy in its battery, and then use this energy to perform cooperative jamming. In the proposed AnJ protocol, based on the energy status of the jammer and the channel state of source-destination link, the system operates in either dedicated energy harvesting (DEH) or opportunistic energy harvesting (OEH) mode. Thanks to the FD capability, the jammer also harvests energy from the information-bearing signal that it overhears from the source. We study the complex energy accumulation and consumption procedure at the jammer by considering a practical finite-capacity energy storage, of which the long-term stationary distribution is characterized through applying a discrete-state Markov Chain. An alternative energy storage with infinite capacity is also studied to serve as an upper bound. We further derive closed-form expressions for two secrecy metrics, i.e., secrecy outage probability and probability of positive secrecy capacity. In addition, the impact of imperfect channel state information on the performance of our proposed protocol is also investigated. Numerical results validate all theoretical analyses and reveal the merits of the proposed AnJ protocol over its half-duplex counterpart.

  5. Low wireless power transfer using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareq, M; Fitra, M; Irwanto, M; Hasan, Syafruddin; Arinal, M

    2014-01-01

    A wireless power transfer (WPT) using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger is studied. The project is offer to study and fabricate WPT using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger that will give more information about distance is effect for WPT performance and WPT is not much influenced by the presence of hands, books and types of plastics. The components used to build wireless power transfer can be divided into 3 parts components, the transceiver for power transmission, the inductive coils in this case as the antenna, receiver and the rectifier which act convert AC to DC. Experiments have been conducted and the wireless power transfer using inductive coupling is suitable to be implemented for mobile phone charger.

  6. Experimental demonstration of the equivalence of inductive and strongly coupled magnetic resonance wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, David S.; Chabalko, Matthew J.; Hillenius, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we show experimentally that wireless power transfer (WPT) using strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR) and traditional induction are equivalent. We demonstrate that for a given coil separation, and to within 4%, strongly coupled magnetic resonance and traditional induction produce the same theoretical efficiency of wireless power transfer versus distance. Moreover, we show that the difference between traditional induction and strongly coupled magnetic resonance is in the implementation of the impedance matching network where strongly coupled magnetic resonance uses the mini-loop impedance match. The mini-loop impedance mach provides a low-loss, high-ratio impedance transformation that makes it desirable for longer distance wireless power transfer, where large impedance transformations are needed to maximize power transfer.

  7. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  8. Investigation of Improved Methods in Power Transfer Efficiency for Radiating Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antenna is proposed, firstly. And then several improving power transfer efficiency (PTE methods for wireless power transfer (WPT systems composed of the proposed antenna in the radiating near-field region are investigated. Method one is using a proposed antenna as a power retriever. This WPT system consisted of three proposed antennas: a transmitter, a receiver, and a retriever. The system is fed by only one power source. At a fixed distance from receiver to transmitter, the distance between the transmitter and the retriever is turned to maximize power transfer from the transmitter to the receiver. Method two is using two proposed antennas as transmitters and one antenna as receiver. The receiver is placed between the two transmitters. In this system, two power sources are used to feed the two transmitters, respectively. By adjusting the phase difference between the two feeding sources, the maximum PTE can be obtained at the optimal phase difference. Using the same configuration as method two, method three, where the maximum PTE can be increased by regulating the voltage (or power ratio of the two feeding sources, is proposed. In addition, we combine the proposed methods to construct another two schemes, which improve the PTE at different extent than classical WPT system.

  9. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  10. Broadband Microwave Wireless Power Transfer for Weak-Signal and Multipath Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the potential benefits of using relatively broadband wireless power transmission WPT strategies in both weak-signal and multipath environments where traditional narrowband strategies can be very inefficient. The paper is primarily a theoretical and analytical treatment of the problem that attempts to derive results that are widely applicable to many different WPT applications, including space solar power SSP.

  11. Ultra low-power integrated circuit design for wireless neural interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Holleman, Jeremy; Otis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Presenting results from real prototype systems, this volume provides an overview of ultra low-power integrated circuits and systems for neural signal processing and wireless communication. Topics include analog, radio, and signal processing theory and design for ultra low-power circuits.

  12. Radio frequency energy harvesting and low power data transmission for autonomous wireless sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Mansano, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Since the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to be the new technology to drive the semiconductor industry, significant research efforts have been made to develop new circuit and system techniques for autonomous/very low-power operation of wireless sensor nodes. Very low-power consumption of

  13. Delay-Tolerant, Low-Power Protocols for Large Security-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. Malavenda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the analysis, implementation, and experimental testing of a delay-tolerant and energy-aware protocol for a wireless sensor node, oriented to security applications. The solution proposed takes advantages from different domains considering as a guideline the low power consumption and facing the problems of seamless and lossy connectivity offered by the wireless medium along with very limited resources offered by a wireless network node. The paper is organized as follows: first we give an overview on delay-tolerant wireless sensor networking (DTN; then we perform a simulation-based comparative analysis of state-of-the-art DTN approaches and illustrate the improvement offered by the proposed protocol; finally we present experimental data gathered from the implementation of the proposed protocol on a proprietary hardware node.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS TECHNIQUES IN DATA AND POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATION FOR PARTICLE-PHYSICS DETECTORS

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, R; Dehos, C; De Lurgio, P; Djurcic, Z; Drake, G; Gonzales Gimenez, JL; Gustafsson, L; Kim, DW; Locci, E; Pfeiffer, U; Röhrich, D; Rydberg, D; Schöning, A; Siligaris, A; Soltveit, HK; Ullaland, K; Vincent, P; Vasquez, PR; Wiedner, D; Yang, S

    2017-01-01

    In the WADAPT project described in this Letter of Intent, we propose to develop wireless techniques for data and power transmission in particle-physics detectors. Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and are now mature for being considered as a promising alternative to cables and optical links that would revolutionize the detector design. The WADAPT consortium has been formed to identify the specific needs of different projects that might benefit from wireless techniques with the objective of providing a common platform for research and development in order to optimize effectiveness and cost. The proposed R&D will aim at designing and testing wireless demonstrators for large instrumentation systems.

  15. Enabling Wireless Power Transfer in Cellular Networks: Architecture, Modeling and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kaibin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave power transfer (MPT) delivers energy wirelessly from stations called power beacons (PBs) to mobile devices by microwave radiation. This provides mobiles practically infinite battery lives and eliminates the need of power cords and chargers. To enable MPT for mobile charging, this paper proposes a new network architecture that overlays an uplink cellular network with randomly deployed PBs for powering mobiles, called a hybrid network. The deployment of the hybrid network under an out...

  16. Low power radio communication platform for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are predicted to be the most versatile, popular and useful technology in the near future. A large number of applications are targeted which will hugely benefit from a network of tiny computers with few sensors, radio communication platform, intelligent networking and

  17. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  18. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However......, these works assume flat, highly simplified network models, which overlook the physical connectivity. This work proposes an optimal power flow solution that considers the entire system: the storage device limits, voltages limits, currents limits, and power limits. The power network may be arbitrarily complex...

  19. Solar Power Augmented Electrolysis Module for Energy Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrating solar photovoltaic power with regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage can often be very complex and costly. It usually requires complex power...

  20. GIS management system of power plant staff based on wireless fidelity indoor location technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    The labor conditions and environment of electric power production are quite complicated. It is very difficult to realize the real-time supervision of the employees' working conditions and safety. Using the existing base stations in the power plant, the wireless fidelity network is established to realize the wireless coverage of the work site. We can use mobile phone to communicate and achieve positioning. The main content of this project is based on the special environment of the power plant, designed a suitable for ordinary Android mobile phone indoor wireless fidelity positioning system, real-time positioning and record the scene of each employee's movement trajectory, has achieved real-time staff check Gang, Staff in place, and for the safety of employees to provide a guarantee.

  1. A wirelessly-powered homecage with animal behavior analysis and closed-loop power control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoyao Jia; Zheyuan Wang; Canales, Daniel; Tinkler, Morgan; Chia-Chun Hsu; Madsen, Teresa E; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new EnerCage-homecage system, EnerCage-HC2, for longitudinal electrophysiology data acquisition experiments on small freely moving animal subjects, such as rodents. EnerCage-HC2 is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transmission (WPT), closed-loop power control, bidirectional data communication via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Microsoft Kinect® based animal behavior tracking and analysis. The EnerCage-HC2 achieves a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 14% on average, with ~42 mW power delivered to the load (PDL) at a nominal height of 7 cm by the closed-loop power control mechanism. The Microsoft Kinect® behavioral analysis algorithm can not only track the animal position in real-time but also classify 5 different types of rodent behaviors: standstill, walking, grooming, rearing, and rotating. A proof-of-concept in vivo experiment was conducted on two awake freely behaving rats while successfully operating a one-channel stimulator and generating an ethogram.

  2. Posibilities of electric power storage from renewable sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Bača

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of all currently commercially available options of energy storage in the power distributionnetwork. The paper puts forward arguments for energy storage in the distribution network as well as requirements that must be metby the relevant energy storage systems. The paper describes 7 technologies allowing the solution of energy storage problems, includingtheir basic principles and summarizing benefits and drawbacks of individual solutions.

  3. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  4. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption

  5. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors.

  6. Frequency-selective design of wireless power transfer systems for controlled access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschino, Tyler Stephen

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

  7. Design of a Wireless Gesture Activated PowerPoint Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Wasswa, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The desire to give effective presentations lead to the development of different types of visual aids including flip charts, overhead transparencies, posters and digital slide shows. The digital slide shows had improved the effectiveness of the presentation and the audience size, but the need to be next to the keyboard or mouse, created a vacuum for new innovations. There was a need for some form of wireless control of the slides movement. Presenters have always wanted the freedom of movemen...

  8. A Frequency-Tracking and Impedance-Matching Combined System for Robust Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges to power embedded devices using magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system is that the amount of power delivered to the load is very sensitive to load impedance variations. Previous adaptive impedance-matching (IM technologies have drawbacks because adding IM networks, relay coils, or other compensating components in the receiver-side will significantly increase the receiver size. In this paper, a novel frequency-tracking and impedance-matching combined system is proposed to improve the robustness of wireless power transfer for embedded devices. The characteristics of the improved WPT system are investigated theoretically based on the two-port network model. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out to validate the proposed system. The results suggest that the frequency-tracking and impedance-matching combined WPT system can quickly find the best matching points and maintain high power transmission efficiency and output power when the load impedance changes.

  9. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang; Xu, Wenyao

    2017-09-26

    "Smart Pavement" is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor-ePave-to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system's performance and explore the trade-off.

  10. Micro-intestinal robot with wireless power transmission: design, analysis and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Wenwen; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-11-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is a useful tool for noninvasive intestinal detection, but it is not capable of active movement; wireless power is an effective solution to this problem. The research in this paper consists of two parts: the mechanical structure which enables the robot to move smoothly inside the intestinal tract, and the wireless power supply which ensures efficiency. First, an intestinal robot with leg architectures was developed based on the Archimedes spiral, which mimics the movement of an inchworm. The spiral legs were capable of unfolding to an angle of approximately 155°, which guaranteed stability of clamping, consistency of surface pressure, and avoided the risk of puncturing the intestinal tract. Secondly, the necessary power to operate the robot was far beyond the capacity of button batteries, so a wireless power transmission (WPT) platform was developed. The design of the platform focused on power transfer efficiency and frequency stability. In addition, the safety of human tissue in the alternating electromagnetic field was also taken into consideration. Finally, the assembled robot was tested and verified with the use of the WPT platform. In the isolated intestine, the robot system successfully traveled along the intestine with an average speed of 23 mm per minute. The obtained videos displayed a resolution of 320 × 240 and a transmission rate of 30 frames per second. The WPT platform supplied up to 500 mW of energy to the robot, and achieved a power transfer efficiency of 12%. It has been experimentally verified that the intestinal robot is safe and effective as an endoscopy tool, for which wireless power is feasible. Proposals for further improving the robot and wireless power supply are provided later in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ubiquitous wireless ECG recording: a powerful tool physicians should embrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    The use of smart phones has increased dramatically and there are nearly a billion users on 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Nearly 60% of the U.S. population uses smart phones to access the internet, and smart phone sales now surpass those of desktop and laptop computers. The speed of wireless communication technology on 3G and 4G networks and the widespread adoption and use of iOS equipped smart phones (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) provide infrastructure for the transmission of wireless biomedical data, including ECG data. These technologies provide an unprecedented opportunity for physicians to continually access data that can be used to detect issues before symptoms occur or to have definitive data when symptoms are present. The technology also greatly empowers and enables the possibility for unprecedented patient participation in their own medical education and health status as well as that of their social network. As patient advocates, physicians and particularly cardiac electrophysiologists should embrace the future and promise of wireless ECG recording, a technology solution that can truly scale across the global population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  13. Additively Manufactured IN718 Components with Wirelessly Powered and Interrogated Embedded Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, Paul [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Bajekal, Sanjay [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Klecka, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Wu, Xin [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Savulak, Steve [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Viens, Dan [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Carey, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Miano, John [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Rioux, William [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zacchio, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dunst, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Mantese, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-07-14

    A methodology is described for embedding commercial-off-the-shelf sensors together with wireless communication and power circuit elements using direct laser metal sintered additively manufactured components. Physics based models of the additive manufacturing processes and sensor/wireless level performance models guided the design and embedment processes. A combination of cold spray deposition and laser engineered net shaping was used to fashion the transmitter/receiving elements and embed the sensors, thereby providing environmental protection and component robustness/survivability for harsh conditions. By design, this complement of analog and digital sensors were wirelessly powered and interrogated using a health and utilization monitoring system; enabling real-time, in situ prognostics and diagnostics.

  14. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lurgio, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Djurcic, Z., E-mail: zdjurcic@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Drake, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hashemian, R. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Kreps, A.; Oberling, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pearson, T. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Sahoo, H. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  15. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  16. Development of Wireless Techniques in Data and Power Transmission - Application for Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, E.; Dehos, C.; De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Gimenez, J. L. Gonzalez; Gustafsson, L.; Kim, D.W.; Roehrich, D.; Schoening, A.; Siligaris, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Ullaland, K.; Vincent, P.; Wiednert, D.; Yang, S.; Brenner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and using them for data and power transmission in particle physics detectors is not science- fiction any more. During the last years several research groups have independently thought of making it a reality. Wireless techniques became a mature field for research and new developments might have impact on future particle physics experiments. The Instrumentation Frontier was set up as a part of the SnowMass 2013 Community Summer Study [1] to examine the instrumentation R&D for the particle physics research over the coming decades: {\\guillemotleft} To succeed we need to make technical and scientific innovation a priority in the field {\\guillemotright}. Wireless data transmission was identified as one of the innovations that could revolutionize the transmission of data out of the detector. Power delivery was another challenge mentioned in the same report. We propose a collaboration to identify the specific needs of different projects that m...

  17. Wirelessly Powered High-Temperature Strain Measuring Probe Based on Piezoresistive Nanocrystalline Diamond Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouřa Adam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature piezo-resistive nano-crystalline diamond strain sensor and wireless powering are presented in this paper. High-temperature sensors and electronic devices are required in harsh environments where the use of conventional electronic circuits is impractical or impossible. Piezo-resistive sensors based on nano-crystalline diamond layers were successfully designed, fabricated and tested. The fabricated sensors are able to operate at temperatures of up to 250°C with a reasonable sensitivity. The basic principles and applicability of wireless powering using the near magnetic field are also presented. The system is intended mainly for circuits demanding energy consumption, such as resistive sensors or devices that consist of discrete components. The paper is focused on the practical aspect and implementation of the wireless powering. The presented equations enable to fit the frequency to the optimal range and to maximize the energy and voltage transfer with respect to the coils’ properties, expected load and given geometry. The developed system uses both high-temperature active devices based on CMOS-SOI technology and strain sensors which can be wirelessly powered from a distance of up to several centimetres with the power consumption reaching hundreds of milliwatts at 200°C. The theoretical calculations are based on the general circuit theory and were performed in the software package Maple. The results were simulated in the Spice software and verified on a real sample of the measuring probe.

  18. Wirelessly powered electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) by planar receiver coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sang Hyun; Yuan, Junqi; Yoon, Myung Gon; Cho, Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is one of the most versatile methods used to control the wettability of liquids using electrical input. In most applications, EWOD is applied using physical wiring, which may restrict its application to implantable EWOD devices. In order to resolve this issue, we have studied and developed a wirelessly powered EWOD by using planar coils at the receiver that are fabricated out of a printed circuit board (PCB) by means of standard micro photolithography. Unlike conventional, bulky, spool coil type, the planar coil type lends itself to compact design and easy integration with EWOD chips. The present wireless powering principle is based on magnetic induction, which is very efficient when the transmitter and receiver coils are close to each other. The voltage obtained at the receiver is much higher than typically required EWOD voltages (>50 V) using a high transmission frequency (~MHz). The span of the EWOD contact angle is over 40°. In addition, amplitude modulation (AM) is implemented in the present wireless powering setup, followed by demodulation, in order to oscillate droplets at low frequency. This technique ensures smooth and reliable droplet movements. The wirelessly powered EWOD is used to transport a droplet and is mounted in a mini-boat which it powers and propels.

  19. Design of two-dimensional coils for wireless power transmission to in vivo robotic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Jong-Dae; Son, Ju-Hyun; Ryu, Mun-Ho; Kim, Jongwon

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a design of two dimensional receiving coils to provide hundreds of milli-watt power via inductive link to in vivo robotic capsules, whose orientation are practically undetermined. The wireless power transmission system consists of a transmitter powered by class E power amplifier, and receiver with 2-dimensional antenna, rectifier, and voltage regulator. Two types of 2-dimensional antennas are designed and evaluated by theoretic and experimental analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed 2-D receiving antenna could deliver the power homogeneously against its orientation, with less than 20% of variation of the possible maximum power.

  20. Cyber Security Evaluation of the Wireless Communication for the Mobile Safeguard Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, Y.S.; Ye, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces cyber security evaluation results and a design of the wireless communication technology to apply to safeguard systems in nuclear power plants. While wireless communication technologies can generally make mobility and efficiency on plant operation, those have seldom been installed on the nuclear I&C systems due to the negative concern of unexpected outcomes that stem from electromagnetic interference and cyber attack. New design of advanced digital safeguard and I&C systems uses computer-based systems for the safeguard and safety functions. On the other hand, those are being exposed to various types of new and existing cyber threats, vulnerabilities and risks which significantly increase the likelihood that those could be compromised. In order to employ the wireless communication technology in safeguard function, licencees assess and manage the potential for adverse effects on safeguard and safety functions so as to provide high assurance that critical functions are properly protected cyber attack. It is expected that the safeguard function, specifically on the area of real-time monitoring, logging, can be enhanced by employing the mobile safeguard devices (: smart phone, laptop, smart pad, etc). In this paper, we deal with the cyber security evaluation, which consists of threat analysis, vulnerability test, establishment of security plan, and design solutions for the wireless communication on the basis of IEEE 802.11(Wi-Fi) protocol. Proposed evaluation and design solution could be a basis for the design of wireless communication and mobile safeguard systems in nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage

  2. Design and Control of a 3 kW Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a 3 kW wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles. First, the LCL-LCL topology and LC-LC series topology are analyzed, and their transfer efficiencies under the same transfer power are compared. The LC-LC series topology is validated to be more efficient than the LCL-LCL topology and thus is more suitable for the system design. Then a novel q-Zsource-based online power regulation method which employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source is proposed. By controlling the shoot-through state of the H Bridge, the charging current can be adjusted, and hence, transfer power. Finally, a prototype is implemented, which can transfer 3 kW wirelessly with ~95% efficiency over a 20 cm transfer distance.

  3. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A smart mobile pouch as a biomechanical energy harvester towards self-powered smart wireless power transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Sudhakaran, M S P; Mok, Young Sun; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-07-20

    A Smart Mobile Pouch Triboelectric Nanogenerator (SMP-TENG) is introduced as a promising eco-friendly approach for scavenging biomechanical energy for powering next generation intelligent devices and smart phones. This is a cost-effective and robust method for harvesting energy from human motion, by utilizing worn fabrics as a contact material. The SMP-TENG is capable of harvesting energy in two operational modes: lateral sliding and vertical contact and separation. Moreover, the SMP-TENG can also act as a self-powered emergency flashlight and self-powered pedometer during normal human motion. A wireless power transmission setup integrated with SMP-TENG is demonstrated. This upgrades the traditional energy harvesting device into a self-powered wireless power transfer SMP-TENG. The wirelessly transferred power can be used to charge a Li-ion battery and light LEDs. The SMP-TENG opens a wide range of opportunities in the field of self-powered devices and low maintenance energy harvesting systems for portable and wearable electronic gadgets.

  5. The economics of energy storage in 14 deregulated power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, F.C.; Flynn, P.C.; Cabral, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In regulated power markets, electricity is stored to better utilize existing generation and to defer costly investment in generation. The justification is a reduction in the overall regulated price of power compared to the alternative investment in new primary generation. However, any storage of electrical power also involves a capital investment and incurs the cost of inefficiency. In deregulated energy markets, the sale of electricity or ancillary services from pumped storage can be evaluated based on each individual project. The economic basis for power storage is that power is purchased during periods of low price and resold during periods of high price. This study used historical power price data from 14 deregulated markets around the world to evaluate the economic incentive to use pumped storage for electrical energy. Each market was shown to have a unique average diurnal power price profile that results in a unique price spread for pumped storage. The diurnal price pattern and efficiency of storage was used to assess the net income potential from energy sales from pumped storage for each market. The markets were ranked in terms of the incentive to invest in pumped energy storage as well as on available revenue, and on potential return on investment. An optimal operating profile was illustrated in detail based on historical price patterns for one of the markets. The net income potential was then combined with the capital and operating cost of pumped storage. The adequacy of return on investment for pumped storage was analyzed by two different methods. The differences between markets stem from different diurnal power price patterns that reflect the generation mix, market design and participant behaviours. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix

  6. Multihop Capability Analysis in Wireless Information and Power Transfer Multirelay Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT in multihop wireless cooperative networks, where the multihop capability that denotes the largest number of transmission hops is investigated. By utilizing the broadcast nature of multihop wireless networks, we first propose a cooperative forwarding power (CFP scheme. In CFP scheme, the multiple relays and receiver have distinctly different tasks. Specifically, multiple relays close to the transmitter harvest power from the transmitter first and then cooperatively forward the power (not the information towards the receiver. The receiver receives the information (not the power from the transmitter first, and then it harvests the power from the relays and is taken as the transmitter of the next hop. Furthermore, for performance comparison, we suggest two schemes: cooperative forwarding information and power (CFIP and direct receiving information and power (DFIP. Also, we construct an analysis model to investigate the multihop capabilities of CFP, CFIP, and DFIP schemes under the given targeted throughput requirement. Finally, simulation results validate the analysis model and show that the multihop capability of CFP is better than CFIP and DFIP, and for improving the multihop capabilities, it is best effective to increase the average number of relay nodes in cooperative set.

  7. A-LNT: A Wireless Sensor Network Platform for Low-Power Real-Time Voice Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining wireless sensor networks and voice communication for multidata hybrid wireless network suggests possible applications in numerous fields. However, voice communication and sensor data transmissions have significant differences, Meanwhile, high-speed massive real-time voice data processing poses challenges for hardware design, protocol design, and especially power management. In this paper, we present a wireless audio sensor network platform A-LNT and study and discuss key elements for systematic design and implementation: node hardware design, low-power voice codec and processing, wireless network topology, hybrid MAC protocol design based on superframe, radio channel allocation, and clock synchronization. Furthermore, we discuss energy management methods such as address filtering and efficient power management in detail. The experimental and simulation results show that A-LNT is a lightweight, low-power, low-speed, and high-performance wireless sensor network platform for multichannel real-time voice communications.

  8. A Novel Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Based on Energy Harvesting for Mechanical Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been expected to improve the capability of capturing mechanical vibration dynamic behaviors and evaluating the current health status of equipment. While the expectation for mechanical vibration monitoring using WSNs has been high, one of the key limitations is the limited lifetime of batteries for sensor node. The energy harvesting technologies have been recently proposed. One of them shares the same main idea, that is, energy harvesting from ambient vibration can be converted into electric power. Employing the vibration energy harvesting, a novel self-powered wireless sensor node has been developed to measure mechanical vibration in this paper. The overall architecture of node is proposed. The wireless sensor node is described into four main components: the energy harvesting unit, the microprocessor unit, the radio transceiver unit, and accelerometer. Moreover, the software used to control the operation of wireless node is also suggested. At last, in order to achieve continuous self-powered for nodes, two operation modes including the charging mode and discharging mode are proposed. This design can effectively solve the problem of continuous supply power of sensor node for mechanical vibration monitoring.

  9. A Solar Powered Wireless Computer Mouse: Design, Assembly and Preliminary Testing of 15 Prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Reich, N.H.; Alsema, E.A.; Netten, M.P.; Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S.; Elzen, B.; Verwaal, M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept and design of a solar powered wireless computer mouse has been completed, and 15 prototypes have been successfully assembled. After necessary cutting, the crystalline silicon cells show satisfactory efficiency: up to 14% when implemented into the mouse device. The implemented voltage

  10. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...

  11. Resources Scheduling Algorithm in Power Wireless Private Network Based on SDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningzhe Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of the business carried by the power wireless private network and the continuous development of the new network technology, the problems in the traditional mode of power wireless private network are becoming more and more obvious. In order to solve the problems such as poor business service quality, low system throughput, and fairness problems in the uplink resource scheduling process of power wireless private network, a dynamic uplink resource scheduling algorithm is proposed on the basis of Software Defined Optical Network (SDON. By studying the business characteristics of the uplink transmission of power wireless network, the priority of the service is evaluated before the resource scheduling is carried out. According to the characteristics of OFDM resource allocation and the numerical control separation and programmable feature of SDON, different scheduling methods are designed for different services. Simulation analysis shows that this algorithm can effectively improve the system throughput, guarantee QoS, and improve the transmission performance of different services.

  12. Optimization Design of an Inductive Energy Harvesting Device for Wireless Power Supply System Overhead High-Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overhead high voltage power line (HVPL online monitoring equipment is playing an increasingly important role in smart grids, but the power supply is an obstacle to such systems’ stable and safe operation, so in this work a hybrid wireless power supply system, integrated with inductive energy harvesting and wireless power transmitting, is proposed. The energy harvesting device extracts energy from the HVPL and transfers that from the power line to monitoring equipment on transmission towers by transmitting and receiving coils, which are in a magnetically coupled resonant configuration. In this paper, the optimization design of online energy harvesting devices is analyzed emphatically by taking both HVPL insulation distance and wireless power supply efficiency into account. It is found that essential parameters contributing to more extracted energy include large core inner radius, core radial thickness, core height and small core gap within the threshold constraints. In addition, there is an optimal secondary coil turn that can maximize extracted energy when other parameters remain fixed. A simple and flexible control strategy is then introduced to limit power fluctuations caused by current variations. The optimization methods are finally verified experimentally.

  13. Self-powered information measuring wireless networks using the distribution of tasks within multicore processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravska, Iryna M.; Koretska, Oleksandra O.; Musiyenko, Maksym P.; Surtel, Wojciech; Assembay, Azat; Kovalev, Vladimir; Tleshova, Akmaral

    2017-08-01

    The article contains basic approaches to develop the self-powered information measuring wireless networks (SPIM-WN) using the distribution of tasks within multicore processors critical applying based on the interaction of movable components - as in the direction of data transmission as wireless transfer of energy coming from polymetric sensors. Base mathematic model of scheduling tasks within multiprocessor systems was modernized to schedule and allocate tasks between cores of one-crystal computer (SoC) to increase energy efficiency SPIM-WN objects.

  14. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyeong Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

  15. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  16. Pumped storage hydroelectric power plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Enterprise Cierny Vah Pumped storage hydropower plants of the joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Cierny Vah PSHP). Cierny Vah PSHP has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation but especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control,...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance (sudden load changes control of ES, immediate meeting of the daily load diagram, frequency control and outputs given in ES, etc.) After interconnection of our ES with the UCPTE West European association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance of outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: 1. Dynamic services for ES 2. Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block 3. Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed 4. Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. All the work is divided into four parts from the building point of view: The upper reservoir is an artificial one without the natural water inflow, built by excavation and slope on an Unknown elevation more than 1.150 m above sea level. A leading slope with a gradient 1:2 and a bottom of the reservoir

  17. Wearable Battery-free Wireless 2-channel EEG Systems Powered by Energy Scavengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke VAN BAVEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric generators worn on a person’s body have demonstrated their capability to power a variety of wireless sensor nodes that are to improve his/her health or comfort. In this article, the design, fabrication and performance of two prototypes of a battery-free wireless 2-channel electroencephalography (EEG system are presented. The first system is powered solely by a thermoelectric generator that produces 2-2.5mW of power and is worn as a headband. The second system resembles a diadem or headphones and uses a hybrid power supply that combines a thermoelectric generator and photovoltaic cells in one device. This portable EEG headset considerably improves the comfort of patients in clinical as well as in non-clinical environments and opens perspectives for a new range of non-clinical applications.

  18. Application of energy storage devices in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. In Electric Power systems, power quality has been one of the issues of increasing interests. Energy storage does not mean just the energy sources but they also provide the added benefits of improving power quality, dynamic and transient stability and also the reliability of the supply. Some of the major ...

  19. Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf

    2006-01-31

    recovery of the system using custom fittings and a (to be developed) launch-chamber/-tube. The battery modules are used to power the system, by providing power to the robot's bus. The support modules perform the functions of centration for the rest of the train as well as odometry pickups using incremental encoding schemes. The electronics architecture is based on a distributed (8-bit) microprocessor architecture (at least 1 in ea. module) communicating to a (one of two) 32-bit SBC, which manages all video-processing, posture and motion control as well as CAN and wireless communications. The operator controls the entire system from an off-board (laptop) controller, which is in constant wireless communication with the robot train in the pipe. The sensor modules collect data and forward it to the robot operator computer (via the CAN-wireless communications chain), who then transfers it to a dedicated NDE data-storage and post-processing computer for further (real-time or off-line) analysis. CMU has fully designed every module in terms of the mechanical, electrical and software elements (architecture only). Substantial effort has gone into pre-prototyping to uncover mechanical, electrical and software issues for critical elements of the design. Design requirements for sensor-providers were also detailed and finalized and provided to them for inclusion in their designs. CMU is expecting to start 2006 with a detailed design effort for both mechanical and electrical components, followed by procurement and fabrication efforts in late winter/spring 2006. The assembly and integration efforts will occupy all of the spring and summer of 2006. Software development will also be a major effort in 2006, and will result in porting and debugging of code on the module- and train-levels in late summer and Fall of 2006. Final pipe mock-up testing is expected in late fall and early winter 2006 with an acceptance demonstration of the robot train (with a sensor-module mock-up) planned to Do

  20. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the key enabler for a myriad of applications, from low-power RFIDs, and wireless sensors, to wirelessly charged electric vehicles, and even massive power transmission from space solar cells. One of the major challenges in designing implantable biomedical devices is the size and lifetime of the battery. Thus, replacing the battery with a miniaturized wireless power receiver (WPRx) facilitates designing sustainable biomedical implants in smaller volumes for sentient medical applications. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a miniaturized, fully integrated, wirelessly powered implantable sensor with on-chip antenna, designed and implemented in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process. As a batteryless device, it can be implanted once inside the body with no need for further invasive surgeries to replace batteries. The proposed single-chip solution is designed for intraocular pressure monitoring (IOPM), and can serve as a sustainable platform for implantable devices or IoT nodes. A custom setup is developed to test the chip in a saline solution with electrical properties similar to those of the aqueous humor of the eye. The proposed chip, in this eye-like setup, is wirelessly charged to 1V from a 5W transmitter 3cm away from the chip. In the second part, we propose a self-biased, differential rectifier with enhanced efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for the medical implant communication service (MICS) band at 433MHz. It demonstrates an efficiency improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and a dynamic range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm input power for 1V output voltage and a peak PCE of 65% are achieved for a 50k load. In the third part, we propose a wide-range, differential RF-to-DC power converter using an adaptive, self-biasing technique. The proposed architecture doubles

  1. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  2. Challenges and Prospects of Equipment Health Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongyi; Jiang, Jin; Bari, Ataul; Wang, Quan; Hashemian, Hash-M.

    2014-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) system can offer tremendous benefits to equipment condition monitoring in newly-constructed and/or refurbished nuclear power plants (NPPs). However, it has not been widely accepted so far because of the following requirements by the NPP operators ectromagnetic (EM) emissions from the wireless transceivers must not interfere with the functionalities of the sensitive safety and protection systems in the plant, WSN must perform reliably in the presence of high levels of EM interference from devices such as relays and motor driven pumps, and ionizing radiation sources, dependable WSN performance in harsh industrial environments that are cluttered with cable trays, piping, valves, pumps, motors, and concrete and steel structures, and trict compliance with nuclear regulatory guidelines on EM emissions by the wireless devices. This paper will review the key issues associated with the deployment of WSN for equipment condition monitoring in NPPs. Some promising WSN technologies that can be used in NPP applications are also discussed

  3. Modeling and Model Predictive Power and Rate Control of Wireless Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunwu Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel power and rate control system model for wireless communication networks is presented, which includes uncertainties, input constraints, and time-varying delays in both state and control input. A robust delay-dependent model predictive power and rate control method is proposed, and the state feedback control law is obtained by solving an optimization problem that is derived by using linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques. Simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...... and computes power consumption and mismatch probability [1] in each of these access strategies. Based on our study, we make some recommendations when and where, which access strategy is suitable depending upon the application's requirements and network behavior. It also provides the model implementation...

  5. Nano-Engineered Architectures for Ultra-Low Power Wireless Body Sensor Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Braojos Lopez, Ruben; Wu, Tony F.; Ansaloni, Giovanni; Sabry Aly, Mohamed M.; Atienza, David; Mitra, Subhasish; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2016-01-01

    Wireless body sensor nodes (WBSNs) are miniaturized devices that are able to acquire, process and transmit bio-signals (such as electrocardiograms, respiration or human-body kinetics). WBSNs face major design challenges due to extremely limited power budgets and very small form factors. We demonstrate, for the first time in the literature, the use of disruptive nanotechnologies to create new nano engineered ultra-low power (ULP) WBSN architectures. Compared to state-of-the-art multi-core WBSN...

  6. Flow-driven triboelectric generator for directly powering a wireless sensor node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Yang, Ya; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-14

    A triboelectric generator (TEG) for scavenging flow-driven mechanical -energy to directly power a wireless sensor node is demonstrated for the first time. The output performances of TEGs with different dimensions are systematically investigated, indicating that a largest output power of about 3.7 mW for one TEG can be achieved under an external load of 3 MΩ. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Power Load Optimization in a Wireless Communication System in Remote Area

    OpenAIRE

    Feiz, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Obtaining the maximum power is a very important issue in self-powered wireless systems, especially for those fed by solar panels. Solar energy is one of the most significant renewable energy sources which has no pollution and does not make any noise, and because of these advantages using solar energy is increasing rapidly. This thesis is written under the research project called Integrated Homeland Security Surveillance System (IHSSS). IHSSS is a multipurpose security surveillance ...

  8. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of ...

  9. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  10. Investigation of Unequal Planar Wireless Electricity Device for Efficient Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mohd Salleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the design and investigation of a pair of unequally sized wireless electricity (Witricity devices that are equipped with integrated planar coil strips. The proposed pair of devices consists of two different square-shaped resonator sizes of 120 mm × 120 mm and 80 mm × 80 mm, acting as a transmitter and receiver, respectively. The devices are designed, simulated and optimized using the CST Microwave Studio software prior to being fabricated and verified using a vector network analyzer (VNA. The surface current results of the coupled devices indicate a good current density at 10 mm to 30 mm distance range. This good current density demonstrates that the coupled devices’ surface has more electric current per unit area, which leads to a good performance up to 30 mm range. Hence, the results also reveal good coupling efficiency between the coupled devices, which is approximately 54.5% at up to a 30 mm distance, with both devices axially aligned. In addition, a coupling efficiency of 50% is achieved when a maximum lateral misalignment (LM of 10 mm, and a varied angular misalignment (AM from 0° to 40° are implemented to the proposed device.

  11. A design of wireless sensor networks for a power quality monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

    2010-01-01

    Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  12. A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggil Kang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  13. A Wireless Capsule Endoscope System With Low-Power Controlling and Processing ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinkai Chen; Xiaoyu Zhang; Linwei Zhang; Xiaowen Li; Nan Qi; Hanjun Jiang; Zhihua Wang

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule endoscope system. The proposed system is mainly composed of a CMOS image sensor, a RF transceiver and a low-power controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Several design challenges involving system power reduction, system miniaturization and wireless wake-up method are resolved by employing optimized system architecture, integration of an area and power efficient image compression module, a power management unit (PMU) and a novel wireless wake-up subsystem with zero standby current in the ASIC design. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS technology with a die area of 3.4 mm * 3.3 mm. The digital baseband can work under a power supply down to 0.95 V with a power dissipation of 1.3 mW. The prototype capsule based on the ASIC and a data recorder has been developed. Test result shows that proposed system architecture with local image compression lead to an average of 45% energy reduction for transmitting an image frame.

  14. Energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes for automotive applications, powered by thermoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehne, P.; Lickert, F.; Bäumker, E.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will first present the measurement of temperatures on different positions at a diesel-powered car. As a result, several locations are identified as suitable to implement a wireless sensor node powered by thermal energy harvesting. Based on the data gained a thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been selected, and measurements of energy generation have been performed. Further, a complete energy-autonomous wireless sensor node was designed, including the TEG with its mounting bracket, an electronic power management, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) sensor node. Based on temperature differences from -10 K up to 75.3 K occurring in test drives, a low power set up was chosen to achieve a system startup time below 10 minutes and to ensure service even under difficult ambient conditions, like high ambient temperatures or a slow movement of the car in stocking traffic. 2 minutes after starting the engine a power about of 10 mW is available from the chosen TEG, and in peak the power exceeds 1 W. In a 50 minute test drive it was possible to generate 650 J of energy. This information was used to develop the complete system, demonstrating the opportunity to deploy energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes in a car, e.g. for exhaust gas monitoring. The system is used to gather sensor data, like temperature and humidity, and transmits data successfully via BLE to a prepared main node based on a Raspberry Pi. (paper)

  15. Energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes for automotive applications, powered by thermoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehne, P.; Lickert, F.; Bäumker, E.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we will first present the measurement of temperatures on different positions at a diesel-powered car. As a result, several locations are identified as suitable to implement a wireless sensor node powered by thermal energy harvesting. Based on the data gained a thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been selected, and measurements of energy generation have been performed. Further, a complete energy-autonomous wireless sensor node was designed, including the TEG with its mounting bracket, an electronic power management, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) sensor node. Based on temperature differences from -10 K up to 75.3 K occurring in test drives, a low power set up was chosen to achieve a system startup time below 10 minutes and to ensure service even under difficult ambient conditions, like high ambient temperatures or a slow movement of the car in stocking traffic. 2 minutes after starting the engine a power about of 10 mW is available from the chosen TEG, and in peak the power exceeds 1 W. In a 50 minute test drive it was possible to generate 650 J of energy. This information was used to develop the complete system, demonstrating the opportunity to deploy energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes in a car, e.g. for exhaust gas monitoring. The system is used to gather sensor data, like temperature and humidity, and transmits data successfully via BLE to a prepared main node based on a Raspberry Pi.

  16. Wireless microwave acoustic sensor system for condition monitoring in power plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio [Univ. of Maine, Orno, ME (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This project successfully demonstrated novel wireless microwave acoustic temperature and pressure sensors that can be embedded into equipment and structures located in fossil fuel power plant environments to monitor the condition of components such as steam headers, re-heat lines, water walls, burner tubes, and power turbines. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology researched and developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Maine and Environetix Technologies Corporation can provide a revolutionary impact in the power industry since it is anticipated that the wireless sensors will deliver reliable real-time sensing information in harsh power plant conditions that involve temperatures up to 1100oC and pressures up to 750 psi. The work involved the research and development of novel high temperature harsh environment thin film electrodes, piezoelectric smart microwave acoustic sensing elements, sensor encapsulation materials that were engineered to function over long times up to 1100oC, and a radio-frequency (RF) wireless interrogation electronics unit that are located both inside and outside the high temperature harsh environment. The UMaine / Environetix team have interacted with diverse power plant facilities, and identified as a testbed a local power generation facility, which burns municipal solid waste (MSW), the Penobscot Energy Recovery Company (PERC), Orrington, Maine. In this facility Environetix / UMaine successfully implemented and tested multiple wireless temperature sensor systems within the harsh-environment of the economizer chamber and at the boiler tubes, transferring the developed technology to the power plant environment to perform real-time sensor monitoring experiments under typical operating conditions, as initially targeted in the project. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology developed under this project for power plant applications offers several significant advantages including wireless

  17. Power system stabilising features from wind power plants augmented with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán C.; Kjær, Philip C; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wind power plant augmented with energy storage, configured to provide ancillary services (primary reserve, inertial response, power oscillation damping) for enhancement of power system stability. Energy storage can complement wind power plants thus reducing the need for any...... overload or curtailment to allow active power modulation. A 12MW + 1.6MW augmented plant is used for demonstration of representative performance of the particular ancillary service control algorithms...

  18. On-Chip Implantable Antennas for Wireless Power and Data Transfer in a Glaucoma-Monitoring SoC

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic

    2013-04-17

    For the first time separate transmit and receive onchip antennas have been designed in a eye environment for implantable intraocular pressure monitoring application. The miniaturized antennas fit on a 1.4 mm3 CMOS (0.18 μm) chip with the rest of the circuitry. A 5.2 GHz novel inductive fed and loaded receive monopole antenna is used for wireless powering the chip and is conjugately matched to the rectifier in the energy harvesting and storage unit. The 2.4 GHz transmit antenna is an octagonal loop which also acts as the inductor of the voltage control oscillator resonant tank. To emulate the eye environment in measurements, a custom test setup is developed which comprises plexiglass cavities filled with saline solution. A transition, employing a balun, is also designed which transforms the differential impedance of on-chip antennas immersed in saline solution to a 50 ! single-ended micrsotrip line. The antennas on a lossy Si substrate and eye environment provide sufficient gain to establish wireless communication with an external reader placed few cm away from the eye.

  19. Wireless Power System Design for Mobile Robots used in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Yoo, S. J.; Lee, Kun J.; Rim, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The robots used in nuclear power plants (NPP) have received much attention in recent years due to the Fukushima nuclear accident, which is considered as one of the worst nuclear disasters. In general, the NPP robots can play important roles in fuel exchange, repair work, radiation monitoring, rescue, and scouting out NPP. Under these conditions, human access to NPP during normal and emergency operations is strictly restricted due to the risks of high level radiation and contamination. However, in practice, robots have not been widely used in NPP because of the following limitations. First, the NPP robots cannot be of multi-purpose use because of their mission complexity and uniqueness. Second, the demand of the NPP robots is low due to the limited number of NPP over the world. Third, the NPP robots developed so far have no enough confidence in spite of the improvement of robot technology. Lastly, the NPP robots cannot carry on their mission continuously due to the limited energy capacity of the battery: mobile robots should stop working every two hours to recharge their batteries and spend least twenty minutes. As the solutions for this 'energy hungry' problem, high capacity batteries, quick battery chargers, power cables, and internal combustion engines were proposed; however, they still have the problems such as limited mission time and range, frequent recharging, or exhausting emission and noise. In this paper, the wireless power transfer systems (WPTS) for NPP robots are proposed. This technology can let NPP robots free from mission time and range limits, and exhausting emission. The requirements for the NPP robots are newly proposed, and two types of WPTS, roaming and railway, are suggested in this paper

  20. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Mechanism in Interference Alignment Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahui Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT mechanism in an interference alignment (IA relay system, in which source nodes send wireless information and energy simultaneously to relay nodes, and relay nodes forward the received signal to destination nodes powered by harvested energy. To manage interference and utilize interference as energy source, two-SWIPT receiver is designed, namely, power splitting (PS, and antennas switching (AS has been considered for relay system. The performance of AS- and PS-based IA relay systems is considered, as is a new energy cooperation (ECop scheme that is proposed to improve system performance. Numerical results are provided to evaluate the performance of all schemes and it is shown from the simulations that the performance of proposed ECop outperformed both AS and PS.

  1. On the Performance of a Wireless Powered Communication System Using a Helping Relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Nguyen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the outage performance and system throughput of a bidirectional wireless information and power transfer system with a helping relay. The relay helps forward wireless power from the access point (AP to the user, and also the information from the user to the AP in the reverse direction. We assume that the relay uses time switching based energy harvesting protocol. The analytical results provide theoretical insights into the effect of various system parameters, such as time switching factor, source transmission rate, transmitting-power-to-noise ratio to system performance for both amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward relaying protocols. The optimal time switching ratio is determined in each case to maximize the information throughput from the user to the AP subject to the energy harvesting and consumption balance constraints at both the relay and the user. All of the above analyses are confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulation.

  2. A Power Planning Algorithm Based on RPL for AMI Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marcio L F; Jamhour, Edgard; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Penna, Manoel C

    2017-03-25

    The advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an architecture for two-way communication between electric, gas and water meters and city utilities. The AMI network is a wireless sensor network that provides communication for metering devices in the neighborhood area of the smart grid. Recently, the applicability of a routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL) has been considered in AMI networks. Some studies in the literature have pointed out problems with RPL, including sub-optimal path selection and instability. In this paper, we defend the viewpoint that careful planning of the transmission power in wireless RPL networks can significantly reduce the pointed problems. This paper presents a method for planning the transmission power in order to assure that, after convergence, the size of the parent set of the RPL nodes is as close as possible to a predefined size. Another important feature is that all nodes in the parent set offer connectivity through links of similar quality.

  3. A study on Relay Effect via Magnetic Resonant Coupling for Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT transmits electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load wirelessly or without any conductors. The capability of WPT to transmit the energy is limited. Therefore, a relay was introduced to increase the distance of the WPT capabilities. The effect of the relay has been investigated to extend the energy transfer distance. The effect of relay was demonstrated by placing a relay coil between transmitter and receiver, relay biased to transmitter and placing two relay coils in the designed system. Experimental results are provided to prove the concept of the relay effect. The power transmission efficiency can be achieved up to 75% at 1 meter distance.

  4. Thermal analysis of wirelessly powered thermo-pneumatic micropump based on planar LC circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Pei Song; Nafea, Marwan; Leow, Pei Ling; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    This paper studies the thermal behavior of a wireless powered micropump operated using thermo-pneumatic actuation. Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the temporal conduction of the planar inductor-capacitor (LC) wireless heater and the heating chamber. The result shows that the temperature at the heating chamber reaches steady state temperature of 46.7.deg.C within 40 seconds. The finding was further verified with experimental works through the fabrication of the planar LC heater (RF sensitive actuator) and micropump device using MEMS fabrication technique. The fabricated device delivers a minimum volume of 0.096 μL at the temperature of 29.deg.C after being thermally activated for 10 s. The volume dispensed from the micropump device can precisely controlled by an increase of the electrical heating power within the cut-off input power of 0.22 W. Beyond the power, the heat transfer to the heating chamber exhibits non-linear behavior. In addition, wireless operation of the fabricated device shows successful release of color dye when the micropump is immersed in DI-water containing dish and excited by tuning the RF power.

  5. Thermal analysis of wirelessly powered thermo-pneumatic micropump based on planar LC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, Pei Song; Nafea, Marwan; Leow, Pei Ling; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal behavior of a wireless powered micropump operated using thermo-pneumatic actuation. Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the temporal conduction of the planar inductor-capacitor (LC) wireless heater and the heating chamber. The result shows that the temperature at the heating chamber reaches steady state temperature of 46.7.deg.C within 40 seconds. The finding was further verified with experimental works through the fabrication of the planar LC heater (RF sensitive actuator) and micropump device using MEMS fabrication technique. The fabricated device delivers a minimum volume of 0.096 μL at the temperature of 29.deg.C after being thermally activated for 10 s. The volume dispensed from the micropump device can precisely controlled by an increase of the electrical heating power within the cut-off input power of 0.22 W. Beyond the power, the heat transfer to the heating chamber exhibits non-linear behavior. In addition, wireless operation of the fabricated device shows successful release of color dye when the micropump is immersed in DI-water containing dish and excited by tuning the RF power.

  6. Feasibility Study of Micro-Wind Turbines for Powering Wireless Sensors on a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie F. Spencer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the feasibility of using micro-wind turbines to power wireless sensors on a cable-stayed bridge is comprehensively investigated. To this end, the wind environment around a bridge onto which a turbine is installed is examined, as is the power consumption of a wireless sensor. Feasible alternators and rotors are then carefully selected to make an effective small wind generator (known as a micro-wind turbine. Using the three specially selected micro-wind turbines, a series of experiments was conducted to find the turbine best able to generate the largest amount of power. Finally, a horizontal-axis micro-wind turbine with a six-blade rotor was combined with a wireless sensor to validate experimentally its actual power-charging capability. It is demonstrated that the micro-wind turbine can generate sufficient electricity to power a wireless sensor under moderate wind conditions.

  7. IMPROVED VIRTUAL CIRCUIT ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS UNDER THE ASPECT OF POWER AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Minhas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing algorithms have shown their importance in the power aware wireless micro-sensor networks. In this paper first we present virtual circuit algorithm (VCRA, a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. We analyze the power utilized by nodes to lengthen the battery life and thus improving the lifetime of wireless sensor network. We discuss VCRA in comparison with the Multihoprouter, an algorithm developed by UC Berkeley. Then we present Improved Virtual Circuit Routing Algorithm (IVCRA which is an improved form of VCRA. In IVCRA node failure detection and path repairing scheme has been implemented. We also present the energy analysis of IVCRA and prove that IVCRA is the best choice. We first implement our routing algorithms in simulator TOSSIM and then on real hardware of mica2 mote-sensor network platform and prove the reliable routing of the data packets from different nodes to the base station. The motes used as nodes in our mote-sensor network are from Berkeley USA. By using simulator POWERTOSSIM, we estimate and present the energy utilized by different nodes of the network. At the end we present a comparison of our work with the network layer of Zigbee/IEEE 802.15.4, which is an emerging standard for wireless sensor networks and then compare its energy efficiency with the packet size chosen for our algorithm.

  8. A generic miniature multi-feature programmable wireless powering headstage ASIC for implantable biomedical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubendran, Rajkumar; Krishnan, Harish; Manola, Bhupendra; John, Simon W M; Chappell, William J; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2011-01-01

    Wireless powering holds immense promise to enable a variety of implantable biomedical measurement systems with different power supply and current budget requirements. Effective power management demands more functionality in the headstage design like power level detection for range estimation and power save modes for sleep-wake operation. This paper proposes a single chip ASIC solution that addresses these problems by incorporating digitally programmable features and thus has the potential to enable wireless powering for many implantable systems. The ASIC includes an RF rectifier which has a peak efficiency of 17.9% at 900 MHz and 11.0% at 2.4 GHz, a robust 1 V bandgap reference and LDO voltage regulator whose output can be programmed in the range of 1 V-1.5 V, and can drive upto 4 mA of load current. The input RF power level detector has a threshold of 1.6 V and the power management block can be programmed to give a 6%, 12.5% or 25% duty cycle power line to the transmitter resulting in upto 60% reduction in average power. The ASIC was fabricated using the TSMC 65 nm process, occupies 1mm(2) die area and the headstage consumes ~300 μA at 1.2V regulated supply.

  9. Energy Efficiency of Ultra-Low-Power Bicycle Wireless Sensor Networks Based on a Combination of Power Reduction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most wireless sensor network (WSN applications, the sensor nodes (SNs are battery powered and the amount of energy consumed by the nodes in the network determines the network lifespan. For future Internet of Things (IoT applications, reducing energy consumption of SNs has become mandatory. In this paper, an ultra-low-power nRF24L01 wireless protocol is considered for a bicycle WSN. The power consumption of the mobile node on the cycle track was modified by combining adjustable data rate, sleep/wake, and transmission power control (TPC based on two algorithms. The first algorithm was a TPC-based distance estimation, which adopted a novel hybrid particle swarm optimization-artificial neural network (PSO-ANN using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI, while the second algorithm was a novel TPC-based accelerometer using inclination angle of the bicycle on the cycle track. Based on the second algorithm, the power consumption of the mobile and master nodes can be improved compared with the first algorithm and constant transmitted power level. In addition, an analytical model is derived to correlate the power consumption and data rate of the mobile node. The results indicate that the power savings based on the two algorithms outperformed the conventional operation (i.e., without power reduction algorithm by 78%.

  10. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  11. A novel power and offset allocation method for spatial multiplexing MIMO Systems in optical wireless channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2011-12-01

    We consider optical wireless communication which can be utilized for illumination and communication by relying on lighting devices. Due to the limited bandwidth of optical sources, it is challenging to achieve high data rate in optical wireless systems. In order to obtain a multiplexing gain and high spectral efficiency, we design an optical multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system utilizing a singular value decomposition-based spatial multiplexing and adaptive modulation. We note that the conventional allocation method in radio frequency MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels. In this paper, we generalize the result of power allocation method in [1] for arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas in optical wireless MIMO systems. Based on three constraints, namely, the nonnegativity, the aggregate optical power, and the bit error rate requirement, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value, and the modulation size for maximum sum rate. From some selected simulation results, we show that our proposed allocation method gives a better spectral efficiency than the method that allocates the optical power equally for each data stream. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Power Reduction in Wireless Sensors for IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, Chacko John; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lian, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel data compression and transmission scheme for power reduction in Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensors. In the proposed scheme, data is compressed with both lossy and lossless techniques, so as to enable hybrid transmission mode, support adaptive data rate selection and save power in wireless transmission. Applying the method to electrocardiogram (ECG), the data is first compressed using a lossy compression technique with a high compression ratio (CR). The residual error between the original data and the decompressed lossy data is preserved using entropy coding, enabling a lossless restoration of the original data when required. Average CR of 2.1 × and 7.8 × were achieved for lossless and lossy compression respectively with MIT/BIH database. The power reduction is demonstrated using a Bluetooth transceiver and is found to be reduced to 18% for lossy and 53% for lossless transmission respectively. Options for hybrid transmission mode, adaptive rate selection and system level power reduction make the proposed scheme attractive for IoT wireless sensors in healthcare applications.

  13. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiwei, E-mail: jiayege@hotmail.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan [820 Institute, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  14. Opportunities and Challenges for Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Mahmood Jawad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional power supply cords have become less important because they prevent large-scale utilization and mobility. In addition, the use of batteries as a substitute for power cords is not an optimal solution because batteries have a short lifetime, thereby increasing the cost, weight, and ecological footprint of the hardware implementation. Their recharging or replacement is impractical and incurs operational costs. Recent progress has allowed electromagnetic wave energy to be transferred from power sources (i.e., transmitters to destinations (i.e., receivers wirelessly, the so-called wireless power transfer (WPT technique. New developments in WPT technique motivate new avenues of research in different applications. Recently, WPT has been used in mobile phones, electric vehicles, medical implants, wireless sensor network, unmanned aerial vehicles, and so on. This review highlights up-to-date studies that are specific to near-field WPT, which include the classification, comparison, and potential applications of these techniques in the real world. In addition, limitations and challenges of these techniques are highlighted at the end of the article.

  15. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  16. Quality Changes of N-3 PUFAs Enriched and Conventional Eggs under Different Home Storage Conditions with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs are popular for their enrichment of PUFAs, but their freshness and quality are prone to decline with time, particularly if storage conditions are not well maintained. Home storage is the last but a neglected important tach in eggs supply chain, but few studies are available on the egg storage in the home stage. This study aimed to evaluate the internal quality change of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs by simulating eggs stored at consumers’ home in refrigeration and under room temperature. The egg quality indices (Haugh unit, yolk index, weight, and albumen pH were adopted and analyzed for both storage conditions. Wireless sensor network (WSN was used for real-time monitoring of the temperature and humidity during storage. The results showed that temperature, humidity and time of storage all have an influence on the freshness of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and there is no significant difference happened to n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs and conventional eggs. Refrigeration can decelerate the quality deterioration of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and consumers should be educated about how to maintain the internal quality of eggs during home storage.

  17. Energy Storage System Sizing Based on a Reliability Assessment of Power Systems Integrated with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Shi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The available capacity is a major factor that influences the reliability contribution of energy storage in power systems integrated with wind power. This paper presents the capacity value of the energy storage metrics to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage to the generation adequacy. A method in accordance with EFC approach has been introduced to model the capacity value of energy storage. The adequacy-oriented model of the energy storage available capacity is proposed for the energy storage system, regarding the roles of the key parameters for the CVES analysis. The case study results indicate that the capacity value of energy storage quantitatively weigh the contribution of the energy storage to system reliability. The sensitivity analysis of the impact factors for the CVES is conducted.

  18. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  19. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2004-02-01

    The development work during this quarter was focused in the assembly of the downhole power generator hardware and its electronics module. The quarter was also spent in the development of the surface system electronics and software to extract the acoustic data transmitted from downhole to the surface from the noise generated by hydrocarbon flow in wells and to amplify very small acoustic signals to increase the distance between the downhole tool and the surface receiver. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Assembly of the downhole power generator mandrel for generation of electrical power due to flow in the wellbore. (2) Test the piezoelectric wafers to assure that they are performing properly prior to integrating them to the mechanical power generator mandrel. (3) Coat the power generator wafers to prevent water from shorting the power generator wafers. (4) Test of the power generator using a water tower and an electric pump to create a water flow loop. (5) Test the power harvesting electronics module. (6) Upgrade the signal condition and amplification from downhole into the surface system. (7) Upgrade the surface processing system capability to process data faster. (8) Create a new filtering technique to extract the signal from noise after the data from downhole is received at the surface system.

  20. Interference Effects Redress over Power-Efficient Wireless-Friendly Mesh Networks for Ubiquitous Sensor Communications across Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jose; Marrero, Domingo; Macías, Elsa; Mena, Vicente; Suárez, Álvaro

    2017-07-21

    Ubiquitous sensing allows smart cities to take control of many parameters (e.g., road traffic, air or noise pollution levels, etc.). An inexpensive Wireless Mesh Network can be used as an efficient way to transport sensed data. When that mesh is autonomously powered (e.g., solar powered), it constitutes an ideal portable network system which can be deployed when needed. Nevertheless, its power consumption must be restrained to extend its operational cycle and for preserving the environment. To this end, our strategy fosters wireless interface deactivation among nodes which do not participate in any route. As we show, this contributes to a significant power saving for the mesh. Furthermore, our strategy is wireless-friendly, meaning that it gives priority to deactivation of nodes receiving (and also causing) interferences from (to) the rest of the smart city. We also show that a routing protocol can adapt to this strategy in which certain nodes deactivate their own wireless interfaces.

  1. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  2. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  3. Market power and storage in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaar, Jostein

    2004-05-01

    Market power in liberalised electricity markets dominated by hydropower is analyzed in four chapters. The existing literature on competition in hydropower markets is briefly presented and examined. Chapter 1 discusses the effects of market power in the context of acquisitions in a situation where transmission capacity is constrained. Chapter 2 and 3 elaborate on the issue of competition and market power when water inflow is uncertain, and finally Chapter 4 focuses on the supply function equilibrium model in the context of a hydropower market

  4. Energy-autonomous Bi-directional Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) and Energy Harvesting Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    del Petre, Massimo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Collado, Ana; Masotti, Diego; Popovic, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel 2.45-GHz bi-directional circuit that can operate as both a wireless power transmitter and energy harvester. The circuit is based on a class-F oscillator/rectifier and is energy-autonomous since it does not need an external bias supply for either power transmission or power reception. Bi-directionality is exploited in two steps: the system first operates in rectifying mode with harvested DC voltages for biasing the oscillator; followed by the transmitting mode wh...

  5. A Solar Energy Powered Autonomous Wireless Actuator Node for Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lajara, Rafael; Alberola, Jorge; Pelegr?-Sebasti?, Jos?

    2010-01-01

    The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node ("wEcoValve mote") based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close) of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered...

  6. Rectifier Design Challenges for RF Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Collado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of wireless power transfer (WPT and energy harvesting (EH solutions poses different challenges towards achieving maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency in these systems. This paper covers several selected challenges when developing WPT and electromagnetic EH solutions, such as the design of multiband and broadband rectifiers, the minimization of the effect that load and input power variations may have on the system performance and finally the most optimum power combining mechanisms that can be used when dealing with multi-element rectifiers.

  7. Adaptive Data Aggregation and Compression to Improve Energy Utilization in Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ikjune; Kim, Hyeok; Noh, Dong Kun

    2017-05-27

    A node in a solar-powered wireless sensor network (WSN) collects energy when the sun shines and stores it in a battery or capacitor for use when no solar power is available, in particular at night. In our scheme, each tiny node in a WSN periodically determines its energy budget, which takes into account its residual energy, and its likely acquisition and consumption. If it expects to acquire more energy than it can store, the data which has it has sensed is aggregated with data from other nodes, compressed, and transmitted. Otherwise, the node continues to sense data, but turns off its wireless communication to reduce energy consumption. We compared several schemes by simulation. Our scheme reduced the number of nodes forced to black out due to lack of energy so that more data arrives at the sink node.

  8. Dual-head wireless powered video capsule based on new type of receiving coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Xu, Wenming; Kuang, Shuai

    2015-05-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a great breakthrough in visually detecting the pathological changes of gastrointestinal (GI) wall, but the limit of viewing angle and power by batteries still hinder the wide application of WCE. In order to address these shortcomings, a dual-head video capsule system based on new type of receiving coils is presented. First, the dual-head video capsule system is designed, which could capture images of the whole GI tract in two channels, transforming the images into NTSC videos at a frame rate of 30 f s(-1) and transmitting the signals outside the body. Second, the wireless power transmission platform with new type of receiving coils is established to provide at least 108 mW of continuous, stable energy for the capsule. Then a prototype was fabricated and applied in animal experiments. The designed dual-head video capsule system is proved to be feasible and a potential solution for future clinical application.

  9. Wireless power transfer and data communication for neural implants case study : epilepsy monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new circuits and systems for implantable biomedical applications targeting neural recording. The authors describe a system design adapted to conform to the requirements of an epilepsy monitoring system. Throughout the book, these requirements are reflected in terms of implant size, power consumption, and data rate. In addition to theoretical background which explains the relevant technical challenges, the authors provide practical, step-by-step solutions to these problems. Readers will gain understanding of the numerical values in such a system, enabling projections for feasibility of new projects. Provides complete, system-level perspective for implantable batteryless biomedical system; Extends design example to implementation and long term in-vitro validation; Discusses system design concerns regarding wireless power transmission and wireless data communication, particularly for systems in which both are performed on the same channel/frequency; Presents fully-integrated, implantable syste...

  10. A Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell for Powering a Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daxing; Zhu, Yingmin; Pedrycz, Witold; Guo, Yongxian

    2016-05-18

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are envisioned as one of the most promising alternative renewable energy sources because they can generate electric current continuously while treating waste. Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cells (TMFCs) can be inoculated and work on the use of soil, which further extends the application areas of MFCs. Energy supply, as a primary influential factor determining the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes, remains an open challenge in sensor networks. In theory, sensor nodes powered by MFCs have an eternal life. However, low power density and high internal resistance of MFCs are two pronounced problems in their operation. A single-hop WSN powered by a TMFC experimental setup was designed and experimented with. Power generation performance of the proposed TMFC, the relationships between the performance of the power generation and the environment temperature, the water content of the soil by weight were measured by experiments. Results show that the TMFC can achieve good power generation performance under special environmental conditions. Furthermore, the experiments with sensor data acquisition and wireless transmission of the TMFC powering WSN were carried out. We demonstrate that the obtained experimental results validate the feasibility of TMFCs powering WSNs.

  11. A Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell for Powering a Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daxing; Zhu, Yingmin; Pedrycz, Witold; Guo, Yongxian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are envisioned as one of the most promising alternative renewable energy sources because they can generate electric current continuously while treating waste. Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cells (TMFCs) can be inoculated and work on the use of soil, which further extends the application areas of MFCs. Energy supply, as a primary influential factor determining the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes, remains an open challenge in sensor networks. In theory, sensor nodes powered by MFCs have an eternal life. However, low power density and high internal resistance of MFCs are two pronounced problems in their operation. A single-hop WSN powered by a TMFC experimental setup was designed and experimented with. Power generation performance of the proposed TMFC, the relationships between the performance of the power generation and the environment temperature, the water content of the soil by weight were measured by experiments. Results show that the TMFC can achieve good power generation performance under special environmental conditions. Furthermore, the experiments with sensor data acquisition and wireless transmission of the TMFC powering WSN were carried out. We demonstrate that the obtained experimental results validate the feasibility of TMFCs powering WSNs. PMID:27213346

  12. Network Coding Opportunities for Wireless Grids Formed by Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Fyhn; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Fitzek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Wireless grids have potential in sharing communication, computational and storage resources making these networks more powerful, more robust, and less cost intensive. However, to enjoy the benefits of cooperative resource sharing, a number of issues should be addressed and the cost of the wireles...... implementation demonstrates the feasibility of network coding for wireless grids formed by mobile devices....

  13. Integrated Evaluation of Reliability and Power Consumption of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Dâmaso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is a primary interest in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, and a large number of strategies have been proposed to evaluate it. However, those approaches usually neither consider reliability issues nor the power consumption of applications executing in the network. A central concern is the lack of consolidated solutions that enable us to evaluate the power consumption of applications and the network stack also considering their reliabilities. To solve this problem, we introduce a fully automatic solution to design power consumption aware WSN applications and communication protocols. The solution presented in this paper comprises a methodology to evaluate the power consumption based on the integration of formal models, a set of power consumption and reliability models, a sensitivity analysis strategy to select WSN configurations and a toolbox named EDEN to fully support the proposed methodology. This solution allows accurately estimating the power consumption of WSN applications and the network stack in an automated way.

  14. Optimized MPPT-based converter for TEG energy harvester to power wireless sensor and monitoring system in nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shaoxu; Anakok, Isil; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Accidents like Fukushima Disasters push people to improve the monitoring systems for the nuclear power plants. Thus, various types of energy harvesters are designed to power these systems and the Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) energy harvester is one of them. In order to enhance the amount of harvested power and the system efficiency, the power management stage needs to be carefully designed. In this paper, a power converter with optimized Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed for the TEG Energy Harvester to power the wireless sensor network in nuclear power plant. The TEG Energy Harvester is installed on the coolant pipe of the nuclear plant and harvests energy from its heat energy while the power converter with optimized MPPT can make the TEG Energy Harvester output the maximum power, quickly response to the voltage change and provide sufficient energy for wireless sensor system to monitor the operation of the nuclear power plant. Due to the special characteristics of the Single-Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) when it is working in the Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DICM) and Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), the MPPT method presented in this paper would be able to control the converter to achieve the maximum output power in any working conditions of the TEG system with a simple circuit. The optimized MPPT algorithm will significantly reduce the cost and simplify the system as well as achieve a good performance. Experiment test results have shown that, comparing to a fixed- duty-cycle SEPIC which is specifically designed for the working on the secondary coolant loop in nuclear power plant, the optimized MPPT algorithm increased the output power by 55%.

  15. Energy Efficiency Maximization for WSNs with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Guo, Songtao; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Luyue

    2017-08-18

    Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively.

  16. Highly Efficient Wireless Powering for Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring and Test/Evaluation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    official Department of the Army position, policy or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME (S) AND...Internat. Symp. 27-JUN-16, Fajardo, Puerto Rico . : , . Misalignment Study of Cylindrical SCMR Wireless Power Transfer System, IEEE Antennas Propagat...Society Internat. Symp., Fajardo, Puerto Rico , Jun. 26- Jul. 1, 2016. 26-JUN- 16, Fajardo, Puerto Rico . : , . Analysis and modeling of Conformal Strongly

  17. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  18. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  19. Evaluation Method for the Firm Power Escalation of a Wind-Storage Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanli Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the controllability of the electric power output and the economic performance of a large-scale wind farm, an auxiliary energy storage system is required. This paper deals with the rule of planning reasonable energy storage power and capacity based on the historical annual mean wind speed data, the probability density of the pulsating wind power output, and the warranted firm power provided by the wind farm. Specifically, the evaluation index of the fluctuation degree of the firm power is defined in order to optimize the planned energy storage capacity. After that, the firm power escalation affected by the energy storage power and the conversion rate of the storage device are quantitatively evaluated. All of these analyses contribute in a significant way towards determining the acceptable energy conversion rate with the condition of limited energy storage space of a wind-storage hybrid power system. The proposed evaluation method of the firm power escalation is verified by MatLab simulation results.

  20. Power Stabilization Strategy of Random Access Loads in Electric Vehicles Wireless Charging System at Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity wireless charging system for electric vehicles when they stop and wait at traffic lights is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the serious power fluctuation caused by random access loads, this study presents a power stabilization strategy based on counting the number of electric vehicles in a designated area, including counting method, power source voltage adjustment strategy and choice of counting points. Firstly, the circuit model of a wireless power system with multi-loads is built and the equation of each load is obtained. Secondly, after the counting method of electric vehicles is stated, the voltage adjustment strategy, based on the number of electric vehicles when the system is at a steady state, is set out. Then, the counting points are chosen according to power curves when the voltage adjustment strategy is adopted. Finally, an experimental prototype is implemented to verify the power stabilization strategy. The experimental results show that, with the application of this strategy, the charging power is stabilized with the fluctuation of no more than 5% when loads access randomly.

  1. Massive MIMO Relay Systems with Multipair Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates destination-aided simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT for a decode-and-forward relay network, in which massive multiple-input multiple-output antennas are deployed at relay to assist communications among multiple source-destination pairs. During relaying, energy signals are emitted from multiple destinations when multiple sources are sending their information signals to relay. With power splitting and unlimited antennas at relay, asymptotic expression of harvested energy is derived. The analysis reveals that asymptotic harvested energy is independent of fast fading effect of wireless channels; meanwhile transmission powers of each source and destination can be scaled down inversely proportional to the number of relay antennas. To significantly reduce energy leakage interference and multipair interference, zero-forcing processing and maximum-ratio combing/maximum-ratio transmission are employed at relay. Fundamental trade-off between harvested energy and achievable sum rate is quantified. It is shown that asymptotic sum rate is neither convex nor concave with respect to power splitting and destination transmission power. Thus, a one-dimensional embedded bisection algorithm is proposed to jointly determine the optimal power splitting and destination transmission power. It shows that destination-aided SWIPT are beneficial for harvesting energy and increasing sum rate. The significant sum rate improvements of the proposed schemes are verified by numerical results.

  2. Efficient wireless power charging of electric vehicle by modifying the magnetic characteristics of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mohammad Hazzaz

    There is a developing enthusiasm for electric vehicle (EV) innovations as a result of their lessened fuel utilization and greenhouse emission especially through wireless power transfer (WPT) due to the convenience and continuous charging. Numerous research initiatives target on wireless power transfer (WPT) system in the attempt to improve the transportation for last few decades. But several problems like less efficiency, high frequency, long distance energy transfer etc. were always been occupied by the wireless power transfer system. Two ideas have been developed in this research to resolve the two main problems of WPT for electric vehicles which are low efficiency due to large distance between the two coils and slow charging time. As the first phase of study, a proper model, including the coils and cores were required. The selected model was a finite element (FE) modeling. Another part of this study was to create a modified cement that will act as a semi-conductive material for covering the transmitting antenna area. A high frequency wide band gap switch will be used for transferring high amount of power in a very short time. More over this research also proves that, if cores could be added with the transmitter coil and receiver coil then the output efficiency dramatically increased comparing with without core model of transmitter and receiver. The wireless charging is not restricted to parking lot, since it's planned to be embedded into parking space concrete or roadway concrete or asphalt. Therefore, it can also be installed at junctions (behind red lights), stop signs or any spot that the vehicle might stop for several moments. This technology will become more feasible, if the charging time decreases. Therefore, a new model of for wireless power transfer has been proposed in this study which has shown significant improvement. Another motive of this study was to improve the conductivity and permeability in such a way that the medium that is on the top of the

  3. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  4. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-12-02

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  5. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  6. Ultra low power transceiver for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Masuch, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks.  Since these applications have very limited energy resources, typically powered only by tiny batteries or through energy harvesting techniques, this book describes an architecture for a Bluetooth low energy transceiver to overcome these limitations. Coverage includes not only the main concepts for achieving low power consumption, but also the details of the circuit design and its implementation in a standard CMOS technology.     ·         Guides readers through the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks, from architecture to circuit-level implementation; ·         Describes 4 key strategies for ultra-low power transceiver design and specific, innovative techniques for circuit-level design; ·         Enables readers to design transceivers for body area networks that are 27% more energy efficient than those currently available; ·         Includes a review of the st...

  7. Energy Route Multi-Objective Optimization of Wireless Power Transfer Network: An Improved Cross-Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the Wireless Power Transfer Network (WPTN as an ideal model for long-distance Wireless Power Transfer (WPT in a certain region with multiple electrical equipment. The schematic circuit and design of each power node and the process of power transmission between the two power nodes are elaborated. The Improved Cross-Entropy (ICE method is proposed as an algorithm to solve for optimal energy route. Non-dominated sorting is introduced for optimization. A demonstration of the optimization result of a 30-nodes WPTN system based on the proposed algorithm proves ICE method to be efficacious and efficiency.

  8. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju

    2015-01-01

    -discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. This paper reviews the state of the art of the ESS technologies for wind power integration support from different aspects......With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging...

  9. Dynamic power control for wireless backbone mesh networks: a survey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available that there is a limited battery power available at each node but each user demands unlimited utility satisfaction, effective and efficient power control strategies ought to be in place [55]. These strategies may be designed to achieve user oriented quality... (i.e., throughput and delay) [69]. Methods from control theory have been used to analyse the dynamical effects and to design appropriate control strategies (e.g., [8]). The basic block Network Protocols and Algorithms ISSN 1943-3581 2010, Vol. 2...

  10. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    “Smart Pavement” is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor—ePave—to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system’s performance and explore the trade-off. PMID:28954430

  11. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  12. A wireless power transmission system for implantable devices in freely moving rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Sung June

    2014-08-01

    Reliable wireless power delivery for implantable devices in animals is highly desired for safe and effective experimental use. Batteries require frequent replacement; wired connections are inconvenient and unsafe, and short-distance inductive coupling requires the attachment of an exterior transmitter to the animal's body. In this article, we propose a solution by which animals with implantable devices can move freely without attachments. Power is transmitted using coils attached to the animal's cage and is received by a receiver coil implanted in the animal. For a three-dimensionally uniform delivery of power, we designed a columnar dual-transmitter coil configuration. A resonator-based inductive link was adopted for efficient long-range power delivery, and we used a novel biocompatible liquid crystal polymer substrate as the implantable receiver device. Using this wireless power delivery system, we obtain an average power transfer efficiency of 15.2% (minimum efficiency of 10% and a standard deviation of 2.6) within a cage of 15×20×15 cm3.

  13. An Inductive Link-Based Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Adeeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system using an inductive link has been demonstrated for implantable sensor applications. The system is composed of two primary blocks: an inductive power transfer unit and a backward data communication unit. The inductive link performs two functions: coupling the required power from a wireless power supply system enabling battery-less, long-term implant operation and providing a backward data transmission path. The backward data communication unit transmits the data to an outside reader using FSK modulation scheme via the inductive link. To demonstrate the operation of the inductive link, a board-level design has been implemented with high link efficiency. Test results from a fabricated sensor system, composed of a hybrid implementation of custom-integrated circuits and board-level discrete components, are presented demonstrating power transmission of 125 mW with a 12.5% power link transmission efficiency. Simultaneous backward data communication involving a digital pulse rate of up to 10 kbps was also observed.

  14. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment. Copyright © 2014 ISA. All rights reserved.

  15. Coordinated control of wind power and energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran

    in many aspects, such as reliability, power quality and stability. With the rapid development of energy storage technology, the application of Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective solution to handle the aforementioned challenges. The main objective of this study is to investigate...... speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is developed. It showed good tracking performance towards the optimum Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and robustness with fast adaptation to uncertainties and disturbances. For the wind farm control, the optimal active power control based on Distributed Model Predictive...

  16. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Coupler Designs of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Dynamic Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of coupler designs for wireless power transfer (WPT, meant for electric vehicle (EV dynamic charging. The design comparison of three common types of couplers is first based on the raw material cost, output power, transfer efficiency, tolerance of horizontal offset, and flux density. Then, the optimal cost-effectiveness combination is selected for EV dynamic charging. The corresponding performances of the proposed charging system are compared and analyzed by both simulation and experimentation. The results verify the validity of the proposed dynamic charging system for EVs.

  18. Self sufficient wireless transmitter powered by foot-pumped urine operating wearable MFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, M; Stinchcombe, A; Greenman, J; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Melhuish, C; Ieropoulos, I A

    2015-12-10

    The first self-sufficient system, powered by a wearable energy generator based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is introduced. MFCs made from compliant material were developed in the frame of a pair of socks, which was fed by urine via a manual gaiting pump. The simple and single loop cardiovascular fish circulatory system was used as the inspiration for the design of the manual pump. A wireless programmable communication module, engineered to operate within the range of the generated electricity, was employed, which opens a new avenue for research in the utilisation of waste products for powering portable as well as wearable electronics.

  19. Power optimization of wireless optical communication with log-square-Ricean fading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X

    2012-07-01

    It has been important to optimize the transmitter power in wireless optical communication systems. The conventional approach was based on the reciprocal Pareto model. In this paper, the investigation is extended to a more general scenario where the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio follows the log-square-Ricean distribution. Accordingly, the optimization model is established. The conventional model thus becomes a special case of the new model. It is shown that the new model can be analytically solved. The sample solutions clearly show how the optima of transmitter power change when the log-square-Ricean profile changes. These results would provide useful guidelines to system design.

  20. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  1. Range based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ) Here, 2. is the Euclidean norm and υ is the path loss exponent (PLE) assumed to be 2 6υ≤ ≤ , depending on the physical environment conditions [11]. Substitute (3) into (4) to get: Network and Above PMMUP: V-MAC Link Layer MAC # 2 Physical #2... neighbouring nodes. The probability of selecting transmission power that is greater than the probing power level increases with the connectivity range at different path loss exponents (PLE). When the PLE is high it implies bad wireless channel environment...

  2. Prototype of a Dsp-Based Instrument for In-Service Wireless Transmitter Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angrisani Leopoldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of a DSP-based instrument for in-service transmitter power measurements is presented. The instrument implements a signal-selective algorithm for power measurements that is suitable for use in wireless environments, where possible uncontrolled interfering sources are present in the radio channel and are overlapped to the signal emitted by the transmitter under test, possibly in both time and frequency domain. The measurement method exploits the principles of cyclic spectral analysis, which are briefly recalled in the paper. Potentialities, as well as limitations of the prototype use are discussed, and the results of experiments with both modulated and unmodulated interfering sources are presented.

  3. Lessons learned on solar powered wireless sensor network deployments in urban, desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2015-05-01

    The successful deployment of a large scale solar powered wireless sensor network in an urban, desert environment is a very complex task. Specific cities of such environments cause a variety of operational problems, ranging from hardware faults to operational challenges, for instance due to the high variability of solar energy availability. Even a seemingly functional sensor network created in the lab does not guarantee reliable long term operation, which is absolutely necessary given the cost and difficulty of accessing sensor nodes in urban environments. As part of a larger traffic flow wireless sensor network project, we conducted several deployments in the last two years to evaluate the long-term performance of solar-powered urban wireless sensor networks in a desert area. In this article, we share our experiences in all domains of sensor network operations, from the conception of hardware to post-deployment analysis, including operational constraints that directly impact the software that can be run. We illustrate these experiences using numerous experimental results, and present multiple unexpected operational problems as well as some possible solutions to address them. We also show that current technology is far from meeting all operational constraints for these demanding applications, in which sensor networks are to operate for years to become economically appealing.

  4. Performance and analysis of wireless power charging system from room temperature to HTS magnet via strong resonance coupling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. W.; Kim, J. S. [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. Y. [Korea Railroad Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The technology of supplying the electric power by wireless power transfer (WPT) is expected for the next generation power feeding system since it can supply the power to portable devices without any connectors through large air gap. As such a technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is possible to deliver the large power and recharge them seamlessly; it has been considered as a noble option to wireless power charging system in the various power applications. Recently, various HTS wires have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors, MAGLEV, and other electrical power components. However, since the HTS magnets have a lower index n value intrinsically, they are required to be charged from external power system through leads or internal power system. The portable area is limited as well as the cryogen system is bulkier. Thus, we proposed a novel design of wireless power charging system for superconducting HTS magnet (WPC4SM) based on resonance coupling method. As the novel system makes possible a wireless power charging using copper resonance coupled coils, it enables to portable charging conveniently in the superconducting applications. This paper presented the conceptual design and operating characteristics of WPC4SM using different shapes' copper resonance coil. The proposed system consists of four components; RF generator of 370 kHz, copper resonance coupling coils, impedance matching (IM) subsystem and HTS magnet including rectifier system.

  5. Software test and validation of wireless sensor nodes used in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Changjian; Chen Dongyi; Zhang Heng

    2015-01-01

    The software test and validation of wireless sensor nodes is one of the key approaches to improve or guarantee the reliability of wireless network application in nuclear power plants (NPPs). At first, to validate the software test, some concepts are defined quantitatively, for example the robustness of software, the reliability of software, and the security of software. Then the development tools and simulators of discrete event drive operating system are compared, in order to present robustness, reliability and security of software test approach based on input-output function. Some simple preliminary test results are given to show that different development software can obtain almost same measurement and communication results although the software of special application may be different than normal application. (author)

  6. Power optimisation for wearable heart rate measurement device with wireless charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthiga, G; Sharmila, A; Mahalakshmi, P; Muruganandam, M

    2017-05-01

    Continuous measurement of heart rate is necessary for monitoring the patients with heart ailments. A wearable which continuously measures heart rate of an individual by a method called reflectance-based photoplethysmography (PPG) computes the heart rate of an individual according to the volumetric changes in blood flowing through the body is developed. In order to make the device more compact as well as with IP67 and IP68 standard, wireless charging technique is employed because it helps to get rid of wires while charging. Following the Qi standard for designing wireless power receiver circuits makes the device interoperable and work with greater efficiency with reduced losses. Impedance matching and designing the circuit to operate under resonance condition increases coupling efficiency in case of inductive coupling.

  7. Adaptive control of energy storage systems for power smoothing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) are desired and widely applied for power smoothing especially in systems with renewable generation and pulsed loads. High-pass-filter (HPF) is commonly applied in those applications in which the HPF extracts the high frequency fluctuating power and uses...... that as the power reference for ESS. The cut-off frequency, as the critical parameter, actually decides the power/energy compensated by ESS. Practically the state-of-charge (SoC) of the ESS has to be limited for safety and life-cycle considerations. In this paper an adaptive cut-off frequency design is proposed...

  8. Millimeter-Wave Wireless Power Transfer Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Mojarradi, Hadi; Bae, Sam Y.; Marzwell, Neville

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new compact, scalable, and low cost technology for efficient receiving of power using RF waves at 94 GHz. This technology employs a highly innovative array of slot antennas that is integrated on substrate composed of gold (Au), silicon (Si), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) layers. The length of the slots and spacing between them are optimized for a highly efficient beam through a 3-D electromagnetic simulation process. Antenna simulation results shows a good beam profile with very low side lobe levels and better than 93% antenna efficiency.

  9. Wireless Power Transfer in Cooperative DF Relaying Networks with Log-Normal Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2017-02-07

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer in cooperative relaying networks have recently attracted a considerable amount of research attention. Most of the existing work on this topic however focuses on Rayleigh fading channels which represents outdoor environments. Unlike these studies, in this paper we analyze the performance of wireless power transfer in two-hop decode-and- forward (DF) cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Three well-known EH protocols are considered in our evaluations: a) time switching relaying (TSR), b) power splitting relaying (PSR) and c) ideal relaying receiver (IRR). The performance is evaluated in terms of the ergodic outage probability for which we derive accurate analytical expressions for the three systems under consideration. Results reveal that careful selection of the EH time and power splitting factors in the TSR- and PSR-based system are important to optimize performance. It is also presented that the optimized PSR system has near- ideal performance and that increasing the source transmit power and/or the energy harvester efficiency can further improve performance.

  10. Ultra-low power wireless sensing for long-term structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Argenis; Hoover, Davis; Rice, Jennifer; Chapman, Jamie

    2011-04-01

    Researchers have made significant progress in recent years towards realizing long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) utilizing wireless smart sensor networks (WSSNs). These efforts have focused on improving the performance and robustness of such networks to achieve high quality data acquisition and in-network processing. One of the primary challenges still facing the use of smart sensors for long-term monitoring deployments is their limited power resources. Periodically accessing the sensor nodes to change batteries is not feasible or economical in many deployment cases. While energy harvesting techniques show promise for prolonging unattended network life, low-power design and operation are still critically important. This research presents a new, fully integrated ultra-low power wireless smart sensor node and a flexible base station, both designed for long-term SHM applications. The power consumption of the sensor nodes and base station has been minimized through careful hardware selection and the implementation of power-aware network software, without sacrificing flexibility and functionality.

  11. Vehicular Integration of Wireless Power Transfer Systems and Hardware Interoperability Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL; White, Cliff P [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Several wireless charging methods are under development or available as an aftermarket option in the light-duty automotive market. However, there are not a sufficient number of studies detailing the vehicle integration methods, particularly a complete vehicle integration with higher power levels. This paper presents the design, development, implementation, and vehicle integration of wireless power transfer (WPT)-based electric vehicle (EV) charging systems for various test vehicles. Before having the standards effective, it is expected that WPT technology first will be integrated as an aftermarket retrofitting approach. Inclusion of this technology on production vehicles is contingent upon the release of the international standards. The power stages of the system are introduced with the design specifications and control systems including the active front-end rectifier with power factor correction, high frequency power inverter, high frequency isolation transformer, coupling coils, vehicle side full-bridge rectifier and filter, and the vehicle battery. The operating principles of the control, and communications, systems are presented. Aftermarket conversion approaches including the WPT on-board charger (OBC) integration, WPT CHAdeMO integration, and WPT direct battery connection scenarios are described. The experiments are carried out using the integrated vehicles and the results obtained to demonstrate the system performance including the stage-by-stage efficiencies.

  12. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  13. Leveraging storage assets to meet winter power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleson, D.

    2004-01-01

    Toronto-based Enbridge Gas Distribution serves 1.7 million customers by distributing 420 billion cubic feet (BCF) of natural gas over more than 31,000 km of pipelines. A map of the franchise area was presented. The utility has one of the lowest operating and maintenance costs in North America. Daily gas requirements were outlined along with the historic role of storage in gas utilities. Storage is used by heat sensitive local distribution companies, marketers, large industrials, and power generators. Storage locations in North America were reviewed with reference to baseload electricity production versus peak load; depleted reservoirs; salt caverns; aquifers; and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Enbridge operates 98 BCF of storage facilities for a maximum deliverability of 1.7 BCF per day. tabs., figs

  14. Optimisation of Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cirocco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of non-scheduled generation from renewable electrical energy sources such concentrated solar power (CSP presents a need for enabling scheduled generation by incorporating energy storage; either via directly coupled Thermal Energy Storage (TES or Electrical Storage Systems (ESS distributed within the electrical network or grid. The challenges for 100% renewable energy generation are: to minimise capitalisation cost and to maximise energy dispatch capacity. The aims of this review article are twofold: to review storage technologies and to survey the most appropriate optimisation techniques to determine optimal operation and size of storage of a system to operate in the Australian National Energy Market (NEM. Storage technologies are reviewed to establish indicative characterisations of energy density, conversion efficiency, charge/discharge rates and costings. A partitioning of optimisation techniques based on methods most appropriate for various time scales is performed: from “whole of year”, seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily averaging to those best suited matching the NEM bid timing of five minute dispatch bidding, averaged on the half hour as the trading settlement spot price. Finally, a selection of the most promising research directions and methods to determine the optimal operation and sizing of storage for renewables in the grid is presented.

  15. Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1990-11-01

    This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used to generate steam for a Rankine steam power cycle. This allowed the coal-fired salt heater to be approximately one-third the size of a coal-fired boiler in a conventional cycling plant. The use of nitrate salt TES also reduced the levelized cost of power by between 5% and 24% depends on the operating schedule. The second case evaluate the use of thermal energy storage with an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this concept, the nitrate salt was heated by a combination of the gas turbine exhaust and the hot fuel gas. The IGCC plant also contained a low-temperature storage unit that uses a mixture of oil and rock as the thermal storage medium. Thermal energy stored in the low-temperature TES was used to preheat the feedwater after it leaves the condenser and to produce process steam for other applications in the IGCC plant. This concept study also predicted a 5% to 20% reduction in levelized cost of power compared to other coal-fired alternatives. If significant escalation rates in the price of fuel were assumed, the concept could be competitive with natural-gas-fired intermediate-load power generation. A sensitivity analysis of using a direct-contact heat exchanger instead of the conventional finned-tube design showed a significant reduction in the installed capital cost. 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. 2003 conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    An International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The conference gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. The conference confirmed that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage. While the next step can be reprocessing or disposal, all spent fuel or high level waste from reprocessing must sooner or later be disposed of. The duration of interim storage is now expected to be much longer than earlier projections (up to 100 years and beyond). The storage facilities will have to be designed for these longer storage times and also for receiving spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. Utilities, vendors and regulators alike are addressing this adequately. The IAEA wishes to express appreciation to all chairs and co-chairs as well as all authors for their presentations to the conference and papers included in these proceedings

  17. Power and reactive power simultaneous control by 0.5 MJ superconducting magnet energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kiichiro; Murakami, Yoshishige

    1984-01-01

    Superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) is expected to be widely applied to the pulsed sources for fusion reactor research and to the energy storage substituting for pumping-up power stations, because of its fast energy storing and discharging and very high efficiency. Some results have been obtained so far. In this paper, however, the simultaneous control of power and reactive power is considered for an energy storage composed of two sets of thyristorized power conversion system and superconducting magnets in series connection, and a direct digital control system is described on the principle, design and configuration including the compensator, and on the experiment using the 0.5 MJ superconducting magnet energy storage installed in the Superconduction Engineering Experiment Center, Osaka University. The results obtained are as follows: (1) P control priority mode and Q control priority mode (in which power and reactive power control has priority, respectively) were proposed as the countermeasures when the simultaneous control of power and reactive power became impossible; (2) the design method was established, by which power and reactive power control loops can independently be designed as a result of simulation; (3) the achievement of the simultaneous control of power and reactive power was confirmed by using P-control priority mode and Q-control priority mode, in the experiment using the control system designed by simulation. The validity of simulation model was also confirmed by actual response waveforms. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Proposal of Smart Storage for Ubiquitous Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Haruhito; Nakajima, Tatsuhito; Liyanage, Kithsiri M.; Baba, Junpei; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    Penetrating large amount of renewable energy sources into power system, battery energy storage performs an important role for smoothing their natural intermittency, ensuring grid-wide frequency stability, and suppressing voltage rise caused by reverse power flow. The ubiquitous power grid concept has been proposed as a smart grid in Japanese context, where the total battery capacity can be optimized by coordinating renewable energy sources, controllable distributed generators, and controllable loads on demand side, for example, heat pump based water heater with heat storage, and plug-in hybrid vehicle or electric vehicle with onboard battery, and so on. In this paper, we propose an autonomous distributed vehicle-to-grid (V2G) control scheme. The proposed V2G control has droop characteristics against power system frequency measurement at 200/100V plug-in terminal, and battery state-of-charge (SOC) is balanced within designable range by restraining V2G gain according to estimated SOC. Of course, the convenience for vehicle user is considered by V1G charge, which is one-way charging control for plug-out. Self terminal frequency measurement algorithm, model based battery SOC estimation method, and the proposed autonomous distributed V2G control are implemented to automotive power electronics circuit and electric control unit. These concepts are summarized as Smart Storage in ubiquitous power grid applications.

  19. Pumped Storage Power plants, Challenges and opportunities - Some conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viollet, Pierre-Louis; Roult, Didier; Mathex, Bruno; Ouaabi, Aziz; Louis, Frederic; Petitjean, Alain; Capuozzo, Vincent; Mazzouji, Farid; Prestat, Bruno; Nekrassov, Andrei; Caignaert, Guy; Vidil, Roland; Guilbaud, Claude; Metais, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    This document briefly synthesizes a conference which addressed the development of pumped storage power plants in the world, and social, economic, technical and scientific challenges related to this development which is closely related to the development of intermittent renewable energies (wind and solar energy). Current developments in different countries (Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Norway, France and China) are evoked

  20. Wind power impacts and electricity storage - a time scale perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Meibom, Peter

    2012-01-01

    technologies – batteries, flow batteries, compressed air energy storage, electrolysis combined with fuel cells, and electric vehicles – are moreover categorised with respect to the time scales at which they are suited to support wind power integration. While all of these technologies are assessed suitable...

  1. Mitigation of Large Power Spills by a Storage Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bhaumik (Debarati); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe unpredictable nature of wind energy makes its integration to the electric grid highly challenging. However, these challenges can be addressed by incorporating storage devices (batteries) in the system. We perform an overall assessment of a single domestic power system with a wind

  2. Design and Thermal Analysis of a Solar Powered Cold Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and Thermal Analysis of a Solar Powered Cold Storage Ware-House Using a Phase- Change Material. ... of Nigeria of perishable agricultural products at different conservation temperatures corresponding to the solidification temperatures of phase change materials using cheap and abundant source of energy.

  3. Crosstalk Study of Simultaneous Wireless Power/Information Transmission Based on an LCC Compensation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective simultaneous wireless transmission of power and information (SWTPI is an issue of great interest. To reduce the crosstalk between power and information channels while increasing the transmission air gap and power level, we introduce an inductor–capacitor–capacitor (LCC compensation network for an SWTPI system. First, the crosstalk between the power and information channels is analyzed. An effective parametric design method is then proposed for the LCC compensation network, which is analyzed theoretically to minimize the crosstalk. Finally, experiments are conducted at 1000 W and 115.2 kbps with an air gap of 100 cm to verify whether the proposed structure and design method of the LCC compensation network are suitable for the SWTPI.

  4. Stochastic Power Control for Time-Varying Long-Term Fading Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Charalambos D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new time-varying (TV long-term fading (LTF channel model which captures both the space and time variations of wireless systems is developed. The proposed TV LTF model is based on a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion. This model is more realistic than the static models usually encountered in the literature. It allows viewing the wireless channel as a dynamical system, thus enabling well-developed tools of adaptive and nonadaptive estimation and identification techniques to be applied to this class of problems. In contrast with the traditional models, the statistics of the proposed model are shown to be TV, but converge in steady state to their static counterparts. Moreover, optimal power control algorithms (PCAs based on the new model are proposed. A centralized PCA is shown to reduce to a simple linear programming problem if predictable power control strategies (PPCS are used. In addition, an iterative distributed stochastic PCA is used to solve for the optimization problem using stochastic approximations. The latter solely requires each mobile to know its received signal-to-interference ratio. Generalizations of the power control problem based on convex optimization techniques are provided if PPCS are not assumed. Numerical results show that there are potentially large gains to be achieved by using TV stochastic models, and the distributed stochastic PCA provides better power stability and consumption than the distributed deterministic PCA.

  5. UD-WCMA: An Energy Estimation and Forecast Scheme for Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2017-04-11

    Energy estimation and forecast represents an important role for energy management in solar-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In general, the energy in such networks is managed over a finite time horizon in the future based on input solar power forecasts to enable continuous operation of the WSNs and achieve the sensing objectives while ensuring that no node runs out of energy. In this article, we propose a dynamic version of the weather conditioned moving average technique (UD-WCMA) to estimate and predict the variations of the solar power in a wireless sensor network. The presented approach combines the information from the real-time measurement data and a set of stored profiles representing the energy patterns in the WSNs location to update the prediction model. The UD-WCMA scheme is based on adaptive weighting parameters depending on the weather changes which makes it flexible compared to the existing estimation schemes without any precalibration. A performance analysis has been performed considering real irradiance profiles to assess the UD-WCMA prediction accuracy. Comparative numerical tests to standard forecasting schemes (EWMA, WCMA, and Pro-Energy) shows the outperformance of the new algorithm. The experimental validation has proven the interesting features of the UD-WCMA in real time low power sensor nodes.

  6. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  7. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  8. A novel self-powered wireless temperature sensor based on thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yongming; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Ye, Huihong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-powered temperature sensor, based on thermoelectric generator, is presented. • This novel sensor can operate without any batteries or other power sources. • This sensor combines signal sensing and power supplying together. • The measurement error is 0.5 K during the sensor operating period. • This sensor can detect temperature fluctuation situations such as fire disaster. - Abstract: A novel self-powered wireless temperature sensor has been designed and presented for solving the power supply problem of temperature sensors. This sensor can autonomously measure temperature under positive temperature fluctuation situations. The self-powered characteristic, realized by using four thermoelectric generators, enables the sensor to operate without any batteries or other power sources. In order to obtain these features, attentions are not only focused on the method to combine signal sensing and power generating together, but also on the method to improve measurement accuracy. Experimental results confirm that this novel sensor has excellent measurement accuracy. The measured performance is consistent with the calculated characteristics. For typical application, this self-powered temperature sensor can detect fire before it develops to flashover state. And the maximum detection distance grows with the growth of burning rate. All the results indicate this innovative sensor is a promising self-powered device which can be used to measure temperature value in positive temperature fluctuation situations

  9. Using SRAM Based FPGAs for Power-Aware High Performance Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Torre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While for years traditional wireless sensor nodes have been based on ultra-low power microcontrollers with sufficient but limited computing power, the complexity and number of tasks of today’s applications are constantly increasing. Increasing the node duty cycle is not feasible in all cases, so in many cases more computing power is required. This extra computing power may be achieved by either more powerful microcontrollers, though more power consumption or, in general, any solution capable of accelerating task execution. At this point, the use of hardware based, and in particular FPGA solutions, might appear as a candidate technology, since though power use is higher compared with lower power devices, execution time is reduced, so energy could be reduced overall. In order to demonstrate this, an innovative WSN node architecture is proposed. This architecture is based on a high performance high capacity state-of-the-art FPGA, which combines the advantages of the intrinsic acceleration provided by the parallelism of hardware devices, the use of partial reconfiguration capabilities, as well as a careful power-aware management system, to show that energy savings for certain higher-end applications can be achieved. Finally, comprehensive tests have been done to validate the platform in terms of performance and power consumption, to proof that better energy efficiency compared to processor based solutions can be achieved, for instance, when encryption is imposed by the application requirements.

  10. Using SRAM based FPGAs for power-aware high performance wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Juan; Otero, Andres; Lopez, Miguel; Portilla, Jorge; de la Torre, Eduardo; Riesgo, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    While for years traditional wireless sensor nodes have been based on ultra-low power microcontrollers with sufficient but limited computing power, the complexity and number of tasks of today's applications are constantly increasing. Increasing the node duty cycle is not feasible in all cases, so in many cases more computing power is required. This extra computing power may be achieved by either more powerful microcontrollers, though more power consumption or, in general, any solution capable of accelerating task execution. At this point, the use of hardware based, and in particular FPGA solutions, might appear as a candidate technology, since though power use is higher compared with lower power devices, execution time is reduced, so energy could be reduced overall. In order to demonstrate this, an innovative WSN node architecture is proposed. This architecture is based on a high performance high capacity state-of-the-art FPGA, which combines the advantages of the intrinsic acceleration provided by the parallelism of hardware devices, the use of partial reconfiguration capabilities, as well as a careful power-aware management system, to show that energy savings for certain higher-end applications can be achieved. Finally, comprehensive tests have been done to validate the platform in terms of performance and power consumption, to proof that better energy efficiency compared to processor based solutions can be achieved, for instance, when encryption is imposed by the application requirements.

  11. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  12. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  13. Effect of ferrite addition above the base ferrite on the coupling factor of wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik; Ahn, Seungyoung

    2015-01-01

    Power transfer capability of wireless power transfer systems is highly dependent on the magnetic design of the primary and secondary inductors and is measured quantitatively by the coupling factor. The inductors are designed by placing the coil over a ferrite base to increase the coupling factor...... and measurement results are presented for different air gaps between the coils and at different gap distances between the ferrite base and added ferrite. This paper is beneficial in improving the coupling factor while adding minimum weight to wireless power transfer system....

  14. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  15. Ultra-low power high precision magnetotelluric receiver array based customized computer and wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Xi, X.; Zhao, X.; He, L.; Yao, H.; Shen, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dense 3D magnetotelluric (MT) data acquisition owns the benefit of suppressing the static shift and topography effect, can achieve high precision and high resolution inversion for underground structure. This method may play an important role in mineral exploration, geothermal resources exploration, and hydrocarbon exploration. It's necessary to reduce the power consumption greatly of a MT signal receiver for large-scale 3D MT data acquisition while using sensor network to monitor data quality of deployed MT receivers. We adopted a series of technologies to realized above goal. At first, we designed an low-power embedded computer which can couple with other parts of MT receiver tightly and support wireless sensor network. The power consumption of our embedded computer is less than 1 watt. Then we designed 4-channel data acquisition subsystem which supports 24-bit analog-digital conversion, GPS synchronization, and real-time digital signal processing. Furthermore, we developed the power supply and power management subsystem for MT receiver. At last, a series of software, which support data acquisition, calibration, wireless sensor network, and testing, were developed. The software which runs on personal computer can monitor and control over 100 MT receivers on the field for data acquisition and quality control. The total power consumption of the receiver is about 2 watts at full operation. The standby power consumption is less than 0.1 watt. Our testing showed that the MT receiver can acquire good quality data at ground with electrical dipole length as 3 m. Over 100 MT receivers were made and used for large-scale geothermal exploration in China with great success.

  16. Efficiency Study of Vertical Distance Variations in Wireless Power Transfer for E-Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhar, Morteza Ghorbani; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    of the aims of the companies and universities. However, in low VD, system performance becomes highly sensitive, due to the magnetic coupling strength. The focus of this paper is to analyze the effects of decreasing the vertical distances to WPT resonance tank efficiency’s. Finally, some of the most......A Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system is a safe, convenient and smart charging solution for Electric Vehicle (EV) users. However, a drawback of WPT systems is reduced efficiency in comparison to conventional wired charging due to lower coupling. By increasing the volume of EVs in the market...

  17. Wirelessly powered submerged-light illuminated photobioreactors for efficient microalgae cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Alexandra Marie; Fotidis, Ioannis; Isenschmid, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A novel submerged-light photobioreactor (SL-PBR) with free-floating, wireless internal light sources powered by near-field resonant inductive coupling was investigated using a quick (Chlorella vulgaris) and a slow (Haematococcus pluvialis) growing microalgal species. During testing of the SL...... of the true yield. Interestingly, the SL-PBR provided more uniform light to the culture and had the ability to reduce the presence of dark zones and the effect of self-shading. Thus, the SL-PBR showed potential, if subsequent prototype designs address the technical challenges identified during this study....

  18. Joint power and multiple access control for wireless mesh network with Rose projection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches.

  19. Energy Storage in Power System Operation: The Power Nodes Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    for designing operation strategies for power systems based on ubiquitous energy storage, for example to buer non-dispatchable generation, as well as for the evaluation of the operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability and cost. After introducing the modeling approach and a categorization......In this paper, a novel concept for the description of energy storage in power systems with dispatchable and non-dispatchable generators and loads is presented. It is based on a system-perspective consideration of energy storage, generation and consumption. This means that grid-relevant aspects...

  20. Power Consumption Reduction for Wireless Sensor Networks Using A Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is leading towards the deployment of complex networked systems and the optimal design of WSNs can be a very difficult task because several constraints and requirements must be considered, among all the power consumption. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy logic based mechanism that according to the battery level and to the ratio of Throughput to Workload determines the sleeping time of sensor devices in a Wireless Sensor Network for environmental monitoring based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. The main aim here is to find an effective solution that achieves the target while avoiding complex and computationally expensive solutions, which would not be appropriate for the problem at hand and would impair the practical applicability of the approach in real scenarios. The results of several real test-bed scenarios show that the proposed system outperforms other solutions, significantly reducing the whole power consumption while maintaining good performance in terms of the ratio of throughput to workload. An implementation on off-the-shelf devices proves that the proposed controller does not require powerful hardware and can be easily implemented on a low-cost device, thus paving the way for extensive usage in practice.

  1. Power Minimization of a Wireless Sensor Node under Different Rate Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Solares, Jose

    2016-03-31

    Future wireless networks are expected to handle a huge number of devices, including sensors, within a low energy consumption. In this scope, we present, in this paper, performance of wireless sensor networks (WSN). Specifically, we aim at finding the optimal transmit power of a node communicating with multiple receivers in a cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing framework, i.e., existence of an active primary user. We first present the optimal power with single secondary receiver, under instantaneous or average transmission rate constraints. Then, we propose a suboptimal solution for an easier, yet efficient, implementation and perform insightful asymptotical analysis for both schemes with Rayleigh fading. Afterwards, we extend our results to a multiple secondary receives CR scenario and present the corresponding optimal and suboptimal transmit power while satisfying independent peak/average and sum of peak/average transmission rate constraints. The corresponding numerical results are provided for Rayleigh and Nakagami-m fading channels. We characterize some transmission outage events depending on system parameters.

  2. Cluster Cooperation in Wireless-Powered Sensor Networks: Modeling and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A wireless-powered sensor network (WPSN consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP, a near cluster and the corresponding far cluster is investigated in this paper. These sensors are wireless-powered and they transmit information by consuming the harvested energy from signal ejected by the HAP. Sensors are able to harvest energy as well as store the harvested energy. We propose that if sensors in near cluster do not have their own information to transmit, acting as relays, they can help the sensors in a far cluster to forward information to the HAP in an amplify-and-forward (AF manner. We use a finite Markov chain to model the dynamic variation process of the relay battery, and give a general analyzing model for WPSN with cluster cooperation. Though the model, we deduce the closed-form expression for the outage probability as the metric of this network. Finally, simulation results validate the start point of designing this paper and correctness of theoretical analysis and show how parameters have an effect on system performance. Moreover, it is also known that the outage probability of sensors in far cluster can be drastically reduced without sacrificing the performance of sensors in near cluster if the transmit power of HAP is fairly high. Furthermore, in the aspect of outage performance of far cluster, the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the direct transmission scheme without cooperation.

  3. Precoding Design and Power Allocation in Two-User MU-MIMO Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haole Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the precoding design and power allocation problem for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO wireless ad hoc networks. In the first timeslot, the source node (SN transmits energy and information to a relay node (RN simultaneously within the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT framework. Then, in the second timeslot, based on the decoder and the forwarding (DF protocol, after reassembling the received signal and its own signal, the RN forwards the information to the main user (U1 and simultaneously sends its own information to the secondary user (U2. In this paper, when the transmission rate of the U1 is restricted, the precoding, beamforming, and power splitting (PS transmission ratio are jointly considered to maximize the transmission rate of U2. To maximize the system rate, we design an optimal beamforming matrix and solve the optimization problem by semi-definite relaxation (SDR, considering the high complexity of implementing the optimal solution. Two sub-optimal precoding programs are also discussed: singular value decomposition and block diagonalization. Finally, the performance of the optimization and sub-optimization schemes are compared using a simulation.

  4. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  5. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfu Mo

    Full Text Available In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET, the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  6. Cluster Cooperation in Wireless-Powered Sensor Networks: Modeling and Performance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Weizhan

    2017-09-27

    A wireless-powered sensor network (WPSN) consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP), a near cluster and the corresponding far cluster is investigated in this paper. These sensors are wireless-powered and they transmit information by consuming the harvested energy from signal ejected by the HAP. Sensors are able to harvest energy as well as store the harvested energy. We propose that if sensors in near cluster do not have their own information to transmit, acting as relays, they can help the sensors in a far cluster to forward information to the HAP in an amplify-and-forward (AF) manner. We use a finite Markov chain to model the dynamic variation process of the relay battery, and give a general analyzing model for WPSN with cluster cooperation. Though the model, we deduce the closed-form expression for the outage probability as the metric of this network. Finally, simulation results validate the start point of designing this paper and correctness of theoretical analysis and show how parameters have an effect on system performance. Moreover, it is also known that the outage probability of sensors in far cluster can be drastically reduced without sacrificing the performance of sensors in near cluster if the transmit power of HAP is fairly high. Furthermore, in the aspect of outage performance of far cluster, the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the direct transmission scheme without cooperation.

  7. Miniaturized Human Insertable Cardiac Monitoring System with Wireless Power Transmission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ha Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged monitoring is more likely to diagnose atrial fibrillation accurately than intermittent or short-term monitoring. In this study, an implantable electrocardiograph (ECG sensor to monitor atrial fibrillation patients in real time was developed. The implantable sensor is composed of a micro controller unit, an analog-to-digital converter, a signal transmitter, an antenna, and two electrodes. The sensor detects ECG signals from the two electrodes and transmits these to an external receiver carried by the patient. Because the sensor continuously transmits signals, its battery consumption rate is extremely high; therefore, the sensor includes a wireless power transmission module that allows it to charge wirelessly from an external power source. The integrated sensor has the approximate dimensions 3 mm × 4 mm × 14 mm, which is small enough to be inserted into a patient without the need for major surgery. The signal and power transmission data sampling rate and frequency of the unit are 300 samples/s and 430 Hz, respectively. To validate the developed sensor, experiments were conducted on small animals.

  8. Analysis and optimisation of coupled winding in magnetic resonant wireless power transfer systems with orthogonal experiment results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yudi, Xiao; Xingkui, Mao; Mao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) has great effect on the transmitting power capability and efficiency of magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system. The key objective i.e. the efficiency coefficient kQ is introduced in the design of CMRU or the coupled windings based on the mutual ...

  9. Analysis and optimization of coupled windings in magnetic resonant wireless power transfer systems with orthogonal experiment method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yudi, Xiao; Xingkui, Mao; Mao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) has great effect on the transmitting power capability and efficiency of magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system. The key objective i.e. the efficiency coefficient kQ is introduced in the design of CMRU or the coupled windings based on the mutual ...

  10. Method for analysing the adequacy of electric power systems with wind power plants and energy storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzhabinsky Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are actively introduced into electric power systems. We developed method to analyze the adequacy of these electric power systems. The method takes into account the uncertainty of electricity generation by wind power plants and the processes of energy storage. The method is based on the Monte Carlo method and allowed to use of long-term meteorological data in open access. The performed experimental research of electrical power system is constructed on the basis of the real technical and meteorological data. The method allows to estimate of effectiveness of introducing generators based on renewable energy sources and energy storages in electric power systems.

  11. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  12. Simulative and experimental research on wireless power transmission technique in implantable medical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Hao, Hongwei; Wang, Weiming; Li, Luming

    2009-01-01

    As the development of implantable biomedical devices, the rechargeable battery is applied to improve the life of implantable devices. Inductive transcutaneous power transfer, as a suitable way of charging the implantable rechargeable batteries, is widely used. During charging period, there are several stages based on the charging rule and the load resistance is varying simultaneously. In this paper, a model of inductive transcutaneous power transfer is set up with a compensative capacitor for primary coil in series and another compensative capacitor for secondary coil in parallel to descript the relationship in coupling coefficient, load resistance and conversion efficiency. Simulations were done and experiments were carried out to verify the model, and some suggestions on wireless power transfer design are given.

  13. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for Decode-and-Forward MIMO Relay Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for a decode-and-forward (DF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay system where the relay is an energy harvesting node. We consider the ideal scenario where both the energy harvesting (EH) receiver and information decoding (ID) receiver at the relay have access to the whole received signal and its energy. The relay harvests the energy while receiving the signal from the source and uses the harvested power to forward the signal to the destination. We obtain the optimal precoders at the source and the relay to maximize the achievable throughput rate of the overall link. In the numerical results, the effect of the transmit power at the source and the position of the relay between the source and the destination on the maximum achievable rate are investigated. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Relay Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-01-06

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for the two-hop Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication systems with the multiantenna energy harvesting relay. We derive the optimal source and relay covariance matrices to characterize the achievable region between the sourcedestination rate and the harvested energy at the relay, namely Rate-Energy (R-E) region. In this context, we consider the ideal scenario where the energy harvester (EH) receiver and the information decoder (ID) receiver at the relay can simultaneously decode the information and harvest the energy at the relay. Then, we consider more practical schemes which are the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) which separate the EH and ID transfer over the power domain and the time domain, respectively.

  15. Three-phase receiving coil of wireless power transmission system for gastrointestinal robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. W.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Power shortage is the bottleneck for the wide application of gastrointestinal (GI) robot. Owing to the limited volume and free change of orientation of the receiving set in GI trace, the optimal of receiving set is the key point to promote the transmission efficiency of wireless power transmission system. A new type of receiving set, similar to the winding of three-phase asynchronous motor, is presented and compared with the original three-dimensional orthogonal coil. Considering the given volume and the space utilization ratio, the three-phase and the three-orthogonal ones are the parameters which are optimized and compared. Both the transmission efficiency and stability are analyzed and verified by in vitro experiments. Animal experiments show that the new one could provide at least 420 mW power in volume of Φ11 × 13mm with a uniformity of 78.3% for the GI robot.

  16. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake; Gong, Chen

    2017-08-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power.

  17. Wireless Power Transfer to a Microaerial Vehicle with a Microwave Active Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Nako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system using a microwave active phased array was developed. In the system, power is transferred to a circling microaerial vehicle (MAV by a microwave beam of 5.8 GHz, which is formed and directed to the MAV using an active phased array antenna. The MAV is expected to support observation of areas that humans cannot reach. The power beam is formed by the phased array with eight antenna elements. Input power is about 5.6 W. The peak power density at 1,500 mm altitude was 2.63 mW/cm2. The power is sent to a circling MAV. Therefore, the transfer beam should be polarized circularly to achieve a constant power supply independent of its yaw angle. To minimize the polarization loss, a sequentially routed antenna (SRA was applied to the transmitter antenna. Results show that the axial ratio of 0.440 dB was accomplished and that power fluctuation was kept below 1%.

  18. Optimized Solar Energy Power Supply for Remote Wireless Sensors Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Krejcar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering of intelligent wireless sensors without a permanent electric connection is a general problem which is often solved by adopting alternative power sources. One of the most commonly used sources is solar energy in the form of solar panel and charging circuits. However, it is not possible to find a solution in the markets for operation in changeable weather conditions, where sun intensity is not so high. This fact leads us to the development of optimized solar panel and all circuits for reliable power supply of wireless sensors. A special charging circuit for Li-ION battery and DC-DC adapter circuit for stabilization of wireless sensor working voltage were developed and optimized for very low energy consumption and high efficiency.

  19. Effective Low-Power Wearable Wireless Surface EMG Sensor Design Based on Analog-Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Balouchestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface Electromyography (sEMG is a non-invasive measurement process that does not involve tools and instruments to break the skin or physically enter the body to investigate and evaluate the muscular activities produced by skeletal muscles. The main drawbacks of existing sEMG systems are: (1 they are not able to provide real-time monitoring; (2 they suffer from long processing time and low speed; (3 they are not effective for wireless healthcare systems because they consume huge power. In this work, we present an analog-based Compressed Sensing (CS architecture, which consists of three novel algorithms for design and implementation of wearable wireless sEMG bio-sensor. At the transmitter side, two new algorithms are presented in order to apply the analog-CS theory before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC. At the receiver side, a robust reconstruction algorithm based on a combination of ℓ1-ℓ1-optimization and Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL framework is presented to reconstruct the original bio-signals from the compressed bio-signals. The proposed architecture allows reducing the sampling rate to 25% of Nyquist Rate (NR. In addition, the proposed architecture reduces the power consumption to 40%, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD to 24%, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE to 2%, and the computation time from 22 s to 9.01 s, which provide good background for establishing wearable wireless healthcare systems. The proposed architecture achieves robust performance in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR for the reconstruction process.

  20. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  1. An Energy Storage System Sizing Method for Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Combining an energy storage system (ESS with a wind farm is an effective way to increase the penetration rate of wind power. ESS sizing is an important part in wind farm planning nowadays. In this paper, a basic method for determining the optimal capacity of an ESS integrated with a wind power generator to meet the requirements of grid integration is presented. With the proposed method, the necessary ESS capacity which can provide the best benefits between the regulation effects and energy storage size was calculated. The segmentation method and automatic segmentation method are proposed to improve the performance of the basic method. Further work on expanding the method to determine the necessary capacity of ESS for real-time control is studied. The time window method is used to enable the proposed method available under all working conditions. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A two-hop wireless power transfer system with an efficiency-enhanced power receiver for motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Zhihua

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system for a motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection. Conventionally, a wireless power transmitter in a specifically designed jacket has to be connected to a strong power source with a long cable. To avoid the power cable and allow patients to walk freely in a room, this paper proposes a two-hop wireless power transfer system. First, power is transferred from a floor to a power relay in the patient's jacket via strong coupling. Next, power is delivered from the power relay to the capsule via loose coupling. Besides making patients much more conformable, the proposed techniques eliminate the sources of reliability issues arisen from the moving cable and connectors. In the capsule, it is critical to enhance the power conversion efficiency. This paper develops a switch-mode rectifier (rectifying efficiency of 93.6%) and a power combination circuit (enhances combining efficiency by 18%). Thanks to the two-hop transfer mechanism and the novel circuit techniques, this system is able to transfer an average power of 24 mW and a peak power of 90 mW from the floor to a 13 mm × 27 mm capsule over a distance of 1 m with the maximum dc-to-dc power efficiency of 3.04%.

  3. Efficient low-power wireless communication setup for an autonomous soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2017-12-01

    During July 2016 - September 2017, a micro-irrigation system was set up and tested in field and greenhouse-like conditions, using eight inexpensive soil moisture sensors designed and manufactured in our institute. Each sensor was powered by accumulators charged by an (8 × 14) cm2 solar panel. The energy budget was carefully managed to allow long operating time for both the moisture sensor and the irrigation automation. We present here the hardware-software setup implemented in our proprietary moisture sensor for wireless communication, using Bluetooth Low Energy modules (BLE). The autonomy of the system may reach 4-5 cloudy days without the need of recharging the accumulators from the sun. Over the entire operating period, the moisture sensors send data wirelessly every sampling time (15 to 30 minutes) following water drips on the soil for the next 30 seconds, pushed by a low power micro pump. The micro-irrigation process is repeated every sampling time, until the soil moisture threshold is reached. In between the operating states, the sensor and watering automation go to sleep. The software algorithm ensures low energy (max. 2.8 mWh) consumption for the moisture sensor and 20 mWh for the irrigation automation, substantially increasing the accumulators discharge cycle.

  4. MAC-Aware and Power-Aware Image Aggregation Scheme in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui-Liang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs transmit the scalar data (e.g., temperature and irradiation to the sink node. A new wireless visual sensor network (WVSN that can transmit images data is a more promising solution than the WSN on sensing, detecting, and monitoring the environment to enhance awareness of the cyber, physical, and social contexts of our daily activities. However, the size of image data is much bigger than the scalar data that makes image transmission a challenging issue in battery-limited WVSN. In this paper, we study the energy efficient image aggregation scheme in WVSN. Image aggregation is a possible way to eliminate the redundant portions of the image captured by different data source nodes. Hence, transmission power could be reduced via the image aggregation scheme. However, image aggregation requires image processing that incurs node processing power. Besides the additional energy consumption from node processing, there is another MAC-aware retransmission energy loss from image aggregation. In this paper, we first propose the mathematical model to capture these three factors (image transmission, image processing, and MAC retransmission in WVSN. Numerical results based on the mathematical model and real WVSN sensor node (i.e., Meerkats node are performed to optimize the energy consumption tradeoff between image transmission, image processing, and MAC retransmission.

  5. A High-Efficient Low-Cost Converter for Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Oun Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the Internet of Things (IoT spurs need for new ways of delivering power. Wireless power transfer (WPT has come into the spotlight from both academia and industry as a promising way to power the IoT devices. As one of the well-known WPT techniques, the capacitive power transfer (CPT has the merit of low electromagnetic radiation and amenability of combined power and data transfer over a capacitive interface. However, applying the CPT to the IoT devices is still challenging in reality. One of the major issues is due to the small capacitance of the capacitive interface, which results in low efficiency of the power transfer. To tackle this problem, we present a new step-up single-switch quasi-resonant (SSQR converter for the CPT system. To enhance the CPT efficiency, the proposed converter is designed to operate at low frequency and drive small current into the capacitive interfaces. In addition, by eliminating resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD snubber in the converter, we reduce the implementation cost of the CPT system. Based on intensive experimental work with a CPT system prototype that supports maximum 50 W (100 V/0.5 A power transfer, we demonstrate the functional correctness of the converter that achieves up to 93% efficiency.

  6. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  7. Designing BEE: A Hardware Emulation Engine for Signal Processing in Low-Power Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a large-scale emulation engine and an application example from the field of low-power wireless devices. The primary goal of the emulator is to support design space exploration of real-time algorithms. The emulator is customized for dataflow dominant architectures, especially focusing on telecommunication-related applications. Due to its novel routing architecture and application-specific nature, the emulator is capable of real-time execution of a class of algorithms in its application space. Moreover, the dataflow structure facilitates the development of a highly abstracted design flow for the emulator. Simulations and practical measurements on commercial development boards are used to verify that real-time emulation of a low-power TDMA receiver is feasible at a clock speed of 25 MHz.

  8. Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer for propulsion of implantable micro-robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Kim, M.; Yoo, J.; Park, H.-H.; Ahn, S.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, various types of mobile micro-robots have been proposed for medical and industrial applications. Especially in medical applications, a motor system for propulsion cannot easily be used in a micro-robot due to their small size. Therefore, micro-robots are usually actuated by controlling the magnitude and direction of an external magnetic field. However, for micro-robots, these methods in general are only applicable for moving and drilling operations, but not for the undertaking of various missions. In this paper, we propose a new micro-robot concept, which uses wireless power transfer to deliver the propulsion force and electric power simultaneously. The mechanism of Lorentz force generation and the coil design methodologies are explained, and validation of the proposed propulsion system for a micro-robot is discussed thorough a simulation and with actual measurements with up-scaled test vehicles.

  9. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  10. Analytical Modelling of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) Systems for Electric Vehicle Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model for wireless power transfer system used in electric vehicle application. The equivalent circuit model for each major component of the system is described, including the input voltage source, resonant network, transformer, nonlinear diode rectifier load, etc. Based on the circuit model, the primary side compensation capacitance, equivalent input impedance, active / reactive power are calculated, which provides a guideline for parameter selection. Moreover, the voltage gain curve from dc output to dc input is derived as well. A hardware prototype with series-parallel resonant stage is built to verify the developed model. The experimental results from the hardware are compared with the model predicted results to show the validity of the model.

  11. 3-Coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for implantable electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer (R-WPT) system using a single layer of inductor coil windings, in a pancake configuration, in order to obtain a compact system for implantable electronic applications. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements in terms of quality factor Q and power transfer efficiency (PTE), was done. Our proposed 3-coil scheme can achieve a high PTE with a resonance frequency of 2.46 MHz over a transfer distance of up to 30 mm, by using two 15-mm radius implant coils. The achieved experimental PTE is more than 85%at a 5 mm separation distance, and about 50% PTE at a distance of 20 mm. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Joint sensor placement and power rating selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bushnaq, Osama M.

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, the focus is on optimal sensor placement and power rating selection for parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We take into account the amount of energy harvested by the sensing nodes, communication link quality, and the observation accuracy at the sensor level. In particular, the aim is to reconstruct the estimation parameter with minimum error at a fusion center under a system budget constraint. To achieve this goal, a subset of sensing locations is selected from a large pool of candidate sensing locations. Furthermore, the type of sensor to be placed at those locations is selected from a given set of sensor types (e.g., sensors with different power ratings). We further investigate whether it is better to install a large number of cheap sensors, a few expensive sensors or a combination of different sensor types at the optimal locations.

  13. Joint Transmit Power Allocation and Splitting for SWIPT Aided OFDM-IDMA in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Xiaotian; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Yuan, Dongfeng; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-07-04

    In this paper, we propose to combine Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing-Interleave Division Multiple Access (OFDM-IDMA) with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT), resulting in SWIPT aided OFDM-IDMA scheme for power-limited sensor networks. In the proposed system, the Receive Node (RN) applies Power Splitting (PS) to coordinate the Energy Harvesting (EH) and Information Decoding (ID) process, where the harvested energy is utilized to guarantee the iterative Multi-User Detection (MUD) of IDMA to work under sufficient number of iterations. Our objective is to minimize the total transmit power of Source Node (SN), while satisfying the requirements of both minimum harvested energy and Bit Error Rate (BER) performance from individual receive nodes. We formulate such a problem as a joint power allocation and splitting one, where the iteration number of MUD is also taken into consideration as the key parameter to affect both EH and ID constraints. To solve it, a sub-optimal algorithm is proposed to determine the power profile, PS ratio and iteration number of MUD in an iterative manner. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm can provide significant performance improvement.

  14. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puers, R.; Carta, R.; Thoné, J.

    2011-05-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules.

  15. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and recovery of the system using custom fittings and a (to be developed) launch-chamber/-tube. The battery modules are used to power the system, by providing power to the robot's bus. The support modules perform the functions of centration for the rest of the train as well as odometry pickups using incremental encoding schemes. The electronics architecture is based on a distributed (8-bit) microprocessor architecture (at least 1 in ea. module) communicating to a (one of two) 32-bit SBC, which manages all video-processing, posture and motion control as well as CAN and wireless communications. The operator controls the entire system from an off-board (laptop) controller, which is in constant wireless communication with the robot train in the pipe. The sensor modules collect data and forward it to the robot operator computer (via the CAN-wireless communications chain), who then transfers it to a dedicated NDE data-storage and post-processing computer for further (real-time or off-line) analysis. The prototype robot system was built and tested indoors and outdoors, outfitted with a Remote-Field Eddy Current (RFEC) sensor integrated as its main NDE sensor modality. An angled launcher, allowing for live launching and retrieval, was also built to suit custom angled launch-fittings from TDW. The prototype vehicle and launcher systems are shown. The complete system, including the in-pipe robot train, launcher, integrated NDE-sensor and real-time video and control console and NDE-data collection and -processing and real-time display, were demonstrated to all sponsors prior to proceeding into final field-trials--the individual components and setting for said acceptance demonstration are shown. The launcher-tube was also used to verify that the vehicle system is capable of operating in high

  16. A Low Power 2.4 GHz CMOS Mixer Using Forward Body Bias Technique for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, C. J.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Harun, A.; Ramli, M. M.; Zulkifli, T. Z. A.; Karim, J.

    2018-03-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a highly-demanded application since the evolution of wireless generation which is often used in recent communication technology. A radio frequency (RF) transceiver in WSN should have a low power consumption to support long operating times of mobile devices. A down-conversion mixer is responsible for frequency translation in a receiver. By operating a down-conversion mixer at a low supply voltage, the power consumed by WSN receiver can be greatly reduced. This paper presents a development of low power CMOS mixer using forward body bias technique for wireless sensor network. The proposed mixer is implemented using CMOS 0.13 μm Silterra technology. The forward body bias technique is adopted to obtain low power consumption. The simulation results indicate that a low power consumption of 0.91 mW is achieved at 1.6 V supply voltage. Moreover, the conversion gain (CG) of 21.83 dB, the noise figure (NF) of 16.51 dB and the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 8.0 dB at 2.4 GHz are obtained. The proposed mixer is suitable for wireless sensor network.

  17. SUBWAY POWER SYSTEMS WITH MODERN SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS AND ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kholod

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five subway power systems, a traditional power system and power systems with an active rectifier and an energy storage device, are considered. Estimation of energy loss in the analyzed subway power systems circuits is made.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of a wireless power supply system for moving low power devices in ferromagnetic and conductive medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safour, Salaheddine; Bernard, Yves

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the design of a wireless power supply system for low power devices (e.g. sensors) located in harsh electromagnetic environment with ferromagnetic and conductive materials. Such particular environment could be found in linear and rotating actuators. The studied power transfer system is based on the resonant magnetic coupling between a fixed transmitter coil and a moving receiver coil. The technique was utilized successfully for rotary machines. The aim of this paper is to extend the technique to linear actuators. A modeling approach based on 2D Axisymmetric Finite Element model and an electrical lumped model based on the two-port network theory is introduced. The study shows the limitation of the technique to transfer the required power in the presence of ferromagnetic and conductive materials. Parametric and circuit analysis were conducted in order to design a resonant magnetic coupler that ensures good power transfer capability and efficiency. A design methodology is proposed based on this study. Measurements on the prototype show efficiency up to 75% at a linear distance of 20 mm.

  19. Truncated power control for improving TCP/IP performance over CDMA wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee; De Sanctis, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques in enhanc......The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques...... in enhancing TCP/IP performance depends on the tradeoff between frame transmission delay and residual errors after retransmissions. The paper shows how a truncated power control can be effectively applied to improve that tradeoff so that a higher transmission reliability is provided without increasing...... strategy is very effective in improving the end-to-end throughput of a TCP connection. Moreover, these improvements are higher when the traffic is more bursty, like in typical Internet data applications such as e-mail and web surfing....

  20. An Integrated Chip High-Voltage Power Receiver for Wireless Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijith Vijayakumaran Nair

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In near-field wireless-powered biomedical implants, the receiver voltage largely overrides the compliance of low-voltage power receiver systems. To limit the induced voltage, generally, low-voltage topologies utilize limiter circuits, voltage clippers or shunt regulators, which are power-inefficient methods. In order to overcome the voltage limitation and improve power efficiency, we propose an integrated chip high-voltage power receiver based on the step down approach. The topology accommodates voltages as high as 30 V and comprises a high-voltage semi-active rectifier, a voltage reference generator and a series regulator. Further, a battery management circuit that enables safe and reliable implant battery charging based on analog control is proposed and realized. The power receiver is fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage Bipolar-CMOS-DMOStechnology based on the LOCOS0.35-μm CMOS process. Measurement results indicate 83.5% power conversion efficiency for a rectifier at 2.1 mA load current. The low drop-out regulator based on the current buffer compensation and buffer impedance attenuation scheme operates with low quiescent current, reduces the power consumption and provides good stability. The topology also provides good power supply rejection, which is adequate for the design application. Measurement results indicate regulator output of 4 ± 0.03 V for input from 5 to 30 V and 10 ± 0.05 V output for input from 11 to 30 V with load current 0.01–100 mA. The charger circuit manages the charging of the Li-ion battery through all if the typical stages of the Li-ion battery charging profile.

  1. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for MIMO Interference Channel Networks Based on Interference Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anming Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers power splitting (PS-based simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO interference channel networks where multiple transceiver pairs share the same frequency spectrum. As the PS model is adopted, an individual receiver splits the received signal into two parts for information decoding (ID and energy harvesting (EH, respectively. Aiming to minimize the total transmit power, transmit precoders, receive filters and PS ratios are jointly designed under a predefined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR and EH constraints. The formulated joint transceiver design and power splitting problem is non-convex and thus difficult to solve directly. In order to effectively obtain its solution, the feasibility conditions of the formulated non-convex problem are first analyzed. Based on the analysis, an iterative algorithm is proposed by alternatively optimizing the transmitters together with the power splitting factors and the receivers based on semidefinite programming (SDP relaxation. Moreover, considering the prohibitive computational cost of the SDP for practical applications, a low-complexity suboptimal scheme is proposed by separately designing interference-suppressing transceivers based on interference alignment (IA and optimizing the transmit power allocation together with splitting factors. The transmit power allocation and receive power splitting problem is then recast as a convex optimization problem and solved efficiently. To further reduce the computational complexity, a low-complexity scheme is proposed by calculating the transmit power allocation and receive PS ratios in closed-form. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in achieving SWIPT for MIMO interference channel (IC networks.

  2. A Solar Energy Powered Autonomous Wireless Actuator Node for Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lajara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node (“wEcoValve mote” based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered, thus eliminating the need of wires and facilitating its deployment. By using supercapacitors recharged from a specifically designed solar power module, the need to replace batteries is also eliminated and the system is completely autonomous and maintenance free. The “wEcoValve mote” firmware is based on a synchronous protocol that allows a bidirectional communication with a latency optimized for real-time work, with a synchronization time between nodes of 4 s, thus achieving a power consumption average of 2.9 mW.

  3. Modelling and Practical Implementation of 2-Coil Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT based on inductive coupling could be potentially applied in many practical applications. It has attracted a lot of research interests in the last few years. In this paper, the modelling, design, and implementation of a 2-coil WPT system are represented. The prototype system can be implemented using conventional power electronic devices such as MOSFETs with very low costs as it works in relative low frequency range (less than 1 MHz. In order to find out about the optimal working area for the WPT system, the circuit model based on the practical parameters from the prototype is built. The relationships between the exciting frequency, coupling, and output power are analyzed based on the circuit and magnetic principles. Apart from the theoretic study, the detailed implementation of the WPT prototype including the coil design, digital frequency generation, and high frequency power electronics is also introduced in this paper. Experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the circuit analysis. By carefully tuning the circuit parameters, the prototype is able to deliver 20 W power through 2.2 meter distance with 20–30% efficiency.

  4. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  5. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Relay Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-03-28

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we investigate two-hop Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication systems with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) at the multi-antenna energy harvesting relay. We derive the optimal source and relay covariance matrices to characterize the achievable region between the source-destination rate and the harvested energy at the relay, namely Rate-Energy (R-E) region. In this context, we consider the ideal scenario where the energy harvester (EH) receiver and the information decoder (ID) receiver at the relay can simultaneously decode the information and harvest the energy at the relay. This scheme provides an outer bound for the achievable R-E region since practical energy harvesting circuits are not yet able to harvest the energy and decode the information simultaneously. Then, we consider more practical schemes which are the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) proposed in [1] and which separate the EH and ID transfer over the power domain and the time domain, respectively. In our study, we derive the boundary of the achievable R- E region and we show the effect of the source transmit power, the relay transmit power and the position of the relay between the source and the destination on the achievable R-E region for the ideal scenario and the two practical schemes.

  6. Design of FIR Precoders and Equalizers for Broadband MIMO Wireless Channels with Power Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yongfang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimum design of FIR precoders or equalizers for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO frequency-selective wireless channels. For the case of a left-coprime FIR channel, which arises generically when the number n T of transmit antennas is larger than the number n R of receive antennas, the Bezout matrix identity can be employed to design an FIR MIMO precoder that equalizes exactly the channel at the transmitter. Similarly, for a right-coprime FIR channel, the Bezout identity yields an FIR zero-forcing MIMO equalizer. Unfortunately, Bezout precoders usually increase the transmit power, and Bezout equalizers tend to amplify the noise power. To overcome this problem, we describe in this paper a convex optimization technique for the optimal synthesis of MIMO FIR precoders subject to transmit power constraints, and of MIMO FIR equalizers with output noise power constraints. The synthesis problem reduces to the minimization of a quadratic objective function under convex quadratic inequality constraints, so it can be solved by employing Lagrangian duality. Instead of solving the primal problem, we solve the lower-dimensional dual problem for the Lagrange multipliers. When an FIR MIMO precoder has already been selected, we also describe a technique for adding a vector shaping sequence to the transmitted signal in order to reduce the transmit power. The selection of effective shaping sequences requires a search over a trellis of large dimensionality, which can be accomplished suboptimally by employing reduced-complexity search techniques.

  7. Optic Nerve Stimulation System with Adaptive Wireless Powering and Data Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To treat retinal degenerative diseases, a transcorneal electrical stimulation-based system is proposed, which consists of an eye implant and an external component. The eye implant is wirelessly powered and controlled by the external component to generate the required bi-polar current pattern for transcorneal stimulation with an amplitude range of 5 μA to 320 μA, a frequency range of 10 Hz to 160 Hz and a duty ratio range of 2.5% to 20%. Power delivery control includes power boosting in preparation for stimulation, and normal power regulation that adapts to both coupling and load variations. Only one pair of coils is used for both the power link and the bi-directional data link. Except for the secondary coil, the eye implant is fully integrated on chip and is fabricated using UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation, Hsinchu, Taiwan 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with a size of 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm. The secondary coil is fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB with a diameter of only 4.4 mm. After coating with biocompatible silicone, the whole implant has dimensions of 6 mm in diameter with a thickness of less than 1 mm. The whole device can be put onto the sclera and beneath the eye’s conjunctiva. System functionality and electrical performance are demonstrated with measurement results.

  8. Frequency Splitting Elimination and Cross-Coupling Rejection of Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Dynamic Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanamoorthi R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous power transfer to multiple receiver (Rx system is one of the key advantages of wireless power transfer (WPT system using magnetic resonance. However, determining the optimal condition to uniformly transfer the power to a selected Rx at high efficiency is the challenging task under the dynamic environment. The cross-coupling and frequency splitting are the dominant issues present in the multiple Rx dynamic WPT system. The existing analysis is performed by considering any one issue present in the system; on the other hand, the cross coupling and frequency splitting issues are interrelated in dynamic Rx’s, which requires a comprehensive design strategy by considering both the problems. This paper proposes an optimal design of multiple Rx WPT system, which can eliminate cross coupling, frequency splitting issues and increase the power transfer efficiency (PTE of selected Rx. The cross-coupling rejection, uniform power transfer is performed by adding an additional relay coil and independent resonance frequency tuning with capacitive compensation to each Rx unit. The frequency splitting phenomena are eliminated using non-identical transmitter (Tx and Rx coil structure which can maintain the coupling between the coil under the critical coupling limit. The mathematical analysis of the compensation capacitance calculation and optimal Tx coil size identification is performed for the four Rx WPT system. Finite element analysis and experimental investigation are carried out for the proposed design in static and dynamic conditions.

  9. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  10. Design of an electrically small circularly polarised turnstile antenna and its application to near-field wireless power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Ick-Jae; Ling, Hao

    2014-01-01

    An electrically small circularly polarised antenna is designed and applied to near-field wireless power transfer as a means of alleviating orientation dependence. The antenna is miniaturised from a spl lambda//2-turnstile antenna by utilising the top loading and multiple folding techniques. A loc...

  11. Influence of wind power, plug-in electric vehicles, and heat storages on power system investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Due to rising fuel costs, the substantial price for CO 2 emissions and decreasing wind power costs, wind power might become the least expensive source of power for an increasing number of power systems. This poses the questions of how wind power might change optimal investments in other forms of power production and what kind of means could be used to increase power system flexibility in order to incorporate the variable power production from wind power in a cost-effective manner. We have analysed possible effects using an investment model that combines heat and power production and simulates electric vehicles. The model runs in an hourly time scale in order to accommodate the impact of variable power production from wind power. Electric vehicles store electricity for later use and can thus serve to increase the flexibility of the power system. Flexibility can also be upgraded by using heat storages with heat from heat pumps, electric heat boilers and combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Results show that there is great potential for additional power system flexibility in the production and use of heat. (author)

  12. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power...... plant combined system. Moreover, two methods for estimating the remaining useful lifetime of the energy storage devices are presented....

  13. Intervention in independent spent fuel storage facility license application proceedings for storage on the power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the intervention in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for currently operating Independent Spent fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) projects at Carolina Power and Light's Company's H.B. Robinson, Duke Power Company's Oconee, and Virginia Power Company's Surry. In addition, intervention at dry storage facilities that are currently under development are also described. The utilities and reactors include Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Calvert Cliffs, Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain plant, Northern States Power Company's Prairie Island, Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Point Beach, and Consumers Power Company's Palisades

  14. Wireless Power Transfer Technology Applied to an Autonomous Electric UAV with a Small Secondary Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Campi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the design and the optimization of a wireless power transfer (WPT charging system based on magnetic resonant coupling applied to an electric vertical take-off and landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. In this study, a procedure for primary and secondary coil design is proposed. The primary circuit in the ground station consists of an array of coils in order to mitigate the negative effects on the coupling factor produced by the possible misalignment between the coils due to an imperfect landing. Key aspects for the design of the secondary coil onboard the UAV are the lightness and compactness of the WPT system components. A demonstrative prototype of the WPT system is applied to a commercial drone. The WPT electrical performances are calculated and measured. Finally, an automatic battery recharge station is built where the drone can autonomously land, recharge the battery and take off to continue its flight mission.

  15. Resonant enhanced parallel-T topology for weak coupling wireless power transfer pickup applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For the wireless power transfer (WPT system, the transfer performance and the coupling coefficient are contradictory. In this paper, a novel parallel-T resonant topology consists of a traditional parallel circuit and a T-matching network for secondary side is proposed. With this method, a boosted voltage can be output to the load, since this topology has a resonant enhancement effect, and high Q value can be obtained at a low resonant frequency and low coil inductance. This feature makes it more suitable for weak coupling WPT applications. Besides, the proposed topology shows good frequency stability and adaptability to variations of load. Experimental results show that the output voltage gain improves by 757% compared with traditional series circuit, and reaches 85% total efficiency when the coupling coefficient is 0.046.

  16. An Optimal Analysis in Wireless Powered Full-duplex Relaying Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-T. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-powered cellular networks (WPCNs are currently being investigated to exploit the reliability and improve battery lifetime of mobile users. This paper investigates the energy harvesting structure of the full-duplex relaying networks. By using the time switching based relaying (TSR protocol and Amplify-and-Forward (AF model in delay-limited transmission scheme, we propose the closed-form expression of the outage probability and then calculate the optimal throughput. An important result can be taken obviously that the time fraction in TSR, the position of relay, the noise as well as the energy conversation impacting on the outage probability as well as the optimal throughput. By Monte Carlo simulation, the numerical results indicate an effective relaying strategy in full-duplex cooperative systems. Finally, we provide fundamental design guidelines for selecting time fraction in TSR that satisfies the requirements of a practical relaying system.

  17. High-power microwave LDMOS transistors for wireless data transmission technologies (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E. V.; Shemyakin, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of the application, structure, fabrication, and packaging technology of high-power microwave LDMOS transistors and the main advantages of these devices were analyzed. Basic physical parameters and some technology factors were matched for optimum device operation. Solid-state microwave electronics has been actively developed for the last 10-15 years. Simultaneously with improvement of old devices, new devices and structures are actively being adopted and developed and new semiconductor materials are being commercialized. Microwave LDMOS technology is in demand in such fields as avionics, civil and military radars, repeaters, base stations of cellular communication systems, television and broadcasting transmitters, and transceivers for high-speed wireless computer networks (promising Wi-Fi and Wi-Max standards).

  18. Optimal Energy Efficiency Fairness of Nodes in Wireless Powered Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qingjie; Ng, Derrick Wing Kwan; Jo, Minho

    2017-09-15

    In wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs), it is essential to research energy efficiency fairness in order to evaluate the balance of nodes for receiving information and harvesting energy. In this paper, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm for optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness in WPCN. The main idea is to use stochastic geometry to derive the mean proportionally fairness utility function with respect to user association probability and receive threshold. Subsequently, we prove that the relaxed proportionally fairness utility function is a concave function for user association probability and receive threshold, respectively. At the same time, a sub-optimal algorithm by exploiting alternating optimization approach is proposed. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our sub-optimal algorithm can obtain a result close to optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness with significant reduction of computational complexity.

  19. Underwater wireless optical MIMO system with spatial modulation and adaptive power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiping; Tao, Linwei; Niu, Yilong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of underwater wireless optical multiple-input multiple-output communication system combining spatial modulation (SM-UOMIMO) with flag dual amplitude pulse position modulation (FDAPPM). Channel impulse response for coastal and harbor ocean water links are obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Moreover, we obtain the closed-form and upper bound average bit error rate (BER) expressions for receiver diversity including optical combining, equal gain combining and selected combining. And a novel adaptive power allocation algorithm (PAA) is proposed to minimize the average BER of SM-UOMIMO system. Our numeric results indicate an excellent match between the analytical results and numerical simulations, which confirms the accuracy of our derived expressions. Furthermore, the results show that adaptive PAA outperforms conventional fixed factor PAA and equal PAA obviously. Multiple-input single-output system with adaptive PAA obtains even better BER performance than MIMO one, at the same time reducing receiver complexity effectively.

  20. Self-powered autonomous wireless sensor node using vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torah, R; Glynne-Jones, P; Tudor, M; Beeby, S; O'Donnell, T; Roy, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of an energy aware autonomous wireless condition monitoring sensor system (ACMS) powered by ambient vibrations. An electromagnetic (EM) generator has been designed to harvest sufficient energy to power a radio-frequency (RF) linked accelerometer-based sensor system. The ACMS is energy aware and will adjust the measurement/transmit duty cycle according to the available energy; this is typically every 3 s at 0.6 m s −2 rms acceleration and can be as low as 0.2 m s −2 rms with a duty cycle around 12 min. The EM generator has a volume of only 150 mm 3 producing an average power of 58 µW at 0.6 m s −2 rms acceleration at a frequency of 52 Hz. In addition, a voltage multiplier circuit is shown to increase the electrical damping compared to a purely resistive load; this allows for an average power of 120 µW to be generated at 1.7 m s −2 rms acceleration. The ACMS has been successfully demonstrated on an industrial air compressor and an office air conditioning unit, continuously monitoring vibration levels and thereby simulating a typical condition monitoring application

  1. Optimal Magnetic Field Shielding Method by Metallic Sheets in Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power transfer (WPT systems based on magnetic field coupling. However, the metals in the vicinity of the WPT coils cause the decrease of self and mutual inductances and increase of effective series resistance; as such, the electric performance including transmission power and the efficiency of the system is affected. With the research objective of further investigating excellent shielding effectiveness associated with system performance, the utilization of the optimal magnetic field shielding method by metallic sheets in magnetic field coupling WPT is carried out in this paper. The circuit and 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA models are combined to predict the magnetic field distribution and electrical performance. Simulation and experiment results show that the method is very effective by obtaining the largest possible coupling coefficient of the WPT coils within the allowable range and then reducing the value nearest to and no smaller than the critical coupling coefficient via geometric unbroken metallic sheets. The optimal magnetic field shielding method which considers the system efficiency, transmission power, transmission distance, and system size is also achieved using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results can benefit WPT by helping to achieve efficient energy transfer and safe use in metal shielded equipment.

  2. Improvement of RF Wireless Power Transmission Using a Circularly Polarized Retrodirective Antenna Array with EBG Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Trinh-Van

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance improvement of a circularly polarized (CP retrodirective array (RDA through the suppression of mutual coupling effects. The RDA is designed based on CP Koch-shaped patch antenna elements with an inter-element spacing as small as 0.4 λ for a compact size ( λ is the wavelength in free space at the designed frequency of 5.2 GHz. Electromagnetic band gap (EBG structures are applied to reduce the mutual coupling between the antenna elements, thus improving the circular polarization characteristic of the RDA. Two CP RDAs with EBGs, in the case 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 arrays, are used as wireless power transmitters to transmit a total power of 50 W. A receiver is located at a distance of 1 m away from the transmitter to harvest the transmitted power. At the broadside direction, the simulated results demonstrate that the received powers are improved by approximately 11.32% and 12.45% when using the 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 CP RDAs with the EBGs, respectively, as the transmitters.

  3. Optimal Power Allocation of a Wireless Sensor Node under Different Rate Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Solares, Jose

    2011-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of the placement of sensors over a broad area in order to acquire data. Depending on the application, different design criteria should be considered in the construction of the sensors but among all of them, the battery life-cycle is of crucial interest. Power minimization is a problem that has been addressed from different approaches which include an analysis from an architectural perspective and with bit error rate and/or discrete instantaneous transmission rate constraints, among others. In this work, the optimal transmit power of a sensor node while satisfying different rate constraints is derived. First, an optimization problem with an instantaneous transmission rate constraint is addressed. Next, the optimal power is analyzed, but now with an average transmission rate constraint. The optimal solution for a class of fading channels, in terms of system parameters, is presented and a suboptimal solution is also proposed for an easier, yet efficient, implementation. Insightful asymptotical analysis for both schemes, considering a Rayleigh fading channel, are shown. Furthermore, the optimal power allocation for a sensor node in a cognitive radio environment is analyzed where an optimum solution for a class of fading channels is again derived. In all cases, numerical results are provided for either Rayleigh or Nakagami-m fading channels. The results obtained are extended to scenarios where we have either one transmitter-multiple receivers or multiple transmitters-one receiver.

  4. Experimental power reactor dc generator energy storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.; Smeltzer, G.S.; Myers, E.H.; Kilgore, L.

    1978-01-01

    This study covers the use of dc generators for meeting the Experimental Power Reactor Ohmic Heating Energy Storage Requirements. The dc generators satisfy these requirements which are the same as defined in WFPS-TME-038 which covered the use of ac generators and homopolar generators. The costs of the latter two systems have been revised to eliminate first-of-a-kind factors. The cost figures for dc generators indicate a need to develop larger machines in order to take advantage of the economy-of-scale that the large ac machines have. Each of the systems has its own favorable salient features on which to base a system selection

  5. Applications of Microwave Antenna Array for Wireless Power Transmission and Radar Imaging in Complex Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce

    The focus of my research interests lies in the application of microwave antenna array system and array signal processing techniques to problems in wireless power transmission and radar imaging. The two research areas share the same underlying mathematical principle of time reversality of electromagnetic wave propagation. Based on this principle, the array antenna system and the associated signal processing algorithm are further improved to adapt to different scenarios. In my dissertation, the rest part presents an optimal algorithm for wireless power transmission with beamforming array. The optimal weight distribution on antenna array elements is found based on time reversal eigenmode technique. Our method is adaptive to the medium of the channel and can be applied to arbitrarily positioned antenna without degradation of efficiency. This novel method is analytically studied and verified with numerical electromagnetic simulations. The second part presents a new problem called "Hard-Wall Radar Imaging" (HWRI) has been proposed when the electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the shielding walls (such as metallic walls). The research methodology involves algorithm development combined with experimental results to gain more insights into the real microwave imaging system. First, we implemented the imaging system with the conventional time reversal DORT (Decomposition of Time-Reversal Operator) imaging algorithm and adapted it into a new signal processing technique (multiplicative array technique) to obtain the image in the proposed scenario. Second, after having identified the drawbacks of the rest imaging system, the imaging system is improved to distributed MIMO radar configuration. The new imaging algorithm is also developed based on the techniques of Direction-of-Arrival(DoA) estimation and adaptive nulling. From this algorithm, the experimental results show that the new imaging system can localize two targets correctly. To resolve the problem of spurious clutter

  6. Typical Daily Power Curve Mining for Energy Storage Systems under Smoothing Power Fluctuation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the application scenario of smoothing photovoltaic (PV power fluctuation, a novel typical daily power curve mining method is developed for a battery energy storage system (BESS that utilizes the power probability distribution and Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm. The charging/discharging of BESS is analyzed by applying fuzzy-c means clustering techniques. In the mining approach, at any sample time, those distribution intervals containing concentrated power points are individually located by using probability distribution information and Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm. Character power for the specified interval can also be determined using Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm. Next, a roulette principal is employed, to determine one value from the character power data as a typical value of the mined power curve at the sample time. By connecting the typical power at each sample time, the typical daily power curve for BESS is achieved. Based on typical power curve, decision-maker can master the important operating parameters of BESS and analyze optimal capacity allocation. By error evaluation indexes between the mined typical daily power curve and power curve under different weather patterns, the simulation results verify that the mined power curve can address the operating power of the BESS under different weather patterns.

  7. Design and optimization of a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for biomedical implants

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a resonance-based wireless power transfer system using a single layer of inductor coil windings, in a pancake configuration, in order to obtain a compact system for implantable electronic applications. We theoretically analyzed the system and characterized it by measuring its inductance, self-resonant frequency, and quality factor Q. In our resonance-based wireless power transfer prototype, we proposed a 3-coil system, using two 15-mm radius implantable coils, with a resonance frequency of 6.76MHz. This system can effectively transfer power for a distance of up to 50mm. Moreover, our proposed 3-coil system can achieve a high Q-factor and has a comparable power transfer efficiency (PTE) to previously reported works about 3-coil and 4-coil systems. The experimental PTE can achieve 82.4% at a separation distance of 20mm and more than 10% PTE at a distance of 40mm.

  8. A High Efficiency Charging Strategy for a Supercapacitor Using a Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Inductor/Capacitor/Capacitor (LCC Compensation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the application of rail transit vehicles, when using typical wireless power transfer (WPT systems with series–series (SS compensation supply power for supercapacitors, the output current is in an approximately inverse relationship with the duty cycle in a wide range. This renders the typical buck circuit control inappropriate. In order to help resolve the above issues, this paper designs inductor/capacitor/capacitor (LCC compensation with new compensation parameters, which can achieve an adjustable quasi-constant voltage from the input of the inverter to the output of the rectifier. In addition, the two-port network method is used to analyze the resonant compensation circuit. The analysis shows that LCC compensation is more suitable for the WPT system using the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. In the case of LCC compensation topology combined with the charging characteristics of the supercapacitor, an efficient charging strategy is designed, namely first constant current charging, followed by constant power charging. Based on the analysis of LCC compensation, the system has an optimal load, by which the system works at the maximum efficiency point. Combined with the characteristics of the constant voltage output, the system can maintain high efficiency in the constant power stage by making constant output power the same as the optimal power point. Finally, the above design is verified through experiments.

  9. Lab-on-a-robot: integrated microchip CE, power supply, electrochemical detector, wireless unit, and mobile platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christopher; Valdez, David C; Bergeron, Phillip; Mora, Maria F; Garcia, Carlos D; Ayon, Arturo

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the fabrication of a wireless mobile unit containing an electrochemical detection module and a 3-channel high-voltage power supply (HVPS) designed for microchip CE is described. The presented device consists of wireless global positioning system controlled robotics, an electrochemical detector utilizing signal conditioning analog circuitry and a digital feedback range controller, a HVPS, an air pump, and a CE microchip. A graphical user interface (LabVIEW) was also designed to communicate wirelessly with the device, from a distant personal computer communication port. The entire device is integrated and controlled by digital hardware implemented on a field programmable gate array development board. This lab-on-a-robot is able to navigate to a global position location, acquire an air sample, perform the analysis (injection, separation, and detection), and send the data (electropherogram) to a remote station without exposing the analyst to the testing environment.

  10. Research on a Power Management System for Thermoelectric Generators to Drive Wireless Sensors on a Spindle Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  11. Research on a power management system for thermoelectric generators to drive wireless sensors on a spindle unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-16

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  12. Research on a Power Management System for Thermoelectric Generators to Drive Wireless Sensors on a Spindle Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle. PMID:25033189

  13. Analysis and optimisation of coupled winding in magnetic resonant wireless power transfer systems with orthogonal experiment results

    OpenAIRE

    Yudi, Xiao; Xingkui, Mao; Mao, Lin; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) has great effect on the transmitting power capability and efficiency of magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system. The key objective i.e. the efficiency coefficient kQ is introduced in the design of CMRU or the coupled windings based on the mutual inductance model. Then the design method with orthogonal experiments and finite element method simulation is proposed to maximize the kQ due to low precise analytical model of AC resistance and induct...

  14. Analysis and optimization of coupled windings in magnetic resonant wireless power transfer systems with orthogonal experiment method

    OpenAIRE

    Yudi, Xiao; Xingkui, Mao; Mao, Lin; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) has great effect on the transmitting power capability and efficiency of magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system. The key objective i.e. the efficiency coefficient kQ is introduced in the design of CMRU or the coupled windings based on the mutual inductance model. Then the design method with orthogonal experiments and finite element method simulation is proposed to maximize the kQ due to low precise analytical model of ACresistance and inducta...

  15. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Miller, A.R.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilkinson, M.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  16. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  17. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  18. Optimal design of implants for magnetically mediated hyperthermia: A wireless power transfer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Dieter; Sarris, Costas D.

    2017-09-01

    In magnetically mediated hyperthermia (MMH), an externally applied alternating magnetic field interacts with a mediator (such as a magnetic nanoparticle or an implant) inside the body to heat up the tissue in its proximity. Producing heat via induced currents in this manner is strikingly similar to wireless power transfer (WPT) for implants, where power is transferred from a transmitter outside of the body to an implanted receiver, in most cases via magnetic fields as well. Leveraging this analogy, a systematic method to design MMH implants for optimal heating efficiency is introduced, akin to the design of WPT systems for optimal power transfer efficiency. This paper provides analytical formulas for the achievable heating efficiency bounds as well as the optimal operating frequency and the implant material. Multiphysics simulations validate the approach and further demonstrate that optimization with respect to maximum heating efficiency is accompanied by minimizing heat delivery to healthy tissue. This is a property that is highly desirable when considering MMH as a key component or complementary method of cancer treatment and other applications.

  19. Design of Range Adaptive Wireless Power Transfer System Using Non-coaxial Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Won, Sokhui; Hong, Huan

    2017-05-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is a remarkable technology because of its convenience and applicability in harsh environment. Particularly, Magnetic Coupling WPT (MC-WPT) is a proper method to midrange power transfer, but the frequency splitting at over-coupling range, which is related with transfer distance, is challenge of transmission efficiency. In order to overcome this phenomenon, recently the range adaptive WPT is proposed. In this paper, we aim to the type with a set of non-coaxial driving coils, so that this may remove the connection wires from PA (Power Amplifier) to driving coil. And, when the radius of driving coil is changed, on the different gaps between driving and TX coils, coupling coefficient between these is computed in both cases of coaxial and non-coaxial configurations. In addition, the designing steps for 4-coil WPT system using non-coaxial coils are described with the example. Finally, the reliability of this topology has been proved and simulated with PSPICE.

  20. Hybrid nanogenerators for low frequency vibration energy harvesting and self-powered wireless locating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Hulin; Wang, Jie; Xie, Yuhang; Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Jin, Long; Yan, Zhuocheng; Huang, Long; Pan, Taisong; Yang, Weiqing; Lin, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid energy harvesters based on different physical effects is fascinating, but a rational design for multiple energy harvesting is challenging. In this work, a spring-magnet oscillator-based triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (EMG) with a solar cell cap is proposed. A power was produced by a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an EMG independently or simultaneously by using a shared spring-magnet oscillator. The oscillator configuration enables versatile energy harvesting with the excellent size scalability and self-packaged structure which can perform well at low frequency ranging from 3.5 to 5 Hz. The solar cell cap mounted above the oscillator can harvest solar energy. Under vibrations at the frequency of 4 Hz, the TENG and the EMG produced maximum output power of 5.46 nW cm-3 and 378.79 μW cm-3, respectively. The generated electricity by the hybrid nanogenerator can be stored in a capacitor or Li-ion battery, which is capable of powering a wireless locator for real-time locating data reporting to a personal cell phone. The light-weight and handy hybrid nanogenerator can directly light a caution light or play as a portable flashlight by shaking hands at night.

  1. A review of wireless power transfer for electric vehicles: Prospects to enhance sustainable mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Zicheng; Kan, Tianze; Mi, Chunting Chris; Zhang, Yiming; Zhao, Zhengming; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviewed technology advances and sustainability performance of WPT for EVs. • Identified the technical bottlenecks for improving system performance. • Highlighted system performance of case studies and real-world demonstrations. • Evaluated energy, environmental, economic, and societal impacts of WPT deployment. • Defined WPT challenges and opportunities for enhancing future sustainable mobility. - Abstract: Wireless power transfer (WPT), which transmits power by an electromagnetic field across an intervening space, provides the prospect of new opportunities for electric vehicles (EVs) to enhance sustainable mobility. This review article evaluates WPT technology for EV applications from both technical and sustainability perspectives. The objectives of this review include: (1) to present the state-of-the-art technical progress and research bottlenecks in WPT development and applications in the transportation sector; (2) to characterize the demonstrations of the real-world deployment of WPT EV systems; and (3) to evaluate the sustainable performance and identify challenges and opportunities for improvement. From the technical perspective, progress on coil design, compensation topologies, and power electronics converters and control methods are reviewed with a focus on system performance. From the sustainability perspective, performance is defined in terms of energy, environmental, and economic metrics, and policy drivers and issues of health and safety are also examined.

  2. A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Ye, Tan; Jianmin, Zeng; Xu, Han; Xin, Cheng; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-09-01

    A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission is presented. Data and power are transmitted to the stimulator by mutual inductance coupling, while the in-vitro controller encodes the stimulation parameters. The stimulator integrates the digital control module and can generate the bipolar current with equal amplitude in four channels. In order to reduce power consumption, a novel controlled threshold voltage cancellation rectifier is proposed in this paper to provide the supply voltage of the stimulator. The monolithic stimulator was fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed-signal CMOS process, occupying 0.23 mm2, and consumes 180 μW on average. Compared with previously published stimulators, this design has advantages of large stimulated current (0-0.8 mA) with the double low-voltage supply (1.8 and 3.3 V), and high-level integration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  3. Magnetic Emissions Reduction by Varying Secondary Side Capacitor for Ferrite Geometry based Series-Parallel Topology Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields in surroundings of wireless power transfer system depends upon the two coil currents, distance from the coils and space angle between the two coil fields in steady state conditions. Increase in value of the secondary capacitor leads to a phase shift between the two currents...... of series-parallel topology wireless power transfer to vehicles without compromising with the power transfer capability of the system....

  4. Unleashed Microactuators electrostatic wireless actuation for probe-based data storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoexum, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary A hierarchical overview of the currently available data storage systems for desktop computer systems can be visualised as a pyramid in which the height represents both the price per bit and the access rate. The width of the pyramid represents the capacity of the medium. At the bottom slow,

  5. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Justin L.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dufek, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  6. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dufek, Eric J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  7. An Embedded Wireless Sensor Network with Wireless Power Transmission Capability for the Structural Health Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Luca; Menna, Costantino; Angrisani, Leopoldo; Asprone, Domenico; Moriello, Rosario Schiano Lo; Bonavolontà, Francesco; Fabbrocino, Francesco

    2017-11-07

    Maintenance strategies based on structural health monitoring can provide effective support in the optimization of scheduled repair of existing structures, thus enabling their lifetime to be extended. With specific regard to reinforced concrete (RC) structures, the state of the art seems to still be lacking an efficient and cost-effective technique capable of monitoring material properties continuously over the lifetime of a structure. Current solutions can typically only measure the required mechanical variables in an indirect, but economic, manner, or directly, but expensively. Moreover, most of the proposed solutions can only be implemented by means of manual activation, making the monitoring very inefficient and then poorly supported. This paper proposes a structural health monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that enables the automatic monitoring of a complete structure. The network includes wireless distributed sensors embedded in the structure itself, and follows the monitoring-based maintenance (MBM) approach, with its ABCDE paradigm, namely: accuracy, benefit, compactness, durability, and easiness of operations. The system is structured in a node level and has a network architecture that enables all the node data to converge in a central unit. Human control is completely unnecessary until the periodic evaluation of the collected data. Several tests are conducted in order to characterize the system from a metrological point of view and assess its performance and effectiveness in real RC conditions.

  8. An Embedded Wireless Sensor Network with Wireless Power Transmission Capability for the Structural Health Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gallucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance strategies based on structural health monitoring can provide effective support in the optimization of scheduled repair of existing structures, thus enabling their lifetime to be extended. With specific regard to reinforced concrete (RC structures, the state of the art seems to still be lacking an efficient and cost-effective technique capable of monitoring material properties continuously over the lifetime of a structure. Current solutions can typically only measure the required mechanical variables in an indirect, but economic, manner, or directly, but expensively. Moreover, most of the proposed solutions can only be implemented by means of manual activation, making the monitoring very inefficient and then poorly supported. This paper proposes a structural health monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN that enables the automatic monitoring of a complete structure. The network includes wireless distributed sensors embedded in the structure itself, and follows the monitoring-based maintenance (MBM approach, with its ABCDE paradigm, namely: accuracy, benefit, compactness, durability, and easiness of operations. The system is structured in a node level and has a network architecture that enables all the node data to converge in a central unit. Human control is completely unnecessary until the periodic evaluation of the collected data. Several tests are conducted in order to characterize the system from a metrological point of view and assess its performance and effectiveness in real RC conditions.

  9. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors & Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Philip [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-06-09

    The research objective of this project is to design and demonstrate a low-cost, compact, easy-to-deploy, maintenance-free sensor node technology, and a network of such sensors, which enable the monitoring of multiphysical parameters and can transform today’s ordinary buildings into smart buildings with environmental awareness. We develop the sensor node and network via engineering and integration of existing technologies, including high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting, and ultralow-power integrated circuits (ICs) for sensing and wireless communication. Through integration and innovative power management via specifically designed low-power control circuits for wireless sensing applications, and tailoring energy-harvesting components to indoor applications, the target products will have smaller volume, higher efficiency, and much lower cost (in both manufacturing and maintenance) than the baseline technology. Our development and commercialization objective is to create prototypes for our target products under the CWRU-Intwine collaboration.

  10. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  11. Assessment of Economic Efficiency Pertaining to Application of Energy Storage Units in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some aspects pertaining to an application of technologies for energy storage in electric power. Review of technical and cost characteristics of energy storage units has been given in the paper. The review reflects data of the energy storage units which are available and which are under development. The paper proposes an approach that permits to assess boundaries of economically reasonable application of energy storage systems in order to balance daily load curve of a power system.

  12. Considerations on the need for electricity storage requirements: Power versus energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belderbos, Andreas; Virag, Ana; D’haeseleer, William; Delarue, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • General storage principles are analyzed. • Storage units have different limitations (power versus energy). • Storage power and energy are required, dependent on residual profile. • Relationship between residual profile and optimal storage portfolio is derived. • Broadly applicable rules regarding optimal storage investments are presented. - Abstract: Different storage technologies enable an increasing share of variable renewable generation in the electricity system by reducing the temporal mismatch between generation and demand. Two storage ratings are essential to time-shift delivery of electricity to loads: electric power, or instantaneous electricity flow [W], and electric energy, or power integrated over time [Wh]. An optimal storage portfolio is likely composed of multiple technologies, each having specific power and energy ratings. This paper derives and explains the link between the shape of the time-varying demand and generation profiles and the amount of desirably installed storage capacity, both energy and power. An analysis is performed for individual storage technologies first, showing a link between the necessary power and energy capacity and the demand and generation profile. Then combinations of storage technologies are analyzed to reveal their mutual interaction in a storage portfolio. Results show an increase in desirability for storage technologies with low cost power ratings when the mismatch between generation and demand occurs in daily to weekly cycles. Storage technologies with low cost energy ratings are preferred when this mismatch occurs in monthly to seasonal cycles. The findings of this work can help energy system planners and policy makers to explain results from generation expansion planning studies and to isolate the storage benefits accountable to temporal arbitrage in broader electricity storage studies.

  13. EV Charging Through Wireless Power Transfer: Analysis of Efficiency Optimization and Technology Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John M [ORNL; Rakouth, Heri [Delphi Automotive Systems, USA; Suh, In-Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at reviewing the technology trends for wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EV). It also analyzes the factors affecting its efficiency and describes the techniques currently used for its optimization. The review of the technology trends encompasses both stationary and moving vehicle charging systems. The study of the stationary vehicle charging technology is based on current implementations and on-going developments at WiTricity and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The moving vehicle charging technology is primarily described through the results achieved by the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) along with on-going efforts at Stanford University. The factors affecting the efficiency are determined through the analysis of the equivalent circuit of magnetic resonant coupling. The air gap between both transmitting and receiving coils along with the magnetic field distribution and the relative impedance mismatch between the related circuits are the primary factors affecting the WPT efficiency. Currently the industry is looking at an air gap of 25 cm or below. To control the magnetic field distribution, Kaist has recently developed the Shaped Magnetic Field In Resonance (SMFIR) technology that uses conveniently shaped ferrite material to provide low reluctance path. The efficiency can be further increased by means of impedance matching. As a result, Delphi's implementation of the WiTricity's technology exhibits a WPT efficiency above 90% for stationary charging while KAIST has demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 83% for moving vehicle with its On Line Vehicle (OLEV) project. This study is restricted to near-field applications (short and mid-range) and does not address long-range technology such as microwave power transfer that has low efficiency as it is based on radiating electromagnetic waves. This paper exemplifies Delphi's work in powertrain electrification as part of its innovation for the real world

  14. Analog Circuit Design Low Voltage Low Power; Short Range Wireless Front-Ends; Power Management and DC-DC

    CERN Document Server

    Roermund, Arthur; Baschirotto, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 20 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of Low-Voltage Low-Power Data Converters - Chaired by Prof. Anderea Baschirotto, University of Milan-Bicocca Short Range Wireless Front-Ends - Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology Power management and DC-DC - Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Katholieke University Leuven Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.

  15. Power Adaptive Data Encryption for Energy-Efficient and Secure Communication in Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic security of data transmission in battery-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs is typically achieved by symmetric-key encryption, which uses little energy; but solar-powered WSNs sometimes have sufficient energy to achieve a higher level of security through public-key encryption. However, if energy input and usage are not balanced, nodes may black out. By switching between symmetric-key and public-key encryption, based on an energy threshold, the level of security can be traded off against the urgency of energy-saving. This policy can also reduce the amount of energy used by some nodes in a WSN, since data encrypted using a public-key is simply relayed by intermediate nodes, whereas data encrypted using a symmetric-key must be decrypted and reencrypted in every node on its path. Through a simulation, we compared the use of either symmetric-key or public-key encryption alone with our scheme, which was shown to be more secure, to use energy more effectively, and to reduce the occurrence of node blackouts.

  16. Storage the electric power: yes, it is indispensable and it is possible. Why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the main characteristics of various electric power storage methods and their application domains. The large-scale storages include the hydraulic systems, those using compressed air, the batteries or those implementing a thermal way. The small-scale storages are electrochemical as the accumulators, the super-capacitors, mechanical as the flywheel, magnetic or also by the hydrogen use. The first part presents the necessity of the electric power storage, the second part the places of these storage. The third part details the forms of storage. (A.L.B.)

  17. Index extraction for electromagnetic field evaluation of high power wireless charging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangWook

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the precise dosimetry for highly resonant wireless power transfer (HR-WPT) system using an anatomically realistic human voxel model. The dosimetry for the HR-WPT system designed to operate at 13.56 MHz frequency, which one of the ISM band frequency band, is conducted in the various distances between the human model and the system, and in the condition of alignment and misalignment between transmitting and receiving circuits. The specific absorption rates in the human body are computed by the two-step approach; in the first step, the field generated by the HR-WPT system is calculated and in the second step the specific absorption rates are computed with the scattered field finite-difference time-domain method regarding the fields obtained in the first step as the incident fields. The safety compliance for non-uniform field exposure from the HR-WPT system is discussed with the international safety guidelines. Furthermore, the coupling factor concept is employed to relax the maximum allowable transmitting power. Coupling factors derived from the dosimetry results are presented. In this calculation, the external magnetic field from the HR-WPT system can be relaxed by approximately four times using coupling factor in the worst exposure scenario.

  18. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  19. A Witricity-Based High-Power Device for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyu Dai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Witricity-based high-power device is proposed for wireless charging of electric vehicles. According to the specific requirements of three-stage charging for electric vehicles, four compensation modes of the Witricity system are analyzed by the Loosely Coupled Theory among transformer coils and the Substitution Theorem in circuit theory. In addition, when combining voltage withstand levels, the current withstand capability, the switching frequency of electronic switching tubes, and the features of the resonant circuit, the series-parallel (SP compensation mode is selected as the best compensation mode for matching the capacitor of the system. The performances of coils with different ferrite core arrangements are compared by simulations and models. The feasibility of the system is verified theoretically and the system functions are evaluated by the joint simulation of Simplorer and Maxwell. Finally, a Witricity-based high-power device is proposed as designed, and the correctness of theoretical analyses and simulation results are verified.

  20. Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS) system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments.

  1. The System Power Control Unit Based on the On-Chip Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS includes 2nd-generation (2G, 3rd-generation (3G, and long-term evolution (LTE communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  2. A polygonal double-layer coil design for high-efficiency wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a novel coil structure for the design of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems via magnetic resonant coupling. The new coil consists of two layers of flat polygonal windings in square, pentagonal and hexagonal shapes. The double-layer coil can be conveniently fabricated using the print circuit broad (PCB) technology. In our design, we include an angle between the two layers which can be adjusted to change the area of inter-layer overlap. This unique structure is thoroughly investigated with respect to the quality factor Q and the power transfer efficiency (PTE) using the finite element method (FEM). An equivalent circuit is derived and used to explain the properties of the angularly shifted double-layer coil theoretically. Comparative experiments are conducted from which the performance of the new coil is evaluated quantitatively. Our results have shown that an increased shift angle improves the Q-factor, and the optimal PTE is achieved when the angle reaches the maximum. When compared to the pentagonal and hexagonal coils, the square coil achieves the highest PTE due to its lowest parasitic capacitive effects. In summary, our new coil design improves the performance of WPT systems and allows a formal design procedure for optimization in a given application.

  3. Multiple Power-Saving MSSs Scheduling Methods for IEEE802.16e Broadband Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%–70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  4. Multiple Power-Saving MSSs Scheduling Methods for IEEE802.16e Broadband Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%–70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method.

  5. Diversity-optimal power loading for intensity modulated MIMO optical wireless communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Yu; Yu, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Yi-Jun

    2016-04-18

    In this paper, we consider the design of space code for an intensity modulated direct detection multi-input-multi-output optical wireless communication (IM/DD MIMO-OWC) system, in which channel coefficients are independent and non-identically log-normal distributed, with variances and means known at the transmitter and channel state information available at the receiver. Utilizing the existing space code design criterion for IM/DD MIMO-OWC with a maximum likelihood (ML) detector, we design a diversity-optimal space code (DOSC) that maximizes both large-scale diversity and small-scale diversity gains and prove that the spatial repetition code (RC) with a diversity-optimized power allocation is diversity-optimal among all the high dimensional nonnegative space code schemes under a commonly used optical power constraint. In addition, we show that one of significant advantages of the DOSC is to allow low-complexity ML detection. Simulation results indicate that in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes, our proposed DOSC significantly outperforms RC, which is the best space code currently available for such system.

  6. Energy Efficient Monitoring for Intrusion Detection in Battery-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hassanzadeh, Amin

    2011-07-18

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are easy-to-deploy, low cost solutions for providing networking and internet services in environments with no network infrastructure, e.g., disaster areas and battlefields. Since electric power is not readily available in such environments battery-powered mesh routers, operating in an energy efficient manner, are required. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of energy efficient solutions, e.g., involving duty-cycling, on WMN intrusion detection systems, which require continuous monitoring, remains an open research problem. In this paper we propose that carefully chosen monitoring mesh nodes ensure continuous and complete detection coverage, while allowing non-monitoring mesh nodes to save energy through duty-cycling. We formulate the monitoring node selection problem as an optimization problem and propose distributed and centralized solutions for it, with different tradeoffs. Through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept hardware/software implementation we demonstrate that our solutions extend the WMN lifetime by 8%, while ensuring, at the minimum, a 97% intrusion detection rate.

  7. Wireless online position monitoring of manual valve types for plant configuration management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Buttles, John W.; Beaty, Lawrence H.; Naser, Joseph; Hallbert, Bruce P.

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive energy market, the nuclear industry is committed to lower the operations and maintenance cost; increase productivity and efficiency while maintaining safe and reliable operation. The present operating model of nuclear power plants is dependent on large technical staffs that put the nuclear industry at long-term economic disadvantage. Technology can play a key role in nuclear power plant configuration management in offsetting labor costs by automating manually performed plant activities. The technology being developed, tested, and demonstrated in this paper will enable the continued safe operation of today’s fleet of light water reactors by providing the technical means to monitor components in plants today that are only routinely monitored through manual activities. The wireless enabled valve position indicators that are the subject of this paper are able to provide a valid position indication available continuously, rather than only periodically. As a result, a real-time (online) availability of valve positions using an affordable technologies are vital to plant configuration when compared with long-term labor rates, and provide information that can be used for a variety of plant engineering, maintenance, and management applications.

  8. Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Paradells

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 µs, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.

  9. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35- μ m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm 2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μ F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μ s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%.

  10. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Chul [Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils.

  11. Outage Probability Analysis in Power-Beacon Assisted Energy Harvesting Cognitive Relay Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Phuc Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the performance of the secondary relay system in a power-beacon (PB assisted energy harvesting cognitive relay wireless network. In our system model, a secondary source node and a relay node first harvest energy from distributed PBs. Then, the source node transmits its data to the destination node with the help of the relay node. Also, fading coefficients of the links from the PBs to the source node and relay node are assumed independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d Nakagami-m random variables. We derive exact expressions for the power outage probability and the channel outage probability. Based on that, we analyze the total outage probability of the secondary relay system. Asymptotic analysis is also performed, which provides insights into the system behavior. Moreover, we evaluate impacts of the primary network on the performance of the secondary network with respect to the tolerant interference threshold at the primary receiver as well as the interference introduced by the primary transmitter at the secondary source and relay nodes. Simulation results are provided to validate the analysis.

  12. Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carles; Oller, Joaquim; Paradells, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 μs, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Packaging of an Integrated, Wirelessly-Powered Optrode Array for Optogenetics Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED dies and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments.

  14. Optimal Placement of Energy Storage and Wind Power under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Meneses de Quevedo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth in the amount of wind energy connected to distribution grids, they are exposed to higher network constraints, which poses additional challenges to system operation. Based on regulation, the system operator has the right to curtail wind energy in order to avoid any violation of system constraints. Energy storage systems (ESS are considered to be a viable solution to solve this problem. The aim of this paper is to provide the best locations of both ESS and wind power by optimizing distribution system costs taking into account network constraints and the uncertainty associated to the nature of wind, load and price. To do that, we use a mixed integer linear programming (MILP approach consisting of loss reduction, voltage improvement and minimization of generation costs. An alternative current (AC linear optimal power flow (OPF, which employs binary variables to define the location of the generation, is implemented. The proposed stochastic MILP approach has been applied to the IEEE 69-bus distribution network and the results show the performance of the model under different values of installed capacities of ESS and wind power.

  15. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption...

  16. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption...

  17. Development and Successful Application of a Tree Movement Energy Harvesting Device, to Power a Wireless Sensor Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Scott; Knight, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly more common as a means to sense, measure, record and transmit data for scientific and engineering evaluation, remotely and autonomously. Usually, remotely located sensor nodes are powered by batteries which are recharged by solar or wind energy harvesters. Sometimes nodes are located in areas where these forms of energy harvesting are not possible due to local conditions, such as under the canopy of a forest. This article outlines the design and testing of a device capable of harvesting energy from tree movement, and shows the device powering a wireless sensor node continuously. The device uses the force and displacement of the movement of a tree trunk (of a 6 m tall tree) to drive an electromagnetic generator that recharges a nickel metal hydride battery. The battery stores the energy from which a ∼0.5 mW wireless sensor node is powered continuously. This demonstrated method of energy harvesting may allow the placement and powering of nodes in locations previously not possible.

  18. Development and Successful Application of a Tree Movement Energy Harvesting Device, to Power a Wireless Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knight

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly more common as a means to sense, measure, record and transmit data for scientific and engineering evaluation, remotely and autonomously. Usually, remotely located sensor nodes are powered by batteries which are recharged by solar or wind energy harvesters. Sometimes nodes are located in areas where these forms of energy harvesting are not possible due to local conditions, such as under the canopy of a forest. This article outlines the design and testing of a device capable of harvesting energy from tree movement, and shows the device powering a wireless sensor node continuously. The device uses the force and displacement of the movement of a tree trunk (of a 6 m tall tree to drive an electromagnetic generator that recharges a nickel metal hydride battery. The battery stores the energy from which a ~0.5 mW wireless sensor node is powered continuously. This demonstrated method of energy harvesting may allow the placement and powering of nodes in locations previously not possible.

  19. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic...... optimal siting and sizing of storage units throughoutthe network. These questions are investigated using an IEEE benchmark system...

  20. Wireless power transmission technology state of the art the first Bill Brown lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Richard M.

    2003-08-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP Technology Lecture covers the state-of-the-art (SOA) in wireless power transmission (WPT) technology including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of CW electric power, as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP. For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800 W CW output have been developed by CPII and the Russians. Over 50% wall-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm 2 CW, water-cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Germans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, single coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% achieved during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7 -m range, at 2.4469 GHz The record for usefully recovered electric power output (as contrasted with thermally induced power in structures) is 34 kW DC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL-Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to DC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 59%, for AlGaAs at 1.7 W and 826-nm wavelength.

  1. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovykh, Mikhail; Tikhomirov, Georgy; Saldikov, Ivan; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  2. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternovykh Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  3. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  4. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs. The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP, specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems

  5. Novel low-power ultrasound digital preprocessing architecture for wireless display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Philippe; Sawan, Mohamad

    2010-03-01

    A complete hardware-based ultrasound preprocessing unit (PPU) is presented as an alternative to available power-hungry devices. Intended to expand the ultrasonic applications, the proposed unit allows replacement of the cable of the ultrasonic probe by a wireless link to transfer data from the probe to a remote monitor. The digital back-end architecture of this PPU is fully pipelined, which permits sampling of ultrasonic signals at a frequency equal to the field-programmable gate array-based system clock, up to 100 MHz. Experimental results show that the proposed processing unit has an excellent performance, an equivalent 53.15 Dhrystone 2.1 MIPS/ MHz (DMIPS/MHz), compared with other software-based architectures that allow a maximum of 1.6 DMIPS/MHz. In addition, an adaptive subsampling method is proposed to operate the pixel compressor, which allows real-time image zooming and, by removing high-frequency noise, the lateral and axial resolutions are enhanced by 25% and 33%, respectively. Realtime images, acquired from a reference phantom, validated the feasibility of the proposed architecture. For a display rate of 15 frames per second, and a 5-MHz single-element piezoelectric transducer, the proposed digital PPU requires a dynamic power of only 242 mW, which represents around 20% of the best-available software-based system. Furthermore, composed by the ultrasound processor and the image interpolation unit, the digital processing core of the PPU presents good power-performance ratios of 26 DMIPS/mW and 43.9 DMIPS/mW at a 20-MHz and 100-MHz sample frequency, respectively.

  6. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-02-08

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  7. Position and Orientation Insensitive Wireless Power Transmission for EnerCage-Homecage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yaoyao; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Wang, Zheyuan; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Madsen, Teresa E; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a new headstage architecture as part of a smart experimental arena, known as the EnerCage-HC2 system, which automatically delivers stimulation and collects behavioral data over extended periods with minimal small animal subject handling or personnel intervention in a standard rodent homecage. Equipped with a four-coil inductive link, the EnerCage-HC2 system wirelessly powers the receiver (Rx) headstage, irrespective of the subject's location or head orientation, eliminating the need for tethering or carrying bulky batteries. On the transmitter (Tx) side, a driver coil, five high-quality (Q) factor segmented resonators at different heights and orientations, and a closed-loop Tx power controller create a homogeneous electromagnetic (EM) field within the homecage 3-D space, and compensate for drops in power transfer efficiency (PTE) due to Rx misalignments. The headstage is equipped with four small slanted resonators, each covering a range of head orientations with respect to the Tx resonators, which direct the EM field toward the load coil at the bottom of the headstage. Moreover, data links based on Wi-Fi, UART, and Bluetooth low energy are utilized to enables remote communication and control of the Rx. The PTE varies within 23.6%-33.3% and 6.7%-10.1% at headstage heights of 8 and 20 cm, respectively, while continuously delivering >40 mW to the Rx electronics even at 90° rotation. As a proof of EnerCage-HC2 functionality in vivo, a previously documented on-demand electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus, eliciting consistent head rotation, is demonstrated in three freely behaving rats.

  8. Integration of Low-Power ASIC and MEMS Sensors for Monitoring Gastrointestinal Tract Using a Wireless Capsule System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless capsule microsystem to detect and monitor the pH, pressure, and temperature of the gastrointestinal tract in real time. This research contributes to the integration of sensors (microfabricated capacitive pH, capacitive pressure, and resistive temperature sensors), frequency modulation and pulse width modulation based interface IC circuits, microcontroller, and transceiver with meandered conformal antenna for the development of a capsule system. The challenges associated with the system miniaturization, higher sensitivity and resolution of sensors, and lower power consumption of interface circuits are addressed. The layout, PCB design, and packaging of a miniaturized wireless capsule, having diameter of 13 mm and length of 28 mm, have successfully been implemented. A data receiver and recorder system is also designed to receive physiological data from the wireless capsule and to send it to a computer for real-time display and recording. Experiments are performed in vitro using a stomach model and minced pork as tissue simulating material. The real-time measurements also validate the suitability of sensors, interface circuits, and meandered antenna for wireless capsule applications.

  9. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Hilgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H 2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW −1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW −1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  10. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  11. On the power and offset allocation for rate adaptation of spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2011-07-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) using optical sources which can be simultaneously utilized for illumination and communication is currently an attractive option for wireless personal area network. Improving the data rate in optical wireless communication system is challenging due to the limited bandwidth of the optical sources. In this paper, we design the singular value decomposition (SVD)- based multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system to support two data streams in optical wireless channels. Noting that the conventional allocation method in radio frequency (RF) MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value and the modulation size for maximum sum rate under the constraints of the nonnegativity of the modulated signals, the aggregate optical power and the bit error rate (BER) requirement. The simulation results show that the proposed allocation method gives the better performance than the method to allocate the optical power equally for each data stream. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Standardized Low-Power Wireless Communication Technologies for Distributed Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vilajosana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM, are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA, are based on contention medium access control (MAC layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

  13. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangWook; Kim, Minhyuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the IEEE standard guidelines.

  14. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangWook Park

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP and the IEEE standard guidelines.

  15. A Novel Joint Power and Feedback Bit Allocation Interference Alignment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to improve the energy efficiency of batteries in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technique has become an important means to ameliorate WSNs, and interference management is the core of improving energy efficiency. A promising approach is interference alignment (IA, which effectively reduces the interference and improves the throughput of a system in the MIMO interference channels. However, the IA scheme requires perfect channel state information (CSI at all transceivers in practice, which results in considerable feedback overhead. Thus, limited IA feedback has attracted much attention. In this paper, we analyze the throughput loss of the K-user MIMO interference channels when each transmitter delivers multiple streams in one slot, and derives the upper-bound of the system interference leakage and throughput loss. Then, to reduce the interference leakage and throughput loss for the MIMO interference alignment with limited feedback, a joint power and feedback bit allocation optimization scheme is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional schemes, the presented optimal scheme achieves less residual interference and better performance in the system throughput.

  16. A Novel Joint Power and Feedback Bit Allocation Interference Alignment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibao; He, Chang; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianhang; Huang, Tingpei

    2017-03-10

    It is necessary to improve the energy efficiency of batteries in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has become an important means to ameliorate WSNs, and interference management is the core of improving energy efficiency. A promising approach is interference alignment (IA), which effectively reduces the interference and improves the throughput of a system in the MIMO interference channels. However, the IA scheme requires perfect channel state information (CSI) at all transceivers in practice, which results in considerable feedback overhead. Thus, limited IA feedback has attracted much attention. In this paper, we analyze the throughput loss of the K-user MIMO interference channels when each transmitter delivers multiple streams in one slot, and derives the upper-bound of the system interference leakage and throughput loss. Then, to reduce the interference leakage and throughput loss for the MIMO interference alignment with limited feedback, a joint power and feedback bit allocation optimization scheme is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional schemes, the presented optimal scheme achieves less residual interference and better performance in the system throughput.

  17. Sensitivity enhancement of remotely coupled NMR detectors using wirelessly powered parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunqi; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Dodd, Stephen; Koretsky, Alan

    2012-09-01

    A completely wireless detection coil with an integrated parametric amplifier has been constructed to provide local amplification and transmission of MR signals. The sample coil is one element of a parametric amplifier using a zero-bias diode that mixes the weak MR signal with a strong pump signal that is obtained from an inductively coupled external loop. The NMR sample coil develops current gain via reduction in the effective coil resistance. Higher gain can be obtained by adjusting the level of the pumping power closer to the oscillation threshold, but the gain is ultimately constrained by the bandwidth requirement of MRI experiments. A feasibility study here shows that on a NaCl/D(2) O phantom, (23) Na signals with 20 dB of gain can be readily obtained with a concomitant bandwidth of 144 kHz. This gain is high enough that the integrated coil with parametric amplifier, which is coupled inductively to external loops, can provide sensitivity approaching that of direct wire connection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Wirelessly Powered Micro-Spectrometer for Neural Probe-Pin Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min Hyuck; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. A micro-spectrometer has been developed for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The microspectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) enabling operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, allow real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  19. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  20. Dual Wake-up Low Power Listening for Duty Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkeun Na

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management is an interesting research area for wireless sensor networks. Relevant dutycycling (or sleep scheduling algorithm has been actively studied at MAC, routing, and application levels. Low power listening (LPL MAC is one of effective dutycycling techniques. This paper proposes a novel approach called dual wake-up LPL (DW-LPL. Existing LPL scheme uses a preamble detection method for both broadcast and unicast, thus suffers from severe overhearing problem at unicast transmission. DW-LPL uses a different wake-up method for unicast while using LPL-like method for broadcast; DW-LPL introduces a receiver-initiated method in which a sender waits a signal from receiver to start unicast transmission, which incurs some signaling overhead but supports flexible adaptive listening as well as overhearing removal effect. Through analysis and Mote (Telosb experiment, we show that DW-LPL provides more energy saving than LPL and our adaptive listening scheme is effective for energy conservation in practical network topologies and traffic patterns.