Sample records for wireless capsule endoscope

  1. Implemented a wireless communication system for VGA capsule endoscope. (United States)

    Moon, Yeon-Kwan; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Park, Hee-Joon; Cho, Jin-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Chul


    Recently, several medical devices that use wireless communication are under development. In this paper, the small size frequency shift keying (FSK) transmitter and a monofilar antenna for the capsule endoscope, enabling the medical device to transmit VGA-size images of the intestine. To verify the functionality of the proposed wireless communication system, computer simulations and animal experiments were performed with the implemented capsule endoscope that includes the proposed wireless communication system. Several fundamental experiments are carried out using the implemented transmitter and antenna, and animal in-vivo experiments were performed to verify VGA image transmission.

  2. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking (United States)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.


    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  3. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes. (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang


    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  4. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz. (United States)

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I


    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  5. Wireless steering mechanism with magnetic actuation for an endoscopic capsule. (United States)

    Menciassi, A; Valdastri, P; Quaglia, C; Buselli, E; Dario, P


    This paper illustrates the design, development and testing of a miniature mechanism to be integrated in endoscopic capsules for precise steering capabilities (Magnetic Internal Mechanism, MIM). The mechanism consists of an electromagnetic motor connected to a couple of small permanent magnets and immersed in a static magnetic field produced by an external permanent magnet or a by an electromagnetic coil. The overall steering capsule, integrating the magnetic steering mechanism and the vision system is 15.6 mm in diameter, 48 mm in length, 14.4 g in weight and can be oriented with an accuracy of 0.01 degrees . As regards system scalability, the capsule size could be reduced down to 11 mm in diameter by optimizing some mechanical components. On the other hand, the magnets size cannot be reduced because the magnetic link between internal and external magnets at typical operation distances (about 15 mm) would be weak.

  6. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

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    Giuseppe Tortora


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  7. Low-complexity video encoding method for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscope. (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi


    This paper presents a low-complexity video encoding method applicable for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscopes. This encoding method is based on Wyner-Ziv theory, in which side information available at a transmitter is treated as side information at its receiver. Therefore complex processes in video encoding, such as estimation of the motion vector, are moved to the receiver side, which has a larger-capacity battery. As a result, the encoding process is only to decimate coded original data through channel coding. We provide a performance evaluation for a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding method in the AWGN channel.

  8. Performance evaluation of power transmission coils for powering endoscopic wireless capsules. (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah


    This paper presents an analysis of H-field generated by a simple solenoid, pair of solenoids, pair of double-layer solenoids, segmented-solenoid, and Helmholtz power transmission coils (PTCs) to power an endoscopic wireless capsule (WC). The H-fields were computed using finite element analysis based on partial differential equations. Three parameters were considered in the analysis: i) the maximum level of H-field (Hmax) to which the patient's body would be exposed, ii) the minimum level of H-field (Hmin) effective for power transmission, and iii) uniformity of H-field. We validated our analysis by comparing the computed data with data measured from a fabricated Helmholtz PTC. This analysis disclosed that at the same excitation power, all the PTCs are able to transfer same amount of minimum usable power since they generated almost equal value of Hmin. The level of electromagnetic exposure and power transfer stability across all the PTCs would vary significantly which is mainly due to the different level of Hmax and H-field uniformity. The segmented solenoid PTC would cause the lowest exposure and this PTC can transfer the maximum amount of power. The Helmholtz PTC would be able to transfer the most stable power with a moderate level of exposure.

  9. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue. (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji


    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  10. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope. (United States)

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing


    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability.

  11. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W


    Full Text Available Wanan Yang,1 Houde Dai,2 Yong He,1 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2Quanzhou Institute of Equipment Manufacturing, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Quanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. Keywords: wireless capsule endoscope, magnet ring, magnetic driving, spiral structure, torque  

  12. Frontiers of robotic endoscopic capsules: a review. (United States)

    Ciuti, Gastone; Caliò, R; Camboni, D; Neri, L; Bianchi, F; Arezzo, A; Koulaouzidis, A; Schostek, S; Stoyanov, D; Oddo, C M; Magnani, B; Menciassi, A; Morino, M; Schurr, M O; Dario, P


    Digestive diseases are a major burden for society and healthcare systems, and with an aging population, the importance of their effective management will become critical. Healthcare systems worldwide already struggle to insure quality and affordability of healthcare delivery and this will be a significant challenge in the midterm future. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), introduced in 2000 by Given Imaging Ltd., is an example of disruptive technology and represents an attractive alternative to traditional diagnostic techniques. WCE overcomes conventional endoscopy enabling inspection of the digestive system without discomfort or the need for sedation. Thus, it has the advantage of encouraging patients to undergo gastrointestinal (GI) tract examinations and of facilitating mass screening programmes. With the integration of further capabilities based on microrobotics, e.g. active locomotion and embedded therapeutic modules, WCE could become the key-technology for GI diagnosis and treatment. This review presents a research update on WCE and describes the state-of-the-art of current endoscopic devices with a focus on research-oriented robotic capsule endoscopes enabled by microsystem technologies. The article also presents a visionary perspective on WCE potential for screening, diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures.

  13. A microwave imaging-based 3D localization algorithm for an in-body RF source as in wireless capsule endoscopes. (United States)

    Chandra, Rohit; Balasingham, Ilangko


    A microwave imaging-based technique for 3D localization of an in-body RF source is presented. Such a technique can be useful for localization of an RF source as in wireless capsule endoscopes for positioning of any abnormality in the gastrointestinal tract. Microwave imaging is used to determine the dielectric properties (relative permittivity and conductivity) of the tissues that are required for a precise localization. A 2D microwave imaging algorithm is used for determination of the dielectric properties. Calibration method is developed for removing any error due to the used 2D imaging algorithm on the imaging data of a 3D body. The developed method is tested on a simple 3D heterogeneous phantom through finite-difference-time-domain simulations. Additive white Gaussian noise at the signal-to-noise ratio of 30 dB is added to the simulated data to make them more realistic. The developed calibration method improves the imaging and the localization accuracy. Statistics on the localization accuracy are generated by randomly placing the RF source at various positions inside the small intestine of the phantom. The cumulative distribution function of the localization error is plotted. In 90% of the cases, the localization accuracy was found within 1.67 cm, showing the capability of the developed method for 3D localization.

  14. Wireless capsule endoscopy: Perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding (United States)

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

  15. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  16. Swallowable wireless capsule endoscopy: progress and technical challenges. (United States)

    Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  17. A UWB wireless capsule endoscopy device. (United States)

    Thotahewa, Kasun M S; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) presents many advantages over traditional wired endoscopic methods. The performance of WCE devices can be improved using high-frequency communication systems such as Impulse Radio-Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) to enable a high data rate transmission with low-power consumption. This paper presents the hardware implementation and experimental evaluation of a WCE device that uses IR-UWB signals in the frequency range of 3.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz to transmit image data from inside the body to a receiver placed outside the body. Key components of the IR-UWB transmitter, such as the narrow pulse generator and up-conversion based RF section are described in detail. This design employs a narrowband receiver in the WCE device to receive a control signal externally in order to control and improve the data transmission from the device in the body. The design and performance of a wideband implantable antenna that operates in the aforementioned frequency range is also described. The operation of the WCE device is demonstrated through a proof-of-concept experiment using meat.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Spiral Structure of a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Yang


    Full Text Available Fitting a wireless capsule endoscope (WCE with a navigation feature can maximize its functional benefits. The rotation of a spiral-type capsule can be converted to translational motion. The study investigated how the spiral structure and rotational speed affected the capsule's translation speed. A hand-held instrument, including two permanent magnets, a stepper motor, a controller and a power supplier, were designed to generate rotational magnetic fields. The surfaces of custom-built permanent magnet rings magnetized radially were mounted in spiral lines with different lead angles and diameters, acting as mock-up capsules. The experimental results demonstrate that the rotational speed of the magnetic field and the spiral have significant effects on the translational speed of a capsule. The spiral line with a larger lead angle and the rotating magnetic field with a higher speed can change the capsule's rotation into a translational motion more efficiently in the intestine.

  19. [Design and realization of an algorithm for capsule endoscope image recognition system]. (United States)

    Li, Kaixuan; Liu, Zhexing; Liu, Side; He, Lijun; Luo, Zhichong; Wang, Huafeng


    Discrimination of abnormal images from the numerous wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) video sequence images is laborious and time-consuming, so that a computer-based automatic image recognition system is desired for this task. We propose an algorithm to allow feature extraction from each image channel and decision fusion using multiple BP neural networks. The algorithm was tested and the results demonstrated its high efficiency and accuracy in identification of abnormalities in the WCE images.

  20. 3D magnetic-resonance-coupling (MRC) localization of wireless capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Yongming; Zhang, Lihui; Lu, Kaiyuan


    Wireless Capsule Endoscope (WCE) enables developing actively controlled capsule for potential complex surgeries, imaging, and new medicine tests. These tasks of WCE need safe, efficient, and precise 3D localization techniques. In this paper, a new application of the magnetic resonance coupling (MRC......) technique, which has been widely developed for efficient wireless power transfer, is introduced. It is proposed that the distance dependent signal strength in a MRC system can be beneficially used for 3D localization. The new 3D-MRC localization system consists of three orthogonal emitting coils which...

  1. Wireless fluorescence capsule for endoscopy using single photon-based detection (United States)

    Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A.; Beeley, James; Cumming, David R. S.


    Fluorescence Imaging (FI) is a powerful technique in biological science and clinical medicine. Current FI devices that are used either for in-vivo or in-vitro studies are expensive, bulky and consume substantial power, confining the technique to laboratories and hospital examination rooms. Here we present a miniaturised wireless fluorescence endoscope capsule with low power consumption that will pave the way for future FI systems and applications. With enhanced sensitivity compared to existing technology we have demonstrated that the capsule can be successfully used to image tissue autofluorescence and targeted fluorescence via fluorophore labelling of tissues. The capsule incorporates a state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor single photon avalanche detector imaging array, miniaturised optical isolation, wireless technology and low power design. When in use the capsule consumes only 30.9 mW, and deploys very low-level 468 nm illumination. The device has the potential to replace highly power-hungry intrusive optical fibre based endoscopes and to extend the range of clinical examination below the duodenum. To demonstrate the performance of our capsule, we imaged fluorescence phantoms incorporating principal tissue fluorophores (flavins) and absorbers (haemoglobin). We also demonstrated the utility of marker identification by imaging a 20 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelling solution on mammalian tissue.

  2. Magnetic localization and orientation of the capsule endoscope based on a random complex algorithm

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    He XQ


    Full Text Available Xiaoqi He,1 Zizhao Zheng,1,2 Chao Hu1 1Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, People's Republic of China; 2Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China Abstract: The development of the capsule endoscope has made possible the examination of the whole gastrointestinal tract without much pain. However, there are still some important problems to be solved, among which, one important problem is the localization of the capsule. Currently, magnetic positioning technology is a suitable method for capsule localization, and this depends on a reliable system and algorithm. In this paper, based on the magnetic dipole model as well as magnetic sensor array, we propose nonlinear optimization algorithms using a random complex algorithm, applied to the optimization calculation for the nonlinear function of the dipole, to determine the three-dimensional position parameters and two-dimensional direction parameters. The stability and the antinoise ability of the algorithm is compared with the Levenberg–Marquart algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that in terms of the error level of the initial guess of magnet location, the random complex algorithm is more accurate, more stable, and has a higher “denoise” capacity, with a larger range for initial guess values. Keywords: wireless capsule endoscope, magnet, optimization 

  3. Detection of small bowel tumor in wireless capsule endoscopy images using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahdi; Maghsoudi, Omid Haji; Sharzehi, Kaveh; Reza Hemati, Hamid; Kamali Asl, Alireza; Talebpour, Alireza


    Automatic diagnosis tool helps physicians to evaluate capsule endoscopic examinations faster and more accurate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of an automatic post-processing method for identifying and classifying wireless capsule endoscopic images, and investigate statistical measures to differentiate normal and abnormal images. The proposed technique consists of two main stages, namely, feature extraction and classification. Primarily, 32 features incorporating four statistical measures (contrast, correlation, homogeneity and energy) calculated from co-occurrence metrics were computed. Then, mutual information was used to select features with maximal dependence on the target class and with minimal redundancy between features. Finally, a trained classifier, adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system was implemented to classify endoscopic images into tumor, healthy and unhealthy classes. Classification accuracy of 94.2% was obtained using the proposed pipeline. Such techniques are valuable for accurate detection characterization and interpretation of endoscopic images.

  4. A non-rigid map fusion-based direct SLAM method for endoscopic capsule robots. (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet; Almalioglu, Yasin; Araujo, Helder; Konukoglu, Ender; Sitti, Metin


    Since the development of capsule endoscopy technology, medical device companies and research groups have made significant progress to turn passive capsule endoscopes into robotic active capsule endoscopes. However, the use of robotic capsules in endoscopy still has some challenges. One such challenge is the precise localization of the actively controlled robot in real-time. In this paper, we propose a non-rigid map fusion based direct simultaneous localization and mapping method for endoscopic capsule robots. The proposed method achieves high accuracy for extensive evaluations of pose estimation and map reconstruction performed on a non-rigid, realistic surgical EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy Simulator and outperforms state-of-the art methods.

  5. Wireless capsule endoscopy as a tool in diagnosing autoimmune enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Kampmann, Eva-Marie; Lillevang, Søren T; Detlefsen, Sönke


    the diagnosis. The extensive diagnostic work up excluded other more common causes of protracted diarrhoea. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) displayed universal small intestinal mucosal damage with shortened villi that led to the suspicion of AE in both patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with microscopy...

  6. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B


    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent a stand...

  7. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Detects Meckel’s Diverticulum in a Child with Unexplained Intestinal Blood Loss

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    I. Xinias


    Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum (MD is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, affecting about 2% of the population. Most cases of Meckel’s diverticula are asymptomatic. The diagnosis of symptomatic MD is often difficult to make. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with GI bleeding due to MD. The diagnostic difficulties after an initial negative endoscopic evaluation and the diagnostic value of the various endoscopic procedures are discussed. The patient had suffered from bright red stools for 20 h before hospital admission. GI scintigraphy with 99mTc-Na-pertechnetate was negative for heterotopic gastric tissue in the small bowel area. Colonoscopy performed in order to exclude Crohn’s disease was also negative. He was placed on ranitidine at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight twice daily. The patient remained asymptomatic over a period of 6 months before he was readmitted due to macroscopic rectal bleeding. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy used to investigate the source of bleeding showed normal macroscopic findings. Radiolabeling of blood constituents with 99mTc on delayed imaging showed radionucleotide concentration in the ascending and transverse colon suggestive of a lesion in the ileocecal area. Further investigation with the use of wireless capsule endoscopy revealed a MD. Wireless capsule endoscopy may thus be indicated for patients with GI blood loss when other diagnostic methods, such as upper and lower endoscopy and colonoscopy, have failed to identify the source of bleeding.

  8. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu


    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  9. An artificial neural network architecture for non-parametric visual odometry in wireless capsule endoscopy (United States)

    Dimas, George; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.; Karargyris, Alexandros; Ciuti, Gastone; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios


    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive screening procedure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract performed with an ingestible capsule endoscope (CE) of the size of a large vitamin pill. Such endoscopes are equipped with a usually low-frame-rate color camera which enables the visualization of the GI lumen and the detection of pathologies. The localization of the commercially available CEs is performed in the 3D abdominal space using radio-frequency (RF) triangulation from external sensor arrays, in combination with transit time estimation. State-of-the-art approaches, such as magnetic localization, which have been experimentally proved more accurate than the RF approach, are still at an early stage. Recently, we have demonstrated that CE localization is feasible using solely visual cues and geometric models. However, such approaches depend on camera parameters, many of which are unknown. In this paper the authors propose a novel non-parametric visual odometry (VO) approach to CE localization based on a feed-forward neural network architecture. The effectiveness of this approach in comparison to state-of-the-art geometric VO approaches is validated using a robotic-assisted in vitro experimental setup.

  10. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview. (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  11. Application of wireless electrical non-fiberoptic endoscope: Potential benefit and limitation in endoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Chang, Ho; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Huang, Tun-Sung; Chen, Chao-Hung


    Conventional rigid endoscope requires a bundle of optic fibers for illumination and a set of camera for viewing body cavity. The design is bulky in the hand-held part and the laterally positioned optic fibers may hinder manipulation of instruments, especially in single port surgery. We designed a simplified unit to replace conventional endoscope. We used an independent front image sensor along with six light emitting diode crystals. A wireless module working in 2.4 GHz and its antenna were integrated into the hand-help part. Two 800 mA batteries were used for power supply. The study was tested in two 35 kg pigs. Some simple thoracoscopic and laparoscopic operations were simulated to test the reliability and surgeon's acceptability. Signal Noise ratio can be controlled well in the setting of the operative room. Signal transmission was influenced significantly when covered by damped gauze or drape. The best quality of wireless transmission is through line-of-sight. Dropping frame is less than 1 frame per second in 99% time period during the test. Wireless modules in the design of rigid endoscope may be a plausible option with good acceptability. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep learning for polyp recognition in wireless capsule endoscopy images. (United States)

    Yuan, Yixuan; Meng, Max Q-H


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables physicians to examine the digestive tract without any surgical operations, at the cost of a large volume of images to be analyzed. In the computer-aided diagnosis of WCE images, the main challenge arises from the difficulty of robust characterization of images. This study aims to provide discriminative description of WCE images and assist physicians to recognize polyp images automatically. We propose a novel deep feature learning method, named stacked sparse autoencoder with image manifold constraint (SSAEIM), to recognize polyps in the WCE images. Our SSAEIM differs from the traditional sparse autoencoder (SAE) by introducing an image manifold constraint, which is constructed by a nearest neighbor graph and represents intrinsic structures of images. The image manifold constraint enforces that images within the same category share similar learned features and images in different categories should be kept far away. Thus, the learned features preserve large intervariances and small intravariances among images. The average overall recognition accuracy (ORA) of our method for WCE images is 98.00%. The accuracies for polyps, bubbles, turbid images, and clear images are 98.00%, 99.50%, 99.00%, and 95.50%, respectively. Moreover, the comparison results show that our SSAEIM outperforms existing polyp recognition methods with relative higher ORA. The comprehensive results have demonstrated that the proposed SSAEIM can provide descriptive characterization for WCE images and recognize polyps in a WCE video accurately. This method could be further utilized in the clinical trials to help physicians from the tedious image reading work. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. What Kind of Capsule Endoscope Is Suitable for a Controllable Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope? Experimental Study Using a Porcine Stomach Model for Clinical Application (with Videos) (United States)

    Ota, Kazuhiro; Nouda, Sadaharu; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Iguchi, Munetaka; Kojima, Yuichi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Inoue, Takuya; Shindo, Yasunori; Uesugi, Kenshiro; Fujito, Yoshiaki; Nishihara, Hironori; Ohtsuka, Naotake; Higuchi, Kazuhide


    Background We have been developing the Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope (SPCE) that allows for controllability from outside of the body and real-time observation. What kind of capsule endoscope (CE) is suitable for a controllable SPCE is unclear and a very critical point for clinical application. We compared observing ability of three kinds of SPCEs with different viewing angles and frame rates. Methods Eleven buttons were sewed in an excised porcine stomach. Four examiners controlled the SPCE using PillCamSB2, -ESO2, and -COLON2 (Given Imaging Ltd., Israel), for 10 minutes each with the aim of detecting as many buttons and examining them as closely as possible. The ability to find lesions was assessed based on the number of detected buttons. The SPCE-performance score (SPS) was used to evaluate the ability to examine the lesions in detail. Results The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 detected 11 [interquartile range (IQR): 0], 10.5 (IQR, 0.5), and 8 (IQR, 1.0) buttons, respectively. The SPCE-ESO2 and -COLON2 had a significantly better ability to detect lesions than the -SB2 (p stomach. PMID:26447694

  14. Development of a biologically inspired locomotion system for a capsule endoscope. (United States)

    Hosokawa, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Morikawa, Hirohisa; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami


    A capsule endoscope has a limited ability to obtain images of the digestive organs because its movement depends on peristaltic motion. To overcome this problem, capsule endoscopes require a propulsion system. This paper proposes a propulsion system for a capsule endoscope that mimics the locomotive mechanism of snails and earthworms. The prototype crawler can elongate and contract itself longitudinally and adhere to a wall via suction cups. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle of the propulsion plane, the mucus viscosity between the propulsion plane and the crawler, and the stiffness of the propulsion plane on the locomotion of the prototype crawler. We found that the crawler could move on a rubber sheet and on inclined planes covered with mucus. We discussed advantages and limitations of the prototype crawler compared to the different locomotive systems developed in former studies. We believe that the prototype crawler provides a better understanding of the propulsion mechanism for use in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Design of a Wireless Medical Capsule for Measuring the Contact Pressure Between a Capsule and the Small Intestine. (United States)

    Li, Pengbo; Kreikemeier-Bower, Craig; Xie, Wanchuan; Kothari, Vishal; Terry, Benjamin S


    A wireless medical capsule for measuring the contact pressure between a mobile capsule and the small intestine lumen was developed. Two pressure sensors were used to measure and differentiate the contact pressure and the small intestine intraluminal pressure. After in vitro tests of the capsule, it was surgically placed and tested in the proximal small intestine of a pig model. The capsule successfully gathered and transmitted the pressure data to a receiver outside the body. The measured pressure signals in the animal test were analyzed in the time and frequency domains, and a mathematic model was presented to describe the different factors influencing the contact pressure. A novel signal processing method was applied to isolate the contraction information from the contact pressure. The result shows that the measured contact pressure was 1.08 ± 0.08 kPa, and the small intestine contraction pressure's amplitude and rate were 0.29 ± 0.046 kPa and 12 min-1. Moreover, the amplitudes and rates of pressure from respiration and heartbeat were also estimated. The successful preliminary evaluation of this capsule implies that it could be used in further systematic investigation of small intestine contact pressure on a mobile capsule-shaped bolus.

  16. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang


    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  17. What Kind of Capsule Endoscope Is Suitable for a Controllable Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope? Experimental Study Using a Porcine Stomach Model for Clinical Application (with Videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ota

    Full Text Available We have been developing the Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope (SPCE that allows for controllability from outside of the body and real-time observation. What kind of capsule endoscope (CE is suitable for a controllable SPCE is unclear and a very critical point for clinical application. We compared observing ability of three kinds of SPCEs with different viewing angles and frame rates.Eleven buttons were sewed in an excised porcine stomach. Four examiners controlled the SPCE using PillCamSB2, -ESO2, and -COLON2 (Given Imaging Ltd., Israel, for 10 minutes each with the aim of detecting as many buttons and examining them as closely as possible. The ability to find lesions was assessed based on the number of detected buttons. The SPCE-performance score (SPS was used to evaluate the ability to examine the lesions in detail.The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 detected 11 [interquartile range (IQR: 0], 10.5 (IQR, 0.5, and 8 (IQR, 1.0 buttons, respectively. The SPCE-ESO2 and -COLON2 had a significantly better ability to detect lesions than the -SB2 (p < 0.05. The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 had significantly different SPS values of 22 (IQR, 0, 16.5 (IQR, 1.5, and 14 (IQR, 1.0, respectively (p < 0.05 for all comparisons; SPCE-SB2 vs. -ESO2, -SB2 vs. -COLON2, and -ESO2 vs. -COLON2.PillCamESO2 is most suitable in different three CEs for SPCE for examining lesions in detail of the stomach.

  18. What Kind of Capsule Endoscope Is Suitable for a Controllable Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope? Experimental Study Using a Porcine Stomach Model for Clinical Application (with Videos). (United States)

    Ota, Kazuhiro; Nouda, Sadaharu; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Iguchi, Munetaka; Kojima, Yuichi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Inoue, Takuya; Shindo, Yasunori; Uesugi, Kenshiro; Fujito, Yoshiaki; Nishihara, Hironori; Ohtsuka, Naotake; Higuchi, Kazuhide


    We have been developing the Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope (SPCE) that allows for controllability from outside of the body and real-time observation. What kind of capsule endoscope (CE) is suitable for a controllable SPCE is unclear and a very critical point for clinical application. We compared observing ability of three kinds of SPCEs with different viewing angles and frame rates. Eleven buttons were sewed in an excised porcine stomach. Four examiners controlled the SPCE using PillCamSB2, -ESO2, and -COLON2 (Given Imaging Ltd., Israel), for 10 minutes each with the aim of detecting as many buttons and examining them as closely as possible. The ability to find lesions was assessed based on the number of detected buttons. The SPCE-performance score (SPS) was used to evaluate the ability to examine the lesions in detail. The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 detected 11 [interquartile range (IQR): 0], 10.5 (IQR, 0.5), and 8 (IQR, 1.0) buttons, respectively. The SPCE-ESO2 and -COLON2 had a significantly better ability to detect lesions than the -SB2 (p < 0.05). The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 had significantly different SPS values of 22 (IQR, 0), 16.5 (IQR, 1.5), and 14 (IQR, 1.0), respectively (p < 0.05 for all comparisons; SPCE-SB2 vs. -ESO2, -SB2 vs. -COLON2, and -ESO2 vs. -COLON2). PillCamESO2 is most suitable in different three CEs for SPCE for examining lesions in detail of the stomach.

  19. From Capsule Endoscopy to Balloon-Assisted Deep Enteroscopy: Exploring Small-Bowel Endoscopic Imaging (United States)

    Cooley, D. Matthew; Walker, Andrew J.


    In the past 15 years, the use of endoscopic evaluations in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding has become more common. Indications for further endoscopic interventions include iron deficiency anemia, suspicion of Crohn’s disease or small-bowel tumors, assessment of celiac disease or of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and screening for familial adenomatous polyposis. Often, capsule endoscopy is performed in concert with other endoscopic studies and can guide decisions regarding whether enteroscopy should be carried out in an anterograde or a retrograde approach. Retrograde endoscopy is beneficial in dealing with disease of the more distal small bowel. Multiple studies have examined the diagnostic yield of balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy and have estimated a diagnostic yield of 40% to 80%. Some of the studies have found that diagnostic yields are higher when capsule endoscopy is performed before balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy in a search for small-bowel bleeds. Each of these procedures has a role when performed alone; however, research suggests that they are especially effective as complementary techniques and together can provide better-directed therapy. Both procedures are relatively safe, with high diagnostic and therapeutic yields that allow evaluation of the small bowel. Because both interventions are relatively new to the world of gastroenterology, much research remains to be done regarding their overall efficacy, cost, and safety, as well as further indications for their use in the detection and treatment of diseases of the small bowel. PMID:27099585

  20. Gut Transit in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Is Not Impaired: A Study Utilizing Wireless Motility Capsules. (United States)

    Kraus, Dror; Wong, Brenda; Hu, Shengyong; Kaul, Ajay


    We examined gut transit in 7 young adults (18-24 years of age) with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using wireless motility capsules. Total and segmental gut transit times were normal in essentially all patients. Our study using a validated tool suggests normal transit constipation as the pathophysiologic basis for constipation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Single Center, One Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-jiang Tang


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE is increasingly being used in the investigation of obscure gastrointestinal (GI bleeding, but some studies have found that many of the bleeding lesions recognized by this technique are within the reach of conventional endoscopy.

  2. Wireless capsule endoscopy at Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capsule Endoscopy (CE) is a novel tool that has been demonstrated to be superior to radiologic technique in the evaluation small bowel disorders particularly obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This service although in use in Western countries is not available in our setting. It has recently been introduced in our hospital and ...

  3. A deep learning based fusion of RGB camera information and magnetic localization information for endoscopic capsule robots. (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet; Shabbir, Jahanzaib; Araujo, Helder; Konukoglu, Ender; Sitti, Metin


    A reliable, real time localization functionality is crutial for actively controlled capsule endoscopy robots, which are an emerging, minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic technology for the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, we extend the success of deep learning approaches from various research fields to the problem of sensor fusion for endoscopic capsule robots. We propose a multi-sensor fusion based localization approach which combines endoscopic camera information and magnetic sensor based localization information. The results performed on real pig stomach dataset show that our method achieves sub-millimeter precision for both translational and rotational movements.

  4. Tethered SECM endoscopic capsule for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Do, Dukho; Kang, DongKyun; Tabatabaei, Nima; Grant, Catriona N.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hesterberg, Paul E.; Yuan, Qian; Garber, John J.; Katz, Aubrey J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease caused by inhaled or ingested food allergies, and characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils in the esophagus. The gold standard for diagnosing EoE is to conduct endoscopy and obtain multiple biopsy specimens from different portions of the esophagus; an exam is considered positive if more than 15 eosinophils per high power field (HPF) in any of the biopsies. This method of diagnosis is problematic because endoscopic biopsy is expensive and poorly tolerated and the esophageal eosinophil burden needs to be monitored frequently during the course of the disease. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed confocal microscopy technology that can visualize individual eosinophils in large microscopic images of the human esophagus, equivalent to more than 30,000 HPF. Previously, we have demonstrated that tethered capsule SECM can be conducted in unsedated subjects with diagnosed EoE. However, speckle noise and the relatively low resolution in images obtained with the first capsule prototypes made it challenging to distinguish eosinophils from other cells. In this work, we present a next-generation tethered SECM capsule, which has been modified to significantly improve image quality. First, we substituted the single mode fiber with a dual-clad fiber to reduce speckle noise. A gradient-index multimode fiber was fusion spliced at the tip of the dual-clad fiber to increase the effective numerical aperture of the fiber from 0.09 to 0.15, expanding the beam more rapidly to increase the illumination aperture at the objective. These modifications enabled the new SECM capsule to achieve a lateral resolution of 1.8 µm and an axial resolution of 16.1 µm, which substantially improves the capacity of this probe to visualize cellular features in human tissue. The total size of the SECM capsule remained 6.75 mm in diameter and 31 mm in length. We are now in the process of testing this new SECM capsule in

  5. Ingestible Wireless Capsule Technology: A Review of Development and Future Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Basar


    Full Text Available Ingestible wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is the one and only painless, effective, novel, diagnostic technology for inspecting the entire gastrointestinal (GI tract for various diseases, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB, tumors, cancer, Crohn’s disease, and celiac disease. Since the development of this technology, several companies have made remarkable improvements in their clinical products, but there are still some limitations that relate to the use of conventional wired endoscopy. Some of the major limitations that currently impede its wider application include its inability to repeat the view of critical areas, working time constraints, and poor image resolution. Many research groups currently are working on ways to solve these limitations. Presently, developing the ability to control the movement of the capsule, increasing its image transmission speed, and obtaining high-quality images are the main issues in the research area. A complex capsule with some therapeutic tools for the treatment of diseases of the GI tract also is at the beginning of development for the next generation of an active medical robot. In this paper, we report the status of several activities related to WCE, including improvement of capsule technology, research progress, technical challenges, and key indicators concerning the next-generation, active, medical robot.

  6. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Christopher N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC, but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM. Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1 ESM + SC, 2 ESM + WC and 3 endoscopically placed WC (EGD + WC using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51 ± 2 years, 71% female were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26 ± 4 mm vs 39 ± 4 mm VAS, respectively, p = 0.012 but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p = 0.71. Per patient costs ($Canadian were $1475 for EGD + WC, $1014 for ESM + WC, and $906 for ESM + SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM + WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM + WC to $991. The ESM + SC and ESM + WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Identifier NCT01364610

  7. Subject-friendly entire gastrointestinal screening with a single capsule endoscope by magnetic navigation and the Internet. (United States)

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Katsuki, Shinichi


    Ever since capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced into clinical practice, we gastroenterologists have been dreaming of using this less invasive modality to explore the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To realize this dream, we have developed a magnetic navigation system which includes real-time internet streaming of endoscopic video and some useful gadgets (position detection by means of magnetic impedance (MI) sensors and a modified capsule that is "weightless" in water). The design of the weightless capsule made it possible with 0.5T (Tesla) extracorporeal magnets to control the capsule beyond 20cm. A pair of MI sensors on the body surface could detect subtle magnetic flux generated by an intra-capsular magnet in the GI tract by utilizing the space diversity effect which eliminated the interference of terrestrial magnetism. Subjects underwent CE, during which they were free from confinement in the hospital, except for 1 hour when the capsule was manipulated in the stomach and colon. This study had a completion rate of 97.5%. The high completion rate indicates that our system (single capsule endoscopy-SCE) with further improvements could become a viable modality for screening of the entire GI tract.

  8. Development of Wireless Endoscope with Symmetrical Motion Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo


    Full Text Available In the biomedical field, a wireless microrobot in a pipe which can move smoothly in water or other aqueous mediums has been urgently demanded. In this paper, several methods of designing a novel microrobot with symmetrical motion characteristics have been discussed and a new kind of wireless microrobot has been developed. According to the modelling analysis, we considered two kinds of common cases occurring in vertical motion, which required gravity compensation. Based on two groups of simulations and experiments on forward-backward motion, upward-downward motion and inclined plane motion, the results and dynamic error evaluation indicated that the wireless microrobot with symmetrical structure could realize similar kinematic characteristics in the horizontal motion. The gravity compensation played an important role in the design process, and the performance of the vertical motion had been improved by gravity compensation. With this method, we made the wireless microrobot realize symmetrical motion characteristics, and simplified the control strategies. Finally, a control panel for our system was designed, which could control the current motion states more intuitively and far more easily through the buttons. The developed wireless microrobot would be very useful in the industrial application and microsurgery application.

  9. A complexity-efficient and one-pass image compression algorithm for wireless capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Shaopeng; Kuang, Shuai


    As an important part of the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) in wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), the efficient compressor is crucial for image transmission and power consumption. In this paper, a complexity-efficient and one-pass image compression method is proposed for WCE with Bayer format images. The algorithm is modified from the standard lossless algorithm (JPEG-LS). Firstly, a causal interpolation is used to acquire the context template of a current pixel to be encoded, thus determining different encoding modes. Secondly, a gradient predictor, instead of the median predictor, is designed to improve the accuracy of the predictions. Thirdly, the gradient context is quantized to obtain the context index (Q). Eventually, the encoding process is achieved in different modes. The experimental and comparative results show that our proposed near-lossless compression method provides a high compression rate (2.315) and a high image quality (46.31 dB) compared with other methods. It performs well in the designed wireless capsule system and could be applied in other image fields.

  10. Soft material adhesion characterization for in vivo locomotion of robotic capsule endoscopes: Experimental and modeling results. (United States)

    Kern, Madalyn D; Ortega Alcaide, Joan; Rentschler, Mark E


    The objective of this work is to validate an experimental method and nondimensional model for characterizing the normal adhesive response between a polyvinyl chloride based synthetic biological tissue substrate and a flat, cylindrical probe with a smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The adhesion response is a critical mobility design parameter of a Robotic Capsule Endoscope (RCE) using PDMS treads to provide mobility to travel through the gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic purposes. Three RCE design characteristics were chosen as input parameters for the normal adhesion testing: pre-load, dwell time and separation rate. These parameters relate to the RCE׳s cross sectional dimension, tread length, and tread speed, respectively. An inscribed central composite design (CCD) prescribed 34 different parameter configurations to be tested. The experimental adhesion response curves were nondimensionalized by the maximum stress and total displacement values for each test configuration and a mean nondimensional curve was defined with a maximum relative error of 5.6%. A mathematical model describing the adhesion behavior as a function of the maximum stress and total displacement was developed and verified. A nonlinear regression analysis was done on the maximum stress and total displacement parameters and equations were defined as a function of the RCE design parameters. The nondimensional adhesion model is able to predict the adhesion curve response of any test configuration with a mean R(2) value of 0.995. Eight additional CCD studies were performed to obtain a qualitative understanding of the impact of tread contact area and synthetic material substrate stiffness on the adhesion response. These results suggest that the nondimensionalization technique for analyzing the adhesion data is sufficient for all values of probe radius and substrate stiffness within the bounds tested. This method can now be used for RCE tread design optimization given a set of

  11. In-to-out body path loss for wireless radio frequency capsule endoscopy in a human body. (United States)

    Vermeeren, G; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Joseph, W


    Physical-layer characterization is important for design of in-to-out body communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs). This paper numerically investigates the path loss of an in-to-out body radio frequency (RF) wireless link between an endoscopy capsule and a receiver outside the body using a 3D electromagnetic solver. A spiral antenna in the endoscopy capsule is tuned to operate in the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402 MHz, accounting for the properties of the human body. The influence of misalignment, rotation of the capsule, and human body model are investigated. Semi-empirical path loss models for various homogeneous tissues and 3D realistic human body models are provided for manufacturers to evaluate the performance of in-to-out-body WBAN systems.

  12. A Panoramic Wireless Endoscope System Design for the Application of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsiang Peng


    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS is the current trend in surgery. Compared to traditional surgery, MIS can substantially decrease recovery time and expenses needed by patients after surgeries, reduce pain during surgical procedures, and is highly regarded by physicians and patients. An endoscope is widely used in the diagnosis and treatments of various medical disciplines, such as hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, and colonoscopy, and have been adopted by many branches of medicine. However, the limited image field of MIS is often the most difficult obstacles faced by surgeons and medical students, especially to less experienced physicians and difficult surgical procedures; the limited field of view of endoscopic imaging does not provide a whole picture of the surgery area, making the procedures difficult and full of uncertainty. In light of this problem, we proposed a "Panoramic Wireless Endoscope System design", hoping to provide physicians with a wide field of view of the endoscopic image. We combine images captured from two parallel-mounted endoscope lenses into a single, wide-angle image, giving physicians a wider field of view and easier access to the surgical area. In addition, we developed a wireless transmission system so the image can be transmitted to various display platforms, eliminating the needs for excessive cabling on surgical tools and enable physicians to better operate on the patient. Finally, our system allows surgical assistants a better view of the operation process, and enables other physicians and nurses to remotely observe the process. Our experiment results have shown that we can increase the image to 152% of its original size. We used the PandaBoard ES platform with an ARM9 processor and 1G of onboard RAM, and continuously implementing animal trials to verify the reliability of our system.

  13. A comparative study of shape features for polyp detection in wireless capsule endoscopy images. (United States)

    Li, Baopu; Meng, Max Q H; Xu, Lisheng


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been gradually employed in hospitals because it can directly view the entire small bowel of a human body for the first time. However, a troublesome problem related to this new technology is that too many images produced by WCE will take a lot of efforts for doctors to inspect. In this paper, we propose a comparative study of shape features aiming for intestinal polyp detection for WCE images. As polyps exhibit strong shape characteristics, also a powerful clue used by physicians, we investigate two kinds of shape features, MEPG-7 region-based shape descriptor and Zernike moments, in our study. With multi-layer perceptron neural network as the classifier, experiments on our present image data show that it is promising to employ both Zernike moments and MEPG-7 region-based shape descriptor as the shape features to recognize the intestinal polyp regions, and a better performance is obtained by the Zernike moments based shape features.

  14. Quality assessment for wireless capsule endoscopy videos compressed via HEVC: From diagnostic quality to visual perception. (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Arslan; Usman, Muhammad Rehan; Shin, Soo Young


    Maintaining the quality of medical images and videos is an essential part of the e-services provided by the healthcare sector. The convergence of modern communication systems and the healthcare industry necessitates the provision of better quality of service and experience by the service provider. Recent inclusion and standardization of the high efficiency video coder (HEVC) has made it possible for medical data to be compressed and transmitted over wireless networks with minimal compromise of the quality. Quality evaluation and assessment of these medical videos transmitted over wireless networks is another important research area that requires further exploration and attention. In this paper, we have conducted an in-depth study of video quality assessment for compressed wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) videos. Our study includes the performance evaluation of several state-of-the-art objective video quality metrics in terms of determining the quality of compressed WCE videos. Subjective video quality experiments were conducted with the assistance of experts and non-experts in order to predict the diagnostic and visual quality of these medical videos, respectively. The evaluation of the metrics is based on three major performance metrics that include, correlation between the subjective and objective scores, relative statistical performance and computation time. Results show that the metrics information fidelity criterion (IFC), visual information fidelity-(VIF) and especially pixel based VIF stand out as best performing metrics. Furthermore, our paper reports the performance of HEVC compression on medical videos and according to the results, it performs optimally in preserving the diagnostic and visual quality of WCE videos at Quantization Parameter (QP) values of up to 35 and 37 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Capsule endoscopy: new technology, old complication. (United States)

    Rammohan, Ashwin; Naidu, R M


    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new tool in the armamentarium of the gastroenterologist to evaluate the small bowel non-invasively. It allows improved diagnostic yield with low complication rates relative to traditional modalities. But this new technology has its own set of complications, some which can lead to significant morbidity. Here, we present a case of complete small bowel obstruction following a capsule endoscopy. A 65-year-old female with a long standing history of anemia and obscure gastrointestinal bleed presented to the Emergency Department 72 hours after a wireless capsule endoscopy procedure complaining of worsening abdominal pain, distension, and frequent vomiting. An X-ray was suggestive of complete distal small bowel obstruction with the capsule at the transition point of dilated proximal and collapsed distal small bowel. The patient was resuscitated and taken up for an explorative laparotomy where a short segment stricture was noted with the capsule endoscope caught proximal to it. The segment was resected and patient made an uneventful recovery. Wireless capsule endoscopy is now becoming the preferred method to image the small bowel. Our report illustrates the importance of appropriate patient selection and evaluation of functional patency of the small bowel may be with a contrast series prior to wireless capsule endoscopy to avoid any post procedural morbidity.

  16. Endo-VMFuseNet: Deep Visual-Magnetic Sensor Fusion Approach for Uncalibrated, Unsynchronized and Asymmetric Endoscopic Capsule Robot Localization Data


    Turan, Mehmet; Almalioglu, Yasin; Gilbert, Hunter; Sari, Alp Eren; Soylu, Ufuk; Sitti, Metin


    In the last decade, researchers and medical device companies have made major advances towards transforming passive capsule endoscopes into active medical robots. One of the major challenges is to endow capsule robots with accurate perception of the environment inside the human body, which will provide necessary information and enable improved medical procedures. We extend the success of deep learning approaches from various research fields to the problem of uncalibrated, asynchronous, and asy...

  17. Development of a micro-robot for endoscopes based on wireless power transfer. (United States)

    Ye, Dongdong; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Kundong; Ma, Guanying


    This paper develops a new prototype of a wireless micro-robot system for endoscopes. The micro-robot we have fabricated and tested is able to propel itself in the intestine of pig. Its autonomous manner is earthworm-like and driven by linear actuators based on a DC motor. Unlike with conventional micro-robot endoscopes, that wireless module is used for communicating and power transfer. The experimental results show that the driving force of the linear actuator can reach up to 2.55 N and the stable supplying power is up to 480 mW DC power for the receiving coil in the proposed system, which all fulfill the need of the micro-robot system. The micro-robot can creep reliably in the small and large intestine of a pig. The video communication module embedded in the head of the micro-robot can capture the inner picture of the intestine and broadcast it to PC in real-time.

  18. Use of industrial wireless endoscope in intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez EF


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an industrial wireless endoscope on the pregnancy rate of Hampshire Down sheep with intrauterine insemination. The work was carried out in a farm of the community Sullkataca Baja of the municipality of Laja, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The conditioning of an endoscopy equipment (Wifi Endoscope®, Teslong which had a portable and multifunctional Wi-Fi camera with fiber optic 8.5mm diameter, LED light and real-time video transmission at 720P. Also, 2 metal trocars (used in cattle were adapted to facilitate the entrance of the endoscopy and the insemination pipette. The estrus synchronization was performed in 10 nulliparas and 10 multiparas by means of intravaginal sponges with 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Progespon®, Lab. Syntex Argentina for 14 days. A dose of 500 IU of eCG (Sergon®, Lab. Bioveta Czech Republic is applied to the removal of the sponges. At 52.31 ± 0.31 hours post removal of the sponges, artificial insemination fixed time (FTAI was performed with frozen semen in straws of 0.25cc with 40 million spermatozoa. During insemination, the values of 80% and 100% of uterine horn turgor were determined for the group of pluriparas and nulliparas respectively. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 50 days post insemination using ultrasound transrectal (EMP 820 vet plus®, Emperor China. Gestation rates were 60% for lambs and 70% for ewes (P≥0.05. In conclusion, the industrial wireless endoscope is an economical, versatile equipment and can be used efficiently to perform intrauterine IATF with frozen semen in sheep.

  19. A Review of Machine-Vision-Based Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingju Chen


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE enables a physician to diagnose a patient's digestive system without surgical procedures. However, it takes 1-2 hours for a gastroenterologist to examine the video. To speed up the review process, a number of analysis techniques based on machine vision have been proposed by computer science researchers. In order to train a machine to understand the semantics of an image, the image contents need to be translated into numerical form first. The numerical form of the image is known as image abstraction. The process of selecting relevant image features is often determined by the modality of medical images and the nature of the diagnoses. For example, there are radiographic projection-based images (e.g., X-rays and PET scans, tomography-based images (e.g., MRT and CT scans, and photography-based images (e.g., endoscopy, dermatology, and microscopic histology. Each modality imposes unique image-dependent restrictions for automatic and medically meaningful image abstraction processes. In this paper, we review the current development of machine-vision-based analysis of WCE video, focusing on the research that identifies specific gastrointestinal (GI pathology and methods of shot boundary detection.

  20. Resource optimized TTSH-URA for multimedia stream authentication in swallowable-capsule-based wireless body sensor networks. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Chunqiu; Zhao, Min


    To ease the burdens on the hospitalization capacity, an emerging swallowable-capsule technology has evolved to serve as a remote gastrointestinal (GI) disease examination technique with the aid of the wireless body sensor network (WBSN). Secure multimedia transmission in such a swallowable-capsule-based WBSN faces critical challenges including energy efficiency and content quality guarantee. In this paper, we propose a joint resource allocation and stream authentication scheme to maintain the best possible video quality while ensuring security and energy efficiency in GI-WBSNs. The contribution of this research is twofold. First, we establish a unique signature-hash (S-H) diversity approach in the authentication domain to optimize video authentication robustness and the authentication bit rate overhead over a wireless channel. Based on the full exploration of S-H authentication diversity, we propose a new two-tier signature-hash (TTSH) stream authentication scheme to improve the video quality by reducing authentication dependence overhead while protecting its integrity. Second, we propose to combine this authentication scheme with a unique S-H oriented unequal resource allocation (URA) scheme to improve the energy-distortion-authentication performance of wireless video delivery in GI-WBSN. Our analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed TTSH with URA scheme achieves considerable gain in both authenticated video quality and energy efficiency.

  1. NASPGHAN Capsule Endoscopy Clinical Report. (United States)

    Friedlander, Joel A; Liu, Quin Y; Sahn, Benjamin; Kooros, Koorosh; Walsh, Catharine M; Kramer, Robert E; Lightdale, Jenifer R; Khlevner, Julie; McOmber, Mark; Kurowski, Jacob; Giefer, Matthew J; Pall, Harpreet; Troendle, David M; Utterson, Elizabeth C; Brill, Herbert; Zacur, George M; Lirio, Richard A; Lerner, Diana G; Reynolds, Carrie; Gibbons, Troy E; Wilsey, Michael; Liacouras, Chris A; Fishman, Douglas S


    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 as a less invasive method to visualize the distal small bowel in adults. Because this technology has advanced it has been adapted for use in pediatric gastroenterology. Several studies have described its clinical use, utility, and various training methods but pediatric literature regarding CE is limited. This clinical report developed by the Endoscopic and Procedures Committee of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition outlines the current literature, and describes the recommended current role, use, training, and future areas of research for CE in pediatrics.

  2. Reproducibility of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy in the Investigation of Chronic Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Christodoulou


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE is a valuable tool in the diagnostic evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but limited information is available on the reproducibility of CE findings.

  3. [Diagnostic yield of the endoscopic capsule and their impact in the clinical outcome]. (United States)

    Benavente Montoya, Mónica; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a promising diagnostic method that evaluates gastrointestinal tract in all extension. If it is used in the correct patient, it is safe, noninvasive, tolerated very well. The CE is an important element in the diagnostic of diseases of the small bowel, specially in diagnostic of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the diagnostic yield and clinical outcome after CE in HNERM (Lima, Peru). It is a retrospective study between January 2004 and January 2007. We reviewed specific interventions before and after CE and were noted. Forty five CE were obtained, were excluded 4 from them. Fifty six percent (23/41). The first indication to CE was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding with 85.4% (35/41), followed by diarrhea plus anemia 7.3% (3/41),chronic diarrhea with 4.9% (2/41) abdominal pain with 2.4% (1/41). The average duration of symptoms and signs before making the CE was of 20.8 months. The most frequent findings were: flebectasias, active bleeding, erosions, parasites, ulcers, and angiodisplasias. Positive findings were 29% (12/41), suspicious findings were 29%, too. Overall diagnostic yield was 58.5% (24/41). The diagnostic yield of each indication was: obscure overt gastrointestinal bleeding 65% (13/20), obscure occult gastrointestinal bleeding 60% (9/15), abdominal pain 0% (0/1) and diarrea 50% (1/2). The best evolution was in positive CE (75% vs 33% p=0.03). The overall diagnostic yield was 59% and the evolution was better when we obtain some result in the CE. The prospective following is necessary to evaluate long term outcome of the patients after the obtained result and of the established treatment.

  4. A resource-efficient tool for training novices in wireless capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Brock, Andrew S; Freeman, Janice; Roberts, Jason; Dantzler, Todd E; Hoffman, Brenda J


    Nurses often function as capsule endoscopy "pre-readers" to save physicians' time and potentially increase diagnostic yield. Training pre-readers is time consuming, not standardized, and may not be feasible during regular business hours. A way to evaluate the progress and accuracy of pre-readers is needed to ensure competency. The aim of this study was to introduce a feedback and progress assessment tool for training novice capsule endoscopy pre-readers. We created a 1-page form with listings of potential findings for each segment of the examination. Findings could be circled or written in. The trainee reviewed capsule studies and filled out the form on each of 220 patients. The physician reviewers subsequently critiqued the data forms, providing feedback regarding missed lesions, overcalls, and overall agreement. Our trainee achieved consistent agreement with the physician reviewers, after reading 80 studies. In conclusion, a simple, 1-page standardized data sheet can be used to facilitate training of novice capsule pre-readers without significant time commitment from the supervising physician. Future studies may validate this resource-efficient instrument as a training and assessment tool for nurses, physicians, and other practitioners learning capsule endoscopy.

  5. Wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation using an unsupervised learning approach based on probabilistic latent semantic analysis with scale invariant features. (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Guturu, Parthasarathy Partha; Buckles, Bill P


    Since wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a novel technology for recording the videos of the digestive tract of a patient, the problem of segmenting the WCE video of the digestive tract into subvideos corresponding to the entrance, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine regions is not well addressed in the literature. A selected few papers addressing this problem follow supervised leaning approaches that presume availability of a large database of correctly labeled training samples. Considering the difficulties in procuring sizable WCE training data sets needed for achieving high classification accuracy, we introduce in this paper an unsupervised learning approach that employs Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for extraction of local image features and the probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) model used in the linguistic content analysis for data clustering. Results of experimentation indicate that this method compares well in classification accuracy with the state-of-the-art supervised classification approaches to WCE video segmentation.

  6. A two-hop wireless power transfer system with an efficiency-enhanced power receiver for motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection. (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Zhihua


    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system for a motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection. Conventionally, a wireless power transmitter in a specifically designed jacket has to be connected to a strong power source with a long cable. To avoid the power cable and allow patients to walk freely in a room, this paper proposes a two-hop wireless power transfer system. First, power is transferred from a floor to a power relay in the patient's jacket via strong coupling. Next, power is delivered from the power relay to the capsule via loose coupling. Besides making patients much more conformable, the proposed techniques eliminate the sources of reliability issues arisen from the moving cable and connectors. In the capsule, it is critical to enhance the power conversion efficiency. This paper develops a switch-mode rectifier (rectifying efficiency of 93.6%) and a power combination circuit (enhances combining efficiency by 18%). Thanks to the two-hop transfer mechanism and the novel circuit techniques, this system is able to transfer an average power of 24 mW and a peak power of 90 mW from the floor to a 13 mm × 27 mm capsule over a distance of 1 m with the maximum dc-to-dc power efficiency of 3.04%.

  7. Lossless and Low-Power Image Compressor for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Hasan Khan


    Full Text Available We present a lossless and low-complexity image compression algorithm for endoscopic images. The algorithm consists of a static prediction scheme and a combination of golomb-rice and unary encoding. It does not require any buffer memory and is suitable to work with any commercial low-power image sensors that output image pixels in raster-scan fashion. The proposed lossless algorithm has compression ratio of approximately 73% for endoscopic images. Compared to the existing lossless compression standard such as JPEG-LS, the proposed scheme has better compression ratio, lower computational complexity, and lesser memory requirement. The algorithm is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology and consumes 0.16 mm × 0.16 mm silicon area and 18 μW of power when working at 2 frames per second.

  8. Mobile-Cloud Assisted Video Summarization Framework for Efficient Management of Remote Sensing Data Generated by Wireless Capsule Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mehmood


    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data.

  9. Medical capsule robots: A renaissance for diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. (United States)

    Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B


    The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been

  10. Automatic small bowel tumor diagnosis by using multi-scale wavelet-based analysis in wireless capsule endoscopy images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Daniel C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless capsule endoscopy has been introduced as an innovative, non-invasive diagnostic technique for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract, reaching places where conventional endoscopy is unable to. However, the output of this technique is an 8 hours video, whose analysis by the expert physician is very time consuming. Thus, a computer assisted diagnosis tool to help the physicians to evaluate CE exams faster and more accurately is an important technical challenge and an excellent economical opportunity. Method The set of features proposed in this paper to code textural information is based on statistical modeling of second order textural measures extracted from co-occurrence matrices. To cope with both joint and marginal non-Gaussianity of second order textural measures, higher order moments are used. These statistical moments are taken from the two-dimensional color-scale feature space, where two different scales are considered. Second and higher order moments of textural measures are computed from the co-occurrence matrices computed from images synthesized by the inverse wavelet transform of the wavelet transform containing only the selected scales for the three color channels. The dimensionality of the data is reduced by using Principal Component Analysis. Results The proposed textural features are then used as the input of a classifier based on artificial neural networks. Classification performances of 93.1% specificity and 93.9% sensitivity are achieved on real data. These promising results open the path towards a deeper study regarding the applicability of this algorithm in computer aided diagnosis systems to assist physicians in their clinical practice.

  11. Pneumoperitoneum after Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography due to Rupture of Intrahepatic Bile Ducts and Glisson’s Capsule in Hepatic Metastasis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Khan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP has been proven to be a safe and effective method for diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic disorders. Major complications of ERCP include pancreatitis, hemorrhage, cholangitis, and duodenal perforation. We report a third case in literature of pneumoperitoneum after ERCP due to rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts and Glisson’s capsule in a peripheral hepatic lesion. Case Report: A 50-year-old male with a history of metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and who had a partially covered metallic stent placed in the biliary tree 1 year ago presented to the oncology clinic with fatigue, abdominal pain, and hypotension. He was planned for ERCP for possible cholangitis secondary to obstructed previously placed biliary stent. However, the duodenoscope could not be advanced to the level of the major papilla because of narrowed pylorus and severely strictured duodenal sweep. Forward-view gastroscope was then passed with careful manipulation to the severely narrowed second part of the duodenum where the previously placed metallic stent was visualized. Balloon sweeping of stenting was done. Cholangiography did not show any leak. Following the procedure, the patient underwent CT scan of the abdomen that showed pneumoperitoneum which was communicating with pneumobilia through a loculated air collection in necrotic hepatic metastasis perforating Glisson’s capsule. The patient was managed conservatively. Conclusion: In our case, pneumoperitoneum resulted from rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts and Glisson’s capsule in hepatic metastasis. This case emphasizes the need for close clinical and radiological observation of patients with hepatic masses (primary or metastatic subjected to ERCP.

  12. Impact of a Multidisciplinary Round Visit for the Management of Dysphagia Utilizing a Wi-Fi-Based Wireless Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. (United States)

    Sakakura, Koichi; Tazawa, Masayuki; Otani, Natsuko; Takagi, Masato; Morita, Mariko; Kurosaki, Minori; Chiyoda, Tomoko; Kanai, Yuri; Endo, Ayaka; Murata, Takaaki; Shino, Masato; Yokobori, Yuki; Shirakura, Kenji; Wada, Naoki; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki


    The management of dysphagia requires a multidisciplinary approach, especially in large-scale hospitals. We introduce a novel protocol using a Wi-Fi-based flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) system and aim to verify its effectiveness in evaluation and rehabilitation of inpatients with dysphagia. We conducted novel Wi-Fi-based FEES at the bedside using 3 iPads as monitors and recorders. Functional outcomes of swallowing in 2 different hospitals for acute care with conventional wired or wireless FEES were compared retrospectively. Using the wireless system, we could visit more patients in a short period of time. Furthermore, a large multidisciplinary team was able to be present at the bedside, which made it easy to hold discussions and rapidly devise appropriate rehabilitation strategies. Aspiration pneumonia recurred in a few cases following our intervention with wireless FEES. Functional oral intake score was significantly increased following the intervention. Moreover, the number of deaths during hospitalization using wireless FEES evaluation was lower than those observed using the conventional system. Wi-Fi-based wireless FEES system, the first of its kind, allowed our multidisciplinary team to easily and effectively assess inpatients with dysphagia by facilitating simple examinations and intensive transprofessional discussions for patient rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A randomized comparison of laparoscopic, flexible endoscopic, and wired and wireless magnetic cameras on ex vivo and in vivo NOTES surgical performance. (United States)

    Chang, Victoria C; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Swain, C Paul; Bergs, Richard; Paramo, Juan; Hogg, Deborah C; Fernandez, Raul; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Scott, Daniel J


    The influence of endoscopic video camera (VC) image quality on surgical performance has not been studied. Flexible endoscopes are used as substitutes for laparoscopes in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), but their optics are originally designed for intralumenal use. Manipulable wired or wireless independent VCs might offer advantages for NOTES but are still under development. To measure the optical characteristics of 4 VC systems and to compare their impact on the performance of surgical suturing tasks. VC systems included a laparoscope (Storz 10 mm), a flexible endoscope (Olympus GIF 160), and 2 prototype deployable cameras (magnetic anchoring and guidance system [MAGS] Camera and PillCam). In a randomized fashion, the 4 systems were evaluated regarding standardized optical characteristics and surgical manipulations of previously validated ex vivo (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery model) and in vivo (live porcine Nissen model) tasks; objective metrics (time and errors/precision) and combined surgeon (n = 2) performance were recorded. Subtle differences were detected for color tests, and field of view was variable (65°-115°). Suitable resolution was detected up to 10 cm for the laparoscope and MAGS camera but only at closer distances for the endoscope and PillCam. Compared with the laparoscope, surgical suturing performances were modestly lower for the MAGS camera and significantly lower for the endoscope (ex vivo) and PillCam (ex vivo and in vivo). This study documented distinct differences in VC systems that may be used for NOTES in terms of both optical characteristics and surgical performance. Additional work is warranted to optimize cameras for NOTES. Deployable systems may be especially well suited for this purpose.

  14. Reduction of capsule endoscopy reading times by unsupervised image mining. (United States)

    Iakovidis, D K; Tsevas, S; Polydorou, A


    The screening of the small intestine has become painless and easy with wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) that is a revolutionary, relatively non-invasive imaging technique performed by a wireless swallowable endoscopic capsule transmitting thousands of video frames per examination. The average time required for the visual inspection of a full 8-h WCE video ranges from 45 to 120min, depending on the experience of the examiner. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to WCE reading time reduction by unsupervised mining of video frames. The proposed methodology is based on a data reduction algorithm which is applied according to a novel scheme for the extraction of representative video frames from a full length WCE video. It can be used either as a video summarization or as a video bookmarking tool, providing the comparative advantage of being general, unbounded by the finiteness of a training set. The number of frames extracted is controlled by a parameter that can be tuned automatically. Comprehensive experiments on real WCE videos indicate that a significant reduction in the reading times is feasible. In the case of the WCE videos used this reduction reached 85% without any loss of abnormalities.

  15. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy (United States)

    Scott, Ryan


    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  16. Capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard


    with ultrasound, MRI, and subsequently a capsule endoscopy. Six months later, the patient presented, and an abdominal CT-scan showed mechanical small bowel obstruction with suspicion of metallic foreign body and perforation. Laparotomy showed perforation, stenosis, and foreign body, approximately 5 cm from...... of capsule retention, especially in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease, due to the propensity of Crohn's disease to form stenosis of the bowel. In cases where a stenosis is suspected, it is warranted to perform a patency capsule swallow before subjecting the patient to a capsule endoscopy....

  17. opened capsule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the opened capsule method is bioequivalent to a proprietary formulation approved by regulatory agencies. In the future, paediatric fixed-drug combination (FDC) antiretroviral formulations will greatly accelerate the roll-out of antiretrovirals to children in rural resource-limited settings. However, no paediatric antiretroviral ...

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound (United States)

    ... page: // Endoscopic ultrasound To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endoscopic ultrasound is a type of imaging test. It is ...

  19. Capsule Endoscopy: New Technology, Old Complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new tool in the armamentarium of the gastroenterologist to evaluate the small bowel non-invasively. It allows improved diagnostic yield with low complication rates relative to traditional modalities. But this new technology has its own set of complications, some which can lead to significant ...

  20. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; van Dyk, G. E.; Scholten, P. E.; Kort, N. P.


    Endoscopic calcaneoplasty offers access to the retrocalcaneal space, thereby making it possible to remove inflamed retrocalcaneal bursa as well as the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus in applicable cases of painful hindfoot. In this study, endoscopic calcaneoplasty was performed in 21

  1. Endoscopic tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulvahap Akyigit


    Full Text Available Middle ear surgery is usually performed using a surgical microscope. Initially, in otorhinolaryngology practice, endoscopes were used for paranasal sinus surgeries. It was only later that they were applied in the area of otology. In otologic surgeries, endoscopes were first used to visualize the middle ear, before being used to assist with visualization of instruments during cholesteatoma surgeries, although they are still not used alone in various otologic surgeries. As in other surgical fields, there is also a trend towards minimally invasive intervention in the field of otorhinolaryngology. Smaller incisions performed under the guidance of endoscopes are preferred over conventional large incisions. Using this approach, improved outcomes can be achieved and postoperative morbidities can be reduced. In addition, the outcomes of grafts performed using the endoscopic approach are similar to that achieved by the microscopic approach. Therefore, endoscopic ear surgery implementations are becoming increasingly popular.

  2. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...

  3. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 5, 1991 ... An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and e'ndoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis.

  4. An Automated Self-Learning Quantification System to Identify Visible Areas in Capsule Endoscopy Images. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Suenaga, Masato; Fujita, Yusuke; Terai, Shuji; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Sakaida, Isao


    Visibility in capsule endoscopic images is presently evaluated through intermittent analysis of frames selected by a physician. It is thus subjective and not quantitative. A method to automatically quantify the visibility on capsule endoscopic images has not been reported. Generally, when designing automated image recognition programs, physicians must provide a training image; this process is called supervised learning. We aimed to develop a novel automated self-learning quantification system to identify visible areas on capsule endoscopic images. The technique was developed using 200 capsule endoscopic images retrospectively selected from each of three patients. The rate of detection of visible areas on capsule endoscopic images between a supervised learning program, using training images labeled by a physician, and our novel automated self-learning program, using unlabeled training images without intervention by a physician, was compared. The rate of detection of visible areas was equivalent for the supervised learning program and for our automatic self-learning program. The visible areas automatically identified by self-learning program correlated to the areas identified by an experienced physician. We developed a novel self-learning automated program to identify visible areas in capsule endoscopic images.

  5. Papel da cápsula endoscópica na reclassificação da doença inflamatória intestinal em crianças Role of wireless capsule endoscopy in reclassifying inflammatory bowel disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Ouahed


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da cápsula endoscópica na identificação de lesões no intestino delgado em pacientes pediátricos com DII inespecífica (DIII diagnosticada recentemente e avaliar se os achados da cápsula endoscópica resultam em alterações no tratamento dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Dez pacientes pediátricos recém-diagnosticados com DIII por meio de investigações padrão foram recrutados da clínica de gastroenterologia pediátrica no McMaster Children's Hospital, para serem submetidos a exame com a cápsula endoscópica Pillcam SB TM (Given Imaging. Achados compatíveis com o diagnóstico da doença de Crohn exigiram a identificação de pelo menos três ulcerações. RESULTADOS: De 10 pacientes, três apresentaram achados novos com a cápsula endoscópica que satisfizeram o critério para a doença de Crohn. Outros três apresentaram achados com suspeita de doença de Crohn, porém não atenderam nossos critérios de diagnóstico. Apresentaram achados mais compatíveis com colite ulcerativa outros três pacientes, e um apresentava possível gastrite com intestino normal. Os achados da cápsula endoscópica possibilitaram mudanças no tratamento médico de três pacientes. Em todos os dez casos, a cápsula endoscópica permitiu uma melhor caracterização do tipo e da extensão da doença. Não houve resultado adverso em nossa coorte. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo prospectivo revela que a cápsula endoscópica é viável, útil e não invasiva, que oferece a possibilidade de melhor caracterização de casos de DIII pediátricos recém-diagnosticados ao identificar lesões no intestino delgado e reclassificá-las como doença de Crohn.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of wireless capsule endoscopy in identifying small bowel lesions in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD type unclassified (IBDU, and to assess whether capsule endoscopy findings result in altered patient management. METHODS: Ten

  6. Design of wormlike automated robotic endoscope: dynamic interaction between endoscopic balloon and surrounding tissues. (United States)

    Poon, Carmen C Y; Leung, Billy; Chan, Cecilia K W; Lau, James Y W; Chiu, Philip W Y


    The current design of capsule endoscope is limited by the inability to control the motion within gastrointestinal tract. The rising incidence of gastrointestinal cancers urged improvement in the method of screening endoscopy. This preclinical study aimed to design and develop a novel locomotive module for capsule endoscope. We investigated the feasibility and physical properties of this newly designed caterpillar-like capsule endoscope with a view to enhancing screening endoscopy. This study consisted of preclinical design and experimental testing on the feasibility of automated locomotion for a prototype caterpillar endoscope. The movement was examined first in the PVC tube and then in porcine intestine. The image captured was transmitted to handheld device to confirm the control of movement. The balloon pressure and volume as well as the contact force between the balloon and surroundings were measured when the balloon was inflated inside (1) a hard PVC tube, (2) a soft PVC tube, (3) muscular sites of porcine colons and (4) less muscular sites of porcine colons. The prototype caterpillar endoscope was able to move inward and backward within the PVC tubing and porcine intestine. Images were able to be captured from the capsule endoscope attached and being observed with a handheld device. Using the onset of a contact force as indication of the buildup of the gripping force between the balloon and the lumen walls, it is concluded from the results of this study that the rate of change in balloon pressure and volume is two good estimators to optimize the inflation of the balloon. The results of this study will facilitate further refinement in the design of caterpillar robotic endoscope to move inside the GI tract.

  7. Electromagnetic Control System for Capsule Navigation: Novel Concept for Magnetic Capsule Maneuvering and Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Lucarini, Gioia; Mura, Marco; Ciuti, Gastone; Rizzo, Rocco; Menciassi, Arianna

    The gastrointestinal tract is home of some of the most deadly human diseases. The main problems are related to the difficulty of accessing it for diagnosis or intervention and concomitant patient discomfort. The flexible endoscopy technique has established itself in medical practice due to its high diagnostic accuracy and reliability; however, several technical limitations still remain and the procedure is poorly tolerated by patients. The use of magnetic fields to control and steer endoscopic capsules is increasing in minimally invasive procedures. In fact, magnetic coupling is one of the few physical phenomena capable of transmitting motion beyond a physical barrier, allowing for the compact design of the device itself. In this framework, the authors present the preliminary design and assessment of a magnetic coupling for magnetic endoscopic capsules considering an electromagnetic approach. In particular, a novel toroidal electromagnet is proposed as the control and driving system. The system concept, design, and preliminary results are reported.

  8. A Near-Lossless Image Compression Algorithm Suitable for Hardware Design in Wireless Endoscopy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiang


    Full Text Available In order to decrease the communication bandwidth and save the transmitting power in the wireless endoscopy capsule, this paper presents a new near-lossless image compression algorithm based on the Bayer format image suitable for hardware design. This algorithm can provide low average compression rate ( bits/pixel with high image quality (larger than dB for endoscopic images. Especially, it has low complexity hardware overhead (only two line buffers and supports real-time compressing. In addition, the algorithm can provide lossless compression for the region of interest (ROI and high-quality compression for other regions. The ROI can be selected arbitrarily by varying ROI parameters. In addition, the VLSI architecture of this compression algorithm is also given out. Its hardware design has been implemented in m CMOS process.

  9. Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications. (United States)

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Liu, Jingwei; Kwak, Kyungsup


    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in healthcare applications is growing in a fast pace. Numerous applications such as heart rate monitor, blood pressure monitor and endoscopic capsule are already in use. To address the growing use of sensor technology in this area, a new field known as wireless body area networks (WBAN or simply BAN) has emerged. As most devices and their applications are wireless in nature, security and privacy concerns are among major areas of concern. Due to direct involvement of humans also increases the sensitivity. Whether the data gathered from patients or individuals are obtained with the consent of the person or without it due to the need by the system, misuse or privacy concerns may restrict people from taking advantage of the full benefits from the system. People may not see these devices safe for daily use. There may also possibility of serious social unrest due to the fear that such devices may be used for monitoring and tracking individuals by government agencies or other private organizations. In this paper we discuss these issues and analyze in detail the problems and their possible measures.

  10. Capsule colonoscopy increases uptake of colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening colonoscopy effectiveness is hampered by limited adherence by the general population. The present prospective study was performed to evaluate whether adding capsule colonoscopy to the endoscopic screening options increases uptake. Methods Invitation letters were sent to 2150 persons above the age of 55 insured with a German medical insurance company in the area of Rinteln, Lower Saxony with a baseline spontaneous annual screening colonoscopy uptake of 1 %. Both capsule or conventional colonoscopy were offered. Interested persons were given information about the two screening options by four local gastroenterologists and examinations were then performed according to screenees’ final choice. Results 154 persons sought further information, and 34 and 90 underwent conventional and capsule colonoscopy, respectively. Colonoscopy uptake was thus increased by the invitation process by 60 % (1.6 % vs. 1 %; p = 0.075, while the option of capsule endoscopy led to a fourfold increase of screening uptake (4.2 % vs. 1 %, p  Conclusions The present study suggests that offering the option of capsule colonoscopy increases uptake of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening. However, capsule endoscopy sensitivity for adenoma detection needs to be improved.

  11. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Milanko


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intensive epiphora (lacrimal apparatus disease can make difficult daily routine and cause ocular refraction disturbances. In most cases ethiology is unknown, rarely occurs after nose surgical procedures, face fractures, in Wegener granulomatosis, sarcoidosis and malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of endonasal endoscopic surgical procedure with the conventional surgical instruments in treatment of nasolacrimal obstructions. Methods. This retrospective study included 12 female patients with endonasal endoscopic surgical procedure from Otorhinological and Ophtalmological Departments of Military Medical Academy, Belgrade from September 2007 to April 2009. Preoperative nasal endoscopy was performed in order to reveal concomitant pathological conditions and anatomic anomalies which could make surgical procedure impossible. Computerized tomography was performed only in suspect nose diseases. Surgical endonasal endoscopic procedure was performed by otorhinolaryngologist and ophtalmologist in all patients. The patients had regular controls from 2 to 20 months. Results. A total of 12 female patients, age 34-83 years, were included in our study. Epiphora was a dominant symptom in all patients. In two patients deviation of nasal septum was found, and in other one conha bulosa at the same side as chronic dacryocystitis. All patients were subjected to endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR by endoscopic surgical technique using conventional instruments. Concomitantly with DCR septoplastics in two patients and lateral lamictetomy in one patient were performed. There were no complications intraoperatively as well as in the immediate postoperative course. In two patients the need for reoperation occurred. Conclusion. Endoscopic DCR is minimally invasive and efficacious procedure for nasolacrymal obstructions performed by otorhinolaryngologist and ophtalmologist. Postoperative recovery is very fast.

  12. Two years' experience of using the Bravo wireless oesophageal pH monitoring system at a single UK tertiary centre. (United States)

    Rao, Nagendra M; Campbell, David I; Rao, Prithviraj


    The Bravo wireless pH monitoring system enables oesophageal pH to be monitored in children intolerant to nasal catheters and records measurements over 48 hours. This study aimed to document the minimum child weight that enabled successful capsule placement and any associated complications. We also compared the diagnostic sensitivity of 48 hours versus 24 hours. We included 203 consecutive patients (122 male children) with clinically documented or suspected reflux symptoms. The age range was two years to 19 years, and the minimum weight was 9.29 kg. The pH capsule was deployed endoscopically under general anaesthetic. Recordings taken over 24 and 48 hours were compared to determine the frequency of differences and correlations in the reflux index and DeMeester scores. Testing using the detached probe was successful in 190 children (93.6%) with weight as low as 9.29 kg, with no side effects, with failed deployment being the most frequent problem. Clinically different results in the reflux index were found in 16% of the children's day 1 or day 2 readings (p < 0.0001), suggesting the benefit of 48-hour measurements. Measuring oesophageal pH with the Bravo wireless pH monitoring system was successful in 93.6% of cases. A 48-hour test improved the detection rate of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease by 16%. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Endoscopic case


    Pereira, Fernando


    We present the case of a ten-year-old female patient referred to Gastroenterolgy consultation for abdominal pain and cramping, usually worse after eating, recurring diarrhoea, hypochromic and microcytic anaemia with low serum iron and ferritin levels. Moderate to severe Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum e right colon (L3) was diagnosed, based on endoscopic image and biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, but after one year of treatment she was steroids dependent...

  14. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy: sounding out the future. (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin F; Stewart, Fraser; Lay, Holly; Cummins, Gerard; Newton, Ian P; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Steele, Robert J C; Näthke, Inke; Cochran, Sandy


    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been of immense benefit in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders since its introduction in 2001. However, it suffers from a number of well recognized deficiencies. Amongst these is the limited capability of white light imaging, which is restricted to analysis of the mucosal surface. Current capsule endoscopes are dependent on visual manifestation of disease and limited in regards to transmural imaging and detection of deeper pathology. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy (USCE) has the potential to overcome surface only imaging and provide transmural scans of the GI tract. The integration of high frequency microultrasound (µUS) into capsule endoscopy would allow high resolution transmural images and provide a means of both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the bowel wall. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can provide data in an objective and measurable manner, potentially reducing lengthy interpretation times by incorporation into an automated diagnostic process. The research described here is focused on the development of USCE and other complementary diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Presently investigations have entered a preclinical phase with laboratory investigations running concurrently.

  15. Guideline for wireless capsule endoscopy in children and adolescents: a consensus document by the SEGHNP (Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the SEPD (Spanish Society for Digestive Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Argüelles-Arias


    Full Text Available Introduction: Capsule endoscopy (CE in children has limitations based mainly on age. The objective of this consensus was reviewing the scientific evidence. Material and methods: Some experts from the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology (SEPD and Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (SEGHNP were invited to answer different issues about CE in children. These sections were: a Indications, contraindications and limitations; b efficacy of CE in different clinical scenarios; c CE performance; d CE-related complications; e Patency capsule; and f colon capsule endoscopy. They reviewed relevant questions on each topic. Results: The main indication is Crohn's disease (CD. There is no contraindication for the age and in the event that the patient not to swallow it, it should be administered under deep sedation with endoscopy and specific device. The CE is useful in CD, for the management of OGIB in children and in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (in this indication has the most effectiveness. The main complication is retention, which should be specially taken into account in cases of CD already diagnosed with malnutrition. A preparation regimen based on a low volume of polyethylene glycol (PEG the day before plus simethicone on the same day is the best one in terms of cleanliness although does not improve the results of the CE procedure. Conclusions: CE is safe and useful in children. Indications are similar to those of adults, the main one is CD to establish both a diagnosis and disease extension. Moreover, only few limitations are detected in children.

  16. Indications of capsule endoscopy in Crohn´s disease. (United States)

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique


    Capsule endoscopy currently plays a relevant role for Crohn´s disease. This manuscript will discuss the current indications and practical uses of capsule endoscopy in this disease. It is a non-invasive technique that represents a significant advance in the endoscopic diagnosis of small bowel conditions. These circumstances, together with its diagnostic yield and excellent tolerability, make it considerably acceptable by both patients and physicians. This paper discusses the current evidence on the specific circumstances where capsule endoscopy may be indicated for three specific scenarios: Suspected Crohn´s disease, indeterminate colitis, and established Crohn´s disease, where it plays an extensive role. Furthermore, the impact and implications of capsule endoscopy results for follow-up are reviewed. These recommendations must be interpreted and applied in the setting of the integral, individual management of these patients. Understanding its appropriate use in daily clinical practice and an analysis of results may define endoscopic scoring systems to assess activity and mucosal healing in this condition. The present role of capsule endoscopy for Crohn´s disease is subject to ongoing review, and appropriate usage uncovers novel applications likely to result in relevant changes for the future management of these patients.

  17. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video (United States)

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Sulík, Lukáš; Bureš, Jan; Krejcar, Ondřej


    We propose two automatic methods for detecting bleeding in wireless capsule endoscopy videos of the small intestine. The first one uses solely the color information, whereas the second one incorporates the assumptions about the blood spot shape and size. The original idea is namely the definition of a new color space that provides good separability of blood pixels and intestinal wall. Both methods can be applied either individually or their results can be fused together for the final decision. We evaluate their individual performance and various fusion rules on real data, manually annotated by an endoscopist.

  18. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  19. Endoscopic case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pereira


    Full Text Available We present the case of a ten-year-old female patient referred to Gastroenterolgy consultation for abdominal pain and cramping, usually worse after eating, recurring diarrhoea, hypochromic and microcytic anaemia with low serum iron and ferritin levels. Moderate to severe Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum e right colon (L3 was diagnosed, based on endoscopic image and biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, but after one year of treatment she was steroids dependent and treatment was switched to infliximab. One year after beginning this treatment, the patient achieved remission (clinical and laboratorial parameters. A control colonoscopy showed mucosal healing with scars and deformation with stenosis of ileocecal valve (Figures 1-2. Surgical intervention will be probably necessary in near future.

  20. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN


    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  1. Video capsule endoscopy: Perspectives of a revolutionary technique (United States)

    Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre


    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

  2. Smartphone-Based Endoscope System for Advanced Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Bae, Jung Kweon; Vavilin, Andrey; You, Joon S; Kim, Hyeongeun; Ryu, Seon Young; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu


    Endoscopic technique is often applied for the diagnosis of diseases affecting internal organs and image-guidance of surgical procedures. Although the endoscope has become an indispensable tool in the clinic, its utility has been limited to medical offices or operating rooms because of the large size of its ancillary devices. In addition, the basic design and imaging capability of the system have remained relatively unchanged for decades. The objective of this study was to develop a smartphone-based endoscope system capable of advanced endoscopic functionalities in a compact size and at an affordable cost and to demonstrate its feasibility of point-of-care through human subject imaging. We developed and designed to set up a smartphone-based endoscope system, incorporating a portable light source, relay-lens, custom adapter, and homebuilt Android app. We attached three different types of existing rigid or flexible endoscopic probes to our system and captured the endoscopic images using the homebuilt app. Both smartphone-based endoscope system and commercialized clinical endoscope system were utilized to compare the imaging quality and performance. Connecting the head-mounted display (HMD) wirelessly, the smartphone-based endoscope system could superimpose an endoscopic image to real-world view. A total of 15 volunteers who were accepted into our study were captured using our smartphone-based endoscope system, as well as the commercialized clinical endoscope system. It was found that the imaging performance of our device had acceptable quality compared with that of the conventional endoscope system in the clinical setting. In addition, images captured from the HMD used in the smartphone-based endoscope system improved eye-hand coordination between the manipulating site and the smartphone screen, which in turn reduced spatial disorientation. The performance of our endoscope system was evaluated against a commercial system in routine otolaryngology examinations. We also

  3. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.


    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  4. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules (United States)

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien


    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  5. Wireless Networks


    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.


    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  6. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho


    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  7. Small-Bowel Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Suspected Crohn's Disease—Diagnostic Value and Complications (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Lopes, Sandra; Duque, Gabriela; Freire, Paulo; Lérias, Clotilde; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos


    Background. The aim of this work was to assess the value of capsule enteroscopy in the diagnosis of patients with suspected Crohn's Disease (CD). Methods. This was a retrospective study in a single tertiary care centre involving patients undergoing capsule enteroscopy for suspected CD. Patients taking nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs during the thirty preceding days or with a follow-up period of less than six months were excluded. Results. Seventy eight patients were included. The endoscopic findings included mucosal breaks in 50%, ulcerated stenosis in 5%, and villous atrophy in 4%. The diagnosis of CD was established in 31 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the endoscopic findings were 93%, 80%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. Capsule retention occurred in four patients (5%). The presence of ulcerated stenosis was significantly more frequent in patients with positive inflammatory markers. The diagnostic yield of capsule enteroscopy in patients with negative ileoscopy was 56%, with a diagnostic acuity of 93%. Conclusions. Small bowel capsule endoscopy is a safe and valid technique for assessing patients with suspected CD. Capsule retention is more frequent in patients with positive inflammatory markers. Patients with negative ileoscopy and suspected CD should be submitted to capsule enteroscopy. PMID:20811612

  8. Are Current Advances of Compression Algorithms for Capsule Endoscopy Enough? A Technical Review. (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Wajih; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Mohammed, Shahed Khan; Deeba, Farah; Wahid, Khan A


    The recent technological advances in capsule endoscopy system has revolutionized the healthcare system by introducing new techniques and functionalities in the system to diagnose entire gastrointestinal tract which resulted in better diagnostic accuracy, reducing hospitalization, and improving its clinical outcome. Although many benefits of present capsule endoscopy are known, there are still significant drawbacks with respect to conventional endoscope system including size, battery life, bandwidth, image quality and higher frame rate, which has restricted its wide use. In order to solve the problem related to current capsule endoscope, the importance of a low-cost and low-power compression algorithm, that produces higher frame rate with better image quality but lower bandwidth and transmission power, is paramount. While several review papers have been published describing the capability of capsule endoscope in terms of its functionality and emerging features, an extensive review on the compression algorithms from the past and for the future is still required. Hence, in this review paper, we aim to address the issue by exploring the specific characteristics of endoscopic images, summarizing useful compression techniques with in-depth analysis and finally making suggestions for possible future adaptation.

  9. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  10. Chromoendoscopy in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy (United States)


    Background Diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia via conventional endoscopy is characterized by low interobserver agreement and poor correlation with histopathologic findings. Chromoendoscopy significantly enhances the visibility of mucosa irregularities, like metaplasia and dysplasia mucosa. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) offers an alternative technology for upper GI examination. We expect the difficulties of diagnosis of neoplasm in conventional endoscopy to transfer to MGCE. Thus, we aim to chart a path for the application of chromoendoscopy on MGCE via an ex-vivo animal study. Methods We propose a modified preparation protocol which adds a staining step to the existing MGCE preparation protocol. An optimal staining concentration is quantitatively determined for different stain types and pathologies. To that end 190 pig stomach tissue samples with and without lesion imitations were stained with different dye concentrations. Quantitative visual criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the staining with respect to mucosa and lesion visibility. Thusly determined optimal concentrations are tested in an ex-vivo pig stomach experiment under magnetic guidance of an endoscopic capsule with the modified protocol. Results We found that the proposed protocol modification does not impact the visibility in the stomach or steerability of the endoscopy capsule. An average optimal staining concentration for the proposed protocol was found at 0.4% for Methylene blue and Indigo carmine. The lesion visibility is improved using the previously obtained optimal dye concentration. Conclusions We conclude that chromoendoscopy may be applied in MGCE and improves mucosa and lesion visibility. Systematic evaluation provides important information on appropriate staining concentration. However, further animal and human in-vivo studies are necessary. PMID:23758801

  11. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL


    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  12. Sweat collection capsule (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)


    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  13. Small Bowel Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Detected by Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Igawa


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC to the small bowel that presented as a pedunculated epithelial polyp. A 60-year-old man with liver cirrhosis type B was treated for HCC (stage IVb at our hospital. He had been admitted for melena and anemia. Capsule endoscopy was performed in this patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It showed a polypoid lesion with bleeding in the ileum. Double-balloon endoscopy was performed. The lesion was determined to be a pedunculated polyp in the ileum. Histological examination of biopsy specimens showed tumor cells resembling HCC. We performed endoscopic mucosal resection for the lesion by double-balloon endoscopy to prevent bleeding from the tumor. The patient had no melena or anemia and his condition improved after endoscopic mucosal resection. However, he died of liver failure 2 months later.

  14. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Aabakken, Lars [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway)


    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  15. Video capsule endoscopy and CT enterography in diagnosing adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy; Volkov, Dmitri


    Primary adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a rare but important cause of gastric outlet obstruction that may be misdiagnosed as idiopathic gastroparesis. Clinically, patients present with early satiety, abdominal fullness, nausea, epigastric discomfort and eructation. Permanent gastric retention of a video capsule endoscope is diagnostic in differentiating between the two diseases, in the absence of an organic gastric outlet obstruction. This case presents the longest video capsule retention in the medical literature to date. It is also the first case report of adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis diagnosed with video capsule endoscopy or a computed tomography scan. Finally, an unusual "plugging" of the gastric outlet with free floating capsule has an augmented effect on disease physiology and on patient's symptoms.

  16. Advanced Image Enhancement Method for Distant Vessels and Structures in Capsule Endoscopy (United States)

    Pedersen, Marius


    This paper proposes an advanced method for contrast enhancement of capsule endoscopic images, with the main objective to obtain sufficient information about the vessels and structures in more distant (or darker) parts of capsule endoscopic images. The proposed method (PM) combines two algorithms for the enhancement of darker and brighter areas of capsule endoscopic images, respectively. The half-unit weighted-bilinear algorithm (HWB) proposed in our previous work is used to enhance darker areas according to the darker map content of its HSV's component V. Enhancement of brighter areas is achieved thanks to the novel threshold weighted-bilinear algorithm (TWB) developed to avoid overexposure and enlargement of specular highlight spots while preserving the hue, in such areas. The TWB performs enhancement operations following a gradual increment of the brightness of the brighter map content of its HSV's component V. In other words, the TWB decreases its averaged weights as the intensity content of the component V increases. Extensive experimental demonstrations were conducted, and, based on evaluation of the reference and PM enhanced images, a gastroenterologist (Ø.H.) concluded that the PM enhanced images were the best ones based on the information about the vessels, contrast in the images, and the view or visibility of the structures in more distant parts of the capsule endoscopy images. PMID:29225668

  17. Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Y


    Full Text Available Yaron NivDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, IsraelAbstract: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing

  18. Capsule endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Ching, J Y L; Maza, I; Wu, J C Y; Rainer, T H; Israelit, S; Klein, A; Chan, F K L; Ephrath, H; Eliakim, R; Peled, R; Sung, J J Y


    Capsule endoscopy may play a role in the evaluation of patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the emergency department. We evaluated adults with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presenting to the emergency departments of two academic centers. Patients ingested a wireless video capsule, which was followed immediately by a nasogastric tube aspiration and later by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We compared capsule endoscopy with nasogastric tube aspiration for determination of the presence of blood, and with EGD for discrimination of the source of bleeding, identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions, safety, and patient satisfaction. The study enrolled 49 patients (32 men, 17 women; mean age 58.3 ± 19 years), but three patients did not complete the capsule endoscopy and five were intolerant of the nasogastric tube. Blood was detected in the upper gastrointestinal tract significantly more often by capsule endoscopy (15 /18 [83.3 %]) than by nasogastric tube aspiration (6 /18 [33.3 %]; P = 0.035). There was no significant difference in the identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions between capsule endoscopy (27 /40 [67.5 %]) and EGD (35 /40 [87.5 %]; P = 0.10, OR 0.39 95 %CI 0.11 - 1.15). Capsule endoscopy reached the duodenum in 45 /46 patients (98 %). One patient (2.2 %) had self-limited shortness of breath and one (2.2 %) had coughing on capsule ingestion. In an emergency department setting, capsule endoscopy appears feasible and safe in people presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Capsule endoscopy identifies gross blood in the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the duodenum, significantly more often than nasogastric tube aspiration and identifies inflammatory lesions, as well as EGD. Capsule endoscopy may facilitate patient triage and earlier endoscopy, but should not be considered a substitute for EGD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Wireless Communications (United States)


    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  20. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler


    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  1. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.


    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  2. Capsule shells adulterated with tadalafil. (United States)

    Venhuis, Bastiaan J; Tan, Jing; Vredenbregt, Marjo J; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; de Kaste, Dries


    Following a health complaint a food supplement was brought in for analysis on the suspicion of being adulterated with a synthetic drug substance. When the capsule content did not show evidence of adulteration, the capsule shell was investigated. Using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS the capsule shell was found to contain 2.85 mg of the erectile dysfunction drug tadalafil. Using microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy the presence of tadalafil was shown throughout the gelatine matrix as particles and dissolved into the matrix. The adulteration is probably carried out by adding tadalafil powder to a gelatine jelly in the manufacturing of the capsules shells. Because this technique may also be used for other drug substances, capsules shells should be considered a vehicle for hiding drug substances in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S


    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various...... of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role....

  4. Wireless Technician (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2011


    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  5. [Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder]. (United States)

    Revel, M; Ghanem, N


    Adhesive capsulitis is a painful stiff shoulder due to the thickening of the capsule and synovium. The main observed changes are hyperhaemia of the synovium and a capsular fibrosis similar to that of Dupuytren's disease. Stiffness involves mainly flexion, lateral rotation and abduction. In most cases, a spontaneous healing is observed within 12 to 30 months. When the capsulitis is disabling and pain still present, a joint distension followed by rehabilitation can be indicated. When the disability is important and mainly due to stiffness, a manipulation under anesthesia with or without arthroscopic release of soft tissues can be indicated.

  6. Accuracy and safety of second-generation PillCam COLON capsule for colorectal polyp detection


    Spada, Cristiano; De Vincentis, Fabio; Cesaro, Paola; Hassan, Cesare; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Minelli Grazioli, Leonardo; Bolivar, Santiago; Zurita, Andrade; Costamagna, Guido


    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy (CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic, endoscopic technologies designed to explore the colon. CCE is a noninvasive, patient-friendly technique that is able to explore the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006 and although it generated great enthusiasm, it showed suboptimal accuracy. Recently, a second-generation system (PillCam COLON 2) (C...

  7. Adhesive capsulitis: a review. (United States)

    Ewald, Anthony


    Adhesive capsulitis is a common, yet poorly understood, condition causing pain and loss of range of motion in the shoulder. It can occur in isolation or concomitantly with other shoulder conditions (e.g., rotator cuff tendinopathy, bursitis) or diabetes mellitus. It is often self-limited, but can persist for years and may never fully resolve. The diagnosis is usually clinical, although imaging can help rule out other conditions. The differential diagnosis includes acromioclavicular arthropathy, autoimmune disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), biceps tendinopathy, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, neoplasm, rotator cuff tendinopathy or tear (with or without impingement), and subacromial and subdeltoid bursitis. Several treatment options are commonly used, but few have high-level evidence to support them. Because the condition is often self-limited, observation and reassurance may be considered; however, this may not be acceptable to many patients because of the painful and debilitating nature of the condition. Nonsurgical treatments include analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), oral prednisone, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Home exercise regimens and physical therapy are often prescribed. Surgical treatments include manipulation of the joint under anesthesia and capsular release.

  8. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules. (United States)

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani


    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  9. Feasibility study of Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy (TCE) deployment in the small intestine (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Otuya, David O.; Verma, Yogesh; Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a poorly understood disease of the small intestine that causes nutrient malabsorption in children, predominantly from low and middle income countries. The clinical importance of EED is neurological and growth stunting that remains as the child grows into adulthood. Tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) has the potential to improve the understanding of EED and could be used to determine the effectiveness of EED interventions. TCE in the adult esophagus and the duodenum has been demonstrated for Barrett`s esophagus and celiac disease diagnosis, respectively. While adult subjects can independently swallow these capsules, it is likely that infants will not, and, as a result, new strategies for introducing these devices in young children aged 0.5-2 years need to be investigated. Our first approach will be to introduce the TCE devices in infants under the aid of endoscopic guidance. To determine the most effective method, we have tested endoscopic approaches for introducing TCE devices into the small intestine of living swine. These methods will be compared and contrasted to discuss the most effective means for endoscopic tethered capsule introduction into the small intestine.

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts


    César Vivian Lopes; Christian Pesenti; Erwan Bories; Fabrice Caillol; Marc Giovannini


    BACKGROUND: Surgery is the traditional treatment for symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts, but the morbidity is still too high. Minimally invasive endoscopic approaches have been encouraged. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. METHODS: From January, 2003 to August, 2006, 31 consecutive symptomatic patients submitted to 37 procedures at the same endoscopic unit were retrospectively analysed. Chronic and acute pa...

  11. Endoscopic neck surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowbey P


    Full Text Available Endoscopic surgery in the neck was attempted in 1996 for performing parathyroidectomy. A similar surgical technique was used for performing thyroidectomy the following year. Most commonly reported endoscopic neck surgery studies in literature have been on thyroid and parathyroid glands. The approaches are divided into two types i.e., the total endoscopic approach using CO2 insufflation and the video-assisted approach without CO2 insufflation. The latter approach has been reported more often. The surgical access (port placements may vary-the common sites are the neck, anterior chest wall, axilla, and periareolar region. The limiting factors are the size of the gland and malignancy. Few reports are available on endoscopic resection for early thyroid malignancy and cervical lymph node dissection. Endoscopic neck surgery has primarily evolved due to its cosmetic benefits and it has proved to be safe and feasible in suitable patients with thyroid and parathyroid pathologies. Application of this technique for approaching other cervical organs such as the submandibular gland and carotid artery are still in the early experimental phase.

  12. Sterilization of endoscopic instruments. (United States)

    Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar


    Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.

  13. Transcanal Endoscopic Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea Secondary to Congenital Inner Ear Malformations. (United States)

    Kou, Yann-Fuu; Zhu, Vivian F; Kutz, Joe Walter; Mitchell, Ron B; Isaacson, Brandon


    To describe the feasibility of using a transcanal endoscopic approach for management of cerebrospinal leaks secondary to congenital inner ear malformations. Two pediatric patients with congenital inner ear malformations and concurrent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. A stapedectomy was performed and the inner ear was packed with temporalis muscle using a transcanal endoscopic approach. Cessation of cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the inner ear to the middle ear. An otic capsule malformation with a modiolar defect as well as a defect in the stapes footplate was noted in both patients. Successful repair of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea was achieved in both patients using a minimally invasive transcanal endoscopic approach. One patient developed postoperative meningitis that was successfully managed with antibiotics. Cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea from an inner ear malformation often presents as persistent clear otorrhea after tympanostomy tube placement or recurrent meningitis as was the case in the two patients in this series. A minimally invasive transcanal endoscopic approach is a viable alternative to manage this unique entity.

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Ponchon, Thierry


    UNLABELLED: This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system 1 2 was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. MAIN...... RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 ESGE recommends endoscopic en bloc resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell cancers (SCCs), excluding those with obvious submucosal involvement (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may be considered in such lesions when...... they are smaller than 10 mm if en bloc resection can be assured. However, ESGE recommends endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as the first option, mainly to provide an en bloc resection with accurate pathology staging and to avoid missing important histological features (strong recommendation, moderate quality...

  15. Modeling and Optimization of Class-E Amplifier at Subnominal Condition in a Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Implants. (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Shao, Qi; Fang, Xuelin


    For the class-E amplifier in a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, the design parameters are always determined by the nominal model. However, this model neglects the conduction loss and voltage stress of MOSFET and cannot guarantee the highest efficiency in the WPT system for biomedical implants. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel circuit model of the subnominal class-E amplifier. On a WPT platform for capsule endoscope, the proposed model was validated to be effective and the relationship between the amplifier's design parameters and its characteristics was analyzed. At a given duty ratio, the design parameters with the highest efficiency and safe voltage stress are derived and the condition is called 'optimal subnominal condition.' The amplifier's efficiency can reach the highest of 99.3% at the 0.097 duty ratio. Furthermore, at the 0.5 duty ratio, the measured efficiency of the optimal subnominal condition can reach 90.8%, which is 15.2% higher than that of the nominal condition. Then, a WPT experiment with a receiving unit was carried out to validate the feasibility of the optimized amplifier. In general, the design parameters of class-E amplifier in a WPT system for biomedical implants can be determined with the proposed optimization method in this paper.

  16. Olecranon extrabursal endoscopic bursectomy. (United States)

    Tu, Chen G; McGuire, Duncan T; Morse, Levi P; Bain, Gregory I


    Olecranon bursitis is a common clinical problem. It is often managed conservatively because of the high rates of wound complications with the conventional open surgical technique. Conventional olecranon bursoscopy utilizes an arthroscope and an arthroscopic shaver, removing the bursa from inside-out. We describe an extrabursal endoscopic technique where the bursa is not entered but excised in its entirety under endoscopic vision. A satisfactory view is obtained with less morbidity than the open method, while still avoiding a wound over the sensitive point of the olecranon.

  17. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors. (United States)

    Cui, Yue


    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  18. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  19. An Unusual Endoscopic Image of a Submucosal Angiodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carvalho


    Full Text Available Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is responsible for 2–10% of the cases of digestive bleeding. Angiodysplasia is the most common cause. The authors report a case of a 70-year-old female patient admitted to our Gastrointestinal Intensive Care Unit with a significant digestive bleeding. Standard upper and lower endoscopy showed no abnormalities, and we decided to perform a capsule enteroscopy that revealed a submucosal nodule with active bleeding in the jejunum. An intraoperative enteroscopy confirmed the presence of a small submucosal lesion with a central ulceration, and subsequently a segmental enterectomy was performed. Surprisingly, the histopathological diagnosis was angiodysplasia. The patient remains well after a two-year period of follow-up. We present this case of obscure/overt gastrointestinal bleeding to emphasize the role of capsule and intraoperative enteroscopy in the evaluation of these situations, and because of the unusual endoscopic appearance of the angiodysplasia responsible for the hemorrhage.

  20. From wired to wireless: a miniature robot for intestinal inspection. (United States)

    Chi, Dongxiang; Yan, Guozheng


    Increasingly more robots are used for various medical purposes, one of which is for intestinal inspection. A prototype robotic endoscope is presented along with a locomotion mechanism and relative experiment. Image, pH, pressure and temperature, etc. can be measured by the robot, which is very helpful in diagnoses. A wired robot will be replaced by a wireless robot because it is not comfortable for subjects and the wired robot cannot advance further into the small intestine because of too many folds and projections in the intestine. Key obstacles of the future wireless robot for intestinal inspection are discussed in detail and a reversed tracking method is provided.

  1. Technicalities of endoscopic biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Ignacio, J. G.


    Despite the wealth of biopsy forceps currently available, it is obvious that there are sufficient drawbacks and shortcomings to reconsider the overall design of the endoscopic biopsy depth, the short lifespan of reusable forceps, damage to the working channel, excessive time consumption, cleaning

  2. Robotic flexible endoscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jeroen


    In flexible endoscopy a flexible tube with a steerable camera is used to inspect the internal patient tracts and to perform small surgical interventions. In current practice the physician is faced with usability problems. Often assistance is required to manipulate the flexible endoscope and the

  3. Evolving endoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Sakai, Paulo; Faintuch, Joel


    Since the days of Albukasim in medieval Spain, natural orifices have been regarded not only as a rather repugnant source of bodily odors, fluids and excreta, but also as a convenient invitation to explore and treat the inner passages of the organism. However, surgical ingenuity needed to be matched by appropriate tools and devices. Lack of technologically advanced instrumentation was a strong deterrent during almost a millennium until recent decades when a quantum jump materialized. Endoscopic surgery is currently a vibrant and growing subspecialty, which successfully handles millions of patients every year. Additional opportunities lie ahead which might benefit millions more, however, requiring even more sophisticated apparatuses, particularly in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence, and tissue repair (surgical suturing). This is a particularly exciting and worthwhile challenge, namely of larger and safer endoscopic interventions, followed by seamless and scarless recovery. In synthesis, the future is widely open for those who use together intelligence and creativity to develop new prototypes, new accessories and new techniques. Yet there are many challenges in the path of endoscopic surgery. In this new era of robotic endoscopy, one will likely need a virtual simulator to train and assess the performance of younger doctors. More evidence will be essential in multiple evolving fields, particularly to elucidate whether more ambitious and complex pathways, such as intrathoracic and intraperitoneal surgery via natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), are superior or not to conventional techniques. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Drnovšek Olup


    Full Text Available Background. We present our experience with transnasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.Patients and methods. We treated 95 patients with lacrimal duct insufficiency from June 2000 to February 2003. The most frequent cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction was chronic inflammation. We inserted a light probe through the inferior canalliculus to transilluminate the area of the lacrimal sac. We anaemized the region over the lacrimal sac and the attachment of the middle nasal concha and corrected nasal septum deviation were indicated. We coagulated and removed the mucosa over the transilluminated area, the bony wall and the medial portion of the lacrimal sac. After haemostasis, we placed silicone tubes through both canalliculi and fixed its ends with metallic clips. We finally introduced a Merocel tampon in the middle nasal meatus for two days. The silicone tubes remained in place for 3 to 4 months.Results. We observed no serious complications. The silicone tubes remained in place for 3 to 4 months. Follow up period ranged from 8 to 40 months. We noticed recurrence of symptoms in seven patients.Conclusions. Transnasal endoscopic DCR is a contribution to the development of endoscopic surgery technique. Its success rate is comparable to or even better than external DCR, according to other and our own study. Transnasal endoscopic DCR is a simple and successful procedure and well tolerated by the patients.

  5. Endoscopic treatment of obesity (United States)

    Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej


    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents will be reflected by the imminent increase in the number of obese patients who require more definitive methods of treatment. There is great interest in new, safe, simple, nonsurgical procedures for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new endoscopic methods for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: An English-language literature search on endoscopic interventions, endoscopically placed devices and patient safety was performed in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: The literature search yielded the following weight loss methods: space-occupying devices (widely used), gastric capacity reduction, modifying gastric motor function and malabsorptive procedures. A commercially available intragastric balloon was the most commonly used device for weight loss. In specific subgroups of patients, it improved quality of life, decreased comorbidities and served as a bridge to surgery. More evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of other commercially available intragastric balloons is needed to clarify whether they are superior to the most commonly used one. Moreover, early experiences with transoral gastroplasty, the duodenaljejunal bypass sleeve and an adjustable, totally implantable intragastric prosthesis, indicate that they may be viable options for obesity treatment. Other agents, such as botulinum toxin and a device known as the ‘butterfly’, are currently at the experimental stage. CONCLUSION: New endoscopic methods for weight loss may be valuable in the treatment of obesity; however, more clinical experience and technical improvements are necessary before implementing their widespread use. PMID:22059171

  6. Capsule endoscopy in clinical practice: concise up-to-date overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis


    Full Text Available Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Sarah DouglasCentre for Liver and Digestive Disorders, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UKAbstract: Until recently, the small bowel was considered a ‘no man’s land’ as the imaging modalities available for its investigation were laborious, invasive, costly, or involve significant radiation exposure. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has changed the field dramatically, over the last eight years. The established indications for small bowel WCE are obscure gastrointestinal bleed/anemia, Crohn’s disease, hereditary polyposis syndromes, and to a lesser extent, evaluation of side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and coeliac disease. We herein present an overview of the capsule examination, which seems to be a quickly improving area.Keywords: capsule, imaging, small bowel, Crohn’s, celiac, GI bleed

  7. Automated endoscope reprocessors. (United States)

    Desilets, David; Kaul, Vivek; Tierney, William M; Banerjee, Subhas; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel


    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through February 2010 for articles related to automated endoscope reprocessors, using the words endoscope reprocessing, endoscope cleaning, automated endoscope reprocessors, and high-level disinfection. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D


    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  9. Effect of oral erythromycin on gastric and small bowel transit time of capsule endoscopy (United States)

    Leung, Wai K; Chan, Francis KL; Fung, Sara SL; Wong, Mei-Yin; Sung, Joseph JY


    AIM: To determine the effect of oral erythromycin on gastric and small bowel transit time of capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent capsule endoscopy during the 16-mo study period were either given 250 mg oral erythromycin, 1 h prior to swallowing the capsule endoscope or nothing. The gastric and small bowel transit time, and the small bowel image quality were compared. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients received oral erythromycin whereas 14 patients were not given any prokinetic agent. Patients who received erythromycin had a significantly lower gastric transit time than control (16 min vs 70 min, P = 0.005), whereas the small bowel transit time was comparable between the two groups (227 min vs 183 min, P = 0.18). Incomplete small bowel examination was found in three patients of the control group and in one patient of the erythromycin group. There was no significant difference in the overall quality of small bowel images between the two groups. A marked reduction in gastric transit time was noted in two patients who had repeat capsule endoscopy after oral erythromycin. CONCLUSION: Use of oral erythromycin significantly reduces the gastric transit time of capsule endoscopy. PMID:16097060

  10. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey


    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  11. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim


    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  12. Instrumentation: endoscopes and equipment. (United States)

    Gaab, Michael R


    The technology and instrumentation for neuroendoscopy are described: endoscopes (principles, designs, applications), light sources, instruments, accessories, holders, and navigation. Procedures for cleaning, sterilizing, and storing are included. The description is based on the author's own technical development and neuroendoscopic experience, published technology and devices, and publications on endoscopic surgery. The main work horses in neuroendoscopy are rigid glass rod endoscopes (Hopkins optics) due to the optical quality, which allows full high-definition video imaging, different angles of view, and autoclavability, which is especially important in neuroendoscopy due to the risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection. Applications are endoscopy assistance to microsurgery, stand-alone endoscopy controlled approaches such as transnasal skull base, ventriculoscopy, and cystoscopy in the cranium. Rigid glass rod optics are also applicable in spinal endoscopy and peripheral nerve decompression using special tubes and cannulas. Rigid minifiberoptics with less resolution may be used in less complex procedures (ventriculoscopy, cystoscopy, endoscopy assistance with pen-designs) and have the advantages of smaller diameters and disposable designs. Flexible fiberoptics are usually used in combination with rigid scopes and can be steered, e.g. through the ventricles, in spinal procedures for indications including syringomyelia and multicystic hydrocephalus. Upcoming flexible chip endoscopes ("chip-in-the-tip") may replace flexible fiberoptics in the future, offering higher resolution and cold LED-illumination, and may provide for stereoscopic neuroendoscopy. Various instruments (mechanical, coagulation, laser guides, ultrasonic aspirators) and holders are available. Certified methods for cleaning and sterilization, with special requirements in neuroapplications, are important. Neuroendoscopic instrumentation is now an established technique in neurosurgical practice and

  13. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, Gavin C


    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  14. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many wireless technologies are already available for sensor applications. It is inevitable that many non-interoperable wireless technologies between 400 MHz and 5.8...

  15. Endoscopic training in gastroenterology fellowship: adherence to core curriculum guidelines. (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Imaeda, Avlin B; Thompson, Christopher C


    The Gastroenterology Core Curriculum and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy provide guidelines for endoscopic training. Program adherence to these recommendations is unclear. This study aims to assess endoscopic training experience during fellowship. Questionnaire study. The questionnaire was circulated to US fellowship programs, with the assistance of the American Gastroenterological Association. Graduating third-year fellows. Seventy-three fellows returned the questionnaire. Nearly all fellows met the required numbers for esophagoduodenoscopy (98%) and colonoscopy (100%), with fewer meeting requirements for PEG (73%) and non-variceal hemorrhage (75%). The majority of fellows did not meet minimum numbers for variceal banding (40%), esophageal dilation (43%), capsule endoscopy (42%). Fellows rated training in cognitive aspects of endoscopy as 3.86 [1 (inadequate), 5 (excellent)] and reported greatest emphasis on interpreting endoscopic findings and least on virtual colonography. Quality indicators of endoscopy received little emphasis (rating of 3.04; p = 0.00001), with adenoma detection rate being least emphasized. Fifty-six percent of fellows reported having routine endoscopy conferences. Half of the programs have endoscopic simulators, with 15% of fellows being required to use simulation. Following direct hands-on experience, fellows rated external endoscopy courses (64%) as the next most useful experience. Many fellows do not meet required numbers for several endoscopic procedures, and quality indicators receive little emphasis during training. Most programs do not provide simulation training or hold regular endoscopy conferences. Fellowship programs should perform internal audits and make feasible adjustments. Furthermore, it may be time for professional societies to revisit training guidelines.

  16. Wireless ATM : handover issues


    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo


    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  17. Community Wireless Networks (United States)

    Feld, Harold


    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  18. Endoscopic Evaluation and Management of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty M. Meyer


    Full Text Available The optimal diagnostic approach and yield for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB in patients with ventricular assist devices (VAD are unknown. We explored the etiology of bleeding and yield of upper and lower endoscopy, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and video capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of GIB in patients with VADs. Methods. All VAD patients with overt gastrointestinal bleeding and drop in hematocrit from April 1, 2000 to July 31, 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The endoscopic evaluation of each episode was recorded. Overall yield of EGD, colonoscopy, balloon-assisted, and video capsule endoscopy were evaluated. Results. Thirty-six bleeding episodes occurred involving 20 patients. The site of GIB was identified in 32/36 episodes (88.9%, and the etiology of bleeding was determined in 30/36 cases (83.3%. Five VAD patients underwent VCE. The VCE exams demonstrated a high yield with 80% of exams identifying the etiology of GIB. Endoscopic intervention was successful in 8/9 attempts. No adverse events were recorded. Two patients required surgical intervention for GIB. Conclusion. Upper, lower, video capsule, and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are safe and demonstrate a high yield in the investigation of gastrointestinal bleeding in VAD patients. Medical centers caring for VAD patients should employ a standardized protocol to optimize endoscopic evaluation and intervention.

  19. Endoscopic surveillance strategy after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer. (United States)

    Nishida, Tsutomu; Tsujii, Masahiko; Kato, Motohiko; Hayashi, Yoshito; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Iijima, Hideki; Takehara, Tetsuo


    Early detection of early gastric cancer (EGC) is important to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic modalities and treatment devices, such as image-enhanced endoscopy and high-frequency generators, may make endoscopic treatment, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, a therapeutic option for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia. Consequently, short-term outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) for EGC have improved. Therefore, surveillance with endoscopy after ER for EGC is becoming more important, but how to perform endoscopic surveillance after ER has not been established, even though the follow-up strategy for more advanced gastric cancer has been outlined. Therefore, a surveillance strategy for patients with EGC after ER is needed.

  20. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd


    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  1. Rinsability of Orthophthalaldehyde from Endoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Miner


    Full Text Available Orthophthalaldehyde high level disinfectants are contraindicated for use with urological instruments such as cystoscopes due to anaphylaxis-like allergic reactions during surveillance of bladder cancer patients. Allergic reactions and mucosal injuries have also been reported following colonoscopy, laryngoscopy, and transesophageal echocardiography with devices disinfected using orthophthalaldehyde. Possibly these endoscopes were not adequately rinsed after disinfection by orthophthalaldehyde. We examined this possibility by means of a zone-of-inhibition test, and also a test to extract residues of orthophthalaldehyde with acetonitrile, from sections of endoscope insertion tube materials, to measure the presence of alkaline glutaraldehyde, or glutaraldehyde plus 20% w/w isopropanol, or ortho-phthalaldehyde that remained on the endoscope materials after exposure to these disinfectants followed by a series of rinses in water, or by aeration overnight. Zones of any size indicated the disinfectant had not been rinsed away from the endoscope material. There were no zones of inhibition surrounding endoscope materials soaked in glutaraldehyde or glutaraldehyde plus isopropanol after three serial water rinses according to manufacturers' rinsing directions. The endoscope material soaked in orthophthalaldehyde produced zones of inhibition even after fifteen serial rinses with water. Orthophthalaldehyde was extracted from the rinsed endoscope material by acetonitrile. These data, and other information, indicate that the high level disinfectant orthophthalaldehyde, also known as 1,2-benzene dialdehyde, cannot be rinsed away from flexible endoscope material with any practical number of rinses with water, or by drying overnight.

  2. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. Objectives: This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-meth- ods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses ...

  3. Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurda, J.P.


    During the last three years, robot-assisted surgery systems are increasingly being applied in endoscopic surgery. They were introduced with the objective to overcome the challenges of standard endoscopic surgery. With the improvements in manipulation and visualisation that robotic-assistance offers,

  4. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI ...

  5. The Wireless ATM Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palitefka


    Full Text Available An overview of the proposed wireless ATM structure is provided. Wireless communication have been developed to a level where offered services can now be extended beyond voice and data. There are already wireless LANs, cordless systems offering data services and mobile data. Wireless LAN systems are basically planned for local, on-promises and in-house networking providing short distance radio or infrared links between computer system. The main challenge of wireless ATM is to harmonise the development of broadband wireless system with service B -ISDN/ATM and ATM LANs, and offer multimedia multiservice features for the support of time-sensitive voice communication, video, desktop multimedia applications, and LAN data traffic for the wireless user.

  6. Instrumented capsule development and utilization - Structural analysis and design optimization of capsule structures with impact stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Shin; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Young Wan; Oh, Jae Moon; Kim, Dong Jin; Song, Sun Young [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the structural analysis of instrumented capsule and capsule supporting structures in HANARO in-core are performed. The structural= integrity of capsule structures are evaluated by the seismic analysis, thermal stresses and buckling stability analysis. The structural integrity of the capsule structure under impact loads are assessed and the mechanical characteristics of these structures through the stress analysis of joint bolts at the lower and of capsule mainbody and the strength analysis of the wire spring are analyzed. The design optimization of capsule structures are presented with considering mechanical characteristics. 20 refs., 12 tabs., 50 figs. (author)

  7. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure]. (United States)

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T


    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  8. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination. (United States)

    Decristoforo, Petra; Kaltseis, Josef; Fritz, Andreas; Edlinger, Michael; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Orth-Höller, Dorothea


    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3-4.6% according to national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly P. oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n=9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n=6, 11.5%) only on account to microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared to results from other European countries, possibly due to high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endoscopic egomotion computation (United States)

    Bergen, Tobias; Ruthotto, Steffen; Rupp, Stephan; Winter, Christian; Münzenmayer, Christian


    Computer assistance in Minimally Invasive Surgery is a very active field of research. Many systems designed for Computer Assisted Surgery require information about the instruments' positions and orientations. Our main focus lies on tracking a laparoscopic ultrasound probe to generate 3D ultrasound volumes. State-of-the-art tracking methods such as optical or electromagnetic tracking systems measure pose with respect to a fixed extra-body coordinate system. This causes inaccuracies of the reconstructed ultrasound volume in the case of patient motion, e.g. due to respiration. We propose attaching an endoscopic camera to the ultrasound probe and calculating the camera motion from the video sequence with respect to the organ surface. We adapt algorithms developed for solving the relative pose problem to recreate the camera path during the ultrasound sweep over the organ. By this image-based motion estimation camera motion can only be determined up to an unknown scale factor, known as the depth-speed-ambiguity. We show, how this problem can be overcome in the given scenario, exploiting the fact, that the distance of the camera to the organ surface is fixed and known. Preprocessing steps are applied to compensate for endoscopic image quality deficiencies.

  10. Polycaps: Reversibly formed polymeric capsules (United States)

    Castellano, Ronald K.; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius


    Described are assemblies consisting of polymeric capsules, “polycaps,” formed from two calix[4]arene tetraureas covalently connected at their lower rims. In these structures self-assembly leads to reversibly formed capsule sites along a chain, reminiscent of beads on a string. Their dynamic behavior is characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy through encapsulation of guest species, reversible polymerization, and the formation of sharply defined hybrid capsules. PMID:11038556

  11. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette


    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  12. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack TIMOFTE


    Full Text Available The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  13. Wireless security in mobile health. (United States)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan


    Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats.

  14. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  15. Wireless Emulation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  16. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav


    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of

  17. The disintegration behaviour of capsules in fed subjects: a comparison of hypromellose (carrageenan) capsules and standard gelatin capsules. (United States)

    Jones, B E; Basit, A W; Tuleu, C


    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) containing carrageenan as a gelling agent have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery. We have previously compared the disintegration of hypromellose(carrageenan) (Quali-V(®)) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. This second study used the same technique with both fasted and fed human subjects. Size 0 capsules were filled with powder plugs made from lactose and did not contain croscarmellose as in the original study. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fasted state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 8±2min and for gelatin 7±3min. These results were not statistically different from the data in the original study and show that the removal of the croscarmellose had no effect on the results. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fed state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 16±5min and for the gelatin capsules was 12±4min. There was no statistical difference between the hypromellose(carrageenan) and gelatin capsules in either the fed or fasted state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter


    cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for its diagnosis, but is invasive and associated with significant adverse effects. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows the detailed evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system without injecting contrast in these ducts. Moreover, it provides detailed images...

  19. Swallowing Tablets and Capsules Increases the Risk of Penetration and Aspiration in Patients with Stroke-Induced Dysphagia. (United States)

    Schiele, Julia T; Penner, Heike; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Wezler, Nikolai; Micol, William; Oster, Peter; Haefeli, Walter E


    We evaluated the prevalence of difficulties swallowing solid dosage forms in patients with stroke-induced dysphagia and whether swallowing tablets/capsules increases their risk of penetration and aspiration. Concurrently, we explored whether routinely performed assessment tests help identify patients at risk. Using video endoscopy, we evaluated how 52 patients swallowed four different placebos (round, oval, and oblong tablets and a capsule) with texture-modified water (TMW, pudding consistency) and milk and rated their swallowing performance according to the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS). Additionally, Daniels Test, Bogenhausener Dysphagiescore, Scandinavian Stroke Scale, Barthel Index, and Tinetti's Mobility Test were conducted. A substantial proportion of the patients experienced severe difficulties swallowing solid oral dosage forms (TMW: 40.4 %, milk: 43.5 %). Compared to the administration of TMW/milk alone, the placebos increased the PAS values in the majority of the patients (TMW: median PAS from 1.5 to 2.0; milk: median PAS from 1.5 to 2.5, each p value <0.0001) and residue values were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Whereas video-endoscopic examination reliably identified patients with difficulties swallowing medication, neither patients' self-evaluation nor one of the routinely performed bedside tests did. Therefore, before video-endoscopic evaluation, many drugs were modified unnecessarily and 20.8 % of these were crushed inadequately, although switching to another dosage form or drug would have been possible. Hence, safety and effectiveness of swallowing tablets and capsules should be evaluated routinely in video-endoscopic examinations, tablets/capsules should rather be provided with TMW than with milk, and the appropriateness of "non per os except medication" orders for dysphagic stroke patients should be questioned.

  20. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Kwang Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab [Eulji Univ. School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics.

  1. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong


    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  2. Colour-reproduction algorithm for transmitting variable video frames and its application to capsule endoscopy


    Khan, Tareq; Shrestha, Ravi; Imtiaz, Md. Shamin; Khan A. Wahid


    Presented is a new power-efficient colour generation algorithm for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) application. In WCE, transmitting colour image data from the human intestine through radio frequency (RF) consumes a huge amount of power. The conventional way is to transmit all R, G and B components of all frames. Using the proposed dictionary-based colour generation scheme, instead of sending all R, G and B frames, first one colour frame is sent followed by a series of grey-scale frames. At ...

  3. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young


      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  4. Debate: Wired versus Wireless. (United States)

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash


    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  5. Unsuspected Small-Bowel Crohn’s Disease in Elderly Patients Diagnosed by Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Yung Chao


    Full Text Available Background. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is increasingly performed among the elderly for obscure bleeding. Our aim was to report on the utility of VCE to uncover unsuspected Crohn’s disease (CD in elderly patients. Methods. Retrospective review of VCE performed in elderly patients (≥70 y at a tertiary hospital (2010–2015. All underwent prior negative bidirectional endoscopies. CD diagnosis was based on consistent endoscopic findings, exclusion of other causes, and a Lewis endoscopic score (LS > 790 (moderate-to-severe inflammation. Those with lower LS (350–790 required histological confirmation. Known IBD cases were excluded. Results. 197 VCE were performed (mean age 78; range 70–93. Main indications were iron deficiency anemia (IDA, occult GI bleeding (OGIB, chronic abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Eight (4.1% were diagnosed as CD based on the aforementioned criteria. Fecal calprotectin (FCP was elevated in 7/8 (mean 580 μg/g. Mean LS was 1824. Small-bowel CD detected by VCE led to a change in management in 4/8. One patient had capsule retention secondary to NSAID induced stricture, requiring surgical retrieval. Conclusions. VCE can be safely performed in the elderly. A proportion of cases may have unsuspected small-bowel CD despite negative endoscopies. FCP was the best screening test. Diagnosis frequently changed management.

  6. Wireless communication with chaos. (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Peng; Baptista, Murilo S; Grebogi, Celso


    The modern world fully relies on wireless communication. Because of intrinsic physical constraints of the wireless physical media (multipath, damping, and filtering), signals carrying information are strongly modified, preventing information from being transmitted with a high bit rate. We show that, though a chaotic signal is strongly modified by the wireless physical media, its Lyapunov exponents remain unaltered, suggesting that the information transmitted is not modified by the channel. For some particular chaotic signals, we have indeed proved that the dynamic description of both the transmitted and the received signals is identical and shown that the capacity of the chaos-based wireless channel is unaffected by the multipath propagation of the physical media. These physical properties of chaotic signals warrant an effective chaos-based wireless communication system.

  7. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R


    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K


    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....

  9. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah


    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  10. Novel developments in endoscopic mucosal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sommen, F; Curvers, W L; Nagengast, W B


    Endoscopic techniques such as High-definition and optical-chromoendoscopy have had enormous impact on endoscopy practice. Since these techniques allow assessment of most subtle morphological mucosal abnormalities, further improvements in endoscopic practice lay in increasing the detection efficacy

  11. Endoscopic Transaxillary Near Total Thyroidectomy (United States)

    Ejeh, Ijeoma Acholonu; Speights, Fredne; Rashid, Qammar N.; Ideis, Mustafa


    Background: Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the contralateral anatomy of the thyroid gland, this technique has typically been reserved for patients with unilateral disease. Objectives: The present study examines the safety and feasibility of the transaxillary technique in dissecting and assessment of both thyroid lobes in performing near total thyroidectomy. Methods: Prior to this study we successfully performed endoscopic transaxillary thyroid lobectomy in 32 patients between August 2003 and August 2005. Technical feasibility in performing total thyroidectomy using this approach was accomplished first utilizing a porcine model followed by three human cadaver models prior to proceeding to human surgery. After IRB approval three female patients with histories of enlarging multinodular goiter were selected to undergo endoscopic near total thyroidectomy. Results: The average operative time for all models was 142 minutes (range 57–327 min). The three patients in this study had clinically enlarging multinodular goiters with an average size of 4 cm. The contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified in all cases. There was no post-operative bleeding, hoarseness or subcutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: Endoscopic transaxillary near total thyroidectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in human patients with bilateral thyroid disease. PMID:16882421

  12. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John


    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  13. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer


    Kim, Sang Gyun


    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Cur...

  14. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME ... (United States)

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium emission prevention/control devices have been tested covering a wide spectrum of techniques currently in use at small and large-sized chrome metal plating shops. The goal for limiting chromium emissions to levels specified in the MACT Standards are: (1) 0.030 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter of air (mg/dscm) for small facilities with existing tanks, (2) 0.015 mg/dscm for small facilities with new tanks or large facilities with existing or new tanks. It should be emphasized that chemical mist suppressants still have quality issues and work practices that need to be addressed when they are used. Some of the mist suppressants currently in use are: one-, two-, and three-stage mesh pad mist eliminators; composite mesh pad mist eliminators; packed-bed scrubbers and polyballs. This capsule report should, redominantly, emphasize pollution prevention techniques and include, but not be restricted to, the afore-mentioned devices. Information

  15. A study on gelatin capsule brittleness: moisture tranfer between the capsule shell and its content. (United States)

    Chang, R K; Raghavan, K S; Hussain, M A


    Variation in moisture content of the capsule shells either due to the change of storage conditions or the moisture transfer between the capsule shell and its contents may lead to undesired physical properties, such as capsule brittleness and stickiness. DMP 504, a developmental bile-acid sequestrant, is a strongly basic anion-exchange polymer which contains randomly distributed primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amine groups in their hydrochoride salt form. The alkylammonium groups which comprise this polymer form a random network containing a high level of branching and a low level of cross-linking. DMP 504 is very hygroscopic and has a tendency to gain or lose moisture with ease. The transfer of moisture from the capsule shell to DMP 504 powder contained in a hard gelatin capsule can be expected, and if a low water content of the capsule shell is achieved, the capsules become brittle and fracture easily. The sorption isotherm for DMP 504 was generated by storing the drug substance under various relative humidity conditions. After equilibrium, the moisture contents for the samples of individual isotherm points were measured by thermogravimetric analyses. This report applies the sorption-desorption moisture transfer (SDMT) model to predict the equilibrium relative humidity in a system containing DMP 504 in hard gelatin capsules and to establish target loss on drying values for DMP 504 and the capsule shell. Application of this SDMT model resulted in finding a solution to the brittleness problem. The moisture levels of capsule shells and contents for two formulations in a 12-month stability program are also reported here. Results of this study further demonstrate that the SDMT model can be used as a tool to guide the formulator to select optimal initial moisture contents for the empty capsule shell and the formulation to avoid the incidence of brittle capsule problems.

  16. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan


    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  17. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei


    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  18. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert


    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  19. Optical and wireless technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Ghanshyam; Minzioni, Paolo


    This book presents selected papers from 1st International Conference on Optical and Wireless Technologies, providing insights into the analytical, experimental, and developmental aspects of systems, techniques, and devices in these spheres. It explores the combined use of various optical and wireless technologies in next-generation networking applications, and discusses the latest developments in applications such as photonics, high-speed communication systems and networks, visible light communication, nanophotonics, and wireless and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The book will serve as a valuable reference resource for academics and researchers across the globe.

  20. Total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP). (United States)

    Kuthe, A; Mainik, F; Flade-Kuthe, R


    One can no longer think about modern hernia surgery without mentioning endoscopic techniques. But due to their high technical demands the learning curve is comparatively long. And by technical mistakes and their consequences (pain, recurrence, complications) the benefits of the endoscopic techniques can easily be turned to drawbacks. The following text explains the steps of the total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP) technique in detail pointing out alternatives and risks. From preparation, indication and positioning, from trocar placement to extraperitoneal dissection and mesh placement, the principles of TEP are elucidated in respect of local anatomy and possible complications. The text as well as the accompanying video in the Mediathek are based on the authors' 20 years of experience in the TEP technique. Both of them may help in safe TEP application to minimise the complication rate as well as recurrences. Then patients can benefit from the advantages of this technique. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Endoscopic treatment of lumbar arachnoiditis. (United States)

    Warnke, J P; Mourgela, S


    The diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis remains complex and often inconclusive. Using the technique of lumbar subarachnoidal endoscopy (thecaloscopy), the pathology can be identified and the patient treated with long-term effects on the symptoms. Endoscopic operations were performed on 23 patients suffering from varying symptoms with an enlarged lumbar subarachnoidal space. Having confirmed the diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis, a number of endoscopic operations ranging from adhesiolysis to subarachno-epidurostomy were carried out. Radicular symptoms in lumbar arachnoiditis were successfully relieved by various endoscopic dissection techniques, such as restoration of the improved CSF flow by subarachno-epidurostomy along the rootlet. This has been identified as one of the causal factors of the clinical symptoms. In cases where lumbar pain persists in spite of a previous thecaloscopy, further treatment with a lumboperitoneal shunt device has proved most successful.

  2. Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Bakhru


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is devastating due to its poor prognosis. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach to guide available options, mostly palliative because of advanced disease at presentation. Palliation including relief of biliary obstruction, gastric outlet obstruction, and cancer-related pain has become the focus in patients whose cancer is determined to be unresectable. Endoscopic stenting for biliary obstruction is an option for drainage to avoid the complications including jaundice, pruritus, infection, liver dysfunction and eventually failure. Enteral stents can relieve gastric obstruction and allow patients to resume oral intake. Pain is difficult to treat in cancer patients and endoscopic procedures such as pancreatic stenting and celiac plexus neurolysis can provide relief. The objective of endoscopic palliation is to primarily address symptoms as well improve quality of life.

  3. Colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). (United States)

    Kandel, Pujan; Wallace, Michael B


    Colonoscopy has the benefit of detecting and treating precancerous adenomatous polyps and thus reduces mortality associated with CRC. Screening colonoscopy is the keystone for prevention of colorectal cancer. Over the last 20 years there has been increased in the management of large colorectal polyps from surgery to endoscopic removal techniques which is less invasive. Traditionally surgical resection was the treatment of choice for many years for larger polyps but colectomy poses significant morbidity of 14-46% and mortality of up to 7%. There are several advantages of endoscopic resection technique over surgery; it is less invasive, less expensive, has rapid recovery, and preserves the normal gut functions. In addition patient satisfaction and efficacy of EMR is higher with minor complications. Thus, this has facilitated the development of advanced resection technique for the treatment of large colorectal polyps called as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motion magnification for endoscopic surgery (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Baxter, John S. H.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.


    Endoscopic and laparoscopic surgeries are used for many minimally invasive procedures but limit the visual and haptic feedback available to the surgeon. This can make vessel sparing procedures particularly challenging to perform. Previous approaches have focused on hardware intensive intraoperative imaging or augmented reality systems that are difficult to integrate into the operating room. This paper presents a simple approach in which motion is visually enhanced in the endoscopic video to reveal pulsating arteries. This is accomplished by amplifying subtle, periodic changes in intensity coinciding with the patient's pulse. This method is then applied to two procedures to illustrate its potential. The first, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is a neurosurgical procedure where the floor of the third ventricle must be fenestrated without injury to the basilar artery. The second, nerve-sparing robotic prostatectomy, involves removing the prostate while limiting damage to the neurovascular bundles. In both procedures, motion magnification can enhance subtle pulsation in these structures to aid in identifying and avoiding them.

  5. Capsule Endoscopy in the Assessment of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: An Evidence-Based Analysis (United States)


    Background Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as persistent or recurrent bleeding associated with negative findings on upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic evaluations. The diagnosis and management of patients with OGIB is particularly challenging because of the length and complex loops of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy (CE) is 1 diagnostic modality that is used to determine the etiology of bleeding. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to review the diagnostic accuracy, safety, and impact on health outcomes of CE in patients with OGIB in comparison with other diagnostic modalities. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published between 2007 and 2013. Review Methods Data on diagnostic accuracy, safety, and impact on health outcomes were abstracted from included studies. Quality of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Results The search yielded 1,189 citations, and 24 studies were included. Eight studies reported diagnostic accuracy comparing CE with other diagnostic modalities. Capsule endoscopy has a higher sensitivity and lower specificity than magnetic resonance enteroclysis, computed tomography, and push enteroscopy. Capsule endoscopy has a good safety profile with few adverse events, although comparative safety data with other diagnostic modalities are limited. Capsule endoscopy is associated with no difference in patient health-related outcomes such as rebleeding or follow-up treatment compared with push enteroscopy, small-bowel follow-through, and angiography. Limitations There was significant heterogeneity in estimates of diagnostic accuracy, which prohibited a statistical summary of findings. The analysis was also limited by the fact that there is no

  6. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles. (United States)

    Patel, Bhupendra C K


    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  7. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin


    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  8. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis


    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  9. Consensus of the Present and Prospects on Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment in East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kamiya


    Full Text Available Background and Aim. New diagnostic or therapeutic methods in endoscopy have been used. Current clinical application of these procedures is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the present situation on endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asian countries. Method. A representative member from the International Gastrointestinal Consensus Symposium Committee provided a questionnaire to physicians in China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Results. In total, 514 physicians including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and general practitioners enrolled. The most frequently occurring disorder as the origin of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastric ulcer. Capsule endoscopy is selected as the first choice for the diagnosis of small intestine bleeding. The second choice was double-balloon endoscopy or angiography. For patients with gastric adenoma, the number of physicians who choose endoscopic mucosal resection is larger than those selecting endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ESD is chosen first in Japan and Korea. Conclusion. New instruments or techniques on endoscopy have not come into wide use yet, and there is diversity in the situation on it in Asian countries. We should unify the endoscopic diagnostic criteria or treated strategy in patients with GI disease.

  10. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing. (United States)

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.


    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  11. Morphological differentiation and follow-up of pancreatic cystic neoplasms using endoscopic ultrasound (United States)

    Hijioka, Susumu; Hara, Kazuo; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Bhatia, Vikram; Yamao, Kenji


    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a key modality for the evaluation of suspected pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs), as the entire pancreatic gland can be demonstrated with high spatial resolution from the stomach and duodenum. Detailed information can be acquired about the internal contents of the cyst(s) [septum, capsule, mural nodules (MNs)], its relation with the main pancreatic duct (MPD), and any parenchymal changes in the underlying gland. PCNs comprise true cysts and pseudocysts. True cysts can be neoplastic or nonneoplastic. Here, we describe serous cystic neoplasm (SCN), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) as prototype neoplastic cysts, along with nonneoplastic lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs). PMID:26643699

  12. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Finally, gratitude goes to my supervisors Prof. Dele, Prof. Ngoma and Dr. Nkandu for guidance and Dr. Ben. Andrews for helping with the editing of the document. REFERENCES. 1. Warf BC. Hydrocephalus in Uganda: the predominance of infectious origin and primary management with endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

  13. Complications of endoscopic variceal therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    endoscopic treatment of oesophageal and gastric varices, and consequently the incidence varies widely in reported .... and pleuritic chest pain, fever, an exudative pleural effusion and worsening encephalopathy.21,82 .... contrast, Ogle et al. found no instance of acid reflux into the oesophagus but patients who received ...

  14. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. A 41-year-old woman with HIV infection who had not had anti- retroviral drugs presented with jaundice secondary to choledo- cholithiasis. Multiple common bile duct stones were extracted at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). She failed to keep appointments for laparoscopic ...

  15. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors. (United States)

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato


    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection.

  16. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 1 10-5 704. African Journal of Urology. V0/. 9, NO. 1, 2003. 36-40. ENDOSCOPIC TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BILHARZIAL. ULCERS OF THE URINARY BLADDER. SINGLE-CENTER ... ulcers (78% de novo and 22% recurrent ul- cers after previous open partial .... tion cf its tip is used for resection. However, it.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 1 10-5 704. African Journal of Urology. Vol. 9, NO. 1, 2003. 36-40. ENDOSCOPIC TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BILHARZIAL. ULCERS OF THE URINARY BLADDER. SINGLE-CENTER ... ulcers (78% de novo and 22% recurrent ul- cers after previous open partial .... tion of its tip is used for resection. HoWever, it.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To evaluate the role, safety and efficacy of endoscopic MacroplastiqueTM implants in the management of female stress incontinence. Material and Methods Between 1995 and 1999, transurethral submucosal injection of MacroplastiqueTM was performed in 68 women (mean age 58 years, range 32 — 85 years) ...

  20. Biosorption of lead by Gram-ve capsulated and non-capsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 3, 2005 ... Saleh M Al-Garni. Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Abstract. The biosorption of lead by two Gram-ve bacteria, either non-capsulated (Citrobacter freundii ) or capsulated (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was characterised.

  1. Hemosuccus Pancreaticus in the Era of Capsule Endoscopy and Double Balloon Enteroscopy Complicated by Multifocal Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana F. Pasha


    Full Text Available Hemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare etiology of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding characterized by bleeding into the pancreatic duct. The diagnosis may be delayed for months to years, due to the episodic nature of bleeding and failure to consider the diagnosis. Patients often undergo multiple endoscopies and radiologic evaluations prior to diagnosis. Incidental gastrointestinal findings may lead to unnecessary endoscopic and surgical interventions. This report describes a patient with hemosuccus pancreaticus diagnosed in the era of video capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy, whose management was complicated by multifocal Mycobacteria chelonae/abscessus infection.

  2. SMAC — A Modular Open Source Architecture for Medical Capsule Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beccani Marco


    Full Text Available The field of Medical Capsule Robots (MCRs is gaining momentum in the robotics community, with applications spanning from abdominal surgery to gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. MCRs are miniature multifunctional devices usually constrained in both size and on-board power supply. The design process for MCRs is time consuming and resource intensive, as it involves the development of custom hardware and software components. In this work, we present the STORM Lab Modular Architecture for Capsules (SMAC, a modular open source architecture for MCRs aiming to provide the MCRs research community with a tool for shortening the design and development time for capsule robots. The SMAC platform consists of both hardware modules and firmware libraries that can be used for developing MCRs. In particular, the SMAC modules are miniature boards of uniform diameter (i.e., 9.8 mm that are able to fulfill five different functions: signal coordination combined with wireless data transmission, sensing, actuation, powering and vision/illumination. They are small in size, low power, and have reconfigurable software libraries for the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL, which has been proven to work reliably for different types of MCRs. A design template for a generic SMAC application implementing a robust communication protocol is presented in this work, together with its finite state machine abstraction, capturing all the architectural components involved. The reliability of the wireless link is assessed for different levels of data transmission power and separation distances. The current consumption for each SMAC module is quantified and the timing of a SMAC radio message transmission is characterized. Finally, the applicability of SMAC in the field of MCRs is discussed by analysing examples from the literature.

  3. Capsule endoscopy assisted by traditional upper endoscopy Cápsula endoscópica asistida por una endoscopia alta tradicional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Almeida


    Full Text Available Background and aims: capsule endoscopy (CE can be prevented by difficulties in swallowing the device and/or its gastric retention. In such cases, endoscopic delivery of the capsule to duodenum is very useful. We describe the indications and outcomes of cases in which traditional endoscopic techniques allowed placement of the capsule in duodenum. Patients and methods: this is a retrospective, descriptive case series. All patients in the above conditions were identified and indications for CE, endoscopic-placement technique, complications and completeness of small bowel imaging were registered. Results: endoscopic-assisted delivery of the capsule was necessary in 13 patients (2.1% of all CE; 7 males; mean age - 47.9 ± 24.9 years, range 13 to 79 years. Indications for endoscopic delivery included: inability to swallow the capsule (7, gastric retention in previous exams (3, abnormal upper gastrointestinal anatomy (3. In eight patients, the capsule was introduced in GI tract with: foreign body retrieval net alone (3, retrieval net and a translucent cap (2, prototype delivery device (2 or a polypectomy snare (1. Five patients ingested the capsule that was then placed in duodenum with a polypectomy snare (3 or a retrieval net (2. No major complications occurred. Complete small bowel examination was possible in 10 patients (77%. Conclusions: endoscopic placement of capsule endoscope in the duodenum is rarely needed. However it may be safely performed by different techniques avoiding some limitations of CE. The best methods for endoscopic delivery of the capsule in the duodenum seem to be a retrieval net with a translucent cap when the patient is unable to swallow the device or a retrieval net only to capture the capsule in the stomach when the patient swallows it easily.Antecedentes y objetivos: la cápsula endoscópica puede resultar inútil en caso de dificultad para tragar el dispositivo y/o de retención gástrica del mismo. En tales casos, llevar

  4. The effect of host factors and capsule composition on the cellular overgrowth on implanted alginate capsules. (United States)

    King, A; Sandler, S; Andersson, A


    Microencapsulation of islets of Langerhans in alginate/poly-L-lysine (PLL)/alginate capsules may provide a method for transplantation in the absence of immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of overgrowth on implanted capsules with regard to the composition of the capsules and host factors such as cytokine and nitric oxide production. Empty capsules were implanted to C57BL/6 mice for 1, 3, 7, or 28 days. Glucose oxidation rates showed the metabolic activity of the cellular overgrowth on retrieved capsules. DNA content, histological score, and retrieval rates were also measured to assess the overgrowth. It was noted that the pericapsular host reaction arose by day 7 and had not increased further by day 28. Capsules of varying alginate compositions and different concentrations of PLL were implanted for 7 days to either C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice. Capsules were also implanted to mice lacking the inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Glucose oxidation rates, DNA content, and histological score were positively correlated to each other and negatively correlated to retrieval rates. The pericapsular reaction was reduced if PLL was omitted from the capsule or if a high mannuronic acid alginate was used. Balb/c mice had reduced cellular overgrowth on implanted capsules and had reduced mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in their peritoneal macrophages. The capsular overgrowth seemed more severe in animals lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase compared with wild-type controls. It is concluded that alginate composition, PLL, and recipient factors such as nitric oxide production and cytokine expression affect the cellular overgrowth on implanted alginate capsules. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 57: 374-383, 2001

  5. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots. (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan


    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  6. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum Corporation has demonstrated the feasibility in the Phase I of " A Wireless Sensor Portal Technology" and proposes a Phase II effort to develop a wireless...

  7. Evolution of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos


    Mobile and wireless content, services and networks - Short-term and long-term development trends......Mobile and wireless content, services and networks - Short-term and long-term development trends...

  8. Versatile Wireless Data Net Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R&D is to develop a wireless data networking capability. A prototype capability will result from the Phase 1 and 2 contracts. The Versatile Wireless...

  9. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Hentall


    Full Text Available The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 milliamp-hours were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm but taller (6 mm were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat’s raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-minute (50% duty cycle trains of 30 µA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n=128. Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n=16 were achieved with larger batteries (44 milliamp-hours in longer (18 mm, taller (6 mm capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat’s sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  11. Endoscopic prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Do Hyun


    Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is not an uncommon adverse event but may be an avoidable complication. Although pancreatitis of severe grade is reported in 0.1%-0.5% of ERCP patients, a serious clinical course may be lethal. For prevention of severe PEP, patient risk stratification, appropriate selection of patients using noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and avoidance of unnecessary invasive procedures, are important measures to be taken before any procedure. Pharmacological prevention is also commonly attempted but is usually ineffective. No ideal agent has not yet been found and the available data conflict. Currently, rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to prevent PEP in high-risk patients, but additional studies using larger numbers of subjects are necessary to confirm any prophylactic effect. In this review, we focus on endoscopic procedures seeking to prevent or decrease the severity of PEP. Among various cannulation methods, wire-guided cannulation, precut fistulotomy, and transpancreatic septostomy are reviewed. Prophylactic pancreatic stent placement, which is the best-known prophylactic method, is reviewed with reference to the ideal stent type, adequate duration of stent placement, and stent-related complications. Finally, we comment on other treatment alternatives, and make the point that further advances in EUS-guided techniques may afford useful PEP prophylaxis.

  12. Wireless physical layer security (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.


    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  13. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H


    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  14. Wireless physical layer security. (United States)

    Poor, H Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F


    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  15. Wireless Technology Development: History, Now, and Then


    Lusiana Citra Dewi


    Wireless technology is one of many technologies that can enable people to communicate with each other by air medium, or rather you can say by radio frequency. This paper discusses about history of wireless technology, different kinds of wireless connection, wireless technology standards, and a few comparisons of different kinds of world’s wireless technology standards. Besides discussing about history about wireless technology and wireless technology that we can use nowadays, this paper also ...

  16. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.


    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  17. Endoscopic subsurface imaging in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B


    The objective of this work is to develop endoscopic subsurface optical imaging technology that will be able to image different tissue components located underneath the surface of the tissue at an imaging depth of up to 1 centimeter. This effort is based on the utilization of existing technology and components developed for medical endoscopes with the incorporation of the appropriate modifications to implement the spectral and polarization difference imaging technique. This subsurface imaging technique employs polarization and spectral light discrimination in combination with image processing to remove a large portion of the image information from the outer layers of the tissue which leads to enhancement of the contrast and image quality of subsurface tissue structures.

  18. Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions. (United States)

    Menon, Laila; Buscaglia, Jonathan M


    Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions.

  19. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter


    Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...

  20. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A


    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  1. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja


    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  2. Pervasive wireless environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Trappe, Wade; Cheng, Jerry


    This Springer Brief provides a new approach to prevent user spoofing by using the physical properties associated with wireless transmissions to detect the presence of user spoofing. The most common method, applying cryptographic authentication, requires additional management and computational power that cannot be deployed consistently. The authors present the new approach by offering a summary of the recent research and exploring the benefits and potential challenges of this method. This brief discusses the feasibility of launching user spoofing attacks and their impact on the wireless and sen

  3. Wireless telecommunication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terré, Michel; Vivier, Emmanuelle


    Wireless telecommunication systems generate a huge amount of interest. In the last two decades, these systems have experienced at least three major technological leaps, and it has become impossible to imagine how society was organized without them. In this book, we propose a macroscopic approach on wireless systems, and aim at answering key questions about power, data rates, multiple access, cellular engineering and access networks architectures.We present a series of solved problems, whose objective is to establish the main elements of a global link budget in several radiocommunicati

  4. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin


    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  5. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier


    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  6. Endoscopic cubital tunnel recurrence rates. (United States)

    Cobb, Tyson K; Sterbank, Patrick T; Lemke, Jon H


    Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve entrapment in the upper extremity. There are no current publications concerning the recurrence rates after endoscopic cubital tunnel release. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the recurrence rate of endoscopic cubital tunnel release compared to published reports of recurrence following open cubital tunnel procedures. We reviewed 134 consecutive cases of endoscopic cubital tunnel release in 117 patients. There were 104 cases in 94 patients with greater than 3 months follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 736 days. They were grouped using Dellon's classification. Two literature control groups were used from published reports of recurrence rate following open cubital tunnel release. A recurrence was identified if the patient was symptom-free following surgery but had symptoms reappear 3 months or more after surgery as defined in the literature. Of the 104 cases, 92.31% had more than a 4-month follow-up. One case (0.96%) met the criteria for recurrence at 4 months postprocedure. Data were then compared to the literature control groups used from published reports of recurrence rates following open cubital tunnel release. Pooled, the combined controls had 22 of 180 cases (12.22%) with recurrences. The percentage of procedure recurrence varied significantly with p value equal to 0.0004. It is recognized that there is a lack of common classification and comparative analysis of these studies, but they do classify preoperative grading and recurrence similarly. We are 95% confident that our true recurrence rate is between 0.02% and 5.24% and that endoscopic cubital tunnel release has a recurrence rate, which is not higher than open cubital tunnel release literature controls.

  7. Endoscopic versus microscopic stapes surgery. (United States)

    Surmelioglu, Ozgur; Ozdemir, Suleyman; Tarkan, Ozgur; Tuncer, Ulku; Dagkiran, Muhammed; Cetik, Fikret


    The aim of this study to compare the outcomes and complications of endoscopic stapes surgery versus microscopic stapes surgery. This study involved patients who underwent stapedotomy at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University between January 2012 and July 2014. The patients were divided into two groups. Patients in group I were operated with endoscope and patients in group II were operated with microscope. Pure tone audiometry was carried out in all patients preoperatively. Peroperative surgical findings, complications, and duration of surgery were noted and compared between the two groups. Air conduction and bone conduction thresholds were measured at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000Hz, and the mean (±SD) air-bone gap was noted. Mean preoperative air-bone gap was 36.9±6.8dB (23.3-50dB) in group I and 35.1±6dB (26.6-50dB) in group II. Mean postoperative air-bone gap was 9.3±7.1dB (0-30dB) in group I and 13.5±9.7dB (1.6-35dB) in group II. The difference in preoperative and postoperative air-bone gap between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.023). Patients in group I did not complain of postoperative pain but this was felt in four patients in group II. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.045). Endoscopic stapes surgery has many benefits such as good visualization, and easy accessibility to the stapes, oval window niche, and facial nerve. Removal of the scutum and manipulation of the chorda tympani nerve are less frequent with the endoscopic technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei


    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  9. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald


    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  10. Stereotaxis Niobe magnetic navigation system for endocardial catheter ablation and gastrointestinal capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Pappone, Carlo


    The use of robotic instruments capable of assisting medical staff during interventional or diagnostic procedures is growing rapidly today. Recently, a robotic system (Niobe, Stereotaxis Inc., USA) has been developed for navigating magnetically enabled tools inside the human body by controlling a magnetic field. This paper reports the fundamentals of this technology and reviews its application in two specific medical fields, cardiology and gastroenterology, in which its uses are different and are at dissimilar stages of development. In the first case, the system is already approved and employed for clinical treatments, such as magnetic steering of endocardial catheters for atrial fibrillation ablation, which is specifically considered in this article. In the second case, initial investigations are being performed today to study the potential magnetic maneuverability of ingestible video capsules adopted for endoscopic explorations of the digestive tract. This paper reviews current achievements and highlights future challenges related to each of these applications.

  11. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão


    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  12. Endoscopically removed giant submucosal lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan


    Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.

  13. Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), precipitation of the pro- tein could be initiated. Since the temperature is low the aggregation process overrides the precipitation result- ing in multi-layered structures with smaller capsules growing within larger capsules. At both pH values, the.

  14. Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xia


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in the design and applications of wirelessly networked and embedded sensors. Wireless sensor nodes are typically low-cost, low-power, small devices equipped with limited sensing, data processing and wireless communication capabilities, as well as power supplies. They leverage the concept of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, in which a large (possibly huge number of collaborative sensor nodes could be deployed. As an outcome of the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics, WSNs represent a significant improvement over traditional sensors. In fact, the rapid evolution of WSN technology has accelerated the development and deployment of various novel types of wireless sensors, e.g., multimedia sensors. Fulfilling Moore’s law, wireless sensors are becoming smaller and cheaper, and at the same time more powerful and ubiquitous. [...

  15. Resource management in wireless networking

    CERN Document Server

    Cardei, Mihaela; Du, Ding-Zhu


    This is the first book that provides readers with a deep technical overview of recent advances in resource management for wireless networks at different layers of the protocol stack. The subject is explored in various wireless networks, such as ad hoc wireless networks, 3G/4G cellular, IEEE 802.11, and Bluetooth personal area networks.Survey chapters give an excellent introduction to key topics in resource management for wireless networks, while experts will be satisfied by the technical depth of the knowledge imparted in chapters exploring hot research topics.The subject area discussed in this book is very relevant today, considering the recent remarkable growth of wireless networking and the convergence of wireless personal communications, internet technologies and real-time multimedia.This volume is a very good companion for practitioners working on implementing solutions for multimedia and Quality of Service - sensitive applications over wireless networks.Written for:Researchers, faculty members, students...

  16. Development of stereo endoscope system with its innovative master interface for continuous surgical operation. (United States)

    Kim, Myungjoon; Lee, Chiwon; Hong, Nhayoung; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Sungwan


    Although robotic laparoscopic surgery has various benefits when compared with conventional open surgery and minimally invasive surgery, it also has issues to overcome and one of the issues is the discontinuous surgical flow that occurs whenever control is swapped between the endoscope system and the operating robot arm system. This can lead to problems such as collision between surgical instruments, injury to patients, and increased operation time. To achieve continuous surgical operation, a wireless controllable stereo endoscope system is proposed which enables the simultaneous control of the operating robot arm system and the endoscope system. The proposed system consists of two improved novel master interfaces (iNMIs), a four-degrees of freedom (4-DOFs) endoscope control system (ECS), and a simple three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. In order to simultaneously control the proposed system and patient side manipulators of da Vinci research kit (dVRK), the iNMIs are installed to the master tool manipulators of dVRK system. The 4-DOFs ECS consists of four servo motors and employs a two-parallel link structure to provide translational and fulcrum point motion to the simple 3D endoscope. The images acquired by the endoscope undergo stereo calibration and rectification to provide a clear 3D vision to the surgeon as available in clinically used da Vinci surgical robot systems. Tests designed to verify the accuracy, data transfer time, and power consumption of the iNMIs were performed. The workspace was calculated to estimate clinical applicability and a modified peg transfer task was conducted with three novice volunteers. The iNMIs operated for 317 min and moved in accordance with the surgeon's desire with a mean latency of 5 ms. The workspace was calculated to be 20378.3 cm3, which exceeds the reference workspace of 549.5 cm3. The novice volunteers were able to successfully execute the modified peg transfer task designed to evaluate the proposed system's overall

  17. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608 (United States)

    Blazer, Christie


    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  18. Can we reduce capsule endoscopy reading times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Koornstra, Jan J.; Weersma, Rinse K.

    Background: Analyzing small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) images is time Consuming. Objective: To determine the effect of reducing the number Of images on reacting time and interpretation of CE procedures. Design: Two techniques aimed at reducing the number of images to he viewed were Studied. The

  19. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    whose refracted vision was less then optimal. Conclusion: Hydrodissection is associated with a marginal reduction in post-operative posterior capsule opacity formation following ECCE-IOL surgery. It may however be associated with early post operative complications such as cornea striae, epithelial oedema and iritis due ...

  20. Capsule endoscopy of the small bowel (United States)

    Ching, Hey-Long; Yung, Diana; Sidhu, Reena; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a first line small bowel investigative modality which provides more sensitive mucosal imaging than comparators. It is a non-invasive, non-irradiating tool well tolerated by patients. The risk of retention of the capsule can be minimised by ensuring luminal patency using the Agile patency device. Research continues into how to minimise missed pathology and variability in the identification of pathology or interpretation of images. The consensus is that bowel preparation using laxatives improves visibility and diagnostic yield. Research includes the development of image recognition software, both to eliminate sequentially identical images to improve viewing speed and to select or enhance images likely to represent pathology. However, careful reading by experienced capsule endoscopists remains the benchmark. This should be performed at a speed comfortable to the viewer, probably at a maximum of 15 frames per second. Some prior experience of endoscopy appears to be helpful for novice capsule endoscopists and formal training on a hands-on training course seems to improve pathology recognition, for novices and for those with CE experience. PMID:27826572

  1. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells3. The incidence of PCO reduces with greater attention to meticulous ... effect to prevent the proliferation of lens epithelial cells on to the posterior capsule4,5. Hydrodissection is ... counter pressure from a lens extractor and squint hook. Majority of the intraocular lenses were from.

  2. CAPS Capsule. Volume 5, Number 2. (United States)

    Walz, Garry, Ed.; And Others

    Published 3 times yearly by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, CAPS Capsule acquaints the reader with recent projects, meetings, publications and materials which are of interest those in the helping professions. This issue features: (1) New Career Development Projects; (2) Supreme Court Decision Ramifications; (3)…

  3. A time capsule for patients with dementia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, Robert M; Head, Julia H


    ... present arguments that lead to the proposal for 'time capsules' whereby patients with early dementia can set down their thoughts and so exercise a degree of control over subsequent events. CLINICAL APPROACH Language is eroded by the process of dementia, and the point comes when normal verbal communication is no longer possible. Health workers then...

  4. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses


    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S.G.; MacFarlane, T W; Carmichael, F. A.


    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  5. Biosorption of lead by Gram-ve capsulated and non-capsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrobacter freundii ) or capsulated (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was characterised. Lead biosorption was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, and amount of the dried powdered cells and contact time. Thus, the ...

  6. Dynamics of nonspherical capsules in shear flow (United States)

    Bagchi, Prosenjit; Kalluri, R. Murthy


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a front-tracking method are presented on the dynamics of oblate shape capsules in linear shear flow by considering a broad range of viscosity contrast (ratio of internal-to-external fluid viscosity), shear rate (or capillary number), and aspect ratio. We focus specifically on the coupling between the shape deformation and orientation dynamics of capsules, and show how this coupling influences the transition from the tank-treading to tumbling motion. At low capillary numbers, three distinct modes of motion are identified: a swinging or oscillatory (OS) mode at a low viscosity contrast in which the inclination angle θ(t) oscillates but always remains positive; a vacillating-breathing (VB) mode at a moderate viscosity contrast in which θ(t) periodically becomes positive and negative, but a full tumbling does not occur; and a pure tumbling mode (TU) at a higher viscosity contrast. At higher capillary numbers, three types of transient motions occur, in addition to the OS and TU modes, during which the capsule switches from one mode to the other as (i) VB to OS, (ii) TU to VB to OS, and (iii) TU to VB. Phase diagrams showing various regimes of capsule dynamics are presented. For all modes of motion (OS, VB, and TU), a large-amplitude oscillation in capsule shape and a strong coupling between the shape deformation and orientation dynamics are observed. It is shown that the coupling between the shape deformation and orientation is the strongest in the VB mode, and hence at a moderate viscosity contrast, for which the amplitude of shape deformation reaches its maximum. The numerical results are compared with the theories of Keller and Skalak, and Skotheim and Secomb. Significant departures from the two theories are discussed and related to the strong coupling between the shape deformation, inclination, and transition dynamics.

  7. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... assemblies. Sizes of these capsules change near the isoelectric point and large swollen multiwalled capsules are formed. The elastic films of capsules of Hb provide a useful post preparation approach for modification of the surface roughness, porosity, and permeability of pre-assembled polypeptide microcapsules.

  8. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. 520.580... Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor. (1) For single dose only, see...

  9. Wireless Telegraphic Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Wireless Telegraphic Communication. Guglielmo Marconi. Classics Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 95-101. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  10. Wireless, Not Penniless. (United States)

    Schaeffer, Brett


    Describes some advantages of the early adoption of wireless, laptop, and personal digital assistant (PDA) technology. Provides examples of early adoption experiences in several school districts. Advantages include increased computer access, timesavings, and expanded curricular offerings. Also highlights potential cost savings involving, for…

  11. Wired vs. Wireless. (United States)

    Fielding, Randall


    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  12. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo


    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  13. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  14. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet) (United States)

    Perotti, J.


    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  15. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.


    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  16. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Weber, John Mark [Dynetics, Inc.; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Pan, W. David [University of Alabama, Huntsville


    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  17. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar


    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  18. Lubiprostone improves visualization of small bowel for capsule endoscopy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study. (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Inou, Yumi; Kanoshima, Kenji; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Iida, Hiroshi; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi


     Lubiprostone has been reported to be an anti-constipation drug. The aim of the study was to investigate the usefulness of lubiprostone both for bowel preparation and as a propulsive agent in small bowel endoscopy.  This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover study of subjects who volunteered to undergo capsule endoscopy (CE). A total of 20 subjects (16 male and 4 female volunteers) were randomly assigned to receive a 24-μg tablet of lubiprostone 120 minutes prior to capsule ingestion for CE (L regimen), or a placebo tablet 120 minutes prior to capsule ingestion for CE (P regimen). Main outcome was gastric transit time (GTT) and small-bowel transit time (SBTT). Secondary outcome was adequacy of small-bowel cleansing and the fluid score in the small bowel. The quality of the capsule endoscopic images and fluid in the small bowel were assessed on 5-point scale.  The capsule passed into the small bowel in all cases. Median GTT was 57.3 (3 - 221) minutes for the P regimen and 61.3 (10 - 218) minutes for the L regimen ( P  = 0.836). Median SBTT was 245.0 (164 - 353) minutes for the P regimen and 228.05 (116 - 502) minutes for the L regimen ( P  = 0.501). The image quality score in the small bowel was 3.05 ± 1.08 for the P regimen and 3.80 ± 0.49 for the L regimen ( P  lubiprostone prior to CE significantly improved visualization of the small bowel during CE as a result of inducing fluid secretion into the small bowel.

  19. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.


    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  20. Capsule type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determines growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Hathaway

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae defines over ninety serotypes, which differ in their carriage prevalence and invasiveness for poorly understood reasons. Recently, an inverse correlation between carriage prevalence and oligosaccharide structure of a given capsule has been described. Our previous work suggested a link between serotype and growth in vitro. Here we investigate whether capsule production interferes with growth in vitro and whether this predicts carriage prevalence in vivo. Eighty-one capsule switch mutants were constructed representing nine different serotypes, five of low (4, 7F, 14, 15, 18C and four of high carriage prevalence (6B, 9V, 19F, 23F. Growth (length of lag phase, maximum optical density of wildtype strains, nontypeable mutants and capsule switch mutants was studied in nutrient-restricted Lacks medium (MLM and in rich undefined brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum (BHI+FCS. In MLM growth phenotype depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Colonization efficiency of mouse nasopharynx also depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Capsule production interfered with growth, which correlated inversely with serotype-specific carriage prevalence. Serotypes with better growth and higher carriage prevalence produced thicker capsules (by electron microscopy, FITC-dextran exclusion assays and HPLC than serotypes with delayed growth and low carriage prevalence. However, expression of cpsA, the first capsule gene, (by quantitative RT-PCR correlated inversely with capsule thickness. Energy spent for capsule production (incorporation of H3-glucose relative to amount of capsule produced was higher for serotypes with low carriage prevalence. Experiments in BHI+FCS showed overall better bacterial growth and more capsule production than growth in MLM and differences between serotypes were no longer apparent. Production of polysaccharide capsule in S

  1. Capsule type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determines growth phenotype. (United States)

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Brugger, Silvio D; Morand, Brigitte; Bangert, Mathieu; Rotzetter, Jeannine U; Hauser, Christoph; Graber, Werner A; Gore, Suzanna; Kadioglu, Aras; Mühlemann, Kathrin


    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae defines over ninety serotypes, which differ in their carriage prevalence and invasiveness for poorly understood reasons. Recently, an inverse correlation between carriage prevalence and oligosaccharide structure of a given capsule has been described. Our previous work suggested a link between serotype and growth in vitro. Here we investigate whether capsule production interferes with growth in vitro and whether this predicts carriage prevalence in vivo. Eighty-one capsule switch mutants were constructed representing nine different serotypes, five of low (4, 7F, 14, 15, 18C) and four of high carriage prevalence (6B, 9V, 19F, 23F). Growth (length of lag phase, maximum optical density) of wildtype strains, nontypeable mutants and capsule switch mutants was studied in nutrient-restricted Lacks medium (MLM) and in rich undefined brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum (BHI+FCS). In MLM growth phenotype depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Colonization efficiency of mouse nasopharynx also depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Capsule production interfered with growth, which correlated inversely with serotype-specific carriage prevalence. Serotypes with better growth and higher carriage prevalence produced thicker capsules (by electron microscopy, FITC-dextran exclusion assays and HPLC) than serotypes with delayed growth and low carriage prevalence. However, expression of cpsA, the first capsule gene, (by quantitative RT-PCR) correlated inversely with capsule thickness. Energy spent for capsule production (incorporation of H3-glucose) relative to amount of capsule produced was higher for serotypes with low carriage prevalence. Experiments in BHI+FCS showed overall better bacterial growth and more capsule production than growth in MLM and differences between serotypes were no longer apparent. Production of polysaccharide capsule in S. pneumoniae

  2. Use of patency capsule in patients with established Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Nemeth, Artur; Kopylov, Uri; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Wurm Johansson, Gabriele; Thorlacius, Henrik; Amre, Devendra; Eliakim, Rami; Seidman, Ernest G; Toth, Ervin


    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is invaluable in the diagnosis of small-bowel pathology. Capsule retention is a major concern in patients with Crohn's disease. The patency capsule was designed to evaluate small-bowel patency before VCE. However, the actual benefit of the patency capsule test in Crohn's disease remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of patency capsule use on the risk of video capsule retention in patients with established Crohn's disease. This was a retrospective, multicenter study of patients with established Crohn's disease who underwent VCE for clinical need. The utilization strategy for the patency capsule was classified as selective (only in patients with obstructive symptoms, history of intestinal obstruction or surgery, or per treating physician's request) or nonselective (all patients with Crohn's disease). The main outcome was video capsule retention in the entire cohort and within each utilization strategy. A total of 406 patients who were referred for VCE were included in the study. VCE was performed in 132 /406 patients (32.5 %) without a prior patency capsule test. The patency capsule test was performed in 274 /406 patients (67.5 %) and was negative in 193 patients. Overall, VCE was performed in 343 patients and was retained in the small bowel in 8 (2.3 %). In this cohort, the risk of video capsule retention in the small bowel was 1.5 % without use of a prior patency capsule and 2.1 % after a negative patency test (P = 0.9). A total of 18 patients underwent VCE after a positive patency capsule test, with a retention rate of 11.1 % (P = 0.01). Patency capsule administration strategy (selective vs. nonselective) was not associated with the risk of video capsule retention. Capsule retention is a rare event in patients with established Crohn's disease undergoing VCE. The risk of video capsule retention was not reduced by the nonselective use of the patency capsule. Furthermore, VCE

  3. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam


    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  4. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.609). Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR. Keywords: Dacryocystorhinostomy, endoscopic, external. Nigerian Medical Journal | Vol. 54 | Issue 3 | May-June ...

  5. Transgastric endoscopic splenectomy: is it possible? (United States)

    Kantsevoy, S V; Hu, B; Jagannath, S B; Vaughn, C A; Beitler, D M; Chung, S S C; Cotton, P B; Gostout, C J; Hawes, R H; Pasricha, P J; Magee, C A; Pipitone, L J; Talamini, M A; Kalloo, A N


    We have previously reported the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic peritoneoscopy including liver biopsy, gastrojejunostomy, and tubal ligation by an oral transgastric approach. We present results of per-oral transgastric splenectomy in a porcine model. The goal of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of per-oral transgastric splenectomy using a flexible endoscope. We performed acute experiments on 50-kg pigs. All animals were fed liquids for 3 days prior to procedure. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. The flexible endoscope was passed per orally into the stomach and puncture of the gastric wall was performed with a needle knife. The puncture was extended to create a 1.5-cm incision using a pull-type sphincterotome, and a double-channel endoscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneal cavity was insufflated with air through the endoscope. The spleen was visualized. The splenic vessels were ligated with endoscopic loops and clips, and then mesentery was dissected using electrocautery. Endoscopic splenectomy was performed on six pigs. There were no complications during gastric incision and entrance into the peritoneal cavity. Visualization of the spleen and other intraperitoneal organs was very good. Ligation of the splenic vessels and mobilization of the spleen were achieved using commercially available devices and endoscopic accessories. Transgastric endoscopic splenectomy in a porcine model appears technically feasible. Additional long-term survival experiments are planned.

  6. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release: a systematic review. (United States)

    Smeraglia, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola


    Theoretical advantages of endoscopic cubital tunnel release are the short incision, lower risk of nerve damage, reduced manipulation of the nerve and possible faster recovery. We systematically searched Medline (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus databases using the following keywords: 'endoscopic ulnar nerve', 'endoscopic cubital nerve', 'endoscopic ulnar compression' and 'endoscopic ulnar neuropathy'. Twenty-one studies were included in this review. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Coleman Methodological Score. Endoscopic release is effective for cubital tunnel entrapment and allows adequate visualization of the site of entrapment. There is a negative association between the severity of the compression and reported outcomes. Injury to the medial branch of the antebrachial cutaneous nerve is less frequent thanks to the limited dissection. The most frequent complication is the development of a hematoma. It is unclear whether ulnar nerve instability is a contraindication to simple decompression. The shorter time to return to work and the cosmetic appearance of the scar can be considered advantages of the endoscopic technique. There is a need to perform randomized clinical trials with common and validated scoring system with a longer duration of follow-up. The literature pertinent to endoscopic cubital tunnel release is lacking in the evaluation of the learning curve. Further investigations are necessary to assess the role of ulnar nerve instability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in idiopathic normal pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of endoscopic fenestration of the third ventricle in the treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Methods: 16 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This study lasted three years. All patients were over 50 ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:-To evaluate the safety and efficacy of povidone iodine with contrast agent as a sclerosant for the endoscopic treatment of chylurla. -. Patients and Methods: From December 1999 to October 2003, a total of 22 patients having chylurla were treated. After their baseline evaluation they were subjected to endoscopic ...

  9. Duodenal diverticular bleeding: an endoscopic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valdivielso-Cortázar

    Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.

  10. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in idiopathic normal pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Ahmed Eshra


    Dec 22, 2013 ... Abstract Objective: To determine the efficacy of endoscopic fenestration of the third ventricle in the treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Methods: 16 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This study lasted three years.

  11. Propeller-based wireless device for active capsular endoscopy in the gastric district. (United States)

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Rieber, Fabian; Schurr, Marc Oliver


    An innovative approach to active locomotion for capsular endoscopy in the gastric district is reported in this paper. Taking advantage of the ingestion of 500 ml of transparent liquid by the patient, an effective distension of the stomach is safely achieved for a timeframe of approximately 30 minutes. Given such a scenario, an active swallowable capsule able to navigate inside the stomach thanks to a four propeller system has been developed. The capsule is 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and it is composed of a supporting shell containing a wireless microcontroller, a battery and four motors. The motors enable the rotation of propellers located in the rear side of the device, thus obtaining a reliable locomotion and steering of the capsule in all directions in a liquid. The power consumption has been properly optimized in order to achieve an operative lifetime consistent with the time of the diagnostic inspection of the gastric district, assumed to be no more than 30 minutes. The capsule can be easily remotely controlled by the endoscopist using a joystick together with a purposely developed graphical user interface. The capsule design, prototyping, in vitro, ex vivo and preliminary in vivo tests are described in this work.

  12. Wireless Technology Development: History, Now, and Then

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiana Citra Dewi


    Full Text Available Wireless technology is one of many technologies that can enable people to communicate with each other by air medium, or rather you can say by radio frequency. This paper discusses about history of wireless technology, different kinds of wireless connection, wireless technology standards, and a few comparisons of different kinds of world’s wireless technology standards. Besides discussing about history about wireless technology and wireless technology that we can use nowadays, this paper also reviews about prediction of wireless technology development in the future for better human life. The purpose of this study is to give a glimpse of view on how the wireless technology develops, the world standard for wireless technologies and work system, the security and characteristic for each wireless technology including advantages and drawbacks, and future wireless technology development. 

  13. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.


    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of

  14. Endoscopic findings following retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. (United States)

    Pinchuk, Alexey V; Dmitriev, Ilya V; Shmarina, Nonna V; Teterin, Yury S; Balkarov, Aslan G; Storozhev, Roman V; Anisimov, Yuri A; Gasanov, Ali M


    An evaluation of the efficacy of endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and correction of surgical and immunological complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. From October 2011 to March 2015, 27 patients underwent simultaneous retroperitoneal pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). Diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with protocol biopsy of the donor and recipient duodenal mucosa and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) were performed to detect possible complications. Endoscopic stenting of the main pancreatic duct with plastic stents and three-stage endoscopic hemostasis were conducted to correct the identified complications. Endoscopic methods showed high efficiency in the timely diagnosis and adequate correction of complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Endoscopic Thyroidectomy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang


    Full Text Available Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a relatively new approach in treating differentiated thyroid cancer. Since last decades, more and more endoscopic thyroidectomies have been performed. We review the indications and contraindications, methods, and postoperational complications of this surgical procedure. Lots of surgical approaches have been developed in endoscopic thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer. Compared to conventional thyroidectomy, scarless endoscopic thyroidectomy has a superior cosmetic result. And it also reduces the incidence of hypesthesia, paresthesia, or feelings of self-consciousness. However, the outcome depends, to a large extent, on the skill of the operator and the learning curve being relatively long. With the development of surgical equipments and skills, operation time and complications will be reduced. Indications of endoscopic thyroidectomy will be widened and it will be more and more performed.

  16. Endoscopic thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Xiang, Jianbin; Chen, Zongyou


    Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a relatively new approach in treating differentiated thyroid cancer. Since last decades, more and more endoscopic thyroidectomies have been performed. We review the indications and contraindications, methods, and postoperational complications of this surgical procedure. Lots of surgical approaches have been developed in endoscopic thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer. Compared to conventional thyroidectomy, scarless endoscopic thyroidectomy has a superior cosmetic result. And it also reduces the incidence of hypesthesia, paresthesia, or feelings of self-consciousness. However, the outcome depends, to a large extent, on the skill of the operator and the learning curve being relatively long. With the development of surgical equipments and skills, operation time and complications will be reduced. Indications of endoscopic thyroidectomy will be widened and it will be more and more performed.

  17. The Lure of Wireless Encryption

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team


    Following our article entitled “Jekyll or Hyde? Better browse securely” in the last issue of the Bulletin, some people wondered why the CERN wireless network is not encrypted…   There are many arguments why it is not. The simplest is usability: the communication and management of the corresponding access keys would be challenging given the sheer number of wireless devices the CERN network hosts. Keys would quickly become public, e.g. at conferences, and might be shared, written on whiteboards, etc. Then there are all the devices which cannot be easily configured to use encryption protocols - a fact which would create plenty of calls to the CERN Service Desk… But our main argument is that wireless encryption is DECEPTIVE. Wireless encryption is deceptive as it only protects the wireless network against unauthorised access (and the CERN network already has other means to protect against that). Wireless encryption however, does not really help you. You ...

  18. Polymeric multilayer capsules in drug delivery. (United States)

    De Cock, Liesbeth J; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G; Grooten, Johan; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Antipina, Maria N


    Recent advances in medicine and biotechnology have prompted the need to develop nanoengineered delivery systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of novel therapeutics such as proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Moreover, these delivery systems should be "intelligent", such that they can deliver their payload at a well-defined time, place, or after a specific stimulus. Polymeric multilayer capsules, made by layer-by-layer (LbL) coating of a sacrificial template followed by dissolution of the template, allow the design of microcapsules in aqueous conditions by using simple building blocks and assembly procedures, and provide a previously unmet control over the functionality of the microcapsules. Polymeric multilayer capsules have recently received increased interest from the life science community, and many interesting systems have appeared in the literature with biodegradable components and biospecific functionalities. In this Review we give an overview of the recent breakthroughs in their application for drug delivery.

  19. High capacity oil adsorption by graphene capsules. (United States)

    Ning, Guoqing; Ma, Xinlong; Wang, Mengyao; Li, Yongfeng


    We report on a chemical vapor deposition synthesis of graphene capsules (GCs) in sizes of tens to thousands of nanometers and their oil adsorption performance. MgO particles with different particle sizes are used as templates to produce GCs with different sizes. At a larger GC size and higher pore volume, a higher oil capacity is obtained. The highest oil adsorption capacity achieved by the GCs is 156 gdiesel gGC(-1), which is much higher than that obtained by expanded graphite. The adsorption capacity proportionally increases as the viscosity of the fluid increases. Both the capsule structure and the viscosity of oil are relative to the adsorption capacity, showing that capillary adsorption with a limited entrance might have contributed to the high capacity oil adsorption by GCs.

  20. The shell dissolution of various empty hard capsules. (United States)

    Chiwele, I; Jones, B E; Podczeck, F


    The shell dissolution properties of gelatine, gelatine/polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules were studied as a function of temperature, dissolution medium, and after different storage conditions. In any dissolution medium with a pH below or equal to 5.8, HPMC capsule shells dissolved rapidly, and there was no difference in the time in which dissolution occurred in the tested temperature interval of 10 to 55 degrees C. Gelatine and gelatine/PEG capsule shells, generally, did not dissolve at temperatures below 30 degrees C. The shell dissolution time of all capsules tested was prolonged and more variable in mixed phosphate buffer pH = 6.8. The addition of enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin) to any dissolution medium was found not to enhance the differences between the different types of capsules investigated. In practical terms, the results indicated that capsule formulations should not be taken with drinks from the carbonated Cola-type. Gelatine containing capsules should preferably be administered with a warm drink, whereas HPMC capsules could be given with cold or warm drinks. The latter type of capsules should also be preferred for preparations to be taken in the fasted state. A short storage of gelatine containing capsules under hot humid tropical conditions appeared not to alter the dissolution properties of the shells, and changes in disintegration times and dissolution times of formulations filled in such capsules might be a reflection of changes of the powders incorporated rather than of the capsule shells. However, a short storage of HPMC capsules under such conditions appeared to influence the capsule shell matrix.

  1. Constraints on oxygen fugacity within metal capsules (United States)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Cline, Christopher J., II; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian; Garapić, Gordana


    Experiments were conducted with olivine encapsulated or wrapped in five different metals (Pt, Ni, Ni_{70}Fe_{30} , Fe, and Re) to determine the oxygen fugacity in the interior of large capsules used for deformation and seismic property experiments. Temperature (1200°C ), pressure (300 MPa), and duration (24 h) were chosen to represent the most common conditions in these experiments. The oxygen fugacity was determined by analysing the Fe content of initially pure Pt particles that were mixed with the olivine powder prior to the experiments. Oxygen fugacities in the more oxidizing metal containers are substantially below their respective metal-oxide buffers, with the fO_2 of sol-gel olivine in Ni about 2.5 orders of magnitude below Ni-NiO. Analysis of olivine and metal blebs reveals three different length-, and hence diffusive time scales: (1) Fe loss to the capsule over ˜ 100 μm, (2) fO_2 gradients at the sample-capsule interface up to 2 mm into the sample, and (3) constant interior fO_2 values with an ordering corresponding to the capsule material. The inferred diffusive processes are: Fe diffusion in olivine with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-14} m^2/s , diffusion possibly of oxygen along grain boundaries with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-12} m^2/s , and diffusion possibly involving pre-existing defects with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-10} m^2/s . The latter, fast adjustment to changing fO_2 may consist of a rearrangement of pre-existing defects, representing a metastable equilibrium, analogous to decoration of pre-existing defects by hydrogen. Full adjustment to the external fO_2 requires atomic diffusion.

  2. 5G Wireless Communication Systems


    Saddam Hossain


    As a subscriber becomes more aware of the mobile phone technology, he/she will seek for anappropriate package all together, including all the advanced features of a cellular phone can have. Hence, the search for new technology is always the main intention of the prime cell phone giants to out innovate their competitors. In addition, the main purpose of the fifth generation wireless networks (5G Wireless networks) is planned to design the best wireless world that is free from limitations...

  3. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid


    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  4. Capsule Design for Hybrid Shock Ignition (United States)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Loomis, E. N.


    Hybrid Shock-Ignition (HSI) is an alternate fusion energy concept that combines indirect drive and shock ignition schemes in order to access new regimes in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum physics. Building off of tetrahedral hohlraum experiments at the OMEGA laser facility, we have preliminary designs for spherical hohlraums that combine symmetrically arranged laser entrance holes for indirect-drive beams (to initially compress the capsule) and holes for direct-drive beams to drive a strong ignitor shock (to further compress and ignite the fuel). A LANL Eulerian hydrodynamic code is being used to find optimal laser drive, hohlraum, and capsule specifications, via criteria such as implosion symmetry, implosion time, and neutron yield. At first, drive will be modeled using a radiation source to mimic the hohlraum drive, and later, ignitor beams will be added. Initial capsule designs will be presented for experiments to develop the HSI platform on the sub-ignition scale OMEGA laser facility in FY15. Supported under the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-14-25071.

  5. SONAbeam optical wireless products (United States)

    Carbonneau, Theresa H.; Mecherle, G. Stephen


    fSONA has developed an optical wireless line of products that will enable high bandwidth wireless connectivity, much like fiber optic technology has done for wired connectivity. All of the fSONA products use wavelengths around 1.5 micrometers both for eye safety and for maximum commonality with fiber optic technology. Initial products provide either OC-3 (155 Mbps) or Fast Ethernet (125 Mbps). The 2 km unit is fixed mounted and provides a relatively large beamwidth to compensate for building motion. The 4 km unit utilizes a narrow transmit beamwidth with active pointing for motion compensation. Trials of the units with key customers begin in second quarter 2000, with volume production of the 2 km- unit beginning in third quarter and the 4 km unit in the fourth quarter. Product designs for 622 Mbps and 1.25 Gbps should be completed prior to the end of the 2000.

  6. Wireless Seismometer for Venus (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Clougherty, Brian; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Hunter, Gary W.


    Measuring the seismic activity of Venus is critical to understanding its composition and interior dynamics. Because Venus has an average surface temperature of 462 C and the challenge of providing cooling to multiple seismometers, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents progress towards a seismometer sensor with wireless capabilities for Venus applications. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by a 1 cm movement of a ferrite probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 80 MHz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator sensor system at 420 C, which correlates to a 10 kHz mm sensitivity when the ferrite probe is located at the optimum location in the coil.

  7. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recognizing the needs and challenges facing NASA Earth Science for data input, manipulation and distribution, Mobitrum is proposing a ? Wireless Sensor Portal...

  8. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because....... This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  9. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping


    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  10. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications


    V. Zalud


    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  11. Novel Endoscopic Management of Obesity (United States)

    Dargent, Jerome


    Endoscopic procedures have been well-documented in the obesity field, but have not yet reached a sufficient level of evidence as stand-alone methods for treating obesity. It is unclear if they should take over. Although expanding, the array of bariatric surgical techniques does not fully meet the current needs, and there are not enough resources for increasing surgery. Surgery is avoided by a majority of patients, so that less aggressive procedures are necessary. For the time being, relevant endoscopic methods include intra-gastric balloons, gastric partitioning (Endo-plication), and the metabolic field (Endo-barrier). Surgical novelties and basic research are also important contributors owing to their potential combination with endoscopy. Conditions have been listed for implementation of bariatric endoscopy, because innovation is risky, expensive, and faces ethical challenges. A scientific background is being built (e.g., hormonal studies). Some techniques require additional study, while others are not ready but should be priorities. Steps and goals include the search for conceptual similarities and the respect of an ethical frame. Minimally invasive bariatric techniques are not ready for prime time, but they are already being successful as re-do procedures. A time-frame for step-strategies can be defined, and more investments from the industry are mandatory. PMID:26855921

  12. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules. (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa


    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  13. Colour-reproduction algorithm for transmitting variable video frames and its application to capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Khan, Tareq; Shrestha, Ravi; Imtiaz, Md Shamin; Wahid, Khan A


    Presented is a new power-efficient colour generation algorithm for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) application. In WCE, transmitting colour image data from the human intestine through radio frequency (RF) consumes a huge amount of power. The conventional way is to transmit all R, G and B components of all frames. Using the proposed dictionary-based colour generation scheme, instead of sending all R, G and B frames, first one colour frame is sent followed by a series of grey-scale frames. At the receiver end, the colour information is extracted from the colour frame and then added to colourise the grey-scale frames. After a certain number of grey-scale frames, another colour frame is sent followed by the same number of grey-scale frames. This process is repeated until the end of the video sequence to maintain the colour similarity. As a result, over 50% of RF transmission power can be saved using the proposed scheme, which will eventually lead to a battery life extension of the capsule by 4-7 h. The reproduced colour images have been evaluated both statistically and subjectively by professional gastroenterologists. The algorithm is finally implemented using a WCE prototype and the performance is validated using an ex-vivo trial.

  14. Colour-reproduction algorithm for transmitting variable video frames and its application to capsule endoscopy (United States)

    Khan, Tareq; Shrestha, Ravi; Imtiaz, Md. Shamin


    Presented is a new power-efficient colour generation algorithm for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) application. In WCE, transmitting colour image data from the human intestine through radio frequency (RF) consumes a huge amount of power. The conventional way is to transmit all R, G and B components of all frames. Using the proposed dictionary-based colour generation scheme, instead of sending all R, G and B frames, first one colour frame is sent followed by a series of grey-scale frames. At the receiver end, the colour information is extracted from the colour frame and then added to colourise the grey-scale frames. After a certain number of grey-scale frames, another colour frame is sent followed by the same number of grey-scale frames. This process is repeated until the end of the video sequence to maintain the colour similarity. As a result, over 50% of RF transmission power can be saved using the proposed scheme, which will eventually lead to a battery life extension of the capsule by 4–7 h. The reproduced colour images have been evaluated both statistically and subjectively by professional gastroenterologists. The algorithm is finally implemented using a WCE prototype and the performance is validated using an ex-vivo trial. PMID:26609405

  15. Comparative bioavailability of ceftibuten in capsule and suspension forms. (United States)

    Lin, C C; Affrime, M; Radwanski, E; Lim, J; Colucci, R; Cayen, M N


    The comparative bioavailability of ceftibuten, a new third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic given orally once daily, in capsule and suspension dosage forms, was assessed in healthy male subjects. In three separate studies, subjects received either a 400-mg dose as a suspension or one laboratory-batch, 400-mg capsule; one laboratory-batch, 400-mg capsule or two laboratory-batch, 200-mg capsules; or one production-batch, 400-mg capsule or two laboratory-batch, 200-mg capsules. Plasma samples were assayed for ceftibuten using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were assessed using pharmacokinetic and statistical methods. Confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity were within 80% to 125% of guidelines, demonstrating the bioequivalence of the two treatments within each of the three studies. One 400-mg capsule (laboratory or production batch) was bioequivalent to two 200-mg capsules used in a clinical efficacy trial; the 400-mg suspension was bioequivalent to a 400-mg capsule (laboratory batch). Thus we concluded that the capsule and the suspension dosage forms were bioequivalent.

  16. Successes rate of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy at KMC. (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Kafle, P K; Pokhrel, S; Maharjan, M; Toran, K C


    Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a common problem which can be corrected by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). The gold standard treatment for this is DCR operation through an external approach. Development of endoscopic sinus surgery and endoscopic DCR performed through intranasal route is a major recent development in this field. The aim of this study is to find out the success rate of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy without silicon stent intubation within the period of six month following surgery. A prospective study was done on 26 patients with obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct referred from eye out-patient department to ENT OPD during one year period from 2008 to 2009. All the cases had undergone endoscopic DCR operation which was regularly followed up for a period of six months. Postoperative patency of ostium was checked by sac syringing and endoscopic visualisation of ostium in the nasal cavity. The success of surgery was categorised as: complete cure, partial cure and no improvement depending upon symptomatic relief and clinical examination such as sac syringing and endoscopic examination following surgery. In six months' follow-up, 22 (84.5%) out of 26 patients had achieved the complete cure and 4 patients (15.5%) continued to have persistent epiphora. Endoscopic DCR is a beneficial procedure for nasolacrimal duct obstruction with no external scar on face and less bleeding. The success rate is as good as external DCR.

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for primary sclerosing cholangitis. (United States)

    Thosani, Nirav; Banerjee, Subhas


    Although there are no randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients, substantial indirect evidence supports the effectiveness of ERC in symptomatic PSC patients with a dominant stricture. Currently, cumulative evidence supports the role of ERC with endoscopic dilation with or without additional short-term stent placement for symptomatic PSC patients with a dominant stricture. Differentiating benign dominant strictures from cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains difficult; however, newer endoscopic techniques and advanced cytologic techniques are likely to improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of CCA over that achieved by traditional cytology brushing alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy performed with gastroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay P Choksi


    Full Text Available While percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is a well-known approach for achieving enteral feeding, direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ is a technique that allows endoscopic placement of percutaneous/transabdominal feeding tube directly into the jejunum. It offers a non-surgical alternative for postpyloric enteral feeding for long-term nutritional support when gastric feeding is not technically possible or is inappriopriate. Conventionally DPEJ is done with pediatric colonoscope or small bowel enteroscope. Here, we report a case where DPEJ was accomplished with gastroscope.

  19. Endoscopic intervention in obstructive renal papillary necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Chandrashekar Rao


    Full Text Available To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography, endoscopic retrieval, and the outcome of patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with ureteric obstruction caused by necrosed renal papillae. Material And Methods: Eleven seriously ill patients with diabetes mellitus, admitted into medical wards, were found to have ureteric obstruction complicated by urinary infection. The diagnosis was made by ultrasonography alone. Prompt relief followed endoscopic extraction of the offending necrosed papillae. Results: Ten patients improved dramatically. One patient died from septicemia. Conclusions: Ultrasonography appears to be a useful diagnostic method to diagnose ureteric obstruction. It is cheap, fast, and extremely reliable. Endoscopic extraction of the obstructing papilla offers the best chance for successful outcome.

  20. Clinical endoscopic management and outcome of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016. The blood biochemistry, comorbidities, indication for sphincterotomy, severity of bleeding, endoscopic features of bleeder, and type of endoscopic therapy were analyzed. Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding occurred in 65 (12.6% patients. Forty-five patients had immediate bleeding and 20 patients had delayed bleeding. The multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding were liver cirrhosis (P = 0.029, end-stage renal disease (P = 0.038, previous antiplatelet drug use (P<0.001, and duodenal ulcer (P = 0.023. The complications of pancreatitis and cholangitis were higher in the bleeding group, with statistical significance. Delayed bleeding occurred within 1 to 7 days (mean, 2.5 days, and 60% (12/20 of the patients received endoscopic evaluation. In the delayed bleeding group, the successful hemostasis rate was 71.4% (5/7, and 65% (13/20 of the patients had ceased bleeding without endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Comparison of different therapeutic modalities showed that cholangitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine spray (P = 0.042 and pancreatitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine injection and electrocoagulation (P = 0.041 and P = 0.039 respectively. Clinically, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and further endoscopic hemostasis therapy increase the complication rate of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Realizing the effectiveness of each

  1. Small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Spada, Cristiano; Eliakim, Rami; Keuchel, Martin; May, Andrea; Mulder, Chris J; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Adler, Samuel N; Albert, Joerg; Baltes, Peter; Barbaro, Federico; Cellier, Christophe; Charton, Jean Pierre; Delvaux, Michel; Despott, Edward J; Domagk, Dirk; Klein, Amir; McAlindon, Mark; Rosa, Bruno; Rowse, Georgina; Sanders, David S; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Sidhu, Reena; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Gralnek, Ian M


    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule

  2. How to assess regional and whole gut transit time with wireless motility capsule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C


    ... time, colonic transit time and whole gut transit time. Current approved indications for the test include the evaluation of gastric emptying in gastroparesis, colonic transit in constipation and evaluation of generalised dysmotility...

  3. Wireless communication with multiple antennas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Wireless communications has seen a very rapid growth, both in practice and theory, during the past one decade. Most of the present wireless communication systems use one transmit antenna and one receive antenna. However, communication with multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas can enormously increase ...

  4. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.


    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  5. Launching a Wireless Laptop Program (United States)

    Grignano, Domenic


    In this article, the author, as a technology director for East Rock Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, a federal government test site for laptop learning, shares his secrets to a successful implementation of a wireless laptop program: (1) Build a wireless foundation; (2) Do not choose the cheapest model just because of budget; (3) A sturdy…

  6. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.


    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  7. Energy-efficient wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.


    In this chapter we present an energy-efficient highly adaptive network interface architecture and a novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse traffic types. Due to the dynamic nature of wireless networks, adaptations in bandwidth

  8. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system... importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or battery...

  9. The motion of a deforming capsule through a corner

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lailai


    A three-dimensional deformable capsule convected through a channel/duct with a corner is studied via numerical simulations using an accelerated boundary integral method adapted to general geometries. A global spectral method is adopted to resolve the dynamics of the capsule's membrane developing elastic tensions according to the Neo-Hookean constitutive law and bending moments in an inertialess flow. The simulations show that the trajectory of the capsule closely follows the underlying streamlines and the deformation of the capsule induces an anti-clockwise rotation of its material points with respect to the travelling direction. The surface area, principle tension and elastic energy of the capsule increase around the corner. Their temporal evolutions are characterised by a clear phase delay and the loss of time-reversal symmetry of Stokes flow due to the elasticity of membrane. The capsule centroid velocity decreases approaching the corner as the mean flow does while a velocity overshoot is observed past the...

  10. Chemical mediation of egg capsule deposition by mud snails. (United States)

    Rittschof, Dan; Sawardecker, Prasad; Petry, Caroline


    Mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta = Nassarius obsoletus = Nassa obsoleta) deposit eggs in protective capsules on hard substrata in soft bottom environments. We studied sites of egg capsule deposition and snail movement responses to odors to determine if chemoreception plays a role in deposition site selection. From results of field surveys, laboratory experiments, and field experiments, we conclude that mud snails use chemoreception for capsule deposition. Attractive odors originate from mud snail and whelk egg capsules and from living bivalves. Evidence for attractive odors from conspecifics is equivocal. Capsules are deposited on living odor sources and nearby hard substrates. We hypothesize that deposition of capsules on living substrates increases the likelihood that embryos will survive by decreasing the chance of smothering of embryos by sediments.

  11. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others


    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  12. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Capsules for Cellular Interactions. (United States)

    Sun, Huanli; Cui, Jiwei; Ju, Yi; Chen, Xi; Wong, Edgar H H; Tran, Jenny; Qiao, Greg G; Caruso, Frank


    Particle-cell interactions are governed by, among other factors, the composition and surface properties of the particles. Herein, we report the preparation of various polymer capsules with different compositions and properties via atom transfer radical polymerization mediated continuous assembly of polymers (CAPATRP), where the cellular interactions of these capsules, particularly fouling and specific targeting, are examined by flow cytometry and deconvolution microscopy. Acrylated eight-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (8-PEG) and poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide) (PHPMA) as well as methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA), poly(glutamic acid) (PGA), and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) are used as macro-cross-linkers to obtain a range of polymer capsules with different compositions (PEG, PHPMA, HA, PGA, and PMA). Capsules composed of low-fouling polymers, PEG and PHPMA, show negligible association with macrophage Raw 264.7, monocyte THP-1, and HeLa cells. HA capsules, although moderately low-fouling (polymer capsules with specific cellular interactions.

  13. Views of wireless network systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick


    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiwei, E-mail: [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan [820 Institute, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)


    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  15. Design of a Lossless Image Compression System for Video Capsule Endoscopy and Its Performance in In-Vivo Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq H. Khan


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new low complexity and lossless image compression system for capsule endoscopy (CE is presented. The compressor consists of a low-cost YEF color space converter and variable-length predictive with a combination of Golomb-Rice and unary encoding. All these components have been heavily optimized for low-power and low-cost and lossless in nature. As a result, the entire compression system does not incur any loss of image information. Unlike transform based algorithms, the compressor can be interfaced with commercial image sensors which send pixel data in raster-scan fashion that eliminates the need of having large buffer memory. The compression algorithm is capable to work with white light imaging (WLI and narrow band imaging (NBI with average compression ratio of 78% and 84% respectively. Finally, a complete capsule endoscopy system is developed on a single, low-power, 65-nm field programmable gate arrays (FPGA chip. The prototype is developed using circular PCBs having a diameter of 16 mm. Several in-vivo and ex-vivo trials using pig's intestine have been conducted using the prototype to validate the performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm. The results show that, compared with all other existing works, the proposed algorithm offers a solution to wireless capsule endoscopy with lossless and yet acceptable level of compression.

  16. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines (United States)

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.


    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  17. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry


    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  18. Capsule Shields the Function of Short Bacterial Adhesins


    Schembri, Mark A; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per


    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that cap...

  19. Volatility of radiopharmacy-prepared sodium iodide-131 capsules. (United States)

    Bright, J M; Rees, T T; Baca, L E; Green, R L


    The aims of this study were to quantify the extent of volatilization from 131I-NaI therapeutic capsules prepared in a centralized radiopharmacy and to quantify the amount of volatile 131I released from a dispensing vial containing a compounded 131I-NaI therapy capsule. Therapy capsules were prepared by injecting 131I oral solution into capsules containing anhydrous dibasic sodium phosphate. Volatilized activity was obtained by filtering air drawn across samples that were placed open on the bottom of a sample holder cup. Volatile 131I was captured by filtering it through 3 triethylenediamine-impregnated carbon cartridge filters, arranged in series. To quantify the amount of volatile 131I released from a dispensing vial during a simulated patient administration, a vial containing a compounded 131I therapy capsule was opened inside a collapsible plastic bag and all the air was drawn across TEDA-impregnated carbon cartridge filters. The 370-MBq (10-mCi) 131I capsules from the first part of the experiment released an average of 0.035% (SD 0.031%) of the capsule activity on the first day, 0.012% (SD 0.002%) on the second day, and 0.012% (SD < 0.001%) for days 3 through 5. The 37-MBq (1-mCi) 131I capsules released an average of 0.058% (SD 0.025%) on the first day, 0.029% (SD 0.009%) on the second day, and 0.020% (SD 0.004%) on the third day. The activity released from the vial during a simulated patient administration was 0.00093% of the 131I capsule activity. The amount of 131I, which volatilized daily from the exposed therapy capsules, was a small percentage of the capsule activity. The volatile 131I that would be released during a patient administration was much less than the activity that volatilized from the exposed therapy capsules.

  20. Lubiprostone Decreases the Small Bowel Transit Time by Capsule Endoscopy: An Exploratory, Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled 3-Way Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Matsuura


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of lubiprostone for bowel preparation and as a propulsive agent in small bowel endoscopy. Six healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 3-way crossover study. The subjects received a 24 μg tablet of lubiprostone 60 minutes prior to the capsule ingestion for capsule endoscopy (CE and a placebo tablet 30 minutes before the capsule ingestion (L-P regimen, a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to CE and a 24 μg tablet of lubiprostone 30 minutes prior to CE (P-L regimen, or a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to r CE and a placebo tablet again 30 minutes prior to CE (P-P regimen. The quality of the capsule endoscopic images and the amount of water in the small bowel were assessed on 5-point scale. The median SBTT was 178.5 (117–407 minutes in the P-P regimen, 122.5 (27–282 minutes in the L-P regimen, and 110.5 (11–331 minutes in the P-L regimen (P=0.042. This study showed that the use of lubiprostone significantly decreased the SBTT. We also confirmed that lubiprostone was effective for inducing water secretion into the small bowel during CE.

  1. Lubiprostone decreases the small bowel transit time by capsule endoscopy: an exploratory, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-way crossover study. (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Hiroki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Kanoshima, Kenji; Inoh, Yumi; Fujita, Yuji; Umezawa, Shotaro; Fuyuki, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Iida, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Futagami, Seiji; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi


    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of lubiprostone for bowel preparation and as a propulsive agent in small bowel endoscopy. Six healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 3-way crossover study. The subjects received a 24 μg tablet of lubiprostone 60 minutes prior to the capsule ingestion for capsule endoscopy (CE) and a placebo tablet 30 minutes before the capsule ingestion (L-P regimen), a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to CE and a 24 μg tablet of lubiprostone 30 minutes prior to CE (P-L regimen), or a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to r CE and a placebo tablet again 30 minutes prior to CE (P-P regimen). The quality of the capsule endoscopic images and the amount of water in the small bowel were assessed on 5-point scale. The median SBTT was 178.5 (117-407) minutes in the P-P regimen, 122.5 (27-282) minutes in the L-P regimen, and 110.5 (11-331) minutes in the P-L regimen (P = 0.042). This study showed that the use of lubiprostone significantly decreased the SBTT. We also confirmed that lubiprostone was effective for inducing water secretion into the small bowel during CE.

  2. Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure (United States)

    ... been a major advance in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. For example, the use of endoscopes allows the detection of ulcers, cancers, polyps, and sites of internal bleeding. Through endoscopy, tissue ...

  3. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L.I.; Van den Heule, B.; Van Houtte, P.; Engelholm, L.; Balikdjan, D.; Bleiberg, H.


    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  4. An illumination system for endoscopic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present disclosure relates to an illumination system for endoscopic applications comprising at least one substantially monochromatic light source having a predefined central wavelength between 400 and 500 nm or between 500 and 550 nm, an optical transmission path adapted to guide light...... emanating from the light source to an endoscopic region of examination, and an optical band-rejection filter, wherein the illumination system is adapted to illuminate at least a part of the region of examination by generating autofluorescence in surrounding tissue, and the band-rejection filter is adapted...... to attenuate at least said light source wavelength to a viewer and wherein said light source is the single light source in the illumination system. A further embodiment relates to an endoscope for examining a body cavity comprising tissue, the endoscope comprising a source of light consisting...

  5. Endoscopic discovery and capture of Taenia saginata. (United States)

    Descombes, P; Dupas, J L; Capron, J P


    The authors report the first case of endoscopic finding and removal of a beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata). The parasite was discovered in the duodenal bulb of a 72-year-old woman, who complained of epigastric pain.

  6. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (United States)

    ... for Minimizing Bile Duct Injuries: Adopting a Universal Culture of Safety in Cholecystectomy ... Surgeons: The New SAGES Course Endorsement System The Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) recognizes that ...

  7. Laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous endoscopic transgastrostomy jejunostomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimofte, Mihail-Gabriel; Porumb, Vlad; Nicolescu, Simona; Ristescu, Irina; Lunca, Sorinel


    .... The typical approach involves a percutaneous endoscopic transgastrostomy jejunostomy (PEG-J), which requires a combination of procedures designed to ensure that no organ is interposed between the abdominal wall and the gastric surface...

  8. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Debbie (LLNL); Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert (KTech); Nikroo, A. (General Atomics); Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace (Schafer); Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon (Schafer); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward


    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence [1]. Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR.

  9. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per


    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...... occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that capsule polysaccharides sterically prevent receptor-target recognition of short bacterial adhesins...

  10. Nanoengineered polymeric S-layers based capsules with targeting activity. (United States)

    Habibi, Neda; Pastorino, Laura; Soumetz, Federico Caneva; Sbrana, Francesca; Raiteri, Roberto; Ruggiero, Carmelina


    Nanostructured polymeric capsules are regarded as highly promising systems with different potential applications ranging from drug delivery, biosensing and artificial cells. To fully exploit this potential, it is required to produce bio-activated stable and biocompatible capsules. To this purpose, in present work we proposed the combination of the layer-by-layer self assembly method with bacterial S-layer technology to fabricate stable and biocompatible polymeric capsules having a well defined arrangement of functional groups allowing the covalent attachment of antibody molecules. Hollow microcapsules were obtained by the layer-by-layer self assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes onto colloidal particles, followed by removal of the cores at acidic pH. S-layers were crystallized onto the shell of the obtained capsules. Quartz crystal microbalance was used to characterize the crystallization process onto planar surfaces. S-layer containing capsules were investigated by atomic force microscopy. Immunoenzymatic tests were performed to assess the effective modification of the S-layer with antibody molecules both on planar surfaces and on hollow capsules. Fluorescent microscopy was employed to visualize the presence of the antibody molecules onto the capsule shell and immunological tests used to assess the bioactivity of the immobilized antibodies. Finally, the in vitro cytotoxicity of fabricated S-layer containing capsules was studied. The obtained results demonstrated the possibility to fabricate bio-activated S-layer containing capsules with improved features in terms of biocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins. (United States)

    Schembri, Mark A; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per


    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that capsule polysaccharides sterically prevent receptor-target recognition of short bacterial adhesins. This negative interference has important biological consequences, such as affecting the ability of bacteria to form biofilms.

  12. Wireless Chemical Sensing Method (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)


    A wireless chemical sensor includes an electrical conductor and a material separated therefrom by an electric insulator. The electrical conductor is an unconnected open-circuit shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the first electrical conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The material is positioned at a location lying within at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses so-generated. The material changes in electrical conductivity in the presence of a chemical-of-interest.

  13. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...... of radio-frequency signals, an optical transmitter in the form of an electro-optic conversion unit for each of said plurality of antenna units, each electro-optic conversion unit adapted for converting an RF signal into an optical signal, a plurality of a single core optical fibers for guiding the optical...

  14. Wired or Wireless Internet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory


    This paper finds that network externalities play a minimal role in the choice of internet access technology. Potential adopters of mobile laptop internet view broadband technology as a black box, the technological details of which donot matter. The study uses qualitative techniques to explore how...... the speed of technological obsolescence, market share dominance, and the black boxing of technology influence consumer intention to adopt WiMax and 3G wireless internet for their laptop computers. The results, implications for industry, and areas for further research are discussed....

  15. Dynamic wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oteafy, Sharief M A


    In this title, the authors leap into a novel paradigm of scalability and cost-effectiveness, on the basis of resource reuse. In a world with much abundance of wirelessly accessible devices, WSN deployments should capitalize on the resources already available in the region of deployment, and only augment it with the components required to meet new application requirements. However, if the required resources already exist in that region, WSN deployment converges to an assignment and scheduling scheme to accommodate for the new application given the existing resources. Such resources are polled

  16. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud


    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  17. Investigating wireless power transfer (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.


    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  18. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H


    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  19. Endoscopic and Radiologic Findings in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A


    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was first described by Landis in 1978. The disease is characterized by esophageal symptoms, primarily dysphagia in adult patients, and esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. The disease is associated with characteristic endoscopic findings, including edema, rings, furrows, exudates, and strictures. The typical radiographic findings of this disorder are rings, strictures, and small-caliber esophagus. The endoscopic and radiographic findings of EoE are the topic of this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracking camera control in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy surgery. (United States)

    Wawrzynski, J R; Smith, P; Tang, L; Hoare, T; Caputo, S; Siddiqui, A A; Tsatsos, M; Saleh, G M


    Poor camera control during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EnDCR) surgery can cause inadequate visualisation of the anatomy and suboptimal surgical outcomes. This study investigates the feasibility of using computer vision tracking in EnDCR surgery as a potential formative feedback tool for the quality of endoscope control. A prospective cohort analysis was undertaken comparing junior versus senior surgeons performing routine EnDCR surgery. Computer vision tracking was applied to endoscopic video footage of the surgery: Total number of movements, camera path length in pixels and surgical time were determined for each procedure. A Mann-Whitney U-test was used to test for a significant difference between juniors and seniors (P theatre. Ten junior surgeons (100 completed procedures). Total number of movements of the endoscope per procedure. Path length of the endoscope per procedure. Twenty videos, 10 from junior surgeons and 10 from senior surgeons were analysed. Feasibility of our tracking system was demonstrated. Mean camera path lengths were significantly different at 119,329px (juniors) versus 43,697px (seniors), P ≪ 0.05. The mean number of movements was significantly different at 9134 (juniors) versus 3690 (seniors), P ≪ 0.05. These quantifiable differences demonstrate construct validity for computer vision endoscope tracking as a measure of surgical experience. Computer vision tracking is a potentially useful structured and objective feedback tool to assist trainees in improving endoscope control. It enables juniors to examine how their pattern of endoscope control differs from that of seniors, focusing in particular on sections where they are most divergent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Chronic Sinusitis


    篠, 昭男; 吉原, 俊雄; Akio, SHINO; Toshio, YOSHIHARA


    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has became basic surgical treatment for chronic sinusitis instead of the Caldwell-Luc procedure. This technique is aimed at improvement of ventilation and excretion with endoscopic approach between nasal cavity and each sinus. The mucosa preservation of sinus is recognized to important as the surgery for inflammatory disease. The ostiomeatal complex (OMC) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of sinusitis. Obstruction here predisposes to chronic sinusitis...

  2. Endoscopic intervention in obstructive renal papillary necrosis


    V Chandrashekar Rao; Bhat, Soumya S; Padmanabha Vijayan; Shankar Ramamurthy


    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography, endoscopic retrieval, and the outcome of patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with ureteric obstruction caused by necrosed renal papillae. Material And Methods: Eleven seriously ill patients with diabetes mellitus, admitted into medical wards, were found to have ureteric obstruction complicated by urinary infection. The diagnosis was made by ultrasonography alone. Prompt relief followed endoscopic extraction of the offending necrosed pa...

  3. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Leaks and Fistulae. (United States)

    Willingham, Field F; Buscaglia, Jonathan M


    Gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae can be serious acute complications or chronic morbid conditions resulting from inflammatory, malignant, or postsurgical states. Endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae represents major progress in the treatment of patients with these complex presentations. The main goal of endoscopic therapy is the interruption of the flow of luminal contents across a gastrointestinal defect. In consideration of the proper endoscopic approach to luminal closure, several basic principles must be considered. Undrained cavities and fluid collections must often first be drained percutaneously, and the percutaneous drain provides an important measure of safety for subsequent endoscopic luminal manipulations. The size and exact location of the leak/fistula, as well as the viability of the surrounding tissue, must be defined. Almost all complex leaks and fistulae must be approached in a multidisciplinary manner, collaborating with colleagues in nutrition, radiology, and surgery. Currently, gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae may be managed endoscopically by using 1 or more of the following modalities: stent placement, clip closure (including through-the-scope clips and over-the-scope devices), endoscopic suturing, and the injection of tissue sealants. In this article, we discuss these modalities and review the published outcomes data regarding each approach as well as practical considerations for successful closure of luminal defects. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoscopic solutions to challenging enteral feeding problems. (United States)

    Paski, Shirley C; Dominitz, Jason A


    Enteral nutrition support is often required in patients who are unable to meet their own nutritional requirements. Endoscopists play a key role in the placement of enteral feeding catheters. This review focuses on the recently published solutions to common problems encountered during endoscopic placement of enteral feeding devices. Case reports and case series describe solutions for overcoming common problems encountered during the placement of enteral feeding devices. Transnasal techniques can simplify nasojejunal tube placement, whereas deep enteroscopy techniques provide more reliable jejunostomy placement. Endoscopic ultrasound can help when transillumination is not possible or in the setting of postsurgical anatomy like Roux-en-Y. Laparoscopic-assisted procedures are useful when endoscopic techniques have failed in adults or in select high-risk pediatric patients. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the American Gastroenterology Association both published comprehensive guidelines that outline the indications, contraindications, technical aspects of feeding catheter placement, and complications. Advances in endoscopic techniques, including deep enteroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, ultra-slim transnasal endoscopes and laparoscopic-assisted procedures, have enabled endoscopists to successfully place enteral feeding tubes in patients who previously required open procedures.

  5. Wireless network security theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zihong


    Wireless Network Security Theories and Applications discusses the relevant security technologies, vulnerabilities, and potential threats, and introduces the corresponding security standards and protocols, as well as provides solutions to security concerns. Authors of each chapter in this book, mostly top researchers in relevant research fields in the U.S. and China, presented their research findings and results about the security of the following types of wireless networks: Wireless Cellular Networks, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs), Bluetooth

  6. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization (United States)

    Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu


    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X 1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X 2), and soybean oil (X 3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X 1 X 2, X 1 X 3, and X 2 X 3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X 1, X 2, and X 3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y 10 min, Y 30 min, Y 60 min, and Y 90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X 1, X 2, and X 3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f 2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo


    Full Text Available Introduction: The adhesive capsulitis (AC is an idiopathic disorder that affects about 3-5% of the general population, the majority being aged 50 years. It is divided into three stages: acute or hiperálgica, rigidity phase or stage of freezing and thawing. This study aimed to analyze the protocols of treatments for adhesive capsulitis. Methods: We performed literature search in electronic databases, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS and PubMed. We analyzed 20 articles of which seven met the inclusion criteria of this study. Results: Of the 20 articles analyzed, it was found that only seven had controlled clinical trials, and the articles selected for the treatment of AC were: medication and physiotherapy, manipulation, hydraulic distension, serials suprascapular nerve blocks, acupuncture, exercise, physiotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy dynasplint, deep friction massage and wave diathermy. Conclusion: As noted in the studies, there is a range of treatments that have proven effective for AC, failing to come to a conclusion of what would be the most appropriate treatment. However it was noted that physiotherapy through kinesiotherapy remains the best option, and the earlier therapeutic intervention performed, the better the results.

  8. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.


    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  9. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, Thomas F.


    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  10. Household wireless electroencephalogram hat (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Tran, Binh


    We applied Compressive Sensing to design an affordable, convenient Brain Machine Interface (BMI) measuring the high spatial density, and real-time process of Electroencephalogram (EEG) brainwaves by a Smartphone. It is useful for therapeutic and mental health monitoring, learning disability biofeedback, handicap interfaces, and war gaming. Its spec is adequate for a biomedical laboratory, without the cables hanging over the head and tethered to a fixed computer terminal. Our improved the intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the non-uniform placement of the measuring electrodes to create the proximity of measurement to the source effect. We computing a spatiotemporal average the larger magnitude of EEG data centers in 0.3 second taking on tethered laboratory data, using fuzzy logic, and computing the inside brainwave sources, by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Consequently, we can overlay them together by non-uniform electrode distribution enhancing the signal noise ratio and therefore the degree of sparseness by threshold. We overcame the conflicting requirements between a high spatial electrode density and precise temporal resolution (beyond Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 brainwave at 0.3 sec), and Smartphone wireless bottleneck of spatiotemporal throughput rate. Our main contribution in this paper is the quality and the speed of iterative compressed image recovery algorithm based on a Block Sparse Code (Baranuick et al, IEEE/IT 2008). As a result, we achieved real-time wireless dynamic measurement of EEG brainwaves, matching well with traditionally tethered high density EEG.

  11. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho


    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  12. Wirelessness as Experience of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mackenzie


    Full Text Available The paper analyses wireless networks in terms of a concept of experience drawn from the work of William James. James' account of experience focuses closely on the effects of ongoing change, and this is particularly useful in thinking about media change. The specific experience in question here is 'wirelessness,' an experience that envelops many media, infrastructures, practices, and processes today. The paper argues that a concept of wirelessness uniquely connects together a set of perceptions, representation, materials, problems and events associated with ongoing change in contemporary media and information cultures. In analysing wirelessness as form of experience, the article examines how those feelings of ongoing change shape and inform experiences of self, otherness, place and sociality in technological-informatic environments. In describing different infrastructural and commercial dimensions of wirelessness, it pays close attention to how ‘conjunctive relations’ (James’ term such as ‘with’, ‘between’, ‘near’, and ‘inside’ arise in wireless networks, and how different kinds of intimacy and distance stem from conjunctive relations. The paper explores how wirelessness embodies and organises networked places. In this respect, the paper inverts conventional understandings of the network as ground or platform. It treats the under-represented yet highly significant embodied experiences of relations as generative of information infrastructures.

  13. The power of product innovation: Smokers' perceptions of capsule cigarettes. (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Dobbie, Fiona; Thrasher, James F; McKell, Jennifer; Purves, Richard


    Since being brought to market in 2007, cigarettes with capsules in the filter that can be burst to change the flavour have had remarkable global success, highlighting the importance of product innovation for tobacco companies. Very few studies have explored how these products are perceived by smokers however. This paper sought to address this gap by exploring smokers' awareness of cigarettes with one or two flavour-changing capsules in the filter and the appeal of these products. Twenty focus groups were conducted in Glasgow and Edinburgh in 2015 with current smokers (N=120), segmented by age (16-17, 18-24, 25-35, 36-50, >50), gender and social grade. Awareness, use and appeal of capsule cigarettes was greater among younger adults (16-35 years), who showed most interest in these products. Those who perceived capsules positively mentioned multiple benefits: the ability to burst the capsule, convenience of being able to share cigarettes among menthol and non-menthol smokers, better taste, fresher breath, reduced smell and greater discretion. It was suggested that capsule cigarettes, particularly the double capsule cigarette (which had two differently flavoured capsules in the filter), would encourage non-smokers to experiment with smoking and discourage smokers from quitting. The findings offer some reasons behind the global growth of the capsule cigarette segment. Cigarettes with flavour-changing capsules in the filter have been one of the most successful product innovations of the last decade for tobacco companies. They have received very little academic attention however. Employing focus groups with 120 smokers aged 16 and over, we found that capsule cigarettes held most appeal to, and were considered to be targeted at, younger people, with it suggested that these products would encourage initiation and discourage cessation. This study provides some understanding of how these products are viewed by smokers.

  14. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid. (United States)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan


    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  15. Role of endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic resection for the treatment of gastric schwannoma. (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Liu, Xiang; Ge, Nan; Wang, Sheng; Guo, Jintao; Wang, Guoxin; Sun, Siyu


    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic resection play an important role in gastric submucosal tumor. However, there were few articles regarding EUS and endoscopic resection of gastric schwannomas. Our aim was to evaluate the role of EUS and endoscopic resection in treating gastric schwannomas.We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients between March 2012 and April 2016 with gastric schwannomas and who received EUS and endoscopic resection. EUS characteristics, endoscopic resection, tumor features, and follow-up were evaluated in all the patients.Fourteen patients were enrolled in the present study. The patients' ages ranged from 25 to 72 years (mean age, 52.6 years). On EUS, all tumors were originating from muscularis propria and hypoechoic. Ten tumors have the extraluminal growth patterns and 4 tumors have the intraluminal growth patterns. Marginal halos were observed in 7 lesions. No cystic change and calcification were found inside the lesions. Complete endoscopic resection was performed in all the patients with no complications occurring in any patients. No recurrence or metastases was found in all patients during the follow-up period.Gastric schwannoma has some characteristics on EUS, but it is difficult to differentiate gastric schwannoma from gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Endoscopic resection is an effective and safe treatment for gastric schwannoma with an excellent follow-up outcome.

  16. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products (United States)


    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  17. Microwave materials for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cruickshank, David B


    This practical resource offers you an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the use of microwave magnetic materials for cutting-edge wireless applications. The book discusses device applications used in wireless infrastructure base stations, point-to-point radio links, and a range of more specialized microwave systems. You find detailed discussions on the attributes of each family of magnetic materials with respect to specific wireless applications. Moreover, the book addresses two of the hottest topics in the field today - insertion loss and intermodulation. This comprehensive reference also

  18. Structural processing for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jianhua; Ge, Ning


    This brief presents an alternative viewpoint on processing technology for wireless communications based on recent research advances. As a lever in emerging processing technology, the structure perspective addresses the complexity and uncertainty issues found in current wireless applications. Likewise, this brief aims at providing a new prospective to the development of communication technology and information science, while stimulating new theories and technologies for wireless systems with ever-increasing complexity. Readers of this brief may range from graduate students to researchers in related fields.

  19. Wireless home networking for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, Danny; Ferris, Edward


    The perennial bestseller shows you how share your files and Internet connection across a wireless network. Fully updated for Windows 7 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, this new edition of this bestseller returns with all the latest in wireless standards and security. This fun and friendly guide shows you how to integrate your iPhone, iPod touch, smartphone, or gaming system into your home network. Veteran authors escort you through the various financial and logisitical considerations that you need to take into account before building a wireless network at home.: Covers the basics of planning, instal

  20. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  1. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    McCown, Steven H [Rigby, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID


    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in vivo behavior of a developed salbutamol pulsatile capsule for the ... regard, animals such as monkeys, pigs and dogs have been suggested [9]. ... dissolution behavior. Optimized pellets were filled in to insoluble capsule, plugged with hydrocolloid material to provide the desired delay in release and coated with enteric ...

  3. 1964 computer run on a laser-imploded capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidder, R.E.


    WAZER Alchemy 7b (WA-7b) is a WAZER calculation of a laser-driven micro-implosion of a spherical capsule consisting of a thin gold pusher surrounded by a thick (frozen) deuterium ablator. The properties of the target capsule and the shape of the laser pulse used to irradiate it are described.

  4. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule. (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin


    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule. (United States)


    ... to form dental amalgam. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A...

  6. Detection of Neoplastic Gastric Lesions Using Capsule Endoscopy: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Yeon Jun


    Full Text Available Objectives. Capsule endoscopy is relatively noninvasive method and its use extends from the small bowel to the esophagus and colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of capsule endoscopy for neoplastic gastric lesions. Methods. Capsule endoscopy (Pillcam ESO was performed within 48 hours of esophagogastroduodenoscopy for eight patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancers, the size of which were less than 4 cm and who presented written consent. Patients changed position in a specified designed sequence every 30 seconds after capsule ingestion. Position change was repeated with ingestion of an effervescent agent. The rate of detection of intragastric lesions, observation of normal gastric anatomy and patient satisfaction between capsule endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were compared. Results. Capsule endoscopy found four out of eight gastric lesions. The gastroesophageal junction was observed in seven of the eight cases, pyloric ring in five of the eight cases, and gastric angle in four of the eight cases. The patient satisfaction assessment questionnaire rated capsule endoscopy significantly higher than upper endoscopy in all categories. Conclusions. Capsule endoscopy was less effective than esophagogastroduodenoscopy and showed limited value in this feasibility study.

  7. Organization of the interior of molecular capsules by hydrogen bonding. (United States)

    Atwood, Jerry L; Barbour, Leonard J; Jerga, Agoston


    The enclosure of functional entities within a protective boundary is an essential feature of biological systems. On a molecular scale, free-standing capsules with an internal volume sufficiently large to house molecular species have been synthesized and studied for more than a decade. These capsules have been prepared by either covalent synthesis or self-assembly, and the internal volumes have ranged from 200 to 1,500 A(3). Although biological systems possess a remarkable degree of order within the protective boundaries, to date only steric constraints have been used to order the guests within molecular capsules. In this article we describe the synthesis and characterization of hexameric molecular capsules held together by hydrogen bonding. These capsules possess internal order of the guests brought about by hydrogen bond donors within, but not used by, the framework of the capsule. The basic building blocks of the hexameric capsules are tetrameric macrocycles related to resorcin[4]arenes and pyrogallol[4]arenes. The former contain four 1,3-dihydroxybenzene rings bridged together by -CHR- units, whereas the latter contain four 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene rings bridged together. We now report the synthesis of related mixed macrocycles, and the main focus is on the macrocycle composed of three 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene rings and one 1,3-dihydroxybenzene ring bridged together. The mixed macrocycles self-assemble from a mixture of closely related compounds to form the hexameric capsule with internally ordered guests.

  8. Experimental modulation of capsule size in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza Oscar


    Full Text Available Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for experimental modulation of capsule size in this yeast and describe improved methods to induce capsule size changes. The response of the yeast to the various stimuli is highly dependent on the cryptococcal strain. A high CO2 atmosphere and a low iron concentration have been used classically to increase capsule size. Unfortunately, these stimuli are not reliable for inducing capsular enlargement in all strains. Recently we have identified new and simpler conditions for inducing capsule enlargement that consistently elicited this effect. Specifically, we noted that mammalian serum or diluted Sabouraud broth in MOPS buffer pH 7.3 efficiently induced capsule growth. Media that slowed the growth rate of the yeast correlated with an increase in capsule size. Finally, we summarize the most commonly used media that induce capsule growth in C. neoformans.

  9. Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea. Li Sun, Jia Wang. Abstract. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of Resina Draconis capsules in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: In total, 324 patients with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to three groups based on ...

  10. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and determine the in vivo performance of a capsule-based pulsatile drug delivery system containing salbutamol sulphate. Methods: A controlled pulsatile release of drug after a programmed 4 h lag period was achieved from cross-linked gelatin capsule shells containing salbutamol pellets, and sealed ...

  11. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  12. Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy compared with colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spada, Cristiano; Hassan, Cesare; Munoz-Navas, Miguel; Neuhaus, Horst; Deviere, Jacques; Fockens, Paul; Coron, Emmanuel; Gay, Gerard; Toth, Ervin; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Carretero, Cristina; Charton, Jean P.; van Gossum, Andrè; Wientjes, Carolien A.; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie; Delvaux, Michel; Nemeth, Artur; Petruzziello, Lucio; de Frias, Cesar Prieto; Mayershofer, Rupert; Amininejad, Leila; Aminejab, Leila; Dekker, Evelien; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Frederic, Muriel; Johansson, Gabriele Wurm; Cesaro, Paola; Costamagna, Guido


    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) represents a noninvasive technology that allows visualization of the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was developed to increase sensitivity for colorectal polyp detection

  13. Polyelectrolyte capsules preloaded with interconnected alginate matrix: An effective capsule system for encapsulation and release of macromolecules. (United States)

    Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar; Sundramoorthy, Ashok K


    In recent years, the design of stimuli-responsive hollow polymeric capsules is of tremendous interest for the scientific community because of the broad application of these capsules in the biomedical field. The use of weak polyelectrolytes as layer components for capsule fabrication is especially interesting as it results in hollow capsules that show unique release characteristics under physiological conditions. In this work, a methodology to prepare sub-micron sized alginate doped calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles through controlled precipitation in the presence of alginate is reported. Hollow capsules obtained by Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) are showing an interconnected alginate matrix in the interior of the capsules. Investigations showed that the presence of alginate matrix enhances the encapsulation of cationic molecules (e.g. doxorubicin hydrochloride) manifold by charge controlled attraction mechanism. Capsule permeability investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the transformation from an open state to closed state is accompanied by an intermediate state where capsules are neither open nor closed. Furthermore, time dependent study indicated that the encapsulation process is linear as a function of time. The cell viability experiments demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of hollow capsules with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Anticancer investigations showed that DOX loaded capsules have significant anti-proliferative characteristics against HeLa cells. Such capsules have high potential for use as drug carrier for cationic drugs in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Agile patency system eliminates risk of capsule retention in patients with known intestinal strictures who undergo capsule endoscopy. (United States)

    Herrerias, Juan M; Leighton, Jonathan A; Costamagna, Guido; Infantolino, Anthony; Eliakim, Rami; Fischer, Doron; Rubin, David T; Manten, Howard D; Scapa, Eitan; Morgan, Douglas R; Bergwerk, Ari J; Koslowsky, Binyamin; Adler, Samuel N


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) of the small bowel has become a standard diagnostic tool, but there have been concerns regarding the risk of capsule retention in certain high-risk groups. The Agile patency system, an ingestible and dissolvable capsule with an external scanner, was developed to allow physicians to perform CE with greater confidence that the capsule will be safely excreted in patients at risk for capsule retention. Our purpose was to assess the ability of the device to help physicians identify which patients with known strictures may safely undergo CE. Patients with known strictures ingested the new patency capsule and underwent periodic scanning until it was excreted. The intestinal tract was considered to be sufficiently patent if the capsule was excreted intact or if the capsule was not detected by the scanner at 30 hours after ingestion. If patency was established, then standard CE was performed. International multicenter study. A total of 106 patients with known strictures. Agile patency system. Performance and safety of Agile patency system. A total of 106 patients ingested the patency capsule. Fifty-nine (56%) excreted it intact and subsequently underwent CE. There were no cases of capsule retention. Significant findings on CE were found in 24 (41%). There were 3 severe adverse events. These results suggest that the Agile patency system is a useful tool for physicians to use before CE in patients with strictures to avoid retention. This group of patients may have a high yield of clinically significant findings at CE. This capsule may determine whether patients who have a contraindication to CE may safely undergo CE and obtain useful diagnostic information.

  15. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation. (United States)

    van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J


    The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.

  16. Endoscopic Management of Nonlifting Colon Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Friedland


    Full Text Available Background and Study Aims. The nonlifting polyp sign of invasive colon cancer is considered highly sensitive and specific for cancer extending beyond the mid-submucosa. However, prior interventions can cause adenomas to become nonlifting due to fibrosis. It is unclear whether nonlifting adenomas can be successfully treated endoscopically. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes in a referral practice incorporating a standardized protocol of attempted endoscopic resection of nonlifting lesions previously treated by biopsy, polypectomy, surgery, or tattoo placement. Patients and Methods. Retrospective review of patients undergoing colonoscopy by one endoscopist at two hospitals found to have nonlifting lesions from prior interventions. Lesions with biopsy proven invasive cancer or definite endoscopic features of invasive cancer were excluded. Lesions ≥ 8 mm were routinely injected with saline prior to attempted endoscopic resection. Polypectomy was performed using a stiff snare, followed by argon plasma coagulation (APC if necessary. Results. 26 patients each had a single nonlifting lesion with a history of prior intervention. Endoscopic resection was completed in 25 (96%. 22 required snare resection and APC. 1 patient had invasive cancer and was referred for surgery. The recurrence rate on follow-up colonoscopy was 26%. All of the recurrences were successfully treated endoscopically. There was 1 postprocedure bleed (4%, no perforations, and no other complications. Conclusions. The majority of adenomas that are nonlifting after prior interventions can be treated successfully and safely by a combination of piecemeal polypectomy and ablation. Although recurrence rates are high at 26%, these too can be successfully treated endoscopically.

  17. Rupture of anterior lens capsule from blunt ocular injury. (United States)

    Banitt, Michael R; Malta, João B; Mian, Shahzad I; Soong, H Kaz


    We report 3 cases of blunt trauma causing rupture of the anterior lens capsule with cataract formation. The injuries were caused by a paintball gun, a ball-bearing air pistol, and an aluminum rivet. In all 3 cases, the anterior capsule tears were central and the posterior capsules and zonules intact; uneventful cataract extraction with implantation of an intraocular lens was performed. The postoperative visual acuities was 20/40 in 1 case and 20/20 in the other 2 cases. We propose that the anterior lens capsule may have been torn by direct contusion from rapid focal indentation of the cornea onto the lens (coup injury) or by a fluid-mechanical, anteriorly directed rebound of the vitreous, bursting open the anterior capsule (contrecoup injury).

  18. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L. [and others


    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values.

  19. Wireless devices in nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Sánchez-García


    Full Text Available Objective. This article sought to explore the adoption of wireless devices in university nursing teaching and address their repercussion on future professionals. Methodology. This is a bibliographical study conducted in 2011, which analyzed international publications on the use, review, application, opinion, and experimentation of wireless devices in university nursing teaching of wireless technology in nursing teaching. The following databases were used: Medline and Science@Direct. Results. A total of 503 articles were extracted and 77 were selected, of which 40 investigated the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA, 13 the clicker (Student Response Wireless System, and six the smart phone. The use of mobile devices has experienced strong growth during the last five years, especially PDAs. Conclusion. Use of mobile devices in university nursing teaching has grown in recent years, especially PDAs

  20. Wireless Communication over Dispersive Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.


    Broadband wireless communication systems require high transmission rates, where the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is larger than the channel coherence bandwidth. This gives rise to time dispersion of the transmitted symbols or frequency-selectivity with different frequency components

  1. Introduction to wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Anna


    Explores real-world wireless sensor network development, deployment, and applications. The book begins with an introduction to wireless sensor networks and their fundamental concepts. Hardware components, operating systems, protocols, and algorithms that make up the anatomy of a sensor node are described in chapter two. Properties of wireless communications, medium access protocols, wireless links, and link estimation protocols are described in chapter three and chapter four. Routing basics and metrics, clustering techniques, time synchronization and localization protocols, as well as sensing techniques are introduced in chapter five to nine. The concluding chapter summarizes the learnt methods and shows how to use them to deploy real-world sensor networks in a structured way.

  2. Conventional MRI Finding in a Case of Adhesive Shoulder Capsulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hak Hoon [Yeosu Hanyeoexpo Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Back, Chang Hee [Yeosu Baek Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the conventional magnetic resonance image findings in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis. The preoperative MR images of 76 patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis that was also treated by arthroscopic capsule release. In contrast to the MR images of 25 control patients without adhesive shoulder capsulitis, the thickness and area of hyposignal intensity around the coracohumeral ligament (CHL), subcoracoidal fat, capsular thickness of the rotator interval, capsular thickness, and height of the axillary recess were measured. The existence of fluid in the axillary recess was also verified. Patients with adhesive capsulitis showed a significant increase in the thickness (average 10.57 mm vs. 5.88 mm, T=8.289, p<0.001), area (average 3.49 point vs. 0.96 point Z=7.775, p< 0.001) of hyposignal intensity around CHL, and a thickened joint capsule in the rotator interval (average 5.93 mm vs. 2.15 mm, Z=6.472, p< 0.001). The thickness of the hyposignal intensity around the CHL is about 10 mm or more and has a specificity of 96%, a sensitivity of about 55% in the area of hyposignal intensity from around the CHL, Seventy-five percent or more of cases, showed a 100%, 95%, complete obliteration of the subcoracoidal fat that was 96%, and a 50% thickness of the capsule. A rotator interval of 6mm or more had a 96%, 50% for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The capsular thickness and maximal height of axillary recess and the presence of fluid in the axillary recess was not significant in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis. Thickening of the hyposignal intensity around the CHL, subcoracoidal fat obliteration, and capsular thickening at the rotator interval, are characteristic MRI findings in adhesive shoulder capsulitis

  3. Primate lens capsule elasticity assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noël M.; Arrieta, Esdras; Feuer, William J.; Moy, Vincent T.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie


    The purpose of this project is to measure the elasticity of the human and non-human primate lens capsule at the microscopic scale using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elasticity measurements were performed using AFM on the excised anterior lens capsule from 9 cynomolgus monkey (5.9–8.0 years), 8 hamadryas baboon (2.8–10.1 years), and 18 human lenses (33–79 years). Anterior capsule specimens were obtained by performing a 5mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and collecting the resulting disk of capsular tissue. To remove the lens epithelial cells the specimen was soaked in 0.1% trypsin and 0.02% EDTA for five minutes, washed, and placed on a Petri dish and immersed in DMEM. Elasticity measurements of the capsule were performed with a laboratory-built AFM system custom designed for force measurements of ophthalmic tissues. The capsular specimens were probed with an AFM cantilever tip to produce force-indentation curves for each specimen. Young’s modulus was calculated from the force-indentation curves using the model of Sneddon for a conical indenter. Young’s modulus of elasticity was 20.1–131kPa for the human lens capsule, 9.19–117kPa for the cynomolgus lens capsule, and 13.1–62.4kPa for the baboon lens capsule. Young’s modulus increased significantly with age in humans (p=0.03). The age range of the monkey and baboon samples was not sufficient to justify an analysis of age dependence. The capsule elasticity of young humans (<45 years) was not statistically different from that of the monkey and baboon. In humans, there is an increase in lens capsule stiffness at the microscale that could be responsible for an increase in lens capsule bulk stiffness. PMID:21420953

  4. Wireless power transfer system (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron


    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  5. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang


    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  6. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff


    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule.......We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  7. Technical Challenges and Study on Guided Reentry Flight for Capsule Spacecraft


    Matsumoto, Shuichi; Kondoh, Yoshinori; Imada, Takane; Sato, Naoki


    Previously-realized Japanese capsule spacecraft, OREX (Orbital Re-entry EXperiment), USERS capsule, and HAYABUSA reentry capsule, were all ballistic reentry capsules, which flew without any guidance during reentry and had large splashdown areas. To establish practical recovery systems from the International Space Station (ISS), JAXA has been studying reentry capsules using guided reentry flight, which enable capsules to narrow their splashdown area within 5 km and reduce aerodynamic accelerat...

  8. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre


    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  9. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  10. Sequelae of Endoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair : Incidence, evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, J.P.J.


    The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair

  11. Endoscopic Radial Artery Harvest for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ming Chiu


    Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.

  12. Is bacteriologic surveillance in endoscope reprocessing stringent enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, J.; Meessen, N. E. L.; Peters, F. T. M.; Been, M. H.; Arends, J. P.; Borgers, R. P.; Degener, J. E.


    Endoscopes, including duodenoscopes, are medical devices that are frequently associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections. We investigated an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonos aeruginosa sepsis affecting three patients after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP).

  13. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery for lumbar stenosis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nellensteijn, J.M.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Bartels, R.; Peul, W.; van Royen, B.J.; van Tulder, M.W.


    Transforaminal endoscopic techniques have become increasingly popular in surgery of patients with lumbar stenosis. The literature has not yet been systematically reviewed. A comprehensive systematic literature review up to November 2009 to assess the effectiveness of transforaminal endoscopic

  14. Laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous endoscopic transgastrostomy jejunostomy. (United States)

    Dimofte, Mihail-Gabriel; Porumb, Vlad; Nicolescu, Simona; Ristescu, Irina; Lunca, Sorinel


    New therapeutic protocols for patients with end-stage Parkinson disease include a carbidopa/levodopa combination using continuous, modulated enteral administration via a portable pump. The typical approach involves a percutaneous endoscopic transgastrostomy jejunostomy (PEG-J), which requires a combination of procedures designed to ensure that no organ is interposed between the abdominal wall and the gastric surface. Lack of transillumination in maximal endoscopic light settings is a major contraindication for PEG-J, and we decided to use a different approach to establish enteric access for long-term medication delivery via pump, using a minimally invasive procedure. In all patients, we performed a laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous transgastrostomy jejunostomy (LAPEG-J) after an unsuccessful endoscopic transillumination. Five patients with end-stage Parkinson disease were referred to our department after successful therapeutic testing with administration of levodopa/carbidopa via naso-jejunal tube. All patients failed the endoscopic transillumination during the endoscopic procedure and were considered for LAPEG-J. In all patients, the LAPEG-J procedure was uneventful. The most common reason identified for failed transillumination was a high position of the stomach, followed by interposition of the liver or colon between the stomach and anterior abdominal wall. There were no complications regarding the LAPEG-J procedure, and all patients were discharged during the second postprocedural day. LAPEG-J provides a simple and safe option for placing a jejunostomy after an unsuccessful PEG-J attempt.

  15. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Sherman, Aaron


    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  16. Postoperative seizure following transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy


    Kertmen, Hayri; G?rer, Bora; YILMAZ, Erdal Resit; Sekerci, Zeki


    Endoscopic surgery for lumbar disc herniation has been available for more than 30 years. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a well-known, safe, and effective method used for the treatment of the lumbar disc herniation. The published complications of the transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy consist of infections, thrombophlebitis, dysesthesia, dural tear, vascular injury, and death. Seizure after transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discect...

  17. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty: a potential endoscopic alternative to surgical sleeve gastrectomy for treatment of obesity. (United States)

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Rajan, Elizabeth; Gostout, Christopher J


    Obesity and its associated conditions, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions. High-efficacy, high-risk surgical approaches are unlikely to meet the increasing burden of disease. Emerging endoscopic technologies have opened the door for endoscopic approaches to reproduce many of the benefits of GI weight loss surgery and thereby contribute to the effective treatment of obesity and its associated disorders. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of transoral endoscopic gastric volume reduction with an endoscopic suturing device in a fashion similar to sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of obesity. Single-center, pilot feasibility study. Four human subjects with obesity. Transoral sleeve gastroplasty. Technical feasibility. We successfully used an endoscopic free-hand suturing system in 4 subjects, thus demonstrating the technical feasibility of a novel technique to mimic the anatomic manipulations created by surgical sleeve gastrectomy endoscopically. Pilot feasibility study with small number of subjects. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty for treatment of obesity is feasible. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pose Reconstruction of Flexible Instruments from Endoscopic Images using Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak


    A system is developed that can reconstruct the pose of flexible endoscopic instruments that are used in ad- vanced flexible endoscopes using solely the endoscopic images. Four markers are placed on the instrument, whose positions are measured in the image. These measurements are compared to a

  19. Post-endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy bleeding: an interventional radiology approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Ruth


    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an integral component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage is a recognized complication. First line treatment involves a variety of endoscopic techniques performed at the time of sphincterotomy. If these are not successful, transcatheter arterial embolization or open surgical vessel ligation are therapeutic considerations.

  20. Transanal submucosal endoscopic resection (TASER) by TEO system®. (United States)

    Muñoz de Nova, José Luis; Viamontes Ugalde, Francisco Eduardo; Mendoza Jiménez-Ridruejo, Jorge


    Given the higher incidence of non-invasive colorectal tumors due to the further implementation of screening techniques, multiple endoscopic techniques have emerged for its resection. Recently described, transanal submucosal endoscopic resection (TASER) pools the concepts of endoscopic resection with the transanal surgery. We report our initial experience and reflections on this new technique.

  1. To evaluate the results of endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVBL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 4, 2004 ... Lay, C.S. Tsai, Y.T. Teg, C.Y. et al. Endoscopic variceal ligation in prophylaxis of first variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with high-risk esophageal varices. Hepatology. 1997;. 25:346-350. 24. Stiegmann, G.V. Goff, J.S. Michaletz-Onody, P.A. et al. Endoscopic sclerotherapy as compared with endoscopic.

  2. Coccidioides immitis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound. (United States)

    Naidu, Veena G; Tammineni, Anil K; Biscopink, Ronald J; Davis, Terry L; Veerabagu, Manjakkollai P


    The use of endoscopic ultrasound in staging non-small cell lung cancer is well known. Its role in diagnosing non-malignant conditions that cause mediastinal adenopathy is still not well established. We diagnosed Coccidioides immitis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two patients using endoscopic ultrasound. To our knowledge this is the first case of Coccidioidomycosis to be diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound.

  3. [12 years of endoscopic stone removal]. (United States)

    Gysi, B; Schmassmann, A; Scheurer, U; Halter, F


    All 583 attempts at endoscopic clearance of biliary calculi, performed in the Gastrointestinal Unit, Inselspital Bern, were retrospectively analyzed from 1980 until 1991. The average age of the patients was 70; 56% were female and 44% male. In 1980, 26 ERCPs for bile duct stone removal were performed, whereas in 1991 the number had increased to 90. The substantial increase in 1991 occurred after introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Over the total period of 12 years all stones were removed endoscopically after papillotomy in 82%, while the success rate in 1991 was 90%. Morbidity was 5.4% and lethality 0.2%. Total morbidity did not change markedly. However, the number of severe complications requiring surgical repair was reduced from 1.7% between 1980 and 1986 to 0% between 1987 and 1991. These results suggest that endoscopic removal of bile duct stones is increasingly performed with high success and low complication rates.

  4. Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis. (United States)

    Law, Ryan; Baron, Todd H


    Over the last several years, there have been refinements in the understanding and nomenclature regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis. Patients with acute pancreatitis frequently develop acute pancreatic collections that, over time, may evolve into pancreatic pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Endoscopic management of these local complications of acute pancreatitis continues to evolve. Treatment strategies range from simple drainage of liquefied contents to repeated direct endoscopic necrosectomy of a complex necrotic collection. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocysts may arise as a consequence of pancreatic ductal obstruction that then leads to pancreatic ductal disruption. In this review, we focus on the indications, techniques and outcomes for endoscopic therapy of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis.

  5. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear. (United States)

    Isaacson, Glenn


    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  6. Effects of powder flow properties on capsule filling weight uniformity. (United States)

    Osorio, Juan G; Muzzio, Fernando J


    Filling capsules with the right amount of powder ingredients is an important quality parameter. The purpose of this study was to develop effective laboratory methods for characterizing flow properties of pharmaceutical powder blends and correlating such properties to weight variability in filled capsules. The methods used for powder flow characterization were bulk and tapped density, gravitational displacement rheometer (GDR) flow index, Freeman Technology V.4 (FT4) powder rheometer compressibility, FT4 basic flow energy (BFE), and cohesion parameters [cohesion, (C) and flow factor (ffc)] measured in a shear cell also using the FT4. Capsules were filled using an MG2-G140 continuous nozzle dosator capsule-filling machine. Powder flow properties were the most predominant factors affecting the weight and weight variability in the filled capsules. Results showed that the weight variability decreased with increasing bulk and tapped density, ffc and BFE, while the weight variability increased with increasing compressibility, cohesion and GDR flow index. Powder flow properties of the final blends were significantly correlated to the final capsule weight and weight variability of the filled capsules.

  7. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of...

  8. Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc


    perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic......This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each...

  9. Endoscopic management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding. (United States)

    Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan


    This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA


    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  11. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Vivek


    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  12. CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Fei


    Here is a comprehensive examination of CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems. Covers design challenges, fundamental issues of ultra-low power wireless communications, radio-frequency power harvesting, and advanced design techniques, and more.

  13. CODE: Description Language for Wireless Collaborating Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    This paper introduces CODE, a Description Language for Wireless Collaborating Objects (WCO), with the specific aim of enabling service management in smart environments. WCO extend the traditional model of wireless sensor networks by transferring additional intelligence and responsibility from the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza A Hejazi


    Full Text Available Purpose: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is a procedure that uses a wireless camera to take pictures of the gastrointestinal tract. A wireless motility capsule (WMC of a similar size has been developed, which measures pH, pressure, and temperature, and can be used to assess regional and total gastrointestinal transit times. VCE could also potentially be used as a tool for measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT.Methods: This study was designed to obtain SBTT from VCE and compare it with historical data generated by WMC. Gastric transit time (GTT was also measured. Patients were included if the indication for VCE was either iron deficiency anemia (IDA or overt obscure GI bleed (OOGIB and they did not have any known motility disorder. Results from VCE were also compared in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients. Results: There were a total of 147 VCE studies performed, including 42 for OOGIB and 105 for IDA. Median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 hours, respectively. The overall median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 hours, respectively, in the IDA group compared with 0.3 and 3.4 hours in the OOGIB group. When compared with WMC, the GTT and SBTT were significantly faster in both groups (GTT: 3.6 hours and SBTT: 4.6 hours. The median GTT and SBTT were not significantly different in diabetics versus non-diabetics: (GTT: 17.5 vs. 18.0 minutes (P=0.86 and SBTT: 3.9 hours (237 minutes vs. 3.8 hours (230 minutes, respectively (P=0.90.Conclusion: SBTT as measured using VCE is not significantly different in OOGIB compared with IDA. Both GTT and SBTT are significantly faster as assessed by VCE, which is initiated in the fasting state, compared with WMC measurement, which is initiated after a standard meal. In summary, VCE could potentially be used for measuring SBTT in the fasting state.

  15. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)


    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  16. How Effective is Routing for Wireless Networking (United States)


    world examples of multi-hop wireless networks. Today, almost all of our wireless devices communicate directly with a base station (such as WiFi or...a link towards the next waypoint. Since routing Distribution A: Public Release. This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Program...prevents these schemes from working well in a wireless environment. The idea of a link is borrowed from wired networks. In a wireless network, there is no

  17. [A novel miniature robotic endoscope design for intestinal inspection]. (United States)

    Chi, Dong-xiang; Yan, Guo-zheng; Lin, Liang-ming


    This paper makes a comparison between the traditional endoscope system and the active robotic endoscope system, discusses the human intestine-working conditions of the robotic endoscope system in detail and its design requirements. An active robotic endoscope system based on earthworn-locomotion principles is proposed here and besides, its structure and locomotion mechanism are analyzed. A new method of human intestinal intervention is brought out and it can prevent the robotic endoscope guided by a cone-shaped guide pipe from being jammed or damaged.

  18. Dehiscence following successful endoscopic closure of gastric perforation during endoscopic submucosal dissection (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nonaka, Satoru; Saka, Makoto; Katai, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kushima, Ryoji; Saito, Yutaka


    Gastric perforation is one of the most serious complications that can occur during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). In terms of the treatment of such perforations, we previously reported that perforations immediately observed and successfully closed with endoclips during endoscopic resection could be managed conservatively. We now report the first case in our medical facility of a gastric perforation during ESD that was ineffectively treated conservatively even after successful endoscopic closure. In December 2006, we performed ESD on a recurrent early gastric cancer in an 81-year-old man with a medical history of laparotomy for cholelithiasis. A perforation occurred during ESD that was immediately observed and successfully closed with endoclips so that ESD could be continued resulting in an en-bloc resection. Intensive conservative management was conducted following ESD, however, an endoscopic examination five days after ESD revealed dehiscence of the perforation requiring an emergency laparotomy. PMID:22919258

  19. A New Irrigation System (Endosplash) for a Rigid Endoscope in Trans-sphenoidal Endoscopic Surgery. (United States)

    Kuroda, Rintarou; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Eiju


    Obstruction of the visual field by blood is a major hindrance during endonasal endoscopic surgery, and a rapid and effective method for cleaning the lens is needed. We developed a new lens-cleaning system that does not employ a sheath or an irrigation-suction system. It is a 20-mm long cylinder with side holes that is attached to the barrel of the endoscope and is connected to a syringe containing saline. When the syringe is pressed, saline flows down to the tip along the barrel and washes the lens without requiring a sheath. We report the use of the system in six cases of endonasal endoscopic surgery. The lens was wiped significantly less often than during similar surgery performed without the use of this system. The Endosplash is simple and enables the surgeon to clean the lens with a single press of a syringe, thereby greatly enhancing the efficacy of endoscopic surgery.

  20. Investigation of Small Bowel Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Patients Using Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Sakai


    Full Text Available HIV infection is reportedly associated with an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and can cause HIV enteropathy, which occurs independently of opportunistic infections. However, the characteristics of small bowel abnormalities attributable to HIV infection are rarely investigated. In the present study, we assessed the intestinal mucosal changes found in HIV-infected patients and compared them with the mucosa of healthy control subjects using capsule endoscopy (CE. Three of the 27 HIV-infected patients harbored gastrointestinal opportunistic infections and were thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The endoscopic findings of CE in HIV-infected patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (55% versus 10%, P=0.002; however, most lesions, such as red spots or tiny erosions, were unlikely to cause abdominal symptoms. After validating the efficacy of CE for the diagnosis of villous atrophy, we found that the prevalence of villous atrophy was 54% (13/24 among HIV-infected patients. Interestingly, villous atrophy persisted in patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy, though most of them exhibited reconstituted peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. Although we could not draw any conclusions regarding the development of small bowel abnormalities in HIV-infected patients, our results may provide some insight regarding the pathogenesis of HIV enteropathy.

  1. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine


    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  2. Advanced Wireless Sensor Nodes - MSFC (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Richeson, Jeff


    NASA field center Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, AL), has invested in advanced wireless sensor technology development. Developments for a wireless microcontroller back-end were primarily focused on the commercial Synapse Wireless family of devices. These devices have many useful features for NASA applications, good characteristics and the ability to be programmed Over-The-Air (OTA). The effort has focused on two widely used sensor types, mechanical strain gauges and thermal sensors. Mechanical strain gauges are used extensively in NASA structural testing and even on vehicle instrumentation systems. Additionally, thermal monitoring with many types of sensors is extensively used. These thermal sensors include thermocouples of all types, resistive temperature devices (RTDs), diodes and other thermal sensor types. The wireless thermal board will accommodate all of these types of sensor inputs to an analog front end. The analog front end on each of the sensors interfaces to the Synapse wireless microcontroller, based on the Atmel Atmega128 device. Once the analog sensor output data is digitized by the onboard analog to digital converter (A/D), the data is available for analysis, computation or transmission. Various hardware features allow custom embedded software to manage battery power to enhance battery life. This technology development fits nicely into using numerous additional sensor front ends, including some of the low-cost printed circuit board capacitive moisture content sensors currently being developed at Auburn University.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel SORA


    Full Text Available In today’s technological market, there are many types of networks. These networks include wireless personal area networks (WPANs, wireless local area networks (WLANs, wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs, and cellular networks. A vision of a future convergence of networks envisaged for WPANs, WLANs, WiMax, and cellular networks is presented in this paper.

  4. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course (United States)

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin


    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  5. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce


    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  6. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grim, Gary P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilke, Mark D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, George L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Loomis, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilde, Carl H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fatherley, Valerie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Tai - Sen F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Danly, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, Steven H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patel, M [LLNL; Sepke, S [LLNL; Hatarik, R [LLNL; Fittinghoff, D [LLNL; Bower, D [LLNL; Marinak, M [LLNL; Munro, D [LLNL; Moran, M [LLNL; Hilko, R [NSTEC; Frank, M [LLNL; Buckles, R [NSTEC


    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  7. Positron radiography of ignition-relevant ICF capsules (United States)

    Williams, G. J.; Chen, Hui; Field, J. E.; Landen, O. L.; Strozzi, D. J.


    Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a probe source to radiograph in-flight ignition-relevant inertial confinement fusion capsules. Current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 × 1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short time duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the unique characteristics of such positrons allow for the reconstruction of both capsule shell radius and areal density between 0.002 and 2 g/cm2. The energy-downshifted positron spectrum and angular scattering of the source particles are sufficient to constrain the conditions of the capsule between preshot and stagnation. We evaluate the effects of magnetic fields near the capsule surface using analytic estimates where it is shown that this diagnostic can tolerate line integrated field strengths of 100 T mm.

  8. Requirement for capsule in colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magee, A D; Yother, J


    .... Using isolates containing defined mutations in the S. pneumoniae capsule locus, we found that expression of the capsular polysaccharide is essential for colonization by the type 2 strain D39 and the type 3 strains A66 and WU2...

  9. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule. (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P


    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied.

  10. Versatile Loading of Diverse Cargo into Functional Polymer Capsules. (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Maina, James W; Ejima, Hirotaka; Hu, Ming; Guo, Junling; Choy, Mei Y; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Lybaert, Lien; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank


    Polymer microcapsules are of particular interest for applications including self-healing coatings, catalysis, bioreactions, sensing, and drug delivery. The primary way that polymer capsules can exhibit functionality relevant to these diverse fields is through the incorporation of functional cargo in the capsule cavity or wall. Diverse functional and therapeutic cargo can be loaded into polymer capsules with ease using polymer-stabilized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. A variety of examples are demonstrated, including 15 types of cargo, yielding a toolbox with effectively 500+ variations. This process uses no harsh reagents and can take less than 30 min to prepare, load, coat, and form the hollow capsules. For these reasons, it is expected that the technique will play a crucial role across scientific studies in numerous fields.

  11. Constraining fundamental plasma physics processes using doped capsule implosions (United States)

    Garbett, W. J.; James, S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Benage, J.; Wysocki, F. J.; Gunderson, M.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V. Y.; Yaakobi, B.


    A standard technique in inertial confinement fusion research is the use of low levels of spectroscopic dopants as a passive diagnostic of fuel conditions. Using higher dopant levels it becomes possible to modify the plasma conditions. Doped capsule experiments may thus provide a way to control and study fundamental plasma physics processes in the inertial fusion regime. As a precursor to eventual experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we have performed a series of capsule implosions using the Omega laser. These are intended to guide the modelling of high-Z dopants and explore the feasibility of using such capsule implosions for quantitative physics experiments. We have fielded thin glass shells filled with D-He3 fuel and varying levels of Ar, Kr and Xe dopants. X-ray emission spectroscopy is combined with simultaneous measurements of primary neutron and proton yields and energy spectra in an attempt to fully constrain capsule behaviour.

  12. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Gerke, Christiane


    ... S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg...

  13. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms. (United States)

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M


    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications.

  14. Application and improvement of capsule system for penstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matstuda, S.; Fujishiro, Y.; Yamagucki, T.; Okubo, M.; Miyabe, N.; Sakagami, H.; Ikeda, M.; Kurose, Y.


    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. has succeeded in applying an all-position, narrow-gap MIG automatic welding method using a Capsule System for both penstocks of the Electric Power Development Company's Okukiyotsu and the Kansai Electric Power Company's Okuyoshino Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Stations. The application and development of the capsule system and MIG welding method have been officially commended this year by the Japan Society of Steel Construction (JSSC). The KHI-development capsule system has been improved by the study of various data rendered by the aforesaid two projects. Based on past experience, KHI is now involved in the construction of another penstock, this one for the Tokoku Electric Power Company's No. 2 Numazawa Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Station. The design and improvements of the capsule system, and its application to Numazawa Penstock are discussed.

  15. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van


    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  16. Endoscopic repair of an abdominal intercostal hernia. (United States)

    Bobbio, Antonio; Ampollini, Luca; Prinzi, Gabriele; Sarli, Leopoldo


    Abdominal viscera herniation through the chest wall is a rare condition. A case is presented of an abdominal intercostal hernia of the seventh right intercostal space; its pathogenesis and clinical features are described, and also the combined endoscopic and percutaneous surgical approach employed for its repair.

  17. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn


    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solapur Kidney Care and Research Center, Maharashtra, India. Objectivez-To evaluate the safety and efficacy ... Conclusion: Povidone iodine is a very safe and efficacious agent for the endoscopic treatment of chyluria by ..... ment of tilarial chyluria in Japan. J Uroi 1983,. 129:64. 10. Chang CY, Lue YB, Lapides J. Surgical ...

  19. Ethical challenges of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. (United States)

    Morgenstern, L; Laquer, M; Treyzon, L


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used procedure for patients who cannot swallow. Although it is mostly performed for valid indications, its use in terminally ill patients is questionable. In this study, more than 30% of patients died in hospital after PEG placement and 16% died less than 30 days after placement. Strict guidelines and oversight or PEG placement are recommended.

  20. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and Choroid Plexus Cauterization (CPC) have been recommended as reliable surgical options in developing countries for childhood hydrocephalus owing to reported shunt failures in shunt dependency. Objective: To evaluate outcomes of the ETV and ETV-CPC ...

  1. Oesophageal cancer and experience with endoscopic stent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oesophageal cancer often presents in advanced stages not amenable to surgical resection. In such patients, palliation of dysphagia remains the mainstay of management. Objectives: To determine the burden of advanced oesophageal cancer and to document the experience with endoscopic metal stent ...

  2. Esophageal Stricture Post Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Post endoscopic sclerotherapy esophageal stricture is usually not fatal but may requires several sessions of esophageal dilation as an effective palliative treatment yet has its own complications. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictors of sclerotherapy esophageal stricture. Methods: This is a ...

  3. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic intervention is widely accepted as the treatment of choice. This study assessed ... Seven patients had one or more complications related to the ERCP: 3 acute pancreatitis, 2 cholangitis, 2 sphincterotomy bleeds, 1 duodenal perforation and 1 impacted Dormia basket, the latter 2 requiring operative intervention.

  4. Real-time endoscopic optical properties imaging (United States)

    Angelo, Joseph P.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Gioux, Sylvain


    With almost 50% of all surgeries in the U.S. being performed as minimally invasive procedures, there is a need to develop quantitative endoscopic imaging techniques to aid surgical guidance. Recent developments in widefield optical imaging make endoscopic implementations of real-time measurement possible. In this work, we introduce a proof-of-concept endoscopic implementation of a functional widefield imaging technique called 3D single snapshot of optical properties (3D-SSOP) that provides quantitative maps of absorption and reduced scattering optical properties as well as surface topography with simple instrumentation added to a commercial endoscope. The system’s precision and accuracy is validated using tissue-mimicking phantoms, showing a max error of 0.004 mm−1, 0.05 mm−1, and 1.1 mm for absorption, reduced scattering, and sample topography, respectively. This study further demonstrates video acquisition of a moving phantom and an in vivo sample with a framerate of approximately 11 frames per second. PMID:29188107

  5. An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Health Sciences ... The study site was the Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). ... All the patients with portal hypertension and previous history of acute variceal blood who underwent endoscopic injection sclerotherapy between August 1998 and May 2001 in the ...

  6. Current considerations of direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Shi, Liping; Tang, Hao; Tao, Guoqing


    BACKGROUOND: Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) is a well-known approach to deliver postpyloric enteral nutritional support to individuals who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. However, it is technically difficult, and some case series have reported significant procedural failure rates. The present article describes current indications, successes and complications of DPEJ placement. A MEDLINE database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the key words "direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy", "percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy", and "percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal extension tube". Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the references cited in the key articles obtained in the primary search. DPEJ is gradually becoming more common in the treatment of patients who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. Differences in patient selection and technique modifications may contribute to the various success rates reported. Failure is most often due to inadequate transillumination or gastroduodenal obstruction. Currently, there are limited data to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of DPEJ. The clinical use of DPEJ is increasing. With appropriate care and expertise, DPEJ may prove to be reliable and safe.

  7. Current considerations in direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Shi, Liping; Tang, Hao; Tao, Guoqing


    BACKGROUND: Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) is a well-known approach to deliver postpyloric enteral nutritional support to individuals who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. However, it is technically difficult, and some case series have reported significant procedural failure rates. The present article describes current indications, successes and complications of DPEJ placement METHODS: A MEDLINE database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the key words “direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy”, “percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy”, and “percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal extension tube”. Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the references cited in the key articles obtained in the primary search. RESULTS: DPEJ is gradually becoming more common in the treatment of patients who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. Differences in patient selection and technique modifications may contribute to the various success rates reported. Failure is most often due to inadequate transillumination or gastroduodenal obstruction. Currently, there are limited data to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of DPEJ. CONCLUSION: The clinical use of DPEJ is increasing. With appropriate care and expertise, DPEJ may prove to be reliable and safe. PMID:22312608

  8. Shaft-Guidance for Flexible Endoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.


    Flexible endoscopes (long, slender, flexible instruments with a camera and light at the distal end, having working channels to introduce flexible instruments) are used for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions inside the human digestive system and inside the abdomen. Though used for their

  9. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 4, 2013 ... abscesses, interloop and intra-abdominal sepsis and cholangitis, or the later secondary sequelae of biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease. There is consensus that optimal management of a bile duct injury requires multidisciplinary. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after.

  10. [Extended endoscopic endonasal approach to skull base]. (United States)

    López-Arbolay, Omar; González-González, Justo; Rojas-Manresa, Jorge Luis


    Different approaches to the skull base have been developed through the sphenoidal sinus. Traditional boundaries of the trans-sphenoidal approach can be extended in antero-posterior and lateral plane. We review our experience with extended endoscopic endonasal approach in 127 cases. We used the extended endoscopic endonasal approach in 127 patients with different lesions of the skull base. This study specifically focuses on: type of lesions, surgical approach, outcome and surgical complications. Extended endoscopic endonasal approach was used in 127 patients with following lesions: 61 invasive adenomas to cavernous sinus, 10 clival chordomas, 21 craniopharyngiomas, 26 meningiomas, 4 cerebrospinal fluid leakages, one meningoencephalocele, 2 malignan lesions and 2 thyroid ophthalmopathy. In tumoral lesions gross total resection was achieved in 82.5%, with better results in craniopharyngiomas 90.5%, followed by invasive adenomas with 85.2%, and meningiomas with 84.6%. The most frequent complications were the insipid (8.6%) diabetes, meningoencefalitis (3.9%) and the hydrocephalic (3.9%). Mortality was 3.9%. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach is a promising minimally invasive alternative for selective cases with skull base lesions. As techniques and technology advance this approach may become the procedure of choice for most lesions and should be considered an option in the management of the patients with these complex pathologies by skull base surgeon. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Oesophageal cancer and experience with endoscopic stent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oesophageal cancer often presents in advanced stages not amenable to surgical resection. In such patients, palliation of dysphagia remains the mainstay of management. oBjectives: To determine the burden of advanced oesophageal cancer and to document the experience with endoscopic metal stent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo K. Fokter


    Full Text Available Background. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a frequent cause of hand pain, numbness and paresthesias. Clinical outcome studies have been shown that endoscopic transverse carpal ligament release is an effective operation for treating idiopathic CTS. This retrospective study was designed to determine the one- to five-year outcome of endoscopic surgery for this disease.Methods. Single portal endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR was performed on 68 hands in 48 patients who had clinical signs and symptoms consistent with CTS confirmed with electrodiagnostic studies. Charts were reviewed and the following data were obtained: age, duration of symptoms, time of hospitalization and complications. 57 cases (40 patients responded to a questionnaire and follow-up nerve conduction studies were available in 44 cases (65% of the entire cohort. The data of electrodiagnostic studies before treatment and at follow-up were statistically compared.Results. In two cases symptoms persisted and open surgery was performed two months after endoscopic procedure. Majority of hands (49 out of 57; 86% were pain-free at the final follow-up. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed significant difference in nerve conduction latencies, action potentials (p < 0.01 and sensory conduction velocities (p < 0.05.Conclusions. ECTR offers safe decompression of the median nerve. The resumption of activities of daily living is short and many patients are allowed to return to work soon.

  13. Robust digital image inpainting algorithm in the wireless environment (United States)

    Karapetyan, G.; Sarukhanyan, H. G.; Agaian, S. S.


    Image or video inpainting is the process/art of retrieving missing portions of an image without introducing undesirable artifacts that are undetectable by an ordinary observer. An image/video can be damaged due to a variety of factors, such as deterioration due to scratches, laser dazzling effects, wear and tear, dust spots, loss of data when transmitted through a channel, etc. Applications of inpainting include image restoration (removing laser dazzling effects, dust spots, date, text, time, etc.), image synthesis (texture synthesis), completing panoramas, image coding, wireless transmission (recovery of the missing blocks), digital culture protection, image de-noising, fingerprint recognition, and film special effects and production. Most inpainting methods can be classified in two key groups: global and local methods. Global methods are used for generating large image regions from samples while local methods are used for filling in small image gaps. Each method has its own advantages and limitations. For example, the global inpainting methods perform well on textured image retrieval, whereas the classical local methods perform poorly. In addition, some of the techniques are computationally intensive; exceeding the capabilities of most currently used mobile devices. In general, the inpainting algorithms are not suitable for the wireless environment. This paper presents a new and efficient scheme that combines the advantages of both local and global methods into a single algorithm. Particularly, it introduces a blind inpainting model to solve the above problems by adaptively selecting support area for the inpainting scheme. The proposed method is applied to various challenging image restoration tasks, including recovering old photos, recovering missing data on real and synthetic images, and recovering the specular reflections in endoscopic images. A number of computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme and also illustrate the main properties

  14. Determining the Optimum Font Size for Braille on Capsule Paper


    Watanabe, Tetsuya


    Braille fonts allow us to easily make braille labels on capsule paper. For legibility, fonts should be printed at optimum sizes. To find the optimum sizes for Japanese braille fonts, we conducted an experiment in which a Japanese braille font was printed at various sizes on capsule paper and read and rated by young braille users. The results show that braille printed at 17 and 18 point sizes were read faster and evaluated higher than those printed at smaller or bigger sizes.

  15. Delayed Buckling and Guided Folding of Inhomogeneous Capsules


    Datta, Sujit; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A


    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy’s law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  16. Chemical Inhibition of Bacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Suppresses Capsule Production


    Standish, Alistair J.; Salim, Angela A; Hua Zhang; Capon, Robert J.; Renato Morona


    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to dat...

  17. Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy compared with colonoscopy


    Spada, C.; Muñoz-Navas, M. (Miguel); C. Hassan; Neuhaus, H.; Deviere, J; Fockens, P.; Coron, E; G Gay; Toth, E.; Riccioni, M.E.; Carretero, C.; Charton, J.P.; Van Gossum, A; Wientjes, C.A. (Caroline A.); Sacher-Huvelin, S. (Sylvie)


    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) represents a noninvasive technology that allows visualization of the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was developed to increase sensitivity for colorectal polyp detection compared with the first-generation system. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of CCE-2 in a head-to-head comparison with colono...

  18. Potential capacity of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Japan. (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Goto, Rei


    In 2016, the Japanese government decided to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer as a national program. To provide endoscopic screening nationwide, we estimated the proportion of increase in the number of endoscopic examinations with the introduction of endoscopic screening, based on a national survey. The total number of endoscopic examinations has increased, particularly in clinics. Based on the national survey, the total number of participants in gastric cancer screening was 3 784 967. If 30% of the participants are switched from radiographic screening to endoscopic screening, approximately 1 million additional endoscopic examinations are needed. In Japan, the participation rates in gastric cancer screening and the number of hospitals and clinics offering upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vary among the 47 prefectures. If the participation rates are high and the numbers of hospitals and clinics are small, the proportion of increase becomes larger. Based on the same assumption, 50% of big cities can provide endoscopic screening with a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. However, 16.7% of the medical districts are available for endoscopic screening within a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. Despite the Japanese government's decision to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, its immediate introduction remains difficult because of insufficient medical resources in rural areas. This implies that endoscopic screening will be initially introduced to big cities. To promote endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, the disparity of medical resources must first be resolved. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. [Development of Bluetooth wireless sensors]. (United States)

    Moor, C; Schwaibold, M; Roth, H; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A


    Wireless communication could help to overcome current obstacles in medical devices and could enable medical services to offer completely new scenarios in health care. The Bluetooth technology which is the upcoming global market leader in wireless communication turned out to be perfectly suited not only for consumer market products but also in the medical environment [1]. It offers a low power, low cost connection in the medium range of 1-100 m with a bandwidth of currently 723.2 kbaud. This paper describes the development of a wireless ECG device and a Pulse Oximeter. Equipped with a Bluetooth port, the measurement devices are enabled to transmit data between the sensor and a Bluetooth-monitor. Therefore, CSR's Bluetooth protocol embedded two-processor and embedded single-processor architecture has been used.

  20. Next Generation Intelligent Wireless Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg


    could think the wireless revolution is over. However, future connectivity will be wireless and ubiquitous. Therefore the future of wireless infrastructures seems to be in front of a remarkable evolution as this paper will describe. With a vision of creating continuous seamless user connectivity as well...... as having physical devices/things connected through the wide spread usage of sensor and RFID near field communication technologies the network will increase in size with a order of magnitude compared to today. Additionally having the widespread Internet protocol technologies as a fundamental building block...... efficient ways of optimizing the spectrum usage are necessary. The extent of IP-based sensor networks with explode due to the rapid evolution in the relationship between processing power, cost, power consumption and physical size....

  1. Endoscopic suturing versus endoscopic clip closure of the mucosotomy during a per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM): a case-control study. (United States)

    Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Sharata, Ahmed M; Cassera, Maria A; Reavis, Kevin M; Dunst, Christy M; Swanström, Lee L


    Obtaining an adequate mucosal closure is one of the crucial steps in per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). Thus far, there have been no objective data comparing the various available closure techniques. This case-controlled study attempts to compare the application of endoscopic clips versus endoscopic suturing for mucosotomy closure during POEM cases. A retrospective review of our prospective POEM database was performed. All cases in which endoscopic suturing was used to close the mucosotomy were matched to cases in which standard endoclips were used. Overall complication rate, closure time and mucosal closure costs between the two groups were compared. Both techniques offer good clinical results with good mucosal closure and the absence of postoperative leak. Closure time was significantly shorter (p = 0.044) with endoscopic clips (16 ± 12 min) when compared to endoscopic suturing (33 ± 11 min). Overall, the total closure cost analysis showed a trend toward lower cost with clips (1502 ± 849 USD) versus endoscopic suturing (2521 ± 575 USD) without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.073). The use of endoscopic suturing seems to be a safe method for mucosal closure in POEM cases. Closure time is longer with suturing than conventional closure with clips, and there is a trend toward higher overall cost. Endoscopic suturing is likely most cost-effective for difficult cases where conventional closure methods fail.

  2. Total Endoscopic Approach in Glomus Tympanicum Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Daneshi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Glomus tympanicum (GT is a benign primary tumor of the middle ear. The evolution of endoscopic ear surgery has allowed for an alternative approach to managing this vascular tumor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an endoscopic approach in GT surgery, and also to investigate its applicability and feasibility.   Materials and Methods: Prospectively, 13 class I and II patients, according to the Glasscock-Jackson glomus classification, were candidates for management via a transcanal endoscopic approach. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the location of the tumor in the middle ear. Group A consisted of patients with tumors located anteriorly while occupying the Eustachian tube. Group B were patients with tumors located on the promontory with entirely visible tumor borders. Patients in Group C had tumors that occupied the entire middle ear. Under specially designed flap elevation and hemostasis, the tumors were completely removed using an endoscopic technique.   Results: Based on the classification criteria, three patients fell into Group A (30%, six into Group B (46%, and three into Group C (23%. The principal chief complaint was pulsatile tinnitus that disappeared after surgery in most cases. Hearing status was mostly mixed hearing loss. No change was detected in bone conduction after surgery, but air conduction was improved in nine cases. No major complication or recurrence was observed over 30 months of follow up.   Conclusion: Improved exposure and access in the endoscopic transcanal approach to GT leads to safe, rapid, and reliable tumor removal, as well as allowing comfortable surgery for both the surgeon and most patients.

  3. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty: the learning curve. (United States)

    Hill, Christine; El Zein, Mohamad; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dunlap, Margo; Chang, Angela; Agrawal, Alison; Barola, Sindhu; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Chen, Yen-I; Kalloo, Anthony N; Khashab, Mouen A; Kumbhari, Vivek


    Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is gaining traction as a minimally invasive bariatric treatment. Concern that the learning curve may be slow, even among those proficient in endoscopic suturing, is a barrier to widespread implementation of the procedure. Therefore, we aimed to define the learning curve for ESG in a single endoscopist experienced in endoscopic suturing who participated in a 1-day ESG training program.  Consecutive patients who underwent ESG between February 2016 and November 2016 were included. The performing endoscopist, who is proficient in endoscopic suturing for non-ESG procedures, participated in a 1-day ESG training session before offering ESG to patients. The outcome measurements were length of procedure (LOP) and number of plications per procedure. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the learning plateau and calculate the learning rate.  Twenty-one consecutive patients (8 males), with mean age 47.7 ± 11.2 years and mean body mass index 41.8 ± 8.5 kg/m 2 underwent ESG. LOP decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a learning plateau at 101.5 minutes and a learning rate of 7 cases ( P  = 0.04). The number of plications per procedure also decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a plateau at 8 sutures and a learning rate of 9 cases ( P  < 0.001). Further, the average time per plication decreased significantly with consecutive procedures, reaching a plateau at 9 procedures ( P  < 0.001).  Endoscopists experienced in endoscopic suturing are expected to achieve a reduction in LOP and number of plications per procedure in successive cases, with progress plateauing at 7 and 9 cases, respectively.

  4. Radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jung Eun [Chungmu General Hospital, Chungmu (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Eul Hye [Seran General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee [Green General Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Choi, Guk Myung [Halla General Hospital, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)


    Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required.

  5. Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty: How I Do It? (United States)

    Lopez-Nava, G; Galvão, M P; Bautista-Castaño, I; Jimenez-Baños, A; Fernandez-Corbelle, J P


    Primary endoscopic weight loss therapies are of interest for access, simplicity, and economy. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty used in 50 patients. The goal of this procedure is to reduce the gastric lumen into a tubular configuration, with the greater curvature modified by a line of sutured plications. General anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is needed. An endoscopic suturing system requiring a specific double-channel endoscope delivers full-thickness sets of running sutures from the antrum to the fundus. Patients are admitted and observed, with discharge planned within 24 h. Post-procedure outpatient care includes diet instruction with intensive follow-up by a multidisciplinary team. Voluntary oral contrast and endoscopy studies are scheduled to assess the gastroplasty at 3, 6, and 12 months. The technique was applied in 50 patients (13 men) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 37.7 kg/m(2) (range 30-47) with 13 having reached 1 year. Procedure duration averaged 66 min during which six to eight sutures on average were placed. All patients were discharged in less than 24 h. There were no major intra-procedural, early, or delayed adverse events. Weight loss parameters were satisfactory, mean BMI changes from 37.7 ± 4.6 to 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2) at 1 year, and mean %TBWL was 19.0 ± 10.8. Oral contrast studies and endoscopy revealed sleeve gastroplasty configuration at least until 1 year of follow-up. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a safe, effective, and reproducible primary weight loss technique.

  6. Deformation of an elastic capsule in a rectangular microfluidic channel. (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P


    In the present study we investigate computationally the deformation of an elastic capsule in a rectangular microfluidic channel and compare it with that of a droplet. In contrast to the bullet or parachute shape in a square or cylindrical channel where the capsule extends along the flow direction, in a rectangular channel the capsule extends mainly along the less-confined lateral direction of the channel cross-section (i.e. the channel width), obtaining a pebble-like shape. The different shape evolution in these two types of solid channels results from the different tension development on the capsule membrane required for interfacial stability. Furthermore, in asymmetric channel flows, capsules show a different deformation compared to droplets with constant surface tension (which extend mainly along the flow direction) and to vesicles which extend along the more-confined channel height. Therefore, our study highlights the different stability dynamics associated with these three types of interfaces. Our findings suggest that the erythrocyte deformation in asymmetric vessels (which is similar to that of capsules) results from the erythrocyte's inner spectrin skeleton rather than from its outer lipid bilayer.

  7. Preparation and characterization of NaCS-CMC/PDMDAAC capsules. (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Yao, Shan-jing; Guan, Yi-xin; Lin, Dong-qiang


    A novel capsule system composed of sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and poly[dimethyl(diallyl)ammonium chloride] (PDMDAAC) was prepared for improving the properties of NaCS/PDMDAAC capsules. The process parameters, such as CMC concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L), NaCS concentration (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 g/L), PDMDAAC concentration (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 g/L), reaction time and temperature were investigated to understand their effects on the diameter, membrane thickness and mechanical strength of capsules. The optimum operation conditions for preparing NaCS-CMC/PDMDAAC capsules were determined as 6-8 g/L CMC, 35-40 g/L NaCS, 60 g/L PDMDAAC and polymerization for 30-40 min. Diffusion of substances with low molecular weight into capsules was investigated, and diffusion coefficients were calculated according to the developed model. The yeast of Candida krusei was chosen as representative cell to evaluate the effects of different cell loading on capsule mechanical strength. Meanwhile the encapsulated osmophilic C. krusei cells were cultured in 250 mL shaking flasks for 72 h to determine the cell leaking properties in short and long term.

  8. Colloidal capsules: nano- and microcapsules with colloidal particle shells. (United States)

    Bollhorst, Tobias; Rezwan, Kurosch; Maas, Michael


    Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science. The synthesis routes are categorized into the four major themes for colloidal capsule formation, i.e. the Pickering-emulsion based formation of colloidal capsules, the colloidal particle deposition on (sacrificial) templates, the amphiphilicity driven self-assembly of nanoparticle vesicles from polymer-grafted colloids, and the closely related field of nanoparticle membrane-loading of liposomes and polymersomes. The varying fields of colloidal capsule research are then further categorized and discussed for micro- and nano-scaled structures. Finally, a special section is dedicated to colloidal capsules for biological applications, as a diverse range of reports from this field aim at pharmaceutical agent encapsulation, targeted drug-delivery, and theranostics.

  9. Pickering Emulsion-Based Marbles for Cellular Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Zhang


    Full Text Available The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release.

  10. Transmission of a bacterial consortium in Eisenia fetida egg capsules. (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Powell, Ryan J; Stahl, David A


    The earthworm Eisenia fetida harbours Verminephrobacter eiseniae within their excretory nephridia. This symbiont is transferred from the parent into the egg capsules where the cells are acquired by the developing earthworm in a series of recruitment steps. Previous studies defined V. eiseniae as the most abundant cell type in the egg capsules, leaving approximately 30% of the bacteria unidentified and of unknown origin. The study presented here used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis together with cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to define the composition of the bacterial consortium in E. fetida egg capsules from early to late development. Newly formed capsules of E. fetida contained three bacterial types, a novel Microbacteriaceae member, a Flexibacteriaceae member and the previously described V. eiseniae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific and general rRNA probes demonstrated that the bacteria are abundant during early development, colonize the embryo and appear in the adult nephridia. As the capsules mature, Herbaspirillum spp. become abundant although they were not detected within the adult worm. These divergent taxa could serve distinct functions in both the adult earthworm and in the egg capsule to influence the competitive ability of earthworms within the soil community. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  12. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.


    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  13. OFDM systems for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Narasimhamurthy, Adarsh


    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems are widely used in the standards for digital audio/video broadcasting, WiFi and WiMax. Being a frequency-domain approach to communications, OFDM has important advantages in dealing with the frequency-selective nature of high data rate wireless communication channels. As the needs for operating with higher data rates become more pressing, OFDM systems have emerged as an effective physical-layer solution.This short monograph is intended as a tutorial which highlights the deleterious aspects of the wireless channel and presents why OFDM is

  14. Artificial intelligence in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rondeau, Thomas W


    This cutting-edge resource offers practical overview of cognitive radio, a paradigm for wireless communications in which a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters. The alteration of parameters is based on the active monitoring of several factors in the external and internal radio environment. This book offers a detailed description of cognitive radio and its individual parts. Practitioners learn how the basic processing elements and their capabilities are implemented as modular components. Moreover, the book explains how each component can be developed and t

  15. Embracing interference in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gollakota, Shyamnath


    The wireless medium is a shared resource. If nearby devices transmit at thesame time, their signals interfere, resulting in a collision. In traditionalnetworks, collisions cause the loss of the transmitted information. For thisreason, wireless networks have been designed with the assumption thatinterference is intrinsically harmful and must be avoided.This book, a revised version of the author's award-winning Ph.D.dissertation, takes an alternate approach: Instead of viewing interferenceas an inherently counterproductive phenomenon that should to be avoided, wedesign practical systems that tra

  16. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun


    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D; Joe Cordaro, J


    The introduction of wireless technology into a government site where nuclear material is processed and stored brings new meaning to the term ''harsh environment''. At SRNL, we are attempting to address not only the harsh RF and harsh physical environment common to industrial facilities, but also the ''harsh'' regulatory environment necessitated by the nature of the business at our site. We will discuss our concepts, processes, and expected outcomes in our attempts to surmount the roadblocks and reap the benefits of wireless in our ''factory''.

  18. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System (United States)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)


    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  19. Emerging wireless networks concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makaya, Christian


    An authoritative collection of research papers and surveys, Emerging Wireless Networks: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications explores recent developments in next-generation wireless networks (NGWNs) and mobile broadband networks technologies, including 4G (LTE, WiMAX), 3G (UMTS, HSPA), WiFi, mobile ad hoc networks, mesh networks, and wireless sensor networks. Focusing on improving the performance of wireless networks and provisioning better quality of service and quality of experience for users, it reports on the standards of different emerging wireless networks, applications, and service fr

  20. Principles of wireless access and localization

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlavan, Kaveh


    A comprehensive, encompassing and accessible text examining a wide range of key Wireless Networking and Localization technologies This book provides a unified treatment of issues related to all wireless access and wireless localization techniques.  The book reflects principles of design and deployment of infrastructure for wireless access and localization for wide, local, and personal networking.   Description of wireless access methods includes design and deployment of traditional TDMA and CDMA technologies and emerging Long Term Evolution (LTE) techniques for wide area cellular networks, the