WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless battery charger

  1. Isolated Wired and Wireless Battery Charger with Integrated Boost Converter for PEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far are with the dc-dc converters and the charging functionality usually have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. This study features a unique way of combining the wired and wireless charging functionalities with vehicle side boost converter integration and maintaining the isolation to provide the best solution to the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) users. The new performance of the proposed architecture is presented for wired and wireless charging options at different power levels.

  2. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable for...

  3. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  4. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  5. Electric charger for an accumulator or battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robers, E.W.J.; Molenaar, B.A.M.; Smit, W.; Bech, L.P.; Bouman, C.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to an electric charger for an accumulator or a battery or the like, which is adapted for rapid charging during an on-period and comprises for this purpose control means for starting and ending the on-period. The charger is provided with a circuit for converting a supply voltage

  6. Solar Battery Charger in CMOS 0.25 um Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wang; Chang-Ching Huang; Tian-Jen Wang

    2014-01-01

    A solar cell powered Li-ion battery charger in CMOS 0.25um is proposed. The solar battery charger consists of a DC/DC boost converter and a battery charger. The voltage generated by a solar cell is up converted from 0.65V to 1.8V, which is used as the VDD of the battery charger.  In this way, the solar battery charger automatically converts solar energy to electricity and stores it directly to a Li-ion rechargeable battery. In this system, a super capacitor is needed as a charge buffer betwee...

  7. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  8. Controlled battery charger for electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Geske, M.; Winkler, T; Komarnicki, P.; Heideck, G.

    2010-01-01

    Due to rising fuel consumption, price of CO2 emissions and growing urban air pollution, the global interest of the automobile industry, politics and scientists in electric mobility is increasing in the recent years worldwide. Thus, future challenges will be the integration of electric vehicles in distribution networks under the scope of balancing multiple charging processes while, at the same time, increasing dispersed generation. The development of a controlled battery charger for traction b...

  9. Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) Charger: Spacesuit Battery Charger Design with 2-Fault Tolerance to Catastrophic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Davies, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Charger design that is 2-fault tolerant to catastrophic has been achieved for the Spacesuit Li-ion Battery with key features. Power supply control circuit and 2 microprocessors independently control against overcharge. 3 microprocessor control against undercharge (false positive: Go for EVA) conditions. 2 independent channels provide functional redundancy. Capable of charge balancing cell banks in series. Cell manufacturing and performance uniformity is excellent with both designs. Once a few outliers are removed, LV cells are slightly more uniform than MoliJ cells. If cell balance feature of charger is ever invoked, it will be an indication of a significant degradation issue, not a nominal condition.

  10. Design of an onboard battery charger for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckford, Simon

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the design of an on-board battery charger for an electric car. There are already various battery charger units on the market. However, these are not specifically designed for this application, and consequently do not provide an ideal solution. Because these products are not specific to one application, and instead opt to cover a variety of briefs, they are not ideal. They also tend to be heavier and more expensive than if the charger was built specifically for one purpose. The main design considerations were that the charger should be compact and lightweight. It was also specified that the design should be able to operate using either the single-phase or three-phase AC supply. Before the design process for the battery charger could commence, it was necessary for the author to get an appreciation of power electronics, since he had no previous experience in the subject. The author focused his attention on areas of the subject most valuable to the project, including becoming familiar with the principle behind battery chargers. Once the required knowledge was obtained, the author could begin designing the charger. The majority of the design was actually undertaken using two software packages called MATLAB and Simulink, whilst also using the knowledge acquired. Regular discussions were had with the project team in order to ensure that the correct methodology was being used and a suitable design was duly developed. Possible further work was identified which could not be carried out within the time constraints of this project.

  11. Decentralized Multi-Charger Coordination for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Lei; You, Pengcheng; Cao, Xianghui; Song, Ye-Qiong; Chen, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Wireless charging is a promising technology for provisioning dynamic power supply in wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). The charging equipment can be carried by some mobile nodes to enhance the charging flexibility. With such mobile chargers (MCs), the charging process should simultaneously address the MC scheduling, the moving and charging time allocation, while saving the total energy consumption of MCs. However, the efficient solutions that jointly solve...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products with non-detachable batteries, that control power to the product itself. i. Multi-port charger... simultaneously. j. Multi-voltage a la carte charger means a separate battery charger that is individually... charger is connected to the power source. Disconnect the battery from the charger and record the power (i...

  13. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... world-wide to measure battery charger energy consumption--the EPA-developed procedure used for ENERGY..., DOE is inserting a new active mode energy consumption test procedure for battery chargers, which is... may not make any representation regarding battery charger or external power supply energy consumption...

  14. Design of a battery charger for the NASA EOS space platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Tom; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

    A battery charger design for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) space platform has been developed and tested. The authors discuss the design of the battery charger power state and its current and voltage control loops. In addition to restoring energy to the batteries, this charger regulates the spacecraft bus voltage during the posteclipse transition period. The battery charger design and analysis were facilitated by use of the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) switch model and the new continuous-time model for current-mode control. Analyses of the battery charger small-signal behavior are compared to hardware measurements to verify modeling accuracy.

  15. Design And Construction Of Microcontroller Based Solar Battery Charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Tun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing charging controlling and display unit.

  16. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  17. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  18. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  19. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  20. 75 FR 56021 - Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies: Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Statutory Authority II. History..., and preliminary results. II. History of Standards Rulemaking for Battery Chargers and External Power... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360c)'' or ``powers the charger of a detachable...

  1. Low wireless power transfer using Inductive Coupling for mobile phone charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareq, M.; Fitra, M.; Irwanto, M.; Hasan, Syafruddin; Arinal, M.

    2014-04-01

    A wireless power transfer (WPT) using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger is studied. The project is offer to study and fabricate WPT using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger that will give more information about distance is effect for WPT performance and WPT is not much influenced by the presence of hands, books and types of plastics. The components used to build wireless power transfer can be divided into 3 parts components, the transceiver for power transmission, the inductive coils in this case as the antenna, receiver and the rectifier which act convert AC to DC. Experiments have been conducted and the wireless power transfer using inductive coupling is suitable to be implemented for mobile phone charger.

  2. Wireless Charger Networking for Mobile Devices: Fundamentals, Standards, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao; Niyato, Dusit; Wang, Ping; Kim, Dong In; Han, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless charging is a technique of transmitting power through an air gap to an electrical device for the purpose of energy replenishment. Recently, the wireless charging technology has been significantly advanced in terms of efficiency and functionality. This article first presents an overview and fundamentals of wireless charging. We then provide the review of standards, i.e., Qi and Alliance for Wireless Power (A4WP), and highlight on their communication protocols. Next, we propose a novel...

  3. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... External Power Supplies.'' May 2009. Available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance... 12, 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/appliances/2008rulemaking/2008-AAER-1B/2008-11-19_BATTERY_CHARGER... cellular telephones and portable media players that frequently receive power and data from a personal...

  4. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... and industrial equipment, including battery chargers and external power supplies (EPSs). EPCA also... Manufacturers C. National Benefits II. Introduction A. Authority B. Background 1. Current Standards 2. History... Options B. Screening Analysis C. Engineering Analysis 1. Engineering Analysis for External Power Supplies...

  5. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabiao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequency tracking control electronics of wireless chargers to detect the distance between the two coils while using 4 small auxiliary coils for direction and fine adjustment, leading to a cost effective detection method for coil alignment in electric vehicle wireless charging (EVWC. The testing results of a prototype show acceptable measurement correctness and the mean error for ten trials in range detection is within 0.25 cm at three different misalignment conditions (10.5, 15, and 20 cm. The positioning accuracy of coil alignment is within 1.2 cm for three different start positions with the auxiliary coils.

  6. Single-Source Multi-Battery Solar Charger: Analysis and Stability Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Alon Kuperman; Moshe Sitbon; Shlomo Gadelovits; Moshe Averbukh; Teuvo Suntio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic analysis of a multi-battery dual mode charger, powered by a single solar array and suitable for lead-acid and lithium-ion cell-based batteries is presented. Each battery is interfaced to the solar array by means of a current-controlled buck power stage, operating either in constant power or constant voltage mode. Operation in former/latter charging mode implies regulating input/output voltage of the converter, which is a non-trivial situation since while feeding differe...

  7. Analysis and Design of Half-Bridge Series Resonant Converter for Non-Contact Battery Charger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Gyun; Park, Jong Hu; Cho, Bo Hyung [Seoul National University (Korea); Seo, Dong Hyun [Samsung Electro-Mechanics (Korea); You, Jung Sik [Hyosung Heavy Industry (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    A non-contact battery charger for cellular phone is designed using half-bridge series resonant converter. This converter utilizes series resonance to reduce the undesirable effect of large leakage inductance of the detachable transformer and ZVS operation can reduce switching loss and switching noise. In this paper, analysis and design procedure of half-bridge series resonant converter with detachable transformer is presented. The input voltage is 85VAC-270VAC, and the output voltage and current is 4.1V and 800mA, respectively. Furthermore, a method of calculating the secondary current of the transformer to control the battery charging current in the constant current charging mode is proposed. The performance of the charger is verified through experiments. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Isolated battery charger with unit power factor; Carregador de baterias isolado com fator de potencia unitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, Marcio Almeida

    1993-05-01

    This work presents a single phase, isolated AC/DC converter (Battery Charger) with active power factor correction in a single stage of power processing. the topology studied is the fed-current full-bridge, in boost mode operation, at fixed switching frequency. After a complete design of converter and simulations, the results of a 1.500 W e 50 kHz prototype are shown. a Unit Power Factor and Total Harmonic Distortion less than 5% were obtained. (author)

  9. Optimization of spacecraft battery charger/discharger systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sable, Daniel Mark

    1991-01-01

    This ,vork develops a methodology to facilitate the optimum design of spacecraft power processing systems. Em phasis is placed on the battery charge and discharge systems. A comparison of several battery charge and discharge topologies is presented. Characteristics \\vhich effect the overall system performance are addressed including size, weight, efficiency, dynamic performance, electromagnetic interference, and reliability. A detailed comparison, using nonlinear design opti...

  10. Approach to the implementation of linear-assisted-based battery chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-García Herminio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the proposal of a linear-assisted regulator or linear-&-switching hybrid regulator with a constant switching frequency. The control loop of the system is based on the current-mode technique. The main disadvantage of a regulator with current-mode control is the inherent instability of the loop when switch duty ratios are greater than 0.5. In order to make stable the proposed linear-assisted regulator, the article shows the technique based on a slope compensation. This kind of voltage regulators is especially devoted to battery chargers in renewable energy systems.

  11. Double Resonant Converter Topology with Fast Switching Semiconductors for Lead-Acid Battery Charger used in Hybrid Electric Locomotive

    OpenAIRE

    DE BERNARDINIS, A; BUTTERBACH, S; Lallemand, R.; JEUNESSE, A; Coquery, G.; AUBIN, PH

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the study and experimental validation of a 9 kW lead-acid battery charger used to feed the 72V DC-Bus inside an hybrid electric locomotive demonstrator realized in the frame of the French research project PLATHEE (energy-efficient and environmentally friendly train platform). The proposed topology for the battery charger is a DC/AC/DC step-down converter structure using high frequency transformer and a double resonant series-parallel dipole. Main advantages of this topolog...

  12. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  13. Photovoltaic High-Frequency Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery under Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic pulse charger (PV-PC using high-frequency pulse train for charging lead-acid battery (LAB is proposed not only to explore the charging behavior with maximum power point tracking (MPPT but also to delay sulfating crystallization on the electrode pores of the LAB to prolong the battery life, which is achieved due to a brief pulse break between adjacent pulses that refreshes the discharging of LAB. Maximum energy transfer between the PV module and a boost current converter (BCC is modeled to maximize the charging energy for LAB under different solar insolation. A duty control, guided by a power-increment-aided incremental-conductance MPPT (PI-INC MPPT, is implemented to the BCC that operates at maximum power point (MPP against the random insolation. A 250 W PV-PC system for charging a four-in-series LAB (48 Vdc is examined. The charging behavior of the PV-PC system in comparison with that of CC-CV charger is studied. Four scenarios of charging statuses of PV-BC system under different solar insolation changes are investigated and compared with that using INC MPPT.

  14. Single-Source Multi-Battery Solar Charger: Analysis and Stability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kuperman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic analysis of a multi-battery dual mode charger, powered by a single solar array and suitable for lead-acid and lithium-ion cell-based batteries is presented. Each battery is interfaced to the solar array by means of a current-controlled buck power stage, operating either in constant power or constant voltage mode. Operation in former/latter charging mode implies regulating input/output voltage of the converter, which is a non-trivial situation since while feeding different batteries, all the converters share the same input terminals, connected to the solar array. It is revealed that when at least one of the batteries operates in constant power charging mode, open-loop instability occurs whenever converter input voltage is lower than maximum power point voltage of the solar array. Consequently, input voltage regulating controller must be designed to stabilize closed-loop dynamics for the worst case of instability, which is also derived. Moreover, it is shown that the dynamics of the converters operating under output voltage control are perceived as disturbances by input voltage control loop and must be properly rejected. Simple loop shaping design is proposed based on a PI controller, allowing stabilizing the system in case of worst case instability and rejecting output voltage control induced disturbances at the expense of non-constant, operating-point dependent closed-loop damping.

  15. Battery charger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-08-23

    This includes a supervisory arrangement employing a pair of ferromagnetic cores enclosing the current carrying conductor, each with an operating winding in series and in opposition, connected across a rectifier bridge and in series also with a pulse generator. A voltage divider at the output is followed by a level detector and a switching amplifier and relay, while a feedback winding on each core is connected to the voltage divider. When current in the conductor fails, current through the operating winding reduces, and the detector will switch off the supply. If the current in the conductor reverses, the feedback windings prevent the cores from saturating, and the detector will not operate.

  16. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  17. Implementation of Four-Phase Interleaved Balance Charger for Series-Connected Batteries with Power Factor Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Y. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Lee, Y. L.; Chen, L. L.; Huang, M. L.

    2017-11-01

    A four-phase interleaved balance charger for series-connected batteries with power factor correction is proposed in this dissertation. In the two phases of two buckboost converters, the rectified ac power is firstly converted to a dc link capacitor. In the other two phases of two flyback converters, the rectified ac power is directly converted to charge the corresponding batteries. Additionally, the energy on the leakage inductance of flyback converter is bypassed to the dc link capacitor. Then, a dual-output balance charging circuit is connected to the dc link to deliver the dc link power to charge two batteries in the series-connected batteries module. The constant-current/constant-voltage charging strategy is adopted. Finally, a prototype of the proposed charger with rated power 500 W is constructed. From the experimental results, the performance and validity of the proposed topology are verified. Compared to the conventional topology with passive RCD snubber, the efficiency of the proposed topology is improved about 3% and the voltage spike on the active switch is also reduced. The efficiency of the proposed charger is at least 83.6 % within the CC/CV charging progress.

  18. A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium-ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor OPAMP Operational Amplifiers RMS Root, Mean, Square SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy... resistance in cells developed during repeated discharge and charge cycles, the voltage of individual Li-ion batteries in strings must be...cell shunting, resistive equalization, and transformer equalization. All of these methods rely on using either resistive means to dissipate energy

  19. Wireless Battery Management System of Electric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Rahman, Mizanur; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are being developed and considered as the future transportation to reduce emission of toxic gas, cost and weight. The battery pack is one of the main crucial parts of the electric vehicle. The power optimization of the battery pack has been maintained by developing a two phase evaporative thermal management system which operation has been controlled by using a wireless battery management system. A large number of individual cells in a battery pack have many wire terminations that are liable for safety failure. To reduce the wiring problem, a wireless battery management system based on ZigBee communication protocol and point-to-point wireless topology has been presented. Microcontrollers and wireless modules are employed to process the information from several sensors (voltage, temperature and SOC) and transmit to the display devices respectively. The WBMS multistage charge balancing system offering more effective and efficient responses for several numbers of series connected battery cells. The concept of double tier switched capacitor converter and resonant switched capacitor converter is used for reducing the charge balancing time of the cells. The balancing result for 2 cells and 16 cells are improved by 15.12% and 25.3% respectively. The balancing results are poised to become better when the battery cells are increased.

  20. A High-Density, High-Efficiency, Isolated On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger Utilizing Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, B; Barkley, A; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Martin, D; McNutt, TR; Lostetter, AB; Lee, JS; Shiozaki, K

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an isolated on-board vehicular battery charger that utilizes silicon carbide (SiC) power devices to achieve high density and high efficiency for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs). The proposed level 2 charger has a two-stage architecture where the first stage is a bridgeless boost ac-dc converter and the second stage is a phase-shifted full-bridge isolated dc-dc converter. The operation of both topologies is presented and the specific advantages gained through the use of SiC power devices are discussed. The design of power stage components, the packaging of the multichip power module, and the system-level packaging is presented with a primary focus on system density and a secondary focus on system efficiency. In this work, a hardware prototype is developed and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating both power stages with a switching frequency of 200 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.1 kW results in a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L and a gravimetric power density of 3.8 kW/kg when considering the volume and mass of the system including a case.

  1. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R. [Multiple Dynamics Corp., Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  2. A Wearable Wireless Energy Link for Thin-Film Batteries Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Monti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless charger for low capacity thin-film batteries is presented. The proposed device consists of a nonradiative wireless resonant energy link and a power management unit. Experimental data referring to a prototype operating in the ISM band centered at 434 MHz are presented and discussed. In more detail, in order to facilitate the integration into wearable accessories (such as handbags or suitcases, the prototype of the wireless energy link was implemented by exploiting a magnetic coupling between two planar resonators fabricated by using a conductive fabric on a layer of leather. From experimental data, it is demonstrated that, at 434 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 69.3%. As for the performance of the system as a whole, when an RF power of 7.5 dBm is provided at the input port, a total efficiency of about 29.7% is obtained. Finally, experiments performed for calculating the charging time for a low capacity thin-film battery demonstrated that, for RF input power higher than 6 dBm, the time necessary for recharging the battery is lower than 50 minutes.

  3. Integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on the split-phase PM motors for plug-in vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Haghbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on a split-phase permanent magnet (PM motor is presented and described for a plug-in vehicle. The motor windings are reconfigured by a relay for the traction and charging operation. In traction mode, the motor is like a normal three-phase motor, whereas in the charging mode, after windings reconnection, the system is a three-phase Boost rectifier. One important challenge to use the motor as three inductors in charger circuit is to have it in standstill during the battery charging. Based on the presented mathematical model of a split-phase PM motor, the zero-torque condition of the motor is explained which led to a proper windings reconnection for the charging. Simulation and experimental results of two separate practical systems are provided to verify the proposed integrated battery charger. Some practical limitations and design recommendations are provided to achieve a more realistic practical system.

  4. Pulse-Based Fast Battery IoT Charger Using Dynamic Frequency and Duty Control Techniques Based on Multi-Sensing of Polarization Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Di Yin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulse-based charging method for battery cells has been recognized as a fast and efficient way to overcome the shortcoming of a slow charging time in distributed battery cells, which is regarded as a connection of cells such as the Internet of Things (IoT. The pulse frequency for controlling the battery charge duration is dynamically controlled within a certain range in order to inject the maximum charge current into the battery cells. The optimal frequency is determined in order to minimize battery impedance. The adaptation of the proposed pulse duty and frequency decreases the concentration of the polarization by sensing the runtime characteristics of battery cells so that it guarantees a certain level of safety in charging the distributed battery cells within the operating temperature range of 5–45 °C. The sensed terminal voltage and temperature of battery cells are dynamically monitored while the battery is charging so as to adjust the frequency and duty of the proposed charging pulse method, thereby preventing battery degradation. The evaluation results show that a newly designed charging algorithm for the implemented charger system is about 18.6% faster than the conventional constant-current (CC charging method with the temperature rise within a reasonable range. The implemented charger system, which is based on the proposed dynamic frequency and duty control by considering the cell polarization, charges to about 80% of its maximum capacity in less than 56 min and involves a 13 °C maximum temperature rise without damaging the battery.

  5. GaN-Based High-Efficiency, High-Density, High-Frequency Battery Charger for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Lingxiao

    2015-01-01

    This work explores how GaN devices and advanced control can improve the power density of battery chargers for the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Gallium nitride (GaN) devices are used to increase switching frequency and shrink passive components. An innovative DC link reduction technique is proposed and several practical design issues are solved. A multi-chip-module (MCM) approach is used to integrate multiple GaN transistors into a package that enables fast, reliable, and efficient swi...

  6. Multi-hop wireless charging optimization in Low-Power Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rault, Tifenn; Bouabdallah, Abdelmadjid; Challal, Yacine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Recent advancements in wireless charging technology offer promising alternative to address the challenging problem of energy consumption in low-power networks. Based on these breakthroughs, existing solutions have investigated wireless charging strategies of low-power networks through the use of mobile chargers, where a charger has to come at the nodes' vicinity to recharge their battery. However, none of these works have considered the multihop energy transmission, wh...

  7. A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonardo M; Montez, Carlos; Moraes, Ricardo; Portugal, Paulo; Vasques, Francisco

    2017-02-22

    Energy consumption is a major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as nodes are powered by chemical batteries with an upper bounded lifetime. Estimating the lifetime of batteries is a difficult task, as it depends on several factors, such as operating temperatures and discharge rates. Analytical battery models can be used for estimating both the battery lifetime and the voltage behavior over time. Still, available models usually do not consider the impact of operating temperatures on the battery behavior. The target of this work is to extend the widely-used Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM) to include the effect of temperature on the battery behavior. The proposed Temperature-Dependent KiBaM (T-KiBaM) is able to handle operating temperatures, providing better estimates for the battery lifetime and voltage behavior. The performed experimental validation shows that T-KiBaM achieves an average accuracy error smaller than 0.33%, when estimating the lifetime of Ni-MH batteries for different temperature conditions. In addition, T-KiBaM significantly improves the original KiBaM voltage model. The proposed model can be easily adapted to handle other battery technologies, enabling the consideration of different WSN deployments.

  8. A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonardo M.; Montez, Carlos; Moraes, Ricardo; Portugal, Paulo; Vasques, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as nodes are powered by chemical batteries with an upper bounded lifetime. Estimating the lifetime of batteries is a difficult task, as it depends on several factors, such as operating temperatures and discharge rates. Analytical battery models can be used for estimating both the battery lifetime and the voltage behavior over time. Still, available models usually do not consider the impact of operating temperatures on the battery behavior. The target of this work is to extend the widely-used Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM) to include the effect of temperature on the battery behavior. The proposed Temperature-Dependent KiBaM (T-KiBaM) is able to handle operating temperatures, providing better estimates for the battery lifetime and voltage behavior. The performed experimental validation shows that T-KiBaM achieves an average accuracy error smaller than 0.33%, when estimating the lifetime of Ni-MH batteries for different temperature conditions. In addition, T-KiBaM significantly improves the original KiBaM voltage model. The proposed model can be easily adapted to handle other battery technologies, enabling the consideration of different WSN deployments. PMID:28241444

  9. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Bedir, Abdulkadir [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  10. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Celso; Myung, Sunghee; Lee, Sangkeum; Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-10

    Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level.

  11. All-SiC Inductively Coupled Charger with Integrated Plug-in and Boost Functionalities for PEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    So far, vehicular power electronics integration is limited to the integration of on-board battery chargers (OBC) into the traction drive system and sometimes to the accessory dc/dc converters in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). These integration approaches do not provide isolation from the grid although it is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections. This is therefore a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. Furthermore, there is no previous study that proposes the integration of wireless charger with the other on-board components. This study features a unique way of combining the wired and wireless charging functionalities with vehicle side boost converter integration and maintaining the isolation to provide the best solution to the plug-in electric vehicle users. The new topology is additionally compared with commercially available OBC systems from manufacturers.

  12. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  13. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  14. Power requirements and battery life measurement for wireless transmission between two nodes in different mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Karli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of the wireless sensor networks (WSN is to avoid wiring costs, be self-sustainable and be able to function for several years. However, due to the slow progress in battery technology, power continues to be a limited resource in wireless sensor communication and electric energy storage remains to be an important issue. On the other hand, if batteries must be replaced often, many remote sensing applications may become impractical. Therefore, batteries with long life on the order of several years are needed. This paper is an extension of work originally presented in The 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications to investigate further the power requirements for wireless data transfer between two nodes using batteries with different capacities (55 mAh, 550 mAh and 5500 mAh. In particular, the effect of a propagation medium such as air, distilled water and engine oil on the wireless communication inside a one meter long metallic pipe was investigated. Our first result shows a successful transmission of wireless signal through air, distilled water and oil medium with very low transmission losses. The second result shows that an increase in the battery capacity will increase the two-node wireless sensor operation time even in different propagation medium. This result can be used to determine the required battery capacity for extending the WSN operation time.

  15. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  16. A fully implantable pacemaker for the mouse: from battery to wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughner, Jacob I; Marrus, Scott B; Zellmer, Erik R; Weinheimer, Carla J; MacEwan, Matthew R; Cui, Sophia X; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice.

  17. Ferrite Loaded Coils for Improved Wireless Power Transfer Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    conditioned and then delivered to the battery charger or power plant. 3 Figure 2. Basic WPT concept diagram. While inductive power transfer is...testing. This was done in consideration of the maneuvering capabilities of astern- powered AUVs that lack advanced bow thrusters or other multi ...COILS FOR IMPROVED WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER EFFICIENCY by Seth J. Rosenberry September 2015 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader

  18. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting......In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  19. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  20. Enabling Wireless Power Transfer in Cellular Networks: Architecture, Modeling and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kaibin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave power transfer (MPT) delivers energy wirelessly from stations called power beacons (PBs) to mobile devices by microwave radiation. This provides mobiles practically infinite battery lives and eliminates the need of power cords and chargers. To enable MPT for mobile charging, this paper proposes a new network architecture that overlays an uplink cellular network with randomly deployed PBs for powering mobiles, called a hybrid network. The deployment of the hybrid network under an out...

  1. Constructing Battery-Aware Virtual Backbones in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ma

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in battery-powered sensor networks is to construct energy efficient virtual backbones for network routing. Recent study in battery technology reveals that batteries tend to discharge more power than needed and reimburse the over-discharged power if they are recovered. In this paper we first provide a mathematical battery model suitable for implementation in sensor networks. We then introduce the concept of battery-aware connected dominating set (BACDS and show that in general the minimum BACDS (MBACDS can achieve longer lifetime than the previous backbone structures. Then we show that finding a MBACDS is NP-hard and give a distributed approximation algorithm to construct the BACDS. The resulting BACDS constructed by our algorithm is at most (8+Δopt size, where Δ is the maximum node degree and opt is the size of an optimal BACDS. Simulation results show that the BACDS can save a significant amount of energy and achieve up to 30% longer network lifetime than previous schemes.

  2. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power... Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies'') and provide the appropriate docket number...

  3. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  4. Wearable Battery-free Wireless 2-channel EEG Systems Powered by Energy Scavengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke VAN BAVEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric generators worn on a person’s body have demonstrated their capability to power a variety of wireless sensor nodes that are to improve his/her health or comfort. In this article, the design, fabrication and performance of two prototypes of a battery-free wireless 2-channel electroencephalography (EEG system are presented. The first system is powered solely by a thermoelectric generator that produces 2-2.5mW of power and is worn as a headband. The second system resembles a diadem or headphones and uses a hybrid power supply that combines a thermoelectric generator and photovoltaic cells in one device. This portable EEG headset considerably improves the comfort of patients in clinical as well as in non-clinical environments and opens perspectives for a new range of non-clinical applications.

  5. Electromagnetic Interference Issues of A Wireless Power Transmission Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2018-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on the inductive charging to transfer electrical power from a source to batteries without any electrical interface. The main problem with them is that inductive charging technologies may have electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues caused by the leakage magnetic...... for each part of the inductive charger are presented. At the first, the lowest EMI technology for wireless charging is chosen and simulated. To overcome the EMI and leakage current problems, this paper also suggests using a new passive EMI filter topology. Simulation results show the necessity...

  6. Improved battery charger for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Polyphase version of single-phase "boost chopper" significantly reduces ripple and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Drive circuit of n-phase boost chopper incorporates n-phase duty-cycle generator; inductor, transistor, and diode compose chopper which can run on single-phase or three-phase alternating current or on direct current. Device retains compactness and power factors approaching unity, while improving efficiency.

  7. Assisting Patients with Disabilities to Actively Perform Occupational Activities Using Battery-Free Wireless Mice to Control Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Chang, Man-Ling; Kung, Ssu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    The latest studies have adopted software technology to turn the battery-free wireless mouse into a high performance object location detector using a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP). This study extended OLDP functionality to assess whether two patients recovering from cerebral vascular accidents would be able to actively…

  8. Highly efficient and compact bidirectional charger for E-mobility; Hoch effizientes und kompaktes bidirektionales Ladegeraet fuer die Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Bruno; Goeldi, Benriah; Reichert, Stefan; Schoenberger, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The increasing number of battery driven electric vehicles requires a wide range of charging possibilities. The key component for charging the battery is a charger in the car (on-board) or stationary - integrated in a charging station. The charging device connects the high voltage traction battery with the low voltage grid. Different technical approaches and different aspects have to be considered. A basic choice has to be made between an on-board or a stationary charging device and also whether to use a galvanic isolation or not. Within the Fraunhofer joint research project FSEM a transformerless, three-phase charger with highest efficiency and high power density was developed. (orig.)

  9. A Fully-Integrated Wireless System for Intracranial Direct Cortical Stimulation, Real-Time Electrocorticography Data Trasmission and Smart Cage for Wireless Battery Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco ePiangerelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface(BCI applications .Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG recording and cortical stimulation (CS. The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device,named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and , developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123. The inductively recharging cage is made of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solve the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull,providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS: 402-405 MHz. ECOGW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation.

  10. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  11. Bi-directional charger for electric vehicles as energy storage in the smart grid; Bidirektionales Ladegeraet fuer Elektrofahrzeuge als Energiespeicher im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosekeit, Martin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA); Lunz, Benedikt [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Juelich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). E.ON Energy Research Center; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Juelich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA); Doncker, Rik W. de [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). E.ON Energy Research Center

    2012-07-01

    One million electric vehicles shall be on the road in Germany until the year 2020. By using bidirectional chargers the vehicle batteries can be used as active elements in the electricity grid which results in huge electricity storage potentials. It can be shown that a bidirectional usage of vehicle batteries does not decrease their lifetime, even an increase in lifetime can be reached. Furthermore requirements on bidirectional chargers are summarized and compared to unidirectional topologies. With the example of an implemented prototype of a bidirectional charger practical aspects in design and experimental results are shown. (orig.)

  12. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  13. Energy Efficient Monitoring for Intrusion Detection in Battery-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hassanzadeh, Amin

    2011-07-18

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are easy-to-deploy, low cost solutions for providing networking and internet services in environments with no network infrastructure, e.g., disaster areas and battlefields. Since electric power is not readily available in such environments battery-powered mesh routers, operating in an energy efficient manner, are required. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of energy efficient solutions, e.g., involving duty-cycling, on WMN intrusion detection systems, which require continuous monitoring, remains an open research problem. In this paper we propose that carefully chosen monitoring mesh nodes ensure continuous and complete detection coverage, while allowing non-monitoring mesh nodes to save energy through duty-cycling. We formulate the monitoring node selection problem as an optimization problem and propose distributed and centralized solutions for it, with different tradeoffs. Through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept hardware/software implementation we demonstrate that our solutions extend the WMN lifetime by 8%, while ensuring, at the minimum, a 97% intrusion detection rate.

  14. Power-Management Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks and Similar Low-Power Communication Devices Based on Nonrechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnelo Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-known advantages of communication solutions based on energy harvesting, there are scenarios where the absence of batteries (supercapacitor only or the use of rechargeable batteries is not a realistic option. Therefore, the alternative is to extend as much as possible the lifetime of primary cells (nonrechargeable batteries. By assuming low duty-cycle applications, three power-management techniques are combined in a novel way to provide an efficient energy solution for wireless sensor networks nodes or similar communication devices powered by primary cells. Accordingly, a customized node is designed and long-term experiments in laboratory and outdoors are realized. Simulated and empirical results show that the battery lifetime can be drastically enhanced. However, two trade-offs are identified: a significant increase of both data latency and hardware/software complexity. Unattended nodes deployed in outdoors under extreme temperatures, buried sensors (underground communication, and nodes embedded in the structure of buildings, bridges, and roads are some of the target scenarios for this work. Part of the provided guidelines can be used to extend the battery lifetime of communication devices in general.

  15. Optimal Frequency of Silicon Carbide Power Correction Circuits for On-Board Chargers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Magnus Aune

    2016-01-01

    Compact high-efficiency power converters is a hot topic in electrical power engineering. So is also the case for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery chargers. Increasing the switching frequency in the power converters will reduce the size of passive components, but this also results in lower efficiency. The progress being made in wide bandgap semiconductors introduce possibilities for lower loss, and thus improved efficiency at higher switching frequencies. Silicon carbide is...

  16. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...... above the state of the art power converters. This is an unnecessary high consumption of electrical energy during charging, which not only affects the consumer financially, but also creates unnecessary load on the grid....

  17. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zumstein, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kovotsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puglia, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobley, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osswald, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolf, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaschmitter, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eaves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in highcapacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high-capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrated operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge-discharge cycling

  18. PSO based PI controller design for a solar charger system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).

  19. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Terng Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs.

  20. Development of Contact-Wireless Type Railcar by Lithium Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    OGIHARA, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Large lithium ion battery was developed for the running of railcar. Mn type lithium ion battery was used because of low cost and higher safety. LMP with high rechargeable performance were produced by large flame type spray pyrolysis. The laminate sheet type lithium ion cell was made using LMP. Various type large lithium ion battery modules consisted of submodule, in which laminate sheet type lithium ion cells were connected in series and parallel, were constructed. The running test of DC and ...

  1. An optimized electronic device for solar power harvesting dedicated to wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cam, Vincent; Le Maulf, Regis; Lemarchand, Laurent; Martin, William; Le Pen, Mathieu [LUNAM Univ., Bouguenais (France). IFSTTAR, MACS Dept.

    2012-07-01

    For economics as for practical reasons, this last decade, the use and dissemination of wireless sensor networks (WSN) became obvious; particularly in structural heath monitoring (SHM) use-cases where distances between sensors could be long and access to the structure quite difficult. Even if efforts are leaded to design small components and RF modules that ask for low-power, the need of an external source is often necessary. After have acquired knowledge in solar cells as in batteries technologies and methods to control charge/discharge phases as in optimizing algorithms, IFSTTAR laboratory has designed an electronic device that integrates those progress. This electronic device has a quite generic mission: for a panel of batteries chemistry (Lithium, NiMh) and a panel of solar cells sources (frome mW to some W), the system acts as an improved battery charger whatever the load ask for power. The system applies control algorithms based on battery capacity and chemistry profile. It also applies the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm. At any time, battery State Of Charge (SOC) can be requested via I2C bus as well as a warning signal is output when SOC becomes critical. Through standard pin connectors and a simple I2C interface, the system can be used by many wireless devices (sensors) that have to run autonomously. After the presentation of this system, a focus on its application on a real use-case will be given. (orig.)

  2. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  3. Wireless, battery-operated data acquisition system for mobile spectrometry applications and (potentially) for the Internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan; Karanassios, Vassili

    2017-05-01

    There are many applications requiring chemical analysis in the field and analytical results in (near) real-time. For example, when accidental spills occur. In others, collecting samples in the field followed by analysis in a lab increases costs and introduces time-delays. In such cases, "bring part of the lab to the sample" would be ideal. Toward this ideal (and to further reduce size and weight), we developed a relatively inexpensive, battery-operated, wireless data acquisition hardware system around an Arduino nano micro-controller and a 16-bit ADC (Analog-to- Digital Converter) with a max sampling rate of 860 samples/s. The hardware communicates the acquired data using low-power Bluetooth. Software for data acquisition and data display was written in Python. Potential ways of making the hardware-software approach described here a part of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) are presented.

  4. Implementation of Thermoelectric Generators in Airliners for Powering Battery-Free Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhac, Jean-Marie; Monthéard, Romain; Bafleur, Marise; Boitier, Vincent; Durand-Estèbe, Paul; Tounsi, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been considered for various aeronautical applications to perform sensing, data processing and wireless transmission of information, without the need to add extra wiring. However, each node of these networks needs to be self-powered. Considering the critical drawbacks associated with the use of electrochemical energy sources such as narrow operating temperature range and limited lifetime, environmental energy capture allows an alternative solution for long-term, deploy and forget, WSN. In this context, thermoelectricity is a method of choice considering the implementation context. In this paper, we present hands-on experience related to on-going implementations of thermoelectric generators (TEG) in airliners. In a first part, we will explain the reasons justifying the choice of ambient energy capture to power WSN in an aircraft. Then, we will derive the general requirements applying to the functional use of TEG. Finally, in the last section, we will illustrate the above issues through practical implementations.

  5. Fully implantable, battery-free wireless optoelectronic devices for spinal optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samineni, Vijay K; Yoon, Jangyeol; Crawford, Kaitlyn E; Jeong, Yu Ra; McKenzie, Kajanna C; Shin, Gunchul; Xie, Zhaoqian; Sundaram, Saranya S; Li, Yuhang; Yang, Min Young; Kim, Jeonghyun; Wu, Di; Xue, Yeguang; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Mickle, Aaron D; Banks, Anthony; Ha, Jeong Sook; Golden, Judith P; Rogers, John A; Gereau, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    The advent of optogenetic tools has allowed unprecedented insights into the organization of neuronal networks. Although recently developed technologies have enabled implementation of optogenetics for studies of brain function in freely moving, untethered animals, wireless powering and device durability pose challenges in studies of spinal cord circuits where dynamic, multidimensional motions against hard and soft surrounding tissues can lead to device degradation. We demonstrate here a fully implantable optoelectronic device powered by near-field wireless communication technology, with a thin and flexible open architecture that provides excellent mechanical durability, robust sealing against biofluid penetration and fidelity in wireless activation, thereby allowing for long-term optical stimulation of the spinal cord without constraint on the natural behaviors of the animals. The system consists of a double-layer, rectangular-shaped magnetic coil antenna connected to a microscale inorganic light-emitting diode (μ-ILED) on a thin, flexible probe that can be implanted just above the dura of the mouse spinal cord for effective stimulation of light-sensitive proteins expressed in neurons in the dorsal horn. Wireless optogenetic activation of TRPV1-ChR2 afferents with spinal μ-ILEDs causes nocifensive behaviors and robust real-time place aversion with sustained operation in animals over periods of several weeks to months. The relatively low-cost electronics required for control of the systems, together with the biocompatibility and robust operation of these devices will allow broad application of optogenetics in future studies of spinal circuits, as well as various peripheral targets, in awake, freely moving and untethered animals, where existing approaches have limited utility.

  6. Battery-Less 6LoWPAN-Based Wireless Home Automation by Use of Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Deokjai Choi; Ali Fahmi Perwira Negara; Ardiansyah Musa Efendi; Seungkyo Oh

    2013-01-01

    Being one of the current main technologies, wireless sensor network (WSN) is absolutely critical and plays an increasingly important role in the development of a wide range of data acquisition, processing, and control applications. One interesting challenge application of the WSNs is Internet-based home automation system. The rapid expansion of IPv6, moreover, after IETF defined 6LoWPAN as a technique to apply IPv6 into WSNs standard, added potential for Internet paradigm communication, contr...

  7. Short Range Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for UAV/UAS Battery Charging - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    RF Prime Power To Battery or Power Plant Rectifier, Filter, Power Conditioning Transmitting Antenna or Coil Power Station Rectenna Base Station...efficiency, etc. The receive side the antenna has an integrated rectifier, and is called a rectenna . Radiative systems operate at higher frequencies...GHz Rectenna ,” IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 46, No. 12, Dec 1998. [8] Tae-Whan Yoo and Kai Chang, “Theoretical and

  8. Wide Operating Voltage Range Fuel Cell Battery Charger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications require wide voltage range operation due to the unique fuel cell characteristic curve. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) is a boost derived topology for low voltage high current applications reaching an efficiency figure up to 98.2 %. Th...

  9. Elbilsladdare och batterier : Utmaningar och nyttor för elnätsbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicle chargers and batteries installed on the electrical grid have increased in the recent years. EV-chargers can increase the power needed in the grid while batteries give costumers new possibilities to control their own power consumption. This opens up a new situation where synergy between the utility and the costumers can be achieved. Less maximum power drawn from the grid allows the utility to use the power elsewhere while the costumers pay less for their electrical bill. This ...

  10. All-soft, battery-free, and wireless chemical sensing platform based on liquid metal for liquid- and gas-phase VOC detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gu; Alrowais, Hommood; Kim, Choongsoon; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Brand, Oliver

    2017-06-27

    Lightweight, flexible, stretchable, and wireless sensing platforms have gained significant attention for personal healthcare and environmental monitoring applications. This paper introduces an all-soft (flexible and stretchable), battery-free, and wireless chemical microsystem using gallium-based liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium alloy, EGaIn) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), fabricated using an advanced liquid metal thin-line patterning technique based on soft lithography. Considering its flexible, stretchable, and lightweight characteristics, the proposed sensing platform is well suited for wearable sensing applications either on the skin or on clothing. Using the microfluidic sensing platform, detection of liquid-phase and gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) is demonstrated using the same design, which gives an opportunity to have the sensor operate under different working conditions and environments. In the case of liquid-phase chemical sensing, the wireless sensing performance and microfluidic capacitance tunability for different dielectric liquids are evaluated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. In the case of gas-phase chemical sensing, PDMS is used both as a substrate and a sensing material. The gas sensing performance is evaluated and compared to a silicon-based, solid-state gas sensor with a PDMS sensing film.

  11. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system... importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or battery...

  12. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  13. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  14. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  15. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  16. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-05-03

    Utilization of public charging infrastructure is heavily dependent on user-specific travel behavior. The availability of fast chargers can positively affect the utility of battery electric vehicles, even given infrequent use. Estimated utilization rates do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery life. Battery thermal management systems are critical in mitigating dangerous thermal conditions on long distance tours with multiple fast charge events.

  17. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of...

  18. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  19. An Integrated Chip High-Voltage Power Receiver for Wireless Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijith Vijayakumaran Nair

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In near-field wireless-powered biomedical implants, the receiver voltage largely overrides the compliance of low-voltage power receiver systems. To limit the induced voltage, generally, low-voltage topologies utilize limiter circuits, voltage clippers or shunt regulators, which are power-inefficient methods. In order to overcome the voltage limitation and improve power efficiency, we propose an integrated chip high-voltage power receiver based on the step down approach. The topology accommodates voltages as high as 30 V and comprises a high-voltage semi-active rectifier, a voltage reference generator and a series regulator. Further, a battery management circuit that enables safe and reliable implant battery charging based on analog control is proposed and realized. The power receiver is fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage Bipolar-CMOS-DMOStechnology based on the LOCOS0.35-μm CMOS process. Measurement results indicate 83.5% power conversion efficiency for a rectifier at 2.1 mA load current. The low drop-out regulator based on the current buffer compensation and buffer impedance attenuation scheme operates with low quiescent current, reduces the power consumption and provides good stability. The topology also provides good power supply rejection, which is adequate for the design application. Measurement results indicate regulator output of 4 ± 0.03 V for input from 5 to 30 V and 10 ± 0.05 V output for input from 11 to 30 V with load current 0.01–100 mA. The charger circuit manages the charging of the Li-ion battery through all if the typical stages of the Li-ion battery charging profile.

  20. DC Fast Charger Usage in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This document will describe the use of a number of Direct Current Fast Charging Stations throughout Washington and Oregon as a part of of the West Coast Electric Highway. It will detail the usage frequency and location of the charging stations INL has data from. It will also include aggregated data from hundreds of privately owned vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project regarding driving distance when using one of the West Coast Electric Highway fast chargers. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  1. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  2. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  3. Architectural innovation foresight of thermoelectric generator charger integrated portable power supply for portable consumer electronic device in metropolitan market: The case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maolikul, S.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Chavarnakul, T.

    2012-06-01

    In the context of information and communication technology (ICT) trend for worldwide individuals, social life becomes digital and portable consumer electronic devices (PCED) powered by conventional power supply from batteries have been evolving through miniaturization and various function integration. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) were hypothesized for its potential role of battery charger to serve the shining PCED market. Hence, this paper, mainly focusing at the metropolitan market in Thailand, aimed to conduct architectural innovation foresight and to develop scenarios on potential exploitation approach of PCED battery power supply with TEG charger converting power from ambient heat source adjacent to individual's daily life. After technical review and assessment for TEG potential and battery aspect, the business research was conducted to analyze PCED consumer behavior for their PCED utilization pattern, power supply lack problems, and encountering heat sources/sinks in 3 modes: daily life, work, and leisure hobbies. Based on the secondary data analysis from literature and National Statistical Office of Thailand, quantitative analysis was applied using the cluster probability sampling methodology, statistically, with the sample size of 400 at 0.05 level of significance. In addition, the qualitative analysis was conducted to emphasize the rationale of consumer's behavior using in-depth qualitative interview. Scenario planning technique was also used to generate technological and market trend foresight. Innovation field and potential scenario for matching technology with market was proposed in this paper. The ingredient for successful commercialization of battery power supply with TEG charger for PCED market consists of 5 factors as follows: (1) PCED characteristic, (2) potential ambient heat sources/sinks, (3) battery module, (4) power management module, and the final jigsaw (5) characteristic and adequate arrangement of TEG modules. The foresight outcome for

  4. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  5. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...... storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series connected medium voltage batteries with a nominal power of 5MVA to act as a battery charger/discharger....

  6. fractionation of lead-acid battery soil amended with biochar 36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    has the potential to increase soil water holding capacity, surface sorption and base saturation when added to soil. The soil was characterized before and after amending by standard method. The parent soil used for this study was collected from lead–acid battery chargers' workshop. The physico-chemical properties of the ...

  7. Optimal Battery Charging, Part 1: Minimizing Time-to-Charge, Energy Loss, and Temperature Rise for OCV-Resistance Battery Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    Petchjatuporn, N. Khaehintung, K. Sunat, P. Sirisuk, W. Kiranon, Imple- mentation of GA-trained GRNN for intelligent fast charger for Ni-Cd batteries, Power ...Ni/MH batteries, J. Power Sources (September 2004) 180e185. [21] T. Ikeya, N. Sawada, S. Takagi, J. Murakami, K. Kobayashi, et al., Multi -step constant...for Block 13 ARO Report Number Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2015 . Published in Journal of Power Sources, Vol. , (). DoD Components reserve a

  8. Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…

  9. 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer Battery for the Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Wilburn, Monique; Hall, Dan; Roth, Peter; Das Gupta, Sankar; Jacobs, Jim; Bhola, Rakesh; Milicic, Gordan; Vandemeer, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Consider a new battery design for EMU. Results: a) Electrovaya s aerospace cell production line is improving, but must further improve to achieve acceptable reliability; b) Completed functional, vibration, and thermal cycling of LIB; c) So far, electrical safety tests have produced good results; d) Completed functional, vibration, thermal cycling, power quality and EMI of LIB Charger; e) Completed CDR on 9/23/04; and f) Manufacturing Readiness Review for flight cell/battery production scheduled for Dec 04.

  10. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  11. Comparison of a synergetic battery pack drive system to a pulse width modulated AC induction motor drive for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Eaves, S.S. [Eaves Devices, Charlestown, RI (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and as a battery charger. In this paper, the performance of a Synergetic Battery Pack during motor drive operation is compared via computer simulation with a conventional motor drive which uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to determine its effectiveness as a motor drive. The study showed that the drive efficiency was compatible with the conventional system, and offered a significant advantage in the lower frequency operating ranges. The voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of the SBP was significantly lower than the PWM drive output, but the current THD was slightly higher due to the shape of the harmonic spectrum. In conclusion, the SBP is an effective alternative to a conventional drive, but the real advantage lies in its battery management capabilities and charger operation.

  12. An electrostatic CMOS/BiCMOS Lithium ion vibration-based harvester-charger IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Erick Omar

    Self-powered microsystems, such as wireless transceiver microsensors, appeal to an expanding application space in monitoring, control, and diagnosis for commercial, industrial, military, space, and biomedical products. As these devices continue to shrink, their microscale dimensions allow them to be unobtrusive and economical, with the potential to operate from typically unreachable environments and, in wireless network applications, deploy numerous distributed sensing nodes simultaneously. Extended operational life, however, is difficult to achieve since their limited volume space constrains the stored energy available, even with state-of-the-art technologies, such as thin-film lithium-ion batteries (Li Ion) and micro-fuel cells. Harvesting ambient energy overcomes this deficit by continually replenishing the energy reservoir and, as a result, indefinitely extending system lifetime. In this work, an electrostatic harvester that harnesses ambient kinetic energy from vibrations to charge an energy-storage device (e.g., a battery) is investigated, developed, and evaluated. The proposed harvester charges and holds the voltage across a vibration-sensitive variable capacitor so that vibrations can induce it to generate current into the battery when capacitance decreases (as its plates separate). The challenge is that energy is harnessed at relatively slow rates, producing low output power, and the electronics required to transfer it to charge a battery can easily demand more than the power produced. To this end, the system reduces losses by time-managing and biasing its circuits to operate only when needed and with just enough energy while charging the capacitor through an efficient quasi-lossless inductor-based precharger. As result, the proposed energy harvester stores a net energy gain in the battery during every vibration cycle. Two energy-harvesting integrated circuits (IC) were analyzed, designed, developed, and validated using a 0.7-im BiCMOS process and a 30-Hz

  13. Energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design for wireless smart sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Huang, Xiongchuan; Wang, Chao; Tae-Hyoung Kim, Tony; Lian, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless smart sensing is now widely used in various applications such as health monitoring and structural monitoring. In conventional wireless sensor nodes, significant power is consumed in wirelessly transmitting the raw data. Smart sensing adds local intelligence to the sensor node and reduces the amount of wireless data transmission via on-node digital signal processing. While the total power consumption is reduced compared to conventional wireless sensing, the power consumption of the digital processing becomes as dominant as wireless data transmission. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design techniques for reducing the power consumption of the wireless smart sensor node to prolong battery life and enable self-powered applications.

  14. Soft-switched quasi-single-stage (QSS) bi-directional inverter/charger

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    A soft-switched single-phase quasi-single-stage (QSS) bi-directional inverter/charger converts AC-DC or DC-AC. The inverter/charger comprises a push-pull inverter/rectifier on the dc-side, an isolation transformer which provides ohmic isolation and voltage scaling, two full-bridges on the ac side in cascade, a voltage clamp branch comprising a capacitive energy storage element in series with an active switch with its anti-parallel diode, a passive filter at the ac side to smooth out the high ...

  15. A Survey of Power Source Options for a Compact Battery Charger for Soldier Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Stirling engine was invented in 1816 and has, in the past, been developed for refrigeration , heat pumps, and more recently, space applications...using radioisotopes. The Stirling is defined as a closed- cycle regenerative heat engine with a gaseous working fluid. “Closed- cycle ” means the working...energies than competing technologies. Many internal combustion engines may be roughly classified on the basis of their use of the “Otto cycle ” with a

  16. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  17. Wireless Power for Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless power transfer allows a convenient, easy to use battery charging of mobile phones and other mobile devices. No hassle with cables and plugs, just place the device on a pad and that’s it. Such asystem even has the potential to become a standard charging solution. Where are the limits for

  18. Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Vuckovic, Dusan; Di Mauro, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Energy Harvesting comprises a promising solution to one of the key problems faced by battery-powered Wireless Sensor Networks, namely the limited nature of the energy supply (finite battery capacity). By harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, the sensors can have a continuous lifetime...... Sensor Networks with energy harvesting capability....... without any needs for battery recharge or replacement. However, energy harvesting introduces a change to the fundamental principles based on which WSNs are designed and realized. In this poster we sketch some of the key research challenges as well as our ongoing work in designing and realizing Wireless...

  19. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  20. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  1. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  2. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  3. Advanced Wireless Sensor Nodes - MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Richeson, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    NASA field center Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, AL), has invested in advanced wireless sensor technology development. Developments for a wireless microcontroller back-end were primarily focused on the commercial Synapse Wireless family of devices. These devices have many useful features for NASA applications, good characteristics and the ability to be programmed Over-The-Air (OTA). The effort has focused on two widely used sensor types, mechanical strain gauges and thermal sensors. Mechanical strain gauges are used extensively in NASA structural testing and even on vehicle instrumentation systems. Additionally, thermal monitoring with many types of sensors is extensively used. These thermal sensors include thermocouples of all types, resistive temperature devices (RTDs), diodes and other thermal sensor types. The wireless thermal board will accommodate all of these types of sensor inputs to an analog front end. The analog front end on each of the sensors interfaces to the Synapse wireless microcontroller, based on the Atmel Atmega128 device. Once the analog sensor output data is digitized by the onboard analog to digital converter (A/D), the data is available for analysis, computation or transmission. Various hardware features allow custom embedded software to manage battery power to enhance battery life. This technology development fits nicely into using numerous additional sensor front ends, including some of the low-cost printed circuit board capacitive moisture content sensors currently being developed at Auburn University.

  4. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  5. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  6. Possible fire hazard caused by mismatching electrical chargers with the incorrect device within the operating room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, Martin

    2012-02-03

    It has come to our attention that numerous devices that need charging adaptors during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have similar charging sockets but different voltage requirements. This has caused one of our devices in the operating theater to overheat and completely shut down when connected to an incorrect higher-voltage charger. The possibility of fire, device destruction, or patient harm in such circumstances is of serious concern.

  7. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Methods Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (i.e. albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1–5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. Results At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~ 0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1 % w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. Conclusions The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs. PMID:25823649

  8. AC Resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to primary power frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Harold

    1982-01-01

    An AC resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a PFN, is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase AC power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  9. Ac resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to preimary power requency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1979-12-07

    An ac resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a pulse forming network (PFN), is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase ac power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  10. Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization for Radio Frequency Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke-Han; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey; Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Wu, Zong-Syun

    2017-08-20

    This paper investigates how to efficiently charge sensor nodes in a wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN) with radio frequency (RF) chargers to make the network sustainable. An RF charger is assumed to be equipped with a uniform circular array (UCA) of 12 antennas with the radius λ, where λ is the RF wavelength. The UCA can steer most RF energy in a target direction to charge a specific WRSN node by the beamforming technology. Two evolutionary algorithms (EAs) using the evolution strategy (ES), namely the Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization (EBO) algorithm and the Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization Reseeding (EBO-R) algorithm, are proposed to nearly optimize the power ratio of the UCA beamforming peak side lobe (PSL) and the main lobe (ML) aimed at the given target direction. The proposed algorithms are simulated for performance evaluation and are compared with a related algorithm, called Particle Swarm Optimization Gravitational Search Algorithm-Explore (PSOGSA-Explore), to show their superiority.

  11. Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization for Radio Frequency Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke-Han; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey; Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Wu, Zong-Syun

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how to efficiently charge sensor nodes in a wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN) with radio frequency (RF) chargers to make the network sustainable. An RF charger is assumed to be equipped with a uniform circular array (UCA) of 12 antennas with the radius λ, where λ is the RF wavelength. The UCA can steer most RF energy in a target direction to charge a specific WRSN node by the beamforming technology. Two evolutionary algorithms (EAs) using the evolution strategy (ES), namely the Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization (EBO) algorithm and the Evolutionary Beamforming Optimization Reseeding (EBO-R) algorithm, are proposed to nearly optimize the power ratio of the UCA beamforming peak side lobe (PSL) and the main lobe (ML) aimed at the given target direction. The proposed algorithms are simulated for performance evaluation and are compared with a related algorithm, called Particle Swarm Optimization Gravitational Search Algorithm-Explore (PSOGSA-Explore), to show their superiority. PMID:28825648

  12. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  13. Perancangan Rangkaian Charger Telepon Seluler Dengan Sumber Catuan Handset Lain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wahyudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kecenderungan setiap orang yang ingin melakukan segala sesuatu dengan praktis dan mudah, menyebabkan munculnya keinginan untuk tidak mau dibatasi oleh tempat dan waktu dalam melakukan aktivitas. Demikian pula dalam hal mencatu baterai handphone, akan lebih praktis jika bisa mencatu listrik baterai handphone yang lemah (low battery tanpa harus bergantung pada ketersediaan sumber arus PLN. Alat yang dirancang dalam penelitian ini digunakan  untuk mencatu handphone tanpa melalui sumber PLN. Rangkaian utama alat ini terdiri dari 3 bagian utama, yaitu multivibrator astabil, voltage quadrupler dan voltage regulation. Rangkaian multivibrator astabil ini akan menghasilkan tegangan keluaran AC yang digunakan sebagai input rangkaian voltage quadrupler agar bisa bekerja. Rangkaian voltage quadrupler ini akan mengalikan  4 kali dari tegangan input yang masuk, sehingga tegangan keluaran (Vout menjadi 4 kali tegangan masukan (Vin. Hasil akhir dari alat yang sudah dibuat belum memuaskan karena hanya bisa mencatu 1 jenis handset yaitu Nokia seri 8210 dengan efisiensi yang rendah. Untuk kedepannya alat ini bisa dikembangkan lagi dengan menaikkan nilai arus, dengan menggunakan penguatan transistor. Transistor yang digunakan harus memiliki karakteristik nilai hfe yang tinggi dan tegangan DC yang kecil.

  14. A FACTS Based Hybrid Filter Compensator (HFC) for H2V Battery Charging Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Elbakush, E.; Sharaf, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a robust low impact FACTS based filter compensation scheme for V2H Battery chargers to, improve the power quality, reduce total harmonic distortion, decrease AC and DC inrush currents, and ensure effective Ac and DC Common bus voltage stabilization. The Neutral point Facts Filter Compensation Schemer (NP-HFC) ensures effective decoupling of the AC-DC Sides and minimal impact of inrush currents during fast charging modes. In the same time, the novel FACTS device ensures effi...

  15. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  16. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  17. Open-WiSe: A Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Network Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Edwards; Alberto Ochoa; Pedro Saldaña; Walter Mata; Raúl Aquino; Apolinar González

    2012-01-01

    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSI...

  18. Lower Extremity Tissue Defect Caused by Mobile Phone Charger Explosion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif DURAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: As the usage of cell phones is markedly increasing worldwide, accidental injuries and even lethal damages caused by cellular phone explosions have been reported lately. Although, cell phone charger explosion related scalding and tissue loss is extremely rare, they generally cause severe damage to tissues and cause severe complications, ending up in hospitalization. We are presenting a case of 9-year old female patient who was admitted to our emergency service due to a phone charger explosion that resulted in a lower extremity tissue defect. ÖZET: Cep telefonu kullanımı dünya çapında belirgin bir şekilde arttıkça, yaralanmaların, hatta ölümcül hasarların olduğu kazalar son zamanlarda bildirilmiştir. Her ne kadar cep telefonu şarj aleti patlaması ile ilgili yanık ve doku kaybı oldukça nadir olsa da, komşu dokularda ciddi hasar yapıp problem oluşturabilirler. Bu yazıda, cep telefonu şarj aleti patlamasına bağlı alt ekstremitede doku defekti ile acil servise başvuran dokuz yaşında bir kız çocuğu olgusu sunuldu. Key words: Charger, explosion, tissue defect, Anahtar sözcükler: Şarj aleti, patlama, doku defekti

  19. Open-WiSe: a solar powered wireless sensor network platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Apolinar; Aquino, Raúl; Mata, Walter; Ochoa, Alberto; Saldaña, Pedro; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSIX Real-Time Kernel. A sleep and wake up strategy was implemented to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. This platform was developed as a tool for researchers investigating Wireless sensor network or system integrators.

  20. Design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    This technical report presents the design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters. The power stage is based on a half bridge series resonant converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). This simple and robust topology allows obtaining a current source behavior with a low switching losses power stage. The associated control stage is implemented using a commercial controller which has differenti nternal circuits that allows a high integration of the converter control system. The report presents the design and tuning criteria for the DC-DC converter, including the power stage and the control system.

  1. Design and Implementation of Battery Management System for Electric Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the electric vehicle (EV has been developed in such a way that electronic motor, battery, and charger replace the engine, tank and gasoline pump of the conventional gasoline-powered [1]. In other word, instead of using fossil fuel to move the vehicle, in this case we used a pack of batteries to move it. The global climate change and the abnormal rising international crude oil prices call for the development of EV [2]. To solve these problems, a new energy needs to be developed or optimized in order to replace the current energy which is fossil fuel. A clean and green energy [2]. Because of this, it is very important to make sure that the battery that being used is reliable as the fossil fuel. Thus, the design of the battery management system plays an important role on battery life preservation and performance improvement of EV [3]. The BMS also performs many tasks including the measurement of system voltage, current and temperature, the cells’ state of charge (SOC, state of health (SOH, remaining useful life (RUL determination, controlling and monitoring the charge / discharge characteristics and cell balancing [3]. For this project, 18650 Lithium-Ion battery is used to develop battery management for 144V 50Ah. As lithium-ion batteries have high value of specific energy, high energy density, high open circuit voltage, and low self-discharge, they are a proper candidate for EVs among other cell chemistries [4].

  2. Energy-efficient adaptive wireless network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides quality of service (QoS) support for diverse

  3. Smart Systems Integration for Autonomous Wireless Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danesh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of sensors and wireless transceivers for system networking aims at emerging applications that are highly integrated, self-powered, and low cost, relying on efficient power management schemes to prolong lifetime, thus eliminating the need for batteries as a limited primary source of

  4. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  5. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  6. Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  7. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  8. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...

  9. Wireless Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  10. Matching of Energy Provisions in Multihop Wireless Infra-Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Teng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important issue. Emerging applications of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT, and emergency responses highly rely on the basic communication network infrastructures that enable ubiquitous network connections. However, energy consumption by nodes in a wireless infrastructure network depends on the transmissions of other nodes in the network. Considering this inter-dependence is necessary to achieve efficient provision of energy in wireless networks. This paper studies the issue of energy provision for wireless relay nodes in Wireless Multihop Infrastructures (WMI assuming constraints on the total energy provision. We introduce a scheme of Energy Provision Matching (Matching-EP for WMI which optimizes energy provision based on matching of energy provision with estimates of differentiated position-dependent energy consumption by wireless nodes distributed in the network. The evaluation results show that Matching-EP with 4%–34% improvement in energy matching degree enables 10%–40% improvement of the network lifetime, and 5%–40% improvement of packet delivery compared with conventional WMI networks.

  11. Micro controlled system used in the control and in the monitoring of batteries bank; Sistema microcontrolado usado no controle e monitoracao de banco de baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacorso, Nelso Gauze

    1991-09-01

    The development of a closed loop micro controlled based system for battery charging, monitoring charge and discharge, and even more, detecting structure failures is presented. The control algorithm is emphasized, being applied a charging method which uses voltage, current and temperature information. The objective of using this control technique is the design of a high performance battery charger, allowing the longest battery life possible, in reliable UPS applications. A prototype has been built and laboratory tested. Experimental results, developed program routines and the system circuits are included. (author)

  12. Paintable battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary...

  13. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  14. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility and safety design of a patient compliance-free, inductive implant charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Michael P; Mollov, Stefan V

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the design of a domestic, radiofrequency induction charger for implants toward compliance with the Federal Communications Commission safety and electromagnetic compatibility regulations. The suggested arrangement does not impose any patient compliance requirements other than the use of a designated bed for night sleep, and therefore can find a domestic use. The method can be applied to a number of applications; a rechargeable pacemaker is considered as a case study. The presented work has proven that it is possible to realize a fully compliant inductive charging system with minimal patient interaction, and has generated important information for consideration by the designers of inductive charging systems. Experimental results have verified the validity of the theoretical findings.

  16. Indoor Wireless RF Energy Transfer for Powering Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Visser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For powering wireless sensors in buildings, rechargeable batteries may be used. These batteries will be recharged remotely by dedicated RF sources. Far-field RF energy transport is known to suffer from path loss and therefore the RF power available on the rectifying antenna or rectenna will be very low. As a consequence, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna will also be very low. By optimizing not only the subsystems of a rectenna but also taking the propagation channel into account and using the channel information for adapting the transmit antenna radiation pattern, the RF energy transport efficiency will be improved. The rectenna optimization, channel modeling and design of a transmit antenna are discussed.

  17. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  18. Wireless power transfer via radiowaves

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara , Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technologies have enabled various engineering applications with potential product implementation. WPT can be utilized to charge batteries in various pieces of equipment without the need for a wired connection. Energy can be harvested from ambient RF and microwave radiation and 1 million kW microwaves can be transmitted from space to the ground.This book covers all the theory and technologies of WPT, such as microwave generators with semi-conductors and microwave tubes, antennas, phased arrays, beam efficiency, and rectifiers (rectenna). The

  19. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  20. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  1. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    New traffic sensing devices based on wireless sensing technologies were designed and tested. Such devices encompass a cost-effective, battery-free, and energy self-sustained architecture for real-time traffic measurement over distributed points in a ...

  2. Wireless energy supply to public transport units with hybrid drive – trends and challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igors Graurs; Aleksandrs Vizulis; Aivars Rubenis; Aigars Laizāns

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial findings of research project “The Possibilities of Increasing Efficiency of City Bus Hybrid Propulsion Systems by Including Wireless Battery Charging” carried out by „LEO Research Centre...

  3. A Sepic Type Switched Mode Power Supply System For Battery Charging In An Electric Tricycle Auto-Rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the plug-in electric tricycle Auto rickshaw battery charging system using a non-isolated DC-DC SEPIC converter which operates as a switched mode power supply SMPS. The control of dc voltage output is by varying the gating pulses duty cycle of the switch in the dc-dc converter using PID controller based PWM technique. The 60 V 30 A DC-DC SEPIC converter is designed to provide non-inverting voltage buck from the rectified AC mains for charging deep cycle battery bank in an electric auto rickshaw. The charger system is implemented using MATLABSimulink.

  4. DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs Controlled by a Local Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    is equipped with a bidirectional AC/DC converter for feeding power back to the grid, two lithium batteries and a DC/DC converter. The proposed solution decreases the charging time of EVs and facilitates the integration of fast chargers in existing low voltage (LV) grids. The charging station can also be used...... of EVs and their charging systems are going through a series of changes. This paper addresses the design of a new DC Fast Charging Station (DCFCS) for EVs coupled with a local Battery Energy Storage (BES) by using the IEC 15118, which provides a communication interface among different actors. DCFCS...

  5. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  6. Optimal Installation for Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging Lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Ushijima-Mwesigwa, Hayato; Khan, MD Zadid; Chowdhury, Mashrur A; Safro, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Range anxiety, the persistent worry about not having enough battery power to complete a trip, remains one of the major obstacles to widespread electric-vehicle adoption. As cities look to attract more users to adopt electric vehicles, the emergence of wireless in-motion car charging technology presents itself as a solution to range anxiety. For a limited budget, cities could face the decision problem of where to install these wireless charging units. With a heavy price tag, an installation wi...

  7. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  8. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    /actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully......Miniature Body Area Networks used in health care support greater mobility to patients and reduces actual hospitalization. This paper presents the preliminary implementation of a wireless body area network gateway. It is designed to implement the gateway functionality between sensors...... tested for electrocardio- gram data collection, and using wireless communication in a battery powered configuration....

  9. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  10. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    following a common strategy. Wireless devices share their resources (i.e. radio link, antenna, battery, processing unit, etc.) during cooperation using the short-range technology as the underlying communication platform. The amount of data exchanged over the short-range link diers from application...... to application. In some situations the short-range communication is not used at all in case all mobile devices have a predefined mutual understanding of their cooperativeness. The main reason of cooperation is threefold: first, the limit capability of wireless devices can be virtually enhanced by cooperation...... networks. An energy saving cooperative strategy for DVB-H in ii Abstract networks is designed as a primary attempt to illustrate the potential of cooperation application for multicast services. Furthermore, a cooperative retrans-mission scheme is proposed for reliable multicast service in wireless network...

  11. Design and implementation of a generic energy-harvesting framework applied to the evaluation of a large-scale electronic shelf-labeling wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerman Ad; De Mil Pieter; Jooris Bart; Tytgat Lieven; Catteeuw Ruben; Moerman Ingrid; Demeester Piet

    2010-01-01

    Most wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of battery-powered nodes and are limited to hundreds of nodes. Battery replacement is a very costly operation and a key factor in limiting successful large-scale deployments. The recent advances in both energy harvesters and low-power communication systems hold promise for deploying large-scale wireless green-powered sensor networks (WGSNs). This will enable new applications and will eliminate environmentally unfriendly battery disposal. This pape...

  12. Battery-Aware Scheduling of Mixed Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    Wireless systems such as satellites and sensor networks are often battery-powered. To operate optimally they must therefore take the performance properties of real batteries into account. Additionally, these systems, and therefore their batteries, are often exposed to loads with uncertain timings....... Mixed criticality and soft real-time systems may accept deadline violations and therefore enable trade-offs and evaluation of performance by criteria such as the number of tasks that can be completed with a given battery. We model a task set in combination with the kinetic battery model as a stochastic...... model we also calculate an upper bound on the attainable number of task instances from a battery, and we provide a battery-aware scheduler that wastes no energy on instances that are not guaranteed to make their deadlines....

  13. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  14. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  15. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  16. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  17. Data retrieval time for energy harvesting wireless sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitici, M.A.; Goseling, Jasper; de Graaf, Maurits; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of retrieving a reliable estimate of an attribute monitored by a wireless sensor network, where the sensors harvest energy from the environment independently, at random. Each sensor stores the harvested energy in batteries of limited capacity. Moreover, provided they have

  18. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  19. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many wireless technologies are already available for sensor applications. It is inevitable that many non-interoperable wireless technologies between 400 MHz and 5.8...

  20. Toward Reliable and Energy Efficient Wireless Sensing for Space and Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Baek-Young; Boyd, Darren; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is the critical challenge of wireless sensing in space systems operating in extreme environments. Energy efficiency is another concern for battery powered wireless sensors. Considering the physics of wireless communications, we propose an approach called Software-Defined Wireless Communications (SDC) that dynamically decide a reliable channel(s) avoiding unnecessary redundancy of channels, out of multiple distinct electromagnetic frequency bands such as radio and infrared frequencies.We validate the concept with Android and Raspberry Pi sensors and pseudo extreme experiments. SDC can be utilized in many areas beyond space applications.

  1. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  2. Community Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Harold

    2005-01-01

    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  3. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-09-15

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller's direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20-40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  4. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkai Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs. However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN controller’s direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20–40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  5. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller’s direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20–40% while ensuring feasible data delay. PMID:28914816

  6. Cooperative MIMO technology in multiple hops wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-03-01

    The limited lifetime is one of the important factors restricted wireless sensor networks (WSNs), when possible, wireless nodes often operate with small batteries, while battery replacement is a very difficult and expensive. So the nodes must work long hours in the case of no battery replacement. Therefore, in WSNs, minimizing energy consumption is an important design consideration, at the same time, the transmission strategies of energy efficiency must be used for data forwarding. This paper, using cooperative multiple input multiple output(MIMO) technology combined with multiple hops technology, has put forward a new transmission model, i.e., the MIMO-MISO(multi-input multi-output)/MIMO-MIMO model. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed MIMO-MISO/MIMO-MIMO to minimize energy consumption of each node every node for multi-hop WSNs, to save a great deal of energy for a larger transmission distance, which makes the life of the entire network be extended.

  7. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  8. Wireless sensors powered by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantaram, Avinash; Beyenal, Haluk; Raajan, Raaja; Veluchamy, Angathevar; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring parameters characterizing water quality, such as temperature, pH, and concentrations of heavy metals in natural waters, is often followed by transmitting the data to remote receivers using telemetry systems. Such systems are commonly powered by batteries, which can be inconvenient at times because batteries have a limited lifetime and must be recharged or replaced periodically to ensure that sufficient energy is available to power the electronics. To avoid these inconveniences, a microbial fuel cell was designed to power electrochemical sensors and small telemetry systems to transmit the data acquired by the sensors to remote receivers. The microbial fuel cell was combined with low-power, high-efficiency electronic circuitry providing a stable power source for wireless data transmission. To generate enough power for the telemetry system, energy produced by the microbial fuel cell was stored in a capacitor and used in short bursts when needed. Since commercial electronic circuits require a minimum 3.3 V input and our cell was able to deliver a maximum of 2.1 V, a DC-DC converter was used to boost the potential. The DC-DC converter powered a transmitter, which gathered the data from the sensor and transmitted it wirelessly to a remote receiver. To demonstrate the utility of the system, temporal variations in temperature were measured, and the data were wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver.

  9. The Wireless ATM Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palitefka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the proposed wireless ATM structure is provided. Wireless communication have been developed to a level where offered services can now be extended beyond voice and data. There are already wireless LANs, cordless systems offering data services and mobile data. Wireless LAN systems are basically planned for local, on-promises and in-house networking providing short distance radio or infrared links between computer system. The main challenge of wireless ATM is to harmonise the development of broadband wireless system with service B -ISDN/ATM and ATM LANs, and offer multimedia multiservice features for the support of time-sensitive voice communication, video, desktop multimedia applications, and LAN data traffic for the wireless user.

  10. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  11. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  12. Ambient Data Collection with Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Limin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications for wireless sensor networks (WSNs is Data Collection, where sensing data are collected at sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. Since using battery powers and wireless communications, sensor nodes can be very small and easily attached at specified locations without disturbing surrounding environments. This makes WSN a competitive approach for data collection comparing with its wired counterpart. In this paper, we review recent advances in this research area. We first highlight the special features of data collection WSNs, by comparing with wired data collection network and other WSN applications. With these features in mind, we then discuss issues and prior solutions on the data gathering protocol design. Our discussion also covers different approaches for message dissemination, which is a critical component for network control and management and greatly affects the overall performance of a data collection WSN system.

  13. Magnetically coupled resonance wireless charging technology principles and transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Wan, Jian; Ma, Yinping

    2017-05-01

    With the tenure of Electric-Vehicle rising around the world, the charging methods have been paid more and more attention, the current charging mode mainly has the charging posts and battery swapping station. The construction of the charging pile or battery swapping station not only require lots of manpower, material costs but the bare conductor is also easy to generate electric spark hidden safety problems, still occupies large space. Compared with the wired charging, wireless charging mode is flexible, unlimited space and location factors and charging for vehicle safety and quickly. It complements the traditional charging methods in adaptability and the independent charge deficiencies. So the researching the wireless charging system have an important practical significance and application value. In this paper, wireless charging system designed is divided into three parts: the primary side, secondary side and resonant coupling. The main function of the primary side is to generate high-frequency alternating current, so selecting CLASS-E amplifier inverter structure through the research on full bridge, half-bridge and power amplification circuit. Addition, the wireless charging system is susceptible to outside interference, frequency drift phenomenon. Combined with the wireless energy transmission characteristics, resonant parts adopt resonant coupling energy transmission scheme and the Series-Series coupling compensation structure. For the electric vehicle charging power and voltage requirements, the main circuit is a full bridge inverter and Boost circuit used as the secondary side.

  14. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  15. A Wireless Self-Powered Urinary Incontinence Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ami; Utsunomiya, Fumiyasu; Douseki, Takakuni

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor system consisting of a urine-activated coin battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The urine-activated battery makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit and a 1-V surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillator reduce the power dissipation of a wireless transmitter. The SAW oscillator quickly responds to the on-off control of the power supply, which is suitable for intermittent operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, the authors fabricated a prototype sensor system. When the volume of urine is 0.2 ml, the battery outputs a voltage of over 1.3 V; and the sensor system can transmit signals over a distance of 5 m.

  16. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  17. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack TIMOFTE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  18. Wireless security in mobile health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats.

  19. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  20. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  1. Wireless remote monitoring of critical facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Anderson, John T.; Liu, Yung Y.

    2016-12-13

    A method, apparatus, and system are provided for monitoring environment parameters of critical facilities. A Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) apparatus is provided for monitoring environment parameters of critical facilities. The RAMM apparatus includes a battery power supply and a central processor. The RAMM apparatus includes a plurality of sensors monitoring the associated environment parameters and at least one communication module for transmitting one or more monitored environment parameters. The RAMM apparatus is powered by the battery power supply, controlled by the central processor operating a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform when the facility condition is disrupted. The RAMM apparatus includes a housing prepositioned at a strategic location, for example, where a dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance.

  2. Laser Direct Writing and Selective Metallization of Metallic Circuits for Integrated Wireless Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinguang; Lv, Chao; Watanabe, Akira

    2018-01-10

    Portable and wearable devices have attracted wide research attention due to their intimate relations with human daily life. As basic structures in the devices, the preparation of high-conductive metallic circuits or micro-circuits on flexible substrates should be facile, cost-effective, and easily integrated with other electronic units. In this work, high-conductive carbon/Ni composite structures were prepared by using a facile laser direct writing method, followed by an electroless Ni plating process, which exhibit a 3-order lower sheet resistance of less than 0.1 ohm/sq compared to original structures before plating, showing the potential for practical use. The carbon/Ni composite structures exhibited a certain flexibility and excellent anti-scratch property due to the tight deposition of Ni layers on carbon surfaces. On the basis of this approach, a wireless charging and storage device on a polyimide film was demonstrated by integrating an outer rectangle carbon/Ni composite coil for harvesting electromagnetic waves and an inner carbon micro-supercapacitor for energy storage, which can be fast charged wirelessly by a commercial wireless charger. Furthermore, a near-field communication (NFC) tag was prepared by combining a carbon/Ni composite coil for harvesting signals and a commercial IC chip for data storage, which can be used as an NFC tag for practical application.

  3. Development of a miniaturised drug delivery system with wireless power transfer and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Tang, T B; Terry, J G; Stevenson, J T M; Flynn, B W; Reekie, H M; Murray, A F; Gundlach, A M; Renshaw, D; Dhillon, B; Ohtori, A; Inoue, Y; Walton, A J

    2007-10-01

    The development of an implantable system designed to deliver drug doses in a controlled manner over an extended time period is reported. Key performance parameters are the physical size, the power consumption and also the ability to perform wireless communications to enable the system to be externally controlled and interrogated. The system has been designed to facilitate wireless power transfer, which is very important for miniaturisation as it removes the need for a battery.

  4. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Hansen, Finn Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    /actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully...... tested for electro-cardio-gram data collection, and using wireless communication in a battery powered configuration....

  5. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hang; Semenikhin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al-NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ˜10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design.

  6. Strategy and criteria for deployment of high speed chargers - Part 1; Strategi og kriteriesett for utplassering av hurtigladere - Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This report was commissioned by Transnova, as a part of their commitment to the electrification of road transport. The project has been conducted by Poeyry and Architect Harald N. Roestvik in close cooperation with representatives of Transnova and Vegdirektoratet. In addition, a number of external experts provided information during the process. The first part of the report describes a strategy and a set of criteria for the deployment of fast charging stations. The purpose of this section is to find out how many charging points are needed and where they should be placed. The second part describes the possible business models for providers of quick chargers. This section is intended to give some ideas to those who are interested in running high speed charging, and evaluate opportunities for commercial operations.(auth)

  7. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  8. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  9. The benefits of soft sensor and multi-rate control for the implementation of Wireless Networked Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, Raul K; Godoy, Eduardo P; Porto, Arthur J V

    2014-12-18

    Recent advances in wireless networking technology and the proliferation of industrial wireless sensors have led to an increasing interest in using wireless networks for closed loop control. The main advantages of Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCSs) are the reconfigurability, easy commissioning and the possibility of installation in places where cabling is impossible. Despite these advantages, there are two main problems which must be considered for practical implementations of WNCSs. One problem is the sampling period constraint of industrial wireless sensors. This problem is related to the energy cost of the wireless transmission, since the power supply is limited, which precludes the use of these sensors in several closed-loop controls. The other technological concern in WNCS is the energy efficiency of the devices. As the sensors are powered by batteries, the lowest possible consumption is required to extend battery lifetime. As a result, there is a compromise between the sensor sampling period, the sensor battery lifetime and the required control performance for the WNCS. This paper develops a model-based soft sensor to overcome these problems and enable practical implementations of WNCSs. The goal of the soft sensor is generating virtual data allowing an actuation on the process faster than the maximum sampling period available for the wireless sensor. Experimental results have shown the soft sensor is a solution to the sampling period constraint problem of wireless sensors in control applications, enabling the application of industrial wireless sensors in WNCSs. Additionally, our results demonstrated the soft sensor potential for implementing energy efficient WNCS through the battery saving of industrial wireless sensors.

  10. The Benefits of Soft Sensor and Multi-Rate Control for the Implementation of Wireless Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Mansano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networking technology and the proliferation of industrial wireless sensors have led to an increasing interest in using wireless networks for closed loop control. The main advantages of Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCSs are the reconfigurability, easy commissioning and the possibility of installation in places where cabling is impossible. Despite these advantages, there are two main problems which must be considered for practical implementations of WNCSs. One problem is the sampling period constraint of industrial wireless sensors. This problem is related to the energy cost of the wireless transmission, since the power supply is limited, which precludes the use of these sensors in several closed-loop controls. The other technological concern in WNCS is the energy efficiency of the devices. As the sensors are powered by batteries, the lowest possible consumption is required to extend battery lifetime. As a result, there is a compromise between the sensor sampling period, the sensor battery lifetime and the required control performance for the WNCS. This paper develops a model-based soft sensor to overcome these problems and enable practical implementations of WNCSs. The goal of the soft sensor is generating virtual data allowing an actuation on the process faster than the maximum sampling period available for the wireless sensor. Experimental results have shown the soft sensor is a solution to the sampling period constraint problem of wireless sensors in control applications, enabling the application of industrial wireless sensors in WNCSs. Additionally, our results demonstrated the soft sensor potential for implementing energy efficient WNCS through the battery saving of industrial wireless sensors.

  11. Passive wireless strain monitoring of tire using capacitance change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2004-07-01

    In-service strain monitoring of tires of automobile is quite effective for improving the reliability of tires and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). Since conventional strain gages have high stiffness and require lead wires, the conventional strain gages are cumbersome for the strain measurements of the tires. In a previous study, the authors proposed a new wireless strain monitoring method that adopts the tire itself as a sensor, with an oscillating circuit. This method is very simple and useful, but it requires a battery to activate the oscillating circuit. In the present study, the previous method for wireless tire monitoring is improved to produce a passive wireless sensor. A specimen made from a commercially available tire is connected to a tuning circuit comprising an inductance and a capacitance as a condenser. The capacitance change of tire causes change of the tuning frequency. This change of the tuned radio wave enables us to measure the applied strain of the specimen wirelessly, without any power supply from outside. This new passive wireless method is applied to a specimen and the static applied strain is measured. As a result, the method is experimentally shown to be effective as a passive wireless strain monitoring of tires.

  12. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  13. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  14. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  15. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-08-23

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  16. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. PMID:28832509

  17. Wireless communication with chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Peng; Baptista, Murilo S; Grebogi, Celso

    2013-05-03

    The modern world fully relies on wireless communication. Because of intrinsic physical constraints of the wireless physical media (multipath, damping, and filtering), signals carrying information are strongly modified, preventing information from being transmitted with a high bit rate. We show that, though a chaotic signal is strongly modified by the wireless physical media, its Lyapunov exponents remain unaltered, suggesting that the information transmitted is not modified by the channel. For some particular chaotic signals, we have indeed proved that the dynamic description of both the transmitted and the received signals is identical and shown that the capacity of the chaos-based wireless channel is unaffected by the multipath propagation of the physical media. These physical properties of chaotic signals warrant an effective chaos-based wireless communication system.

  18. Energy storage and the environment: the role of battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Batteries can store energy in a clean, convenient and efficient manner. Battery-powered electric vehicles are expected to contribute to a cleaner environment. In today's world, batteries are used everywhere: in electronic watches, pocket calculators, flashlights, toys, radios, tape recorders, cameras, camcorders, laptop computers, cordless telephones, paging devices, hearing aids, heart pacers, instruments, detectors, sensors, memory back-up devices, drug dispensing, wireless tools, toothbrushes, razors, stationary emergency power equipment, automobile starters, electric vehicles, boats, submarines, airplanes and satellites. Worldwide, about 15 billion primary batteries, and well over 200 million starter batteries are produced per year. What is the impact of this widespread use of batteries on the environment? What role can battery technology play in order to reduce undue effects on the environment? Since this paper is presented at a lead/acid battery conference, the discussion refers, in particular, to this system. The following aspects are covered: (i) the three "E" criteria that are applicable to batteries: Energy, Economics, Environment; (ii) service life and environment; (iii) judicious use and service life; (iv) recycling.

  19. Interference Cancellation for Coexisting Wireless Data and Power Transmission in the Same Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Keita; Sugiyama, Yusuke; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Saruwatari, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Combining wireless transmission of data and power signals enables wireless sensor networks to drive perpetually without changing batteries. To achieve the simultaneous data and power transmission, the present paper proposes power signal interference cancellation for wireless data and power transmission at the same time in the same frequency. We evaluate the performance of the proposed power signal interference cancellation using Universal Software Radio Peripheral N200 (USRP N200) software defined radio. Evaluations show that the proposed interference cancellation is feasible to receive data while transmitting power.

  20. A Survey on Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, T. D. P.; Jayakody, D. N. K.; De, S.; Ivanov, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study related to simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in different types of wireless communication setups. Harvesting energy using SWIPT is an appealing solution in the context of extending battery life of wireless devices for a fully sustainable communication system. Strong signal power increases power transfer, but also causes more interference in information transfer, causing realization of the SWIPT challenging problem. This article provides an overview of technical evolution of SWIPT. A survey and qualitative comparison of the existing SWIPT schemes is provided to demonstrate their limitations in the current and 5G networks. Open challenges are emphasized and guidelines are provided to adapt the existing schemes in order to overcome these limitations and make them fit for integrating with the modern and emerging next generation communication networks, such as 5G systems.

  1. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  2. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  3. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  4. A Piezoelectric Passive Wireless Sensor for Monitoring Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiyue; Ferri, Paul N.; Hogan, Ben; Mazzeo, Aaron D.; Hull. Patrick V.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in passive wireless sensing has grown over the past few decades to meet demands in structural health monitoring.(Deivasigamani et al., 2013; Wilson and Juarez, 2014) This work describes a passive wireless sensor for monitoring strain, which does not have an embedded battery or chip. Without an embedded battery, the passive wireless sensor has the potential to maintain its functionality over long periods in remote/harsh environments. This work also focuses on monitoring small strain (less than 1000 micro-?). The wireless sensing system includes a reader unit, a coil-like transponder, and a sensing unit. It operates in the Megahertz (MHz) frequency range, which allows for a few centimeters of separation between the reader and sensing unit during measurements. The sensing unit is a strain-sensitive piezoelectric resonator that maximizes the energy efficiency at the resonance frequency, so it converts nanoscale mechanical variations to detectable differences in electrical signal. In response to an external loading, the piezoelectric sensor breaks from its original electromechanical equilibrium, and the resonant frequency shifts as the system reaches a new balanced equilibrium. In this work, the fixture of the sensing unit is a small, sticker-like package that converts the surface strain of a test material to measurable shifts in resonant frequencies. Furthermore, electromechanical modeling provides a lumped-parameter model of the system to describe and predict the measured wireless signals of the sensor. Detailed characterization demonstrates how this wireless sensor has resolution comparable to that of conventional wired strain sensors for monitoring small strain.

  5. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  6. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  7. Optical and wireless technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Ghanshyam; Minzioni, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents selected papers from 1st International Conference on Optical and Wireless Technologies, providing insights into the analytical, experimental, and developmental aspects of systems, techniques, and devices in these spheres. It explores the combined use of various optical and wireless technologies in next-generation networking applications, and discusses the latest developments in applications such as photonics, high-speed communication systems and networks, visible light communication, nanophotonics, and wireless and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The book will serve as a valuable reference resource for academics and researchers across the globe.

  8. Advantages in energy efficiency of flooded lead-acid batteries when using partial state of charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büngeler, Johannes; Cattaneo, Eduardo; Riegel, Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Today lead acid batteries are the most commonly used energy storage technology in material handling systems. Evaluation methods for the energy efficiency of forklifts, traction batteries and chargers have gained in relevance in this field. Generally, representative cycles are used to determine the energy efficiency in order to avoid multiple long lasting cycle live tests. At first glance this seems to be the adequate approach. However, for electrochemical storage systems with significant side reactions - like lead acid batteries - this procedure leads, to significantly lower values for energy efficiencies than in real life applications. While these battery systems need some overcharging to reach fully charged state, an overcharge is not necessary at every charge/discharge cycle. We report on results obtained with flooded lead acid batteries demonstrating that with a management strategy which includes operation in a partial state of charge, energy efficiencies of about 0.87 can be reached with minimal impact on lifetime. The usage of a typical representative cycle leads to an efficiency value of 0.77 with active electrolyte circulation respectively 0.70 without. We were able to identify the so called 'hard sulfation' of the negative plates as the major failure mode of insufficiently charged batteries.

  9. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  10. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  11. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  12. Development of wireless sensor network for landslide monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi; Puranto, Prabowo; Adinanta, Hendra; Tohari, Adrin; Priambodo, Purnomo S.

    2017-05-01

    A wireless sensor network has been developed to monitor soil movement of some observed areas periodically. The system consists of four nodes and one gateway which installed on a scope area of 0.2 Km2. Each of nodehastwo types of sensor,an inclinometer and an extensometer. An inclinometer sensor is used to measure the tilt of a structure while anextensometer sensor is used to measure the displacement of soil movement. Each of nodeisalso supported by awireless communication device, a solar power supply unit, and a microcontroller unit called sensor module. In this system, there is also gateway module as a main communication system consistinga wireless communication device, power supply unit, and rain gauge to measure the rainfall intensity of the observed area. Each sensor of inclinometer and extensometer isconnected to the sensor module in wiring system but sensor module iscommunicating with gateway in a wireless system. Those four nodes are alsoconnectedeach other in a wireless system collecting the data from inclinometer and extensometer sensors. Module Gateway istransmitting the instruction code to each sensor module one by one and collecting the data from them. Gateway module is an important part to communicate with not only sensor modules but also to the server. This wireless system wasdesigned toreducethe electric consumption powered by 80 WP solar panel and 55Ah battery. This system has been implemented in Pangalengan, Bandung, which has high intensity of rainfall and it can be seen on the website.

  13. ANALYSIS RESOURCE AWARE FRAMEWORK BY COMBINING SUNSPOT AND IMOTE2 PLATFORM WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS USING DISTANCE VECTOR ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas Syarif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency energy and stream data mining on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are a very interesting issue to be discussed. Routing protocols technology and resource-aware can be done to improve energy efficiency. In this paper we try to merge routing protocol technology using routing Distance Vector and Resource-Aware (RA framework on heterogeneity wireless sensor networks by combining sun-SPOT and Imote2 platform wireless sensor networks. RA perform resource monitoring process of the battery, memory and CPU load more optimally and efficiently. The process uses Light-Weight Clustering (LWC and Light Weight Frequent Item (LWF. The results obtained that by adapting Resource-Aware in wireless sensor networks, the lifetime of wireless sensor improve up to ± 16.62%. Efisiensi energi dan stream data mining pada Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN adalah masalah yang sangat menarik untuk dibahas. Teknologi Routing Protocol dan Resource-Aware dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi energi. Dalam penelitian ini peneliti mencoba untuk menggabungkan teknologi Routing Protocol menggunakan routing Distance Vector dan Resource-Aware (RA framework pada Wireless Sensor Networks heterogen dengan menggabungkan sun-SPOT dan platform Imote2 Wireless Sensor Networks. RA melakukan proses pemantauan sumber daya dari memori, baterai, dan beban CPU lebih optimal dan efisien. Proses ini menggunakan Light-Weight Clustering (LWC dan Light Weight Frequent Item (LWF. Hasil yang diperoleh bahwa dengan mengadaptasi Resource-Aware dalam Wireless Sensor Networks, masa pakai wireless sensor meningkatkan sampai ± 16,62%.

  14. Measuring the Benefits of Public Chargers and Improving Infrastructure Deployments Using Advanced Simulation Tools: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Neubauer. Jeremy; Burton, Evan

    2015-02-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed BLAST-V -- the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high-resolution spatial-temporal travel histories enables BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper presents simulation outputs from BLAST-V that quantify the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing Level 2 EVSE are also used as an input to BLAST-V. The resulting vehicle utility is compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios. Discussion focuses on the estimated number of Level 2 stations necessary to substantially increase vehicle utility and how stations can be strategically sited to maximize their potential benefit to prospective electric vehicle owners.

  15. Energy-efficient data acquisition by adaptive sampling for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Jin meifang, J.; Hanselmann, Thomas; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Guizani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are well suited for environment monitoring. However, some highly specialized sensors (e.g. hydrological sensors) have high power demand, and without due care, they can exhaust the battery supply quickly. Taking measurements with this kind of sensors can also overwhelm

  16. Sensors on speaking terms: Schedule-based medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks make the previously unobservable, observable. The basic idea behind these networks is straightforward: all wires are cut in traditional sensing systems and the sensors are equipped with batteries and radio's to virtually restore the cut wires. The resulting sensors can be

  17. Poster Abstract : Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Hybrid Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warriach, Ehsan; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco; Tel, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment experiences show that data collected is prone to be imprecise and faulty due to internal and external influences, such as battery drain, environmental interference, sensor aging. An early detection of such faults is necessary for the effective operation of

  18. Development of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicles (EVs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehen P.M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery Management Systems (BMS is an electronic devices component, which is a vital fundamental device connected between the charger and the battery of the hybrid or electric vehicle (EV systems. Thus, BMS significantly enable for safety protection and reliable battery management by performing of monitoring charge control, state evaluation, reporting the data and functionalities cell balancing. To date, 97.1% of Malaysian CO2 emissions are mainly caused by transportation activities and the numbers will keep rising as numbers of registered car increase close up to 1 million yearly; double the amounts in the last two decades. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to predict the extended range of EVs, which need BMS implementation of optimization of optimum power management. Hence, using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is one of the potential methods of BMS optimization with power generated by Hybrid Energy Storage system of lithium-ion battery. Therefore, this paper address through reviewing previous literatures initially focuses on the BMS optimization for EVs (car in Malaysia as prognostic technology model improvement on performance management of EVs.

  19. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum Corporation has demonstrated the feasibility in the Phase I of " A Wireless Sensor Portal Technology" and proposes a Phase II effort to develop a wireless...

  20. Evolution of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    Mobile and wireless content, services and networks - Short-term and long-term development trends......Mobile and wireless content, services and networks - Short-term and long-term development trends...

  1. Versatile Wireless Data Net Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R&D is to develop a wireless data networking capability. A prototype capability will result from the Phase 1 and 2 contracts. The Versatile Wireless...

  2. Preliminary validation of a new magnetic wireless blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    In general, a blood pump must be small, have a simple configuration, and have sufficient hydrodynamic performance. Herein, we introduce new mechanisms for a wireless blood pump that is small and simple and provides wireless and battery-free operation. To achieve wireless and battery-free operation, we implement magnetic torque and force control methods that use two external drivers: an external coil and a permanent magnet with a DC-motor, respectively. Power harvesting can be used to drive an electronic circuit for wireless monitoring (the observation of the pump conditions and temperature) without the use of an internal battery. The power harvesting will be used as a power source to drive other electronic devices, such as various biosensors with their driving circuits. To have both a compact size and sufficient pumping capability, the fully magnetic impeller has five stages and each stage includes four backward-curved blades. The pump has total and inner volumes of 20 and 9.8 cc, respectively, and weighs 52 g. The pump produces a flow rate of approximately 8 L/min at 80 mm Hg and the power generator produces 0.3 W of electrical power at 120 Ω. The pump also produces a minimum flow rate of 1.5 L/min and a pressure of 30 mm Hg for circulation at a maximum distance of 7.5 cm. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  3. The Impact of Rechargeable Batteries: Quantifying the Cost and Weight for a Marine Infantry Battalion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Suitcase Portable Charger (SPC), Vehicle- Mounted Charger (VMC), Solar Portable Power System (SPACES) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 16. PRICE CODE 17...45 APPENDIX E. MANUFACTURER’S DATA ON THE SUITCASE PORTABLE CHARGER...and Evaluation ROI Return on Investment xiv SDC Secondary Destination Charge SPACES Solar Portable Alternative Communications Energy System SPC

  4. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  5. Batteries and accumulators: everything you always wanted to know. Batteries, accumulators and the environment - questions and answers; Batterien und Akkus - Das wollten Sie wissen.. Fragen und Antworten zu Batterien, Akkus und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuthold, S.; Minkos, A. (comps.)

    2006-07-15

    Batteries and accumulators are part of our everyday life. This brochure answers problems related to their use and disposal, chargers and charging. Starter batteries for motor vehicles are left out of account, as are special batteries e.g. for electric fences or lights on building sites. The brochure also explains the legal fundamentals for disposal of batteries and provides information on environmental problems relating to production and disposal. Frequently asked questions are answered on the final pages. [German] Batterien und Akkus begleiten unseren Alltag. Solange sie die noetige mobile Versorgung ermoeglichen, sind sie gern gesehen. Versagen sie ihren Dienst, beginnen die Probleme: Wohin mit der leeren Batterie, dem nicht mehr funktionsfaehigen Akku (Keinesfalls in den Hausmuell.)? Welches ist das richtige Ladegeraet und das richtige Ladeverfahren fuer den Akku? Zu diesen und anderen Fragen rund um Geraetebatterien und -akkus gibt diese Broschuere Auskunft. Nicht betrachtet werden hier allerdings Starterbatterien (z.B. fuer Autos und Motorraeder) und bestimmte Spezialbatterien (z.B. fuer Weidezaeune oder Baustellenlampen), die einen Sonderfall darstellen. Die Broschuere erlaeutert auch die gesetzlichen Grundlagen fuer die Entsorgung unbrauchbarer Batterien und Akkus und gibt Informationen zur Umweltbelastung durch Herstellung und Entsorgung. Am Ende der Broschuere werden haeufig gestellte Fragen und deren Antworten zusammengestellt.

  6. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  7. Wireless physical layer security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F

    2017-01-03

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  8. Wireless Technology Development: History, Now, and Then

    OpenAIRE

    Lusiana Citra Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless technology is one of many technologies that can enable people to communicate with each other by air medium, or rather you can say by radio frequency. This paper discusses about history of wireless technology, different kinds of wireless connection, wireless technology standards, and a few comparisons of different kinds of world’s wireless technology standards. Besides discussing about history about wireless technology and wireless technology that we can use nowadays, this paper also ...

  9. A Heterogeneous Wireless Identification Network for the Localization of Animals Based on Stochastic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Raos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the transmission range in wireless applications without the use of batteries remains a significant challenge in identification applications. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous wireless identification network mostly powered by kinetic energy, which allows the localization of animals in open environments. The system relies on radio communications and a global positioning system. It is made up of primary and secondary nodes. Secondary nodes are kinetic-powered and take advantage of animal movements to activate the node and transmit a specific identifier, reducing the number of batteries of the system. Primary nodes are battery-powered and gather secondary-node transmitted information to provide it, along with position and time data, to a final base station in charge of the animal monitoring. The system allows tracking based on contextual information obtained from statistical data.

  10. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  11. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  12. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  13. Pervasive wireless environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Trappe, Wade; Cheng, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides a new approach to prevent user spoofing by using the physical properties associated with wireless transmissions to detect the presence of user spoofing. The most common method, applying cryptographic authentication, requires additional management and computational power that cannot be deployed consistently. The authors present the new approach by offering a summary of the recent research and exploring the benefits and potential challenges of this method. This brief discusses the feasibility of launching user spoofing attacks and their impact on the wireless and sen

  14. Wireless telecommunication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terré, Michel; Vivier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Wireless telecommunication systems generate a huge amount of interest. In the last two decades, these systems have experienced at least three major technological leaps, and it has become impossible to imagine how society was organized without them. In this book, we propose a macroscopic approach on wireless systems, and aim at answering key questions about power, data rates, multiple access, cellular engineering and access networks architectures.We present a series of solved problems, whose objective is to establish the main elements of a global link budget in several radiocommunicati

  15. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  16. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  17. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  18. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    without dendrite formation. The SONY corporation used the LiCoO2/carbon battery to power their initial cellular telephone and launched the wireless revolution. As researchers developed 3D transition-metal hosts, manufacturers introduced spinel and olivine hosts in the Lix[Mn2]O4 and LiFe(PO4) cathodes. However, current Li-ion batteries fall short of the desired specifications for electric-powered automobiles and the storage of electrical energy generated by wind and solar power. These demands are stimulating new strategies for electrochemical cells that can safely and affordably meet those challenges.

  19. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy ...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....... consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...

  20. Thermoelectric energy harvesting as a wireless sensor node power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C.; Davidson, J.

    2010-04-01

    Size and power requirements of wireless sensor nodes are gradually decreasing and this has allowed data collection across a range of spatial and temporal ranges. These nodes have power requirements that often necessitate batteries as an energy source. As the power requirements decrease for these sensors, alternative energy sources become more attractive. One such technology is thermal energy harvesting. Thermal energy harvesting requires a differential temperature between a heat source and a cool sink. As heat energy flows from source to the sink, energy can be harvested and utilized to power sensor nodes. By exploiting the temperature difference between a sun-warmed plate and a heat sink immersed in water, electrical energy can be harvested. The proposed concept utilizes a thermoelectric device to convert solar energy into electrical power. Initial experiments were carried out at the CSIRO Energy Centre for a variety of winter time intervals in 2009, with peak power outputs in the order of 50mW. Results indicate such a system could power a wireless sensor node continuously at ocean, lake and river water interfaces. We are presently in the process of evaluating the concept by powering a CSIRO FleckTM wireless node to transmit water temperature and battery voltage data.

  1. Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in the design and applications of wirelessly networked and embedded sensors. Wireless sensor nodes are typically low-cost, low-power, small devices equipped with limited sensing, data processing and wireless communication capabilities, as well as power supplies. They leverage the concept of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, in which a large (possibly huge number of collaborative sensor nodes could be deployed. As an outcome of the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics, WSNs represent a significant improvement over traditional sensors. In fact, the rapid evolution of WSN technology has accelerated the development and deployment of various novel types of wireless sensors, e.g., multimedia sensors. Fulfilling Moore’s law, wireless sensors are becoming smaller and cheaper, and at the same time more powerful and ubiquitous. [...

  2. Resource management in wireless networking

    CERN Document Server

    Cardei, Mihaela; Du, Ding-Zhu

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book that provides readers with a deep technical overview of recent advances in resource management for wireless networks at different layers of the protocol stack. The subject is explored in various wireless networks, such as ad hoc wireless networks, 3G/4G cellular, IEEE 802.11, and Bluetooth personal area networks.Survey chapters give an excellent introduction to key topics in resource management for wireless networks, while experts will be satisfied by the technical depth of the knowledge imparted in chapters exploring hot research topics.The subject area discussed in this book is very relevant today, considering the recent remarkable growth of wireless networking and the convergence of wireless personal communications, internet technologies and real-time multimedia.This volume is a very good companion for practitioners working on implementing solutions for multimedia and Quality of Service - sensitive applications over wireless networks.Written for:Researchers, faculty members, students...

  3. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  4. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  5. Handbook of Battery Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  6. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  7. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  8. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  9. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  10. Lithium batteries. Lithiumbatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahner, D.; Ludwig, G.; Bischoff, H.; Hauke, I.; Machill, S.; Siury, K.; Wiesener, K. (TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie)

    1992-01-01

    General rules on the method of operation of lithium batteries are worked out from the many commercially available lithium batteries or the systems examined by research, and some trends in development are indicated. It is shown from some selected research results that the the development of rechargeable lithium batteries is a demanding task for basic electrochemical research. (orig.).

  11. Wireless Telegraphic Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Wireless Telegraphic Communication. Guglielmo Marconi. Classics Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 95-101. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/01/0095-0101 ...

  12. Wireless, Not Penniless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Describes some advantages of the early adoption of wireless, laptop, and personal digital assistant (PDA) technology. Provides examples of early adoption experiences in several school districts. Advantages include increased computer access, timesavings, and expanded curricular offerings. Also highlights potential cost savings involving, for…

  13. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  14. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  15. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  16. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  17. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  18. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Weber, John Mark [Dynetics, Inc.; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Pan, W. David [University of Alabama, Huntsville

    2012-01-01

    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  19. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  20. Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan HUYNH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

  1. Wearable wireless cerebral oximeter (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral oximeters measure continuous cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology noninvasively. It has been involved into operating room setting to monitor oxygenation within patient's brain when surgeons are concerned that a patient's levels might drop. Recently, cerebral oxygen saturation has also been related with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency (CCVI). Patients with CCVI would be benefited if there would be a wearable system to measure their cerebral oxygen saturation in need. However, there has yet to be a wearable wireless cerebral oximeter to measure the saturation in 24 hours. So we proposed to develop the wearable wireless cerebral oximeter. The mechanism of the system follows the NIRS technology. Emitted light at wavelengths of 740nm and 860nm are sent from the light source penetrating the skull and cerebrum, and the light detector(s) receives the light not absorbed during the light pathway through the skull and cerebrum. The amount of oxygen absorbed within the brain is the difference between the amount of light sent out and received by the probe, which can be used to calculate the percentage of oxygen saturation. In the system, it has one source and four detectors. The source, located in the middle of forehead, can emit two near infrared light, 740nm and 860nm. Two detectors are arranged in one side in 2 centimeters and 3 centimeters from the source. Their measurements are used to calculate the saturation in the cerebral cortex. The system has included the rechargeable lithium battery and Bluetooth smart wireless micro-computer unit.

  2. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  3. Microcontroller-based wireless recorder for biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C-N; Hsu, H-W; Jang, J-K; Rau, C-L; Jaw, F-S

    2005-01-01

    A portable multichannel system is described for the recording of biomedical signals wirelessly. Instead of using the conversional time-division analog-modulation method, the technique of digital multiplexing was applied to increase the number of signal channels to 4. Detailed design considerations and functional allocation of the system is discussed. The frontend unit was modularly designed to condition the input signal in an optimal manner. Then, the microcontroller handled the tasks of data conversion, wireless transmission, as well as providing the ability of simple preprocessing such as waveform averaging or rectification. The low-power nature of this microcontroller affords the benefit of battery operation and hence, patient isolation of the system. Finally, a single-chip receiver, which compatible with the RF transmitter of the microcontroller, was used to implement a compact interface with the host computer. An application of this portable recorder for low-back pain studies is shown. This device can simultaneously record one ECG and two surface EMG wirelessly, thus, is helpful in relieving patients' anxiety devising clinical measurement. Such an approach, microcontroller-based wireless measurement, could be an important trend for biomedical instrumentation and we help that this paper could be useful for other colleagues.

  4. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  5. Harvesting Ambient Environmental Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have grown dramatically and made a great progress in many applications. But having limited life, batteries, as the power sources of wireless sensor nodes, have restricted the development and application of WSNs which often requires a very long lifespan for better performance. In order to make the WSNs prevalent in our lives, an alternative energy source is required. Environmental energy is an attractive power source, and it provides an approach to make the sensor nodes self-powered with the possibility of an almost infinite lifetime. The goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the various possible energy harvesting technologies from ambient environment for WSNs.

  6. Low power sensor network for wireless condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ch.; Frankenstein, B.; Schubert, L.; Weihnacht, B.; Friedmann, H.; Ebert, C.

    2009-03-01

    For comprehensive fatigue tests and surveillance of large scale structures, a vibration monitoring system working in the Hz and sub Hz frequency range was realized and tested. The system is based on a wireless sensor network and focuses especially on the realization of a low power measurement, signal processing and communication. Regarding the development, we met the challenge of synchronizing the wireless connected sensor nodes with sufficient accuracy. The sensor nodes ware realized by compact, sensor near signal processing structures containing components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization, algorithms for data reduction and network communication. The core component is a digital micro controller which performs the basic algorithms necessary for the data acquisition synchronization and the filtering. As a first application, the system was installed in a rotor blade of a wind power turbine in order to monitor the Eigen modes over a longer period of time. Currently the sensor nodes are battery powered.

  7. A Vision-Based Wireless Charging System for Robot Trophallaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-O Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to recharge the batteries of a mobile robot has presented an important challenge for a long time. In this paper, a vision-based wireless charging method for robot energy trophallaxis between two robots is presented. Even though wireless power transmission allows more positional error between receiver-transmitter coils than with a contact-type charging system, both coils have to be aligned as accurately as possible for efficient power transfer. To align the coils, a transmitter robot recognizes the coarse pose of a receiver robot via a camera image and the ambiguity of the estimated pose is removed with a Bayesian estimator. The precise pose of the receiver coil is calculated using a marker image attached to a receiver robot. Experiments with several types of receiver robots have been conducted to verify the proposed method.

  8. Wireless wearable controller for upper-limb neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Christa A; Peckham, P Hunter

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a wireless, wearable joint angle transducer to enable proportional control of an upper-limb neuroprosthesis by wrist position. Implanted neuroprostheses use functional electrical stimulation to provide hand grasp to individuals with tetraplegia. Wrist position is advantageous for control because it augments the tenodesis grasp and can be implemented bilaterally. Recently developed, fully implantable multichannel stimulators are battery-powered and use wireless telemetry to control stimulator outputs. An external wrist controller was designed for command signal acquisition for people with cervical-level spinal cord injury to control this implantable stimulator. The wearable controller, which uses gigantic magnetoresistive sensing techniques to measure wrist position, is worn on the forearm. A small dime-sized magnet is fixed to the back of the hand. Results indicate that the device is a feasible control method for an upper-limb neuroprosthesis and could be reduced to a small "wristwatch" size for cosmesis and easy donning.

  9. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  10. Initial Energy Logistics Cost Analysis for Stationary, Quasi-Dynamic, and Dynamic Wireless Charging Public Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jae Jang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an initial investment cost analysis of public transportation systems operating with wireless charging electric vehicles (EVs. There are three different types of wireless charging systems, namely, stationary wireless charging (SWC, in which charging happens only when the vehicle is parked or idle, quasi-dynamic wireless charging (QWC, in which power is transferred when a vehicle is moving slowly or in stop-and-go mode, and dynamic wireless charging (DWC, in which power can be supplied even when the vehicle is in motion. This analysis compares the initial investment costs for these three types of charging systems for a wireless charging-based public transportation system. In particular, this analysis is focused on the energy logistics cost in transportation, which is defined as the cost of transferring and storing the energy needed to operate the transportation system. Performing this initial investment analysis is complicated, because it involves considerable tradeoffs between the costs of batteries in the EV fleet and different kinds of battery-charging infrastructure. Mathematical optimization models for each type of EV and infrastructure system are used to analyze the initial costs. The optimization methods evaluate the minimum initial investment needed to deploy the public transportation system for each type of EV charging solution. To deal with the variable cost estimates for batteries and infrastructure equipment in the current market, a cost-sensitivity analysis is performed. The goal of this analysis is to identify the market cost conditions that are most favorable for each type of wireless charging solution. Furthermore, the cost analysis quantitatively verifies the qualitative comparison of the three different wireless charging types conducted in the previous research.

  11. Novel Reduced-Feedback Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad Obaidah

    2011-11-20

    Modern communication systems apply channel-aware adaptive transmission techniques and dynamic resource allocation in order to exploit the peak conditions of the fading wireless links and to enable significant performance gains. However, conveying the channel state information among the users’ mobile terminals into the access points of the network consumes a significant portion of the scarce air-link resources and depletes the battery resources of the mobile terminals rapidly. Despite its evident drawbacks, the channel information feedback cannot be eliminated in modern wireless networks because blind communication technologies cannot support the ever-increasing transmission rates and high quality of experience demands of current ubiquitous services. Developing new transmission technologies with reduced-feedback requirements is sought. Network operators will benefit from releasing the bandwidth resources reserved for the feedback communications and the clients will enjoy the extended battery life of their mobile devices. The main technical challenge is to preserve the prospected transmission rates over the network despite decreasing the channel information feedback significantly. This is a noteworthy research theme especially that there is no mature theory for feedback communication in the existing literature despite the growing number of publications about the topic in the last few years. More research efforts are needed to characterize the trade-off between the achievable rate and the required channel information and to design new reduced-feedback schemes that can be flexibly controlled based on the operator preferences. Such schemes can be then introduced into the standardization bodies for consideration in next generation broadband systems. We have recently contributed to this field and published several journal and conference papers. We are the pioneers to propose a novel reduced-feedback opportunistic scheduling scheme that combines many desired features

  12. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  13. Wireless Technology Development: History, Now, and Then

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiana Citra Dewi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless technology is one of many technologies that can enable people to communicate with each other by air medium, or rather you can say by radio frequency. This paper discusses about history of wireless technology, different kinds of wireless connection, wireless technology standards, and a few comparisons of different kinds of world’s wireless technology standards. Besides discussing about history about wireless technology and wireless technology that we can use nowadays, this paper also reviews about prediction of wireless technology development in the future for better human life. The purpose of this study is to give a glimpse of view on how the wireless technology develops, the world standard for wireless technologies and work system, the security and characteristic for each wireless technology including advantages and drawbacks, and future wireless technology development. 

  14. Development of a Novel Wireless Electric Power Transfer System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VazquezRamos, Gabriel; Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    This paper will introduce a new implementation for wireless electric power transfer systems: space applications. Due to the risks that constitute the use of electrical connector for some space missions/applications, a simple wireless power system design approach will be evaluated as an alternative for the use of electrical connectors. This approach takes into consideration the overall system performance by designing the magnetic resonance elements and by verifying the overall system electrical behavior. System characterization is accomplished by executing circuit and analytical simulations using Matlab(TradeMark) and LTSpiceIV(TradeMark) software packages. The design methodology was validated by two different experiments: frequency consideration (design of three magnetic elements) and a small scale proof-ofconcept prototype. Experiment results shows successful wireless power transfer for all the cases studied. The proof-of-concept prototype provided approx.4 W of wireless power to the load (light bulb) at a separation of 3 cm from the source. In addition. a resonant circuit was designed and installed to the battery terminals of a handheld radio without batteries, making it tum on at a separation of approx.5 cm or less from the source. It was also demonstrated by prototype experimentation that multiple loads can be powered wirelessly at the same time with a single electric power source.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  16. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  17. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE, which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  18. The Lure of Wireless Encryption

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Following our article entitled “Jekyll or Hyde? Better browse securely” in the last issue of the Bulletin, some people wondered why the CERN wireless network is not encrypted…   There are many arguments why it is not. The simplest is usability: the communication and management of the corresponding access keys would be challenging given the sheer number of wireless devices the CERN network hosts. Keys would quickly become public, e.g. at conferences, and might be shared, written on whiteboards, etc. Then there are all the devices which cannot be easily configured to use encryption protocols - a fact which would create plenty of calls to the CERN Service Desk… But our main argument is that wireless encryption is DECEPTIVE. Wireless encryption is deceptive as it only protects the wireless network against unauthorised access (and the CERN network already has other means to protect against that). Wireless encryption however, does not really help you. You ...

  19. 5G Wireless Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saddam Hossain

    2013-01-01

    As a subscriber becomes more aware of the mobile phone technology, he/she will seek for anappropriate package all together, including all the advanced features of a cellular phone can have. Hence, the search for new technology is always the main intention of the prime cell phone giants to out innovate their competitors. In addition, the main purpose of the fifth generation wireless networks (5G Wireless networks) is planned to design the best wireless world that is free from limitations...

  20. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  1. SONAbeam optical wireless products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Theresa H.; Mecherle, G. Stephen

    2000-05-01

    fSONA has developed an optical wireless line of products that will enable high bandwidth wireless connectivity, much like fiber optic technology has done for wired connectivity. All of the fSONA products use wavelengths around 1.5 micrometers both for eye safety and for maximum commonality with fiber optic technology. Initial products provide either OC-3 (155 Mbps) or Fast Ethernet (125 Mbps). The 2 km unit is fixed mounted and provides a relatively large beamwidth to compensate for building motion. The 4 km unit utilizes a narrow transmit beamwidth with active pointing for motion compensation. Trials of the units with key customers begin in second quarter 2000, with volume production of the 2 km- unit beginning in third quarter and the 4 km unit in the fourth quarter. Product designs for 622 Mbps and 1.25 Gbps should be completed prior to the end of the 2000.

  2. Wireless Seismometer for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Clougherty, Brian; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the seismic activity of Venus is critical to understanding its composition and interior dynamics. Because Venus has an average surface temperature of 462 C and the challenge of providing cooling to multiple seismometers, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents progress towards a seismometer sensor with wireless capabilities for Venus applications. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by a 1 cm movement of a ferrite probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 80 MHz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator sensor system at 420 C, which correlates to a 10 kHz mm sensitivity when the ferrite probe is located at the optimum location in the coil.

  3. Towards Perpetual Energy Operation in Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2017-11-01

    Wireless is everywhere. Smartphones, tablets, laptops, implantable medical devices, and many other wireless devices are massively taking part of our everyday activities. On average, an actively digital consumer has three devices. However, most of these wireless devices are small equipped with batteries that are often limited and need to be replaced or recharged. This fact limits the operating lifetime of wireless devices and presents a major challenge in wireless communication. To improve the perpetual energy operation of wireless communication systems, energy harvesting (EH) from the radio frequency (RF) signals is one promising solution to make the wireless communication systems self-sustaining. Since RF signals are known to transmit information, it is interesting to study when RF signals are simultaneously used to transmit information and scavenge energy, namely simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT). In this thesis, we specifically aim to study the SWIPT in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication systems and in cognitive radio (CR) networks. First, we study the SWIPT in MIMO relay systems where the relay harvests the energy from the source and uses partially/fully the harvested energy to forward the signal to the destination. For both the amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocols, we consider the ideal scheme where both the energy and information transfer to the relay happen simultaneously, and the practical power splitting and time switching schemes. For each scheme, we aim to maximize the achievable end-to-end rate with a certain energy constraint at the relay. Furthermore, we consider the sum rate maximization problem for the multiuser MIMO DF relay broadcasting channels with multiple EH-enabled relays, and an enhanced low complex solution is proposed based on the block diagonalization method. Finally, we study the energy and data performance of the SWIPT in CR network where either the

  4. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recognizing the needs and challenges facing NASA Earth Science for data input, manipulation and distribution, Mobitrum is proposing a ? Wireless Sensor Portal...

  5. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because....... This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  6. Load characteristics of wireless power transfer system with different resonant types and resonator numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Zhao, Zhengming; Chen, Kainan; Fan, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has been the research focus and applied in many fields. Normally power is transferred wirelessly to charge the battery, which requires specific load characteristics. The load characteristics are essential for the design and operation of the WPT system. This paper investigates the load characteristics of the WPT system with different resonant types and resonator numbers. It is found that in a WPT system with series or LCL resonance under a constant voltage source, the load characteristic is determined by the number of inductors. Even number of inductors results in a constant current characteristic and odd number constant voltage characteristic. Calculations, simulations, and experiments verify the analysis.

  7. Load characteristics of wireless power transfer system with different resonant types and resonator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Power Transfer (WPT has been the research focus and applied in many fields. Normally power is transferred wirelessly to charge the battery, which requires specific load characteristics. The load characteristics are essential for the design and operation of the WPT system. This paper investigates the load characteristics of the WPT system with different resonant types and resonator numbers. It is found that in a WPT system with series or LCL resonance under a constant voltage source, the load characteristic is determined by the number of inductors. Even number of inductors results in a constant current characteristic and odd number constant voltage characteristic. Calculations, simulations, and experiments verify the analysis.

  8. Energy neutral and low power wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Oner

    Wireless sensor nodes are typically designed to have low cost and small size. These design objectives impose restrictions on the capacity and efficiency of the transceiver components and energy storage units that can be used. As a result, energy becomes a bottleneck and continuous operation of the sensor network requires frequent battery replacements, increasing the maintenance cost. Energy harvesting and energy efficient transceiver architectures are able to overcome these challenges by collecting energy from the environment and utilizing the energy in an intelligent manner. However, due to the nature of the ambient energy sources, the amount of useful energy that can be harvested is limited and unreliable. Consequently, optimal management of the harvested energy and design of low power transceivers pose new challenges for wireless network design and operation. The first part of this dissertation is on energy neutral wireless networking, where optimal transmission schemes under different system setups and objectives are investigated. First, throughput maximization for energy harvesting two-hop networks with decode-and-forward half-duplex relays is studied. For a system with two parallel relays, various combinations of the following four transmission modes are considered: Broadcast from the source, multi-access from the relays, and successive relaying phases I and II. Next, the energy cost of the processing circuitry as well as the transmission energy are taken into account for communication over a broadband fading channel powered by an energy harvesting transmitter. Under this setup, throughput maximization, energy maximization, and transmission completion time minimization problems are studied. Finally, source and channel coding for an energy-limited wireless sensor node is investigated under various energy constraints including energy harvesting, processing and sampling costs. For each objective, optimal transmission policies are formulated as the solutions of a

  9. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  10. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zalud

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  11. Analysis, Design and Implementation of a Networking Proof-of-Concept Prototype to Support Maritime Visit, Board, Search and Seizure Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Radio Router setup o ATAK x 2 + charging cord x 1 (Brandon has these) o Laptop x 4 + power cord x 2 o Accessories o Charger base o Radio batteries x...11 c. Lower Infrastructure and Operational Costs .........................12 d. Reduced Power and Spectrum Requirements...teams. B. MESH NETWORKS A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a network that wirelessly applies multi -hop communications technology for forwarding

  12. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  13. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  14. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  15. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Resonant ultrasonic wireless power transmission for bio-implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, Woosub; Hwang, Gunn; Moon, Kee S.; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the ultrasonic wireless power transmission system as part of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system in development to supply the required electric power. Making a small-size implantable BMI, it is essential to design a low power unit with a rechargeable battery. The ultrasonic power transmission system has two piezoelectric transducers, facing each other between skin tissues converting electrical energy to mechanical vibrational energy or vice versa. Ultrasound is free from the electromagnetic coupling effect and medical frequency band limitations which making it a promising candidate for implantable purposes. In this paper, we present the design of piezoelectric composite transducer, the rectifier circuit, and rechargeable battery that all packaged in biocompatible titanium can. An initial prototype device was built for demonstration purpose. The early experimental results demonstrate the prototype device can reach 50% of energy transmission efficiency in a water medium at 20mm distance and 18% in animal skin tissue at 18mm distance, respectively.

  17. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  18. Printed battery power management

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Printed electronics and low power radio has evolved significantly in recent years. This has made it possible to implement electronic worn on the body or clothing. Printed batteries internal resistance is much higher compared to regular batteries. Unless a battery power management circuit is used, the radio peak current makes that the terminal voltage may drop to a level below the specified supply voltage for the radio, causing operation failure. A large capacitor solves this but a large surfa...

  19. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  20. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  1. Ultra-miniature wireless temperature sensor for thermal medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Ahmad; Hung, Shih-Chang; Paramesh, Jeyanandh; Fedder, Gary; Rabin, Yoed

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a prototype design of an ultra-miniature, wireless, battery-less, and implantable temperature-sensor, with applications to thermal medicine such as cryosurgery, hyperthermia, and thermal ablation. The design aims at a sensory device smaller than 1.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length, to enable minimally invasive deployment through a hypodermic needle. While the new device may be used for local temperature monitoring, simultaneous data collection from an array of such sensors can be used to reconstruct the 3D temperature field in the treated area, offering a unique capability in thermal medicine. The new sensory device consists of three major subsystems: a temperature-sensing core, a wireless data-communication unit, and a wireless power reception and management unit. Power is delivered wirelessly to the implant from an external source using an inductive link. To meet size requirements while enhancing reliability and minimizing cost, the implant is fully integrated in a regular foundry CMOS technology (0.15 μm in the current study), including the implant-side inductor of the power link. A temperature-sensing core that consists of a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) circuit has been designed and characterized. It employs a microwatt chopper stabilized op-amp and dynamic element-matched current sources to achieve high absolute accuracy. A second order sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed to convert the temperature reading to a digital code, which is transmitted by backscatter through the same antenna used for receiving power. A high-efficiency multi-stage differential CMOS rectifier has been designed to provide a DC supply to the sensing and communication subsystems. This paper focuses on the development of the all-CMOS temperature sensing core circuitry part of the device, and briefly reviews the wireless power delivery and communication subsystems.

  2. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  3. A wireless potentiostat for mobile chemical sensing and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Kereković, Irena; Steinberg, Ivana Murković

    2015-10-01

    Wireless chemical sensors are used as analytical devices in homeland defence, home-based healthcare, food logistics and more generally for the Sensor Internet of Things (SIoT). Presented here is a battery-powered and highly portable credit-card size potentiostat that is suitable for performing mobile and wearable amperometric electrochemical measurements with seamless wireless data transfer to mobile computing devices. The mobile electrochemical analytical system has been evaluated in the laboratory with a model redox system - the reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) - and also with commercially available enzymatic blood-glucose test-strips. The potentiostat communicates wirelessly with mobile devices such as tablets or Smartphones by near-field communication (NFC) or with personal computers by radio-frequency identification (RFID), and thus provides a solution to the 'missing link' in connectivity that often exists between low-cost mobile and wearable chemical sensors and ubiquitous mobile computing products. The mobile potentiostat has been evaluated in the laboratory with a set of proof-of-concept experiments, and its analytical performance compared with a commercial laboratory potentiostat (R(2)=0.9999). These first experimental results demonstrate the functionality of the wireless potentiostat and suggest that the device could be suitable for wearable and point-of-sample analytical measurements. We conclude that the wireless potentiostat could contribute significantly to the advancement of mobile chemical sensor research and adoption, in particular for wearable sensors in healthcare and sport physiology, for wound monitoring and in mobile point-of-sample diagnostics as well as more generally as a part of the Sensor Internet of Things. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Passive wireless strain monitoring of tyres using capacitance and tuning frequency changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2005-08-01

    In-service strain monitoring of tyres of automobiles is quite effective for improving the reliability of tyres and anti-lock braking systems (ABS). Conventional strain gauges have high stiffness and require lead wires. Therefore, they are cumbersome for tyre strain measurements. In a previous study, the authors proposed a new wireless strain monitoring method that adopts the tyre itself as a sensor, with an oscillating circuit. This method is very simple and useful, but it requires a battery to activate the oscillating circuit. In the present study, the previous method for wireless tyre monitoring is improved to produce a passive wireless sensor. A specimen made from a commercially available tyre is connected to a tuning circuit comprising an inductance and a capacitance as a condenser. The capacitance change of the tyre alters the tuning frequency. This change of the tuned radio wave facilitates wireless measurement of the applied strain of the specimen without any power supply. This passive wireless method is applied to a specimen and the static applied strain is measured. Experiments demonstrate that the method is effective for passive wireless strain monitoring of tyres.

  5. Wireless communication with multiple antennas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Wireless communications has seen a very rapid growth, both in practice and theory, during the past one decade. Most of the present wireless communication systems use one transmit antenna and one receive antenna. However, communication with multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas can enormously increase ...

  6. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  7. Launching a Wireless Laptop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignano, Domenic

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, as a technology director for East Rock Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, a federal government test site for laptop learning, shares his secrets to a successful implementation of a wireless laptop program: (1) Build a wireless foundation; (2) Do not choose the cheapest model just because of budget; (3) A sturdy…

  8. Energy-efficient wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter we present an energy-efficient highly adaptive network interface architecture and a novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse traffic types. Due to the dynamic nature of wireless networks, adaptations in bandwidth

  9. Views of wireless network systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  10. COPPERHEAD battery tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, W. J.

    1983-06-01

    The development of a tester for the control section battery of the M712 Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile has fulfilled a requirement for the automatic testing of a series of batteries. The tester is a self-contained instrument that is used with a shock test system to rapidly perform complete tests after an initial setup.

  11. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  12. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  13. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  14. The zinc bromine battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonshagen, B. [ZBB (Australia) Ltd., West Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Zinc Bromine Battery electrolyte is essentially zinc bromide salt dissolved in water. Unlike the lead acid and most other batteries, the Zinc Bromine Battery uses electrodes that cannot and do not take part in the reactions but merely serve as substrates for the reactions. There is therefore no loss of performance, as in most re-chargeable batteries, from repeated cycling which causes electrode material deterioration. When the Zinc Bromine Battery is completely discharged all the metal zinc plated on the negative electrodes is dissolved in the electrolyte and again produced the next time the batter is charged. In the discharged state the battery can be shorted and left that way indefinitely. This paper presents an overview of large scale Zinc Bromine battery systems that are currently being commercialized as an economically attractive alternative to utility upgrades. Also outlined is how the battery can improve the viability of renewable energy and reduce diesel use in isolated grids and remote power installations. (author). 11 figs., 2 refs.

  15. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Wireless Chemical Sensing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wireless chemical sensor includes an electrical conductor and a material separated therefrom by an electric insulator. The electrical conductor is an unconnected open-circuit shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the first electrical conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The material is positioned at a location lying within at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses so-generated. The material changes in electrical conductivity in the presence of a chemical-of-interest.

  17. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...... of radio-frequency signals, an optical transmitter in the form of an electro-optic conversion unit for each of said plurality of antenna units, each electro-optic conversion unit adapted for converting an RF signal into an optical signal, a plurality of a single core optical fibers for guiding the optical...

  18. Wired or Wireless Internet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    This paper finds that network externalities play a minimal role in the choice of internet access technology. Potential adopters of mobile laptop internet view broadband technology as a black box, the technological details of which donot matter. The study uses qualitative techniques to explore how...... the speed of technological obsolescence, market share dominance, and the black boxing of technology influence consumer intention to adopt WiMax and 3G wireless internet for their laptop computers. The results, implications for industry, and areas for further research are discussed....

  19. Dynamic wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oteafy, Sharief M A

    2014-01-01

    In this title, the authors leap into a novel paradigm of scalability and cost-effectiveness, on the basis of resource reuse. In a world with much abundance of wirelessly accessible devices, WSN deployments should capitalize on the resources already available in the region of deployment, and only augment it with the components required to meet new application requirements. However, if the required resources already exist in that region, WSN deployment converges to an assignment and scheduling scheme to accommodate for the new application given the existing resources. Such resources are polled

  20. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  1. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  2. Implementation of wireless power transfer and communications for an implantable ocular drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T B; Smith, S; Flynn, B W; Stevenson, J T M; Gundlach, A M; Reekie, H M; Murray, A F; Renshaw, D; Dhillon, B; Ohtori, A; Inoue, Y; Terry, J G; Walton, A J

    2008-09-01

    A wireless power transfer and communication system based on near-field inductive coupling has been designed and implemented. The feasibility of using such a system to remotely control drug release from an implantable drug delivery system is addressed. The architecture of the wireless system is described and the signal attenuation over distance in both water and phosphate buffered saline is studied. Additionally, the health risk due to exposure to radio frequency (RF) radiation is examined using a biological model. The experimental results demonstrate that the system can trigger the release of drug within 5 s, and that such short exposure to RF radiation does not produce any significant (battery in an implantable system, eliminating the risks associated with battery failure and leakage and also allowing more compact designs for applications such as drug delivery.

  3. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  4. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  5. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Combined Conformal Strongly-Coupled Magnetic Resonance for Efficient Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Rozman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid circuit between a conformal strongly-coupled magnetic resonance (CSCMR and a strongly-coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR, for better wireless power transmission (WPT. This combination promises to enhance the flexibility of the proposed four-loop WPT system. The maximum efficiency at various distances is achieved by combining coupling-matching between the source and transmitting coils along with the coupling factor between the transmitting and receiving coils. Furthermore, the distance between transmitting and receiving coils is investigated along with the distance relationship between the source loop and transmission coil, in order to achieve the maximum efficiency of the proposed hybrid WPT system. The results indicate that the proposed approach can be effectively employed at distances comparatively smaller than the maximum distance without frequency matching. The achievable efficiency can be as high as 84% for the whole working range of the transmitter. In addition, the proposed hybrid system allows more spatial freedom compared to existing chargers.

  7. Green partial packet recovery in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas

    2015-08-18

    Partial packet recovery is well known for increasing network throughput and reducing frame retransmissions. However, partial packet recovery methods in the literature are not energy-aware and hence they are not suitable for the battery powered wireless sensor motes. We propose Green-Frag, a novel adaptive partial packet recovery mechanism that is energy friendly. It can help prolonging the battery life of wireless sensor motes that are usually resource constrained. It dynamically partitions the frame into smaller blocks to avoid dropping the whole frame due to a single bit error. Also, Green-Frag is able to tolerate high interference and save energy by varying the transmit power based on channel quality and interference pattern. We experimentally evaluate the energy efficiency as well as goodput and delay of Green-Frag using our TelosB sensor mote testbed. We find that Green-Frag reduces energy consumption by 33% on average compared to the state of the art partial packet recovery scheme in the literature in the presence of Wi-Fi interference. In the worst case, this reduction in energy consumption comes at the cost of 10% reduction in goodput. Finally, Green-Frag reduces the latency by 22% on average compared to other static frame fragmentation schemes.

  8. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Nenad S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers. One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  9. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Nenad S; Saranovac, Lazar V; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-08-09

    The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype's software. The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  10. Development of the wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit WB-4: preliminary performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuohua; Zecca, Massimiliano; Sessa, Salvatore; Bartolomeo, Luca; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance evaluation of our new wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit (IMU) WB-4 by compared with the Vicon motion capture system. The WB-4 IMU primarily contains a mother board for motion sensing, a Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission with PC, and a Li-Polymer battery for power supply. The mother board is provided with a microcontroller and 9-axis inertial sensors (miniaturized MEMS accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) to measure orientation. A quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) integrated with an R-Adaptive algorithm for automatic estimation of the measurement covariance matrix is implemented for the sensor fusion to retrieve the attitude. The experimental results showed that the wireless ultra-miniaturized WB-4 IMU could provide high accuracy performance at the angles of roll and pitch. The yaw angle which has reasonable performance needs to be further evaluated.

  11. Distributed Power Allocation for Sink-Centric Clusters in Multiple Sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the battery resource constraints, saving energy is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks, particularly in large sensor networks. One possible solution is to deploy multiple sink nodes simultaneously. Another possible solution is to employ an adaptive clustering hierarchy routing scheme. In this paper, we propose a multiple sink cluster wireless sensor networks scheme which combines the two solutions, and propose an efficient transmission power control scheme for a sink-centric cluster routing protocol in multiple sink wireless sensor networks, denoted as MSCWSNs-PC. It is a distributed, scalable, self-organizing, adaptive system, and the sensor nodes do not require knowledge of the global network and their location. All sinks effectively work out a representative view of a monitored region, after which power control is employed to optimize network topology. The simulations demonstrate the advantages of our new protocol.

  12. An Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalarani, C; Subramanian, R; Sivanandam, S N

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO) algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption.

  13. An Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vimalarani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption.

  14. Wireless network security theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zihong

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Network Security Theories and Applications discusses the relevant security technologies, vulnerabilities, and potential threats, and introduces the corresponding security standards and protocols, as well as provides solutions to security concerns. Authors of each chapter in this book, mostly top researchers in relevant research fields in the U.S. and China, presented their research findings and results about the security of the following types of wireless networks: Wireless Cellular Networks, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs), Bluetooth

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of microEEG: A Miniature, Wireless EEG Device

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Arthur C.; Abdel-Baki, Samah G.; Omurtag, Ahmet; Sinert, Richard; Chari, Geetha; Malhotra, Schweta; Weedon, Jeremy; Fenton, Andre A.; Zehtabchi, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the diagnostic accuracy (DA) of an EEG device is unconventional and complicated by imperfect interrater reliability. We sought to compare the DA of a miniature, wireless, battery-powered EEG device (“microEEG”) to a reference EEG machine in emergency department (ED) patients with altered mental status (AMS). 225 ED patients with AMS underwent 3 EEGs. EEG1 (Nicolet Monitor, “reference”) and EEG2 (microEEG) were recorded simultaneously with EEG cup electrodes using a signal splitter. ...

  16. A wireless telecommunications network for real-time monitoring of greenhouse microclimate

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano Vox; Pierfrancesco Losito; Fabio Valente; Rinaldo Consoletti; Giacomo Scarascia-Mugnozza; Evelia Schettini; Cristoforo Marzocca; Francesco Corsi

    2014-01-01

    An innovative wireless monitoring system for measuring greenhouse climatic parameters was developed to overcome the problems related to wires cabling such as presence of a dense net of wires hampering the cultivation practices, wires subjected to high temperature and relative humidity, rodents that can damage wires. The system exploits battery-powered environmental sensors, such as air temperature and relative humidity sensors, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation sensors, integrated...

  17. Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Communications with Direct Link and Energy Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ziyi; Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a wireless energy harvesting cooperative network (WEHCN) consisting of a source, a decode-and-forward (DF) relay and a destination. We consider the relay as an energy harvesting (EH) node equipped with EH circuit and a rechargeable battery. Moreover, the direct link between source and destination is assumed to exist. The relay can thus harvest and accumulate energy from radio-frequency signals ejected by the source and assist its information transmission opportunistica...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety Requirements for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1...

  19. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-03-01

    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  20. Household wireless electroencephalogram hat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Tran, Binh

    2012-06-01

    We applied Compressive Sensing to design an affordable, convenient Brain Machine Interface (BMI) measuring the high spatial density, and real-time process of Electroencephalogram (EEG) brainwaves by a Smartphone. It is useful for therapeutic and mental health monitoring, learning disability biofeedback, handicap interfaces, and war gaming. Its spec is adequate for a biomedical laboratory, without the cables hanging over the head and tethered to a fixed computer terminal. Our improved the intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the non-uniform placement of the measuring electrodes to create the proximity of measurement to the source effect. We computing a spatiotemporal average the larger magnitude of EEG data centers in 0.3 second taking on tethered laboratory data, using fuzzy logic, and computing the inside brainwave sources, by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Consequently, we can overlay them together by non-uniform electrode distribution enhancing the signal noise ratio and therefore the degree of sparseness by threshold. We overcame the conflicting requirements between a high spatial electrode density and precise temporal resolution (beyond Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 brainwave at 0.3 sec), and Smartphone wireless bottleneck of spatiotemporal throughput rate. Our main contribution in this paper is the quality and the speed of iterative compressed image recovery algorithm based on a Block Sparse Code (Baranuick et al, IEEE/IT 2008). As a result, we achieved real-time wireless dynamic measurement of EEG brainwaves, matching well with traditionally tethered high density EEG.

  1. Wirelessness as Experience of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mackenzie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses wireless networks in terms of a concept of experience drawn from the work of William James. James' account of experience focuses closely on the effects of ongoing change, and this is particularly useful in thinking about media change. The specific experience in question here is 'wirelessness,' an experience that envelops many media, infrastructures, practices, and processes today. The paper argues that a concept of wirelessness uniquely connects together a set of perceptions, representation, materials, problems and events associated with ongoing change in contemporary media and information cultures. In analysing wirelessness as form of experience, the article examines how those feelings of ongoing change shape and inform experiences of self, otherness, place and sociality in technological-informatic environments. In describing different infrastructural and commercial dimensions of wirelessness, it pays close attention to how ‘conjunctive relations’ (James’ term such as ‘with’, ‘between’, ‘near’, and ‘inside’ arise in wireless networks, and how different kinds of intimacy and distance stem from conjunctive relations. The paper explores how wirelessness embodies and organises networked places. In this respect, the paper inverts conventional understandings of the network as ground or platform. It treats the under-represented yet highly significant embodied experiences of relations as generative of information infrastructures.

  2. Energy efficiency in hybrid mobile and wireless networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaul Haq Abbas

    2012-07-01

    Wireless Internet access is almost pervasive nowadays, and many types of wireless networks can be used to access the Internet. However, along with this growth, there is an even greater concern about the energy consumption and efficiency of mobile devices as well as of the supporting networks, triggering the appearance of the concept of green communication. While some efforts have been made towards this direction, challenges still exist and need to be tackled from diverse perspectives. Cellular networks, WLANs, and ad hoc networks in the form of wireless mesh networks are the most popular technologies for wireless Internet access. The availability of such a variety of access networks has also paved the way to explore synergistic approaches for Internet access, leading to the concept of hybrid networks and relay communications. In addition, many mobile devices are being equipped with multiple interfaces, enabling them to operate in hybrid networks. In contrast, the improvements in the battery technology itself have not matched the pace of the emerging mobile applications. The situation becomes more sophisticated when a mobile device functions also as a relay node to forward other station's data. In the literature, energy efficiency of mobile devices has been addressed from various perspectives such as protocol-level efforts, battery management efforts, etc. However, there is little work on energy efficiency in hybrid mobile and wireless networks and devices with heterogeneous connections. For example, when there are multiple networks available to a mobile device, how to achieve optimum long-term energy consumption of such a device is an open question. Furthermore, in today's cellular networks, micro-, pico-, and femto-cells are the most popular network topologies in order to support high data rate services and high user density. With the growth of such small-cell solutions, the energy consumption of these networks is also becoming an important concern for operators

  3. USMC Initiatives in Energy and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Suitcase Battery Chargers (military batteries) • Special Purpose Battery Charger (AN/PRC-152 battery in storage) • Lead Acid Battery Chargers / Analyzers...Sustainment Systems x x x  Solar / Renewable Power Adaptors x x  On-Board Vehicle Power Systems x x  Family of Power Supplies x x  Mobile

  4. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to numerous potential applications, wireless sensor networks have been attracting significant research effort recently. The critical challenge that wireless sensor networks often face is to sustain long-term operation on limited battery energy. Coverage maintenance schemes can effectively prolong network lifetime by selecting and employing a subset of sensors in the network to provide sufficient sensing coverage over a target region. We envision future wireless sensor networks composed of a vast number of miniaturized sensors in exceedingly high density. Therefore, the key issue of coverage maintenance for future sensor networks is the scalability to sensor deployment density. In this paper, we propose a novel coverage maintenance scheme, scalable coverage maintenance (SCOM, which is scalable to sensor deployment density in terms of communication overhead (i.e., number of transmitted and received beacons and computational complexity (i.e., time and space complexity. In addition, SCOM achieves high energy efficiency and load balancing over different sensors. We have validated our claims through both analysis and simulations.

  5. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Chen, Jian; Deng, Yansha; Wang, Xingwei; Aghvami, Abdol-Hamid

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  6. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless power transfer (WPT technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  7. UHF-Band Wireless Power Transfer System for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For detecting and measuring health conditions of bridges, wireless sensor networks are used in these days. However, battery life is critically restricting the application and maintenance cost of sensor network systems. To extend life time, a wireless power transfer system at UHF band is introduced to supply the current wireless sensor network. This power transfer system is based on electric wave at 950 MHz. This power transfer system is redesigned for tiny power transmission, including a combination of a rectenna and a Cockcroft-Walton boost converter, battery board, and a control board. Also, current wireless sensor network is redesigned for power transfer system. The working flow of sensor network is modified to bottom-to-top to save power of sensor modules which are the power bottleneck of this sensor system. As a result, the system is able to support a sensor module continuously with received power of −14 dBmW, when the transmitting antenna is 30 dBmW at 10 meters distance.

  8. Evaluation of Digital Compressed Sensing for Real-Time Wireless ECG System with Bluetooth low Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a wearable and wireless ECG system is firstly designed with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). It can detect 3-lead ECG signals and is completely wireless. Secondly the digital Compressed Sensing (CS) is implemented to increase the energy efficiency of wireless ECG sensor. Different sparsifying basis, various compression ratio (CR) and several reconstruction algorithms are simulated and discussed. Finally the reconstruction is done by the android application (App) on smartphone to display the signal in real time. The power efficiency is measured and compared with the system without CS. The optimum satisfying basis built by 3-level decomposed db4 wavelet coefficients, 1-bit Bernoulli random matrix and the most suitable reconstruction algorithm are selected by the simulations and applied on the sensor node and App. The signal is successfully reconstructed and displayed on the App of smartphone. Battery life of sensor node is extended from 55 h to 67 h. The presented wireless ECG system with CS can significantly extend the battery life by 22 %. With the compact characteristic and long term working time, the system provides a feasible solution for the long term homecare utilization.

  9. A wireless telecommunications network for real-time monitoring of greenhouse microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative wireless monitoring system for measuring greenhouse climatic parameters was developed to overcome the problems related to wires cabling such as presence of a dense net of wires hampering the cultivation practices, wires subjected to high temperature and relative humidity, rodents that can damage wires. The system exploits battery-powered environmental sensors, such as air temperature and relative humidity sensors, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation sensors, integrated in the contest of an 802.15.4-based wireless sensors network. Besides, a fruit diameter measurement sensor was integrated into the system. This approach guarantees flexibility, ease of deployment and low power consumption. Data collected from the greenhouse are then sent to a remote server via a general packet radio service link. The proposed solution has been implemented in a real environment. The test of the communication system showed that 0.3% of the sent data packed were lost; the climatic parameters measured with the wireless system were compared with data collected by the wired system showing a mean value of the absolute difference equal to 0.6°C for the value of the greenhouse air temperature. The wireless climate monitoring system showed a good reliability, while the sensor node batteries showed a lifetime of 530 days.

  10. Energy-efficient data reduction techniques for wireless seizure detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Joyce; Ward, Rabab K

    2014-01-24

    The emergence of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has motivated a paradigm shift in patient monitoring and disease control. Epilepsy management is one of the areas that could especially benefit from the use of WSN. By using miniaturized wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) sensors, it is possible to perform ambulatory EEG recording and real-time seizure detection outside clinical settings. One major consideration in using such a wireless EEG-based system is the stringent battery energy constraint at the sensor side. Different solutions to reduce the power consumption at this side are therefore highly desired. The conventional approach incurs a high power consumption, as it transmits the entire EEG signals wirelessly to an external data server (where seizure detection is carried out). This paper examines the use of data reduction techniques for reducing the amount of data that has to be transmitted and, thereby, reducing the required power consumption at the sensor side. Two data reduction approaches are examined: compressive sensing-based EEG compression and low-complexity feature extraction. Their performance is evaluated in terms of seizure detection effectiveness and power consumption. Experimental results show that by performing low-complexity feature extraction at the sensor side and transmitting only the features that are pertinent to seizure detection to the server, a considerable overall saving in power is achieved. The battery life of the system is increased by 14 times, while the same seizure detection rate as the conventional approach (95%) is maintained.

  11. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  12. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  13. Microwave materials for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cruickshank, David B

    2011-01-01

    This practical resource offers you an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the use of microwave magnetic materials for cutting-edge wireless applications. The book discusses device applications used in wireless infrastructure base stations, point-to-point radio links, and a range of more specialized microwave systems. You find detailed discussions on the attributes of each family of magnetic materials with respect to specific wireless applications. Moreover, the book addresses two of the hottest topics in the field today - insertion loss and intermodulation. This comprehensive reference also

  14. Structural processing for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jianhua; Ge, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents an alternative viewpoint on processing technology for wireless communications based on recent research advances. As a lever in emerging processing technology, the structure perspective addresses the complexity and uncertainty issues found in current wireless applications. Likewise, this brief aims at providing a new prospective to the development of communication technology and information science, while stimulating new theories and technologies for wireless systems with ever-increasing complexity. Readers of this brief may range from graduate students to researchers in related fields.

  15. Wireless home networking for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, Danny; Ferris, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The perennial bestseller shows you how share your files and Internet connection across a wireless network. Fully updated for Windows 7 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, this new edition of this bestseller returns with all the latest in wireless standards and security. This fun and friendly guide shows you how to integrate your iPhone, iPod touch, smartphone, or gaming system into your home network. Veteran authors escort you through the various financial and logisitical considerations that you need to take into account before building a wireless network at home.: Covers the basics of planning, instal

  16. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  17. Self-powered wireless sensor networks for telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Todd William

    Technology advances in wireless sensor networks have made it possible for these tiny systems to enter the realm of ubiquitous or pervasive computing which has been forecast for several years. These nodes, or motes as they are known, typically run off of battery power and when used sparingly can operate in excess of one year. When requirements necessitate higher usage, battery monitoring and replacement becomes a major issue. Large systems can quickly become cost prohibitive. To combat this issue, researchers have looked to energy harvesting to power these motes. However, this research has mainly centered on outdoor solar harvesting to take advantage of higher energy levels provided by the sun. Indoor harvesting has been presented in the past as not feasible. In this dissertation, we present a system that utilizes energy harvested from overhead fluorescent lights to power the infrastructure (routing) nodes of an indoor telemedicine based wireless network. The limitations of indoor harvesting are exploited and leveraged through creative hardware design. A unique message routing protocol has been developed to control these routing nodes and allow continual operation. Standard medical devices have been interfaced to the system to allow wireless transmission of patient data to a central collection point where the data is organized, stored and presented to the user via a graphical user interface (GUI). The range of the system has been extended by interfacing a cellular modem to the system to allow two-way communication between the GUI and a remote healthcare provider. Extensive physical testing has been done to determine the robustness of the system, and the boundary conditions for extremely large networks were tested via simulation.

  18. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven H [Rigby, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-05-08

    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  19. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  20. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  1. Wireless devices in nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Sánchez-García

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article sought to explore the adoption of wireless devices in university nursing teaching and address their repercussion on future professionals. Methodology. This is a bibliographical study conducted in 2011, which analyzed international publications on the use, review, application, opinion, and experimentation of wireless devices in university nursing teaching of wireless technology in nursing teaching. The following databases were used: Medline and Science@Direct. Results. A total of 503 articles were extracted and 77 were selected, of which 40 investigated the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA, 13 the clicker (Student Response Wireless System, and six the smart phone. The use of mobile devices has experienced strong growth during the last five years, especially PDAs. Conclusion. Use of mobile devices in university nursing teaching has grown in recent years, especially PDAs

  2. Wireless Communication over Dispersive Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.

    2010-01-01

    Broadband wireless communication systems require high transmission rates, where the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is larger than the channel coherence bandwidth. This gives rise to time dispersion of the transmitted symbols or frequency-selectivity with different frequency components

  3. Introduction to wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Explores real-world wireless sensor network development, deployment, and applications. The book begins with an introduction to wireless sensor networks and their fundamental concepts. Hardware components, operating systems, protocols, and algorithms that make up the anatomy of a sensor node are described in chapter two. Properties of wireless communications, medium access protocols, wireless links, and link estimation protocols are described in chapter three and chapter four. Routing basics and metrics, clustering techniques, time synchronization and localization protocols, as well as sensing techniques are introduced in chapter five to nine. The concluding chapter summarizes the learnt methods and shows how to use them to deploy real-world sensor networks in a structured way.

  4. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  5. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  6. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  7. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  8. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  9. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  10. An analytic Study of the Key Factors In uencing the Design and Routing Techniques of a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Bahuguna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network contains various nodes having certain sensing, processing and communication capabilities. Actually they are multifunctional battery operated nodes called motes. These motes are small in size and battery constrained. They are operated by a power source. A wireless sensor network consists of a huge number of tiny sensor nodes which are deployed either randomly or according to some predefined distribution. The sensors nodes in a sensor network are cooperative among themselves having self-organizing ability. This ensures that a wireless network serves a wide variety of applications. Few of them are weather monitoring, health, security and military etc. As their applications are wide, this requires that sensors in a sensor network must play their role very efficiently. But, as discussed above, the sensor nodes have energy limitation. This limitation leads failure of nodes after certain round of communication. So, a sensor network suffers with sensors having energy limitations. Beside this, sensor nodes in a sensor network must fulfill connectivity and coverage requirements. In this paper, we have discussed various issues affecting the design of a wireless sensor network. This provides the readers various research issues in designing a wireless sensor network.

  11. Wireless Data Acquisition of Transient Signals for Mobile Spectrometry Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Peter; Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2016-05-01

    Wireless data acquisition using smartphones or handhelds offers increased mobility, it provides reduced size and weight, it has low electrical power requirements, and (in some cases) it has an ability to access the internet. Thus, it is well suited for mobile spectrometry applications using miniaturized, field-portable spectrometers, or detectors for chemical analysis in the field (i.e., on-site). There are four main wireless communications standards that can be used for wireless data acquisition, namely ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and UWB (ultra-wide band). These are briefly reviewed and are evaluated for applicability to data acquisition of transient signals (i.e., time-domain) in the field (i.e., on-site) from a miniaturized, field-portable photomultiplier tube detector and from a photodiode array detector installed in a miniaturized, field-portable fiber optic spectrometer. These are two of the most widely used detectors for optical measurements in the ultraviolet-visible range of the spectrum. A miniaturized, 3D-printed, battery-operated microplasma-on-a-chip was used for generation of transient optical emission signals. Elemental analysis from liquid microsamples, a microplasma, and a handheld or a smartphone will be used as examples. Development and potential applicability of wireless data acquisition of transient optical emission signals for taking part of the lab to the sample types of mobile, field-portable spectrometry applications will be discussed. The examples presented are drawn from past and ongoing work in the authors' laboratory. A handheld or a smartphone were used as the mobile computing devices of choice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  13. Wireless capsule endoscopy: Perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

  14. Wirelessly powered sensor networks and computational RFID

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Wireless Identification and Sensing Platform (WISP) is the first of a new class of RF-powered sensing and computing systems.  Rather than being powered by batteries, these sensor systems are powered by radio waves that are either deliberately broadcast or ambient.  Enabled by ongoing exponential improvements in the energy efficiency of microelectronics, RF-powered sensing and computing is rapidly moving along a trajectory from impossible (in the recent past), to feasible (today), toward practical and commonplace (in the near future). This book is a collection of key papers on RF-powered sensing and computing systems including the WISP.  Several of the papers grew out of the WISP Challenge, a program in which Intel Corporation donated WISPs to academic applicants who proposed compelling WISP-based projects.  The book also includes papers presented at the first WISP Summit, a workshop held in Berkeley, CA in association with the ACM Sensys conference, as well as other relevant papers. The book provides ...

  15. A Survey of Routing Issues and Associated Protocols in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks are a newly emerging wireless technology in which small size sensors with limited energy and limited memory and bandwidth are deployed in deep sea water and various monitoring operations like tactical surveillance, environmental monitoring, and data collection are performed through these tiny sensors. Underwater wireless sensor networks are used for the exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, flood or disaster prevention, tactical surveillance systems, and unmanned underwater vehicles. Sensor nodes consist of a small memory, a central processing unit, and an antenna. Underwater networks are much different from terrestrial sensor networks as radio waves cannot be used in underwater wireless sensor networks. Acoustic channels are used for communication in deep sea water. Acoustic signals have many limitations, such as limited bandwidth, higher end-to-end delay, network path loss, higher propagation delay, and dynamic topology. Usually, these limitations result in higher energy consumption with a smaller number of packets delivered. The main aim nowadays is to operate sensor nodes having a smaller battery for a longer time in the network. This survey has discussed the state-of-the-art localization based and localization-free routing protocols. Routing associated issues in the area of underwater wireless sensor networks have also been discussed.

  16. Development of an integrated module using a wireless accelerometer and ECG sensor to monitor activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbum; Lee, Myoungho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) and acceleration detector powered by an imbedded battery. The module has a connector for a three-lead ECG socket and an embedded three-axis accelerometer. It also has an a secure digital (SD) memory slot and can store all data with 2 GB memory. The system transmits the data using a wireless module to measure ECG and an activity transition value. Using the correlation between accelerometer signal and ECG signal, the system can determine the activity assessment precisely and also detect cardiovascular abnormality.

  17. Localization of Energy Harvesting Empowered Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is developed for energy harvesting underwater optical wireless sensor networks (EH-UOWSNs), where the optical noise sources and channel impairments of seawater pose significant challenges for range estimation. Energy limitation is another major problem due to the limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of an underwater sensor node. In the proposed framework, sensor nodes with insufficient battery, harvest the energy and starts communicating once it has sufficient energy storage. Network localization is carried out by measuring the RSSs of active nodes, which are modeled based on the underwater optical communication channel characteristics. Thereafter, block kernel matrices are computed for the RSS based range measurements. Unlike the traditional shortest-path approach, the proposed technique reduces the shortest path estimation for each block kernel matrix. Once the complete block kernel matrices are available, a closed form localization technique is developed to find the location of every optical sensor node in the network. Furthermore, an analytical expression for Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to compare the localization performance of the proposed technique. Finally, extensive simulations show that the proposed technique outperforms the well-known network localization techniques.

  18. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  19. An approach to utilize a grid of EMF potentiometric CO 2 sensors in a ultra low power wireless sensor networ k

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.M. van Rijn; Ing. Erik Puik; J.F. van der Bent

    2010-01-01

    from the article: The demand for a wireless CO2 solution is ever increasing. One of the biggest problems with the majority of commercial available CO2 sensors is the high energy consumption which makes them unsuitable for battery operation. Possible candidates for CO2

  20. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Regeneration of alkaline batteries. It is ecologically and economically acceptable; Regenerierung von Alkalibatterien. Sie ist oekologisch und oekonomisch sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinniker, R. [Inst. fuer Elektronik, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Zirelco AG, Dulliken (Switzerland)

    1996-07-12

    In Switzerland, research on rechargeable alkaline batteries was started in 1984 by Leclanche at Yverdon-les-Bains, and a patent application was made in 1986. However, the project was abandoned at that stage until the recent success of Rayovac`s renewal batteries in the USA in 1994. The development work was then continued. Leclanche had the advantage of having had a patent granted for an extremely simple and efficient battery charger which comprises a voltage limiter for optimum battery charging. In spring 1996, Leclanche was the first European battery producer to introduce a regenerable alkaline battery on the Swiss market: Boomerang,the alkaline battery which can be used over 25 times (with the marketing slogan: `Power that comes back`). For the time being, it is available only in size AA (intermediate size). It is to replace non-rechargeable batteries and therefore has a very high initial capacity (comparable to that of normal alkaline batteries) and a faster capacity decrease. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] In der Schweiz wurden 1984 bei Leclanche in Yverdon-les-Bains Forschungsarbeiten zur Entwicklung einer eigenen wiederaufladbaren Alkalibatterie aufgenommen, und 1986 konnte der damalige Forschungsleiter und Batteriepionier Paul Rueetschi eine aufladbare Alkalibatterie zum Patent anmelden. Das ganze Projekt wurde dann allerdings schubladisiert. Die grosse Beachtung der Aktivitaeten des Autors zur Wiederaufladung von Alkalibatterien in der Oeffentlichkeit und der Erfolg von Rayovac mit den wiederverwendbaren Renewal-Batterien in den USA hat 1994 zu einer neuen Lage gefuehrt. Die Schubladen wurden wieder geoeffnet und die Entwicklung mit neuem Elan zu Ende gefuehrt - nicht zuletzt auch deshalb, weil mit der vom Autor entwickelten und zum Patent angemeldeten, extrem einfachen und effizienten Ladeschaltung auch ein optimales Ladegeraet zur Verfuegung stand. Dieses arbeitet mit Spannungsbegrenzung und laedt damit die Batterien optimal. Im Fruehling 1996 konnte schliesslich

  2. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  3. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  4. CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive examination of CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems. Covers design challenges, fundamental issues of ultra-low power wireless communications, radio-frequency power harvesting, and advanced design techniques, and more.

  5. CODE: Description Language for Wireless Collaborating Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces CODE, a Description Language for Wireless Collaborating Objects (WCO), with the specific aim of enabling service management in smart environments. WCO extend the traditional model of wireless sensor networks by transferring additional intelligence and responsibility from the

  6. Battery Cell Balancing Optimisation for Battery Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, M. S.; Toha, S. F.; Kamisan, N. A.; Hashim, N. N. W. N.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Battery cell balancing in every electrical component such as home electronic equipment and electric vehicle is very important to extend battery run time which is simplified known as battery life. The underlying solution to equalize the balance of cell voltage and SOC between the cells when they are in complete charge. In order to control and extend the battery life, the battery cell balancing is design and manipulated in such way as well as shorten the charging process. Active and passive cell balancing strategies as a unique hallmark enables the balancing of the battery with the excellent performances configuration so that the charging process will be faster. The experimental and simulation covers an analysis of how fast the battery can balance for certain time. The simulation based analysis is conducted to certify the use of optimisation in active or passive cell balancing to extend battery life for long periods of time.

  7. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  8. How Effective is Routing for Wireless Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    world examples of multi-hop wireless networks. Today, almost all of our wireless devices communicate directly with a base station (such as WiFi or...a link towards the next waypoint. Since routing Distribution A: Public Release. This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Program...prevents these schemes from working well in a wireless environment. The idea of a link is borrowed from wired networks. In a wireless network, there is no

  9. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  10. Multisource and Battery-free Energy Harvesting Architecture for Aeronautics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhecke, Claude; Assouère, Laurent; Wang, Anqing; Durand-Estèbe, Paul; Caignet, Fabrice; Dilhac, Jean-Marie; Bafleur, Marise

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We suggest an innovative architecture for an efficient energy generator devoted to the powering of a wireless sensor network deployed for Aircraft Health Monitoring. This battery-free generator captures energy from its environment (transient thermal gradients as a main source, and vibrations as a secondary source allowing early biasing of the generator) and stores this energy in ultracapacitors. In this way, this multi-source architecture benefits from the synergy betw...

  11. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  12. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  13. TRENDS IN THE CONVERGENCE OF WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel SORA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s technological market, there are many types of networks. These networks include wireless personal area networks (WPANs, wireless local area networks (WLANs, wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs, and cellular networks. A vision of a future convergence of networks envisaged for WPANs, WLANs, WiMax, and cellular networks is presented in this paper.

  14. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  15. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  16. [Development of Bluetooth wireless sensors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, C; Schwaibold, M; Roth, H; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication could help to overcome current obstacles in medical devices and could enable medical services to offer completely new scenarios in health care. The Bluetooth technology which is the upcoming global market leader in wireless communication turned out to be perfectly suited not only for consumer market products but also in the medical environment [1]. It offers a low power, low cost connection in the medium range of 1-100 m with a bandwidth of currently 723.2 kbaud. This paper describes the development of a wireless ECG device and a Pulse Oximeter. Equipped with a Bluetooth port, the measurement devices are enabled to transmit data between the sensor and a Bluetooth-monitor. Therefore, CSR's Bluetooth protocol embedded two-processor and embedded single-processor architecture has been used.

  17. Next Generation Intelligent Wireless Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    could think the wireless revolution is over. However, future connectivity will be wireless and ubiquitous. Therefore the future of wireless infrastructures seems to be in front of a remarkable evolution as this paper will describe. With a vision of creating continuous seamless user connectivity as well...... as having physical devices/things connected through the wide spread usage of sensor and RFID near field communication technologies the network will increase in size with a order of magnitude compared to today. Additionally having the widespread Internet protocol technologies as a fundamental building block...... efficient ways of optimizing the spectrum usage are necessary. The extent of IP-based sensor networks with explode due to the rapid evolution in the relationship between processing power, cost, power consumption and physical size....

  18. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  19. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  20. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    batteries for 3 wheelchairs , commercial marine, commercial general aviation aircraft (corporate and private airplanes - not commercial jetliners), and...hour battery and pilot plan production. Wheelchairs are the designated preliminary test application for this battery with the hope of being able to...and Rockwell. ARPA also has contracted with Photovoltaics regarding research on solar charging batteries. 3 8.13.6 DOE 3 DOE is conducting research on

  1. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  2. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  3. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  4. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  5. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  7. Comparative bioleaching of metals from pulverized and non-pulverized PCBs of cell phone charger: advantages of non-pulverized PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vyenkatesh; Shah, Neha; Wakte, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Anita; Khobragade, Rahul; Naphade, Bhushan; Shaikh, Sajid; Deshmukh, Arvind; Adhapure, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Sample inhomogeneity is a severe issue in printed circuit boards especially when we are comparing the bioleaching efficiency. To avoid the ambiguous results obtained due to inhomogeneity in PCBs, 12 similar cell phone chargers (of renowned company) having same make and batch number were collected from scrap market. PCBs obtained from them were used in present studies. Out of these 12, three PCBs were used separately for chemical analysis of PCBs with prior acid digestion in aqua regia. It was found that, 10.8, 68.0, and 710.9 mg/l of Zn, Pb, and Cu were present in it, respectively. Six PCBs were used for bioleaching experiment with two variations, pulverized and non-pulverized. Though the pulverized sample have shown better leaching than non-pulverized one, former has some disadvantages if overall recycling of e-waste (metallic and nonmetallic fraction) is to be addressed. At the end of leaching experiments, copper was recovered using a simple setup of electrodeposition and 92.85% recovery was attained. The acidophiles involved in bioleaching were identified by culture dependent and culture independent techniques such as DGGE and species specific primers in PCR.

  8. OFDM systems for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Narasimhamurthy, Adarsh

    2010-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems are widely used in the standards for digital audio/video broadcasting, WiFi and WiMax. Being a frequency-domain approach to communications, OFDM has important advantages in dealing with the frequency-selective nature of high data rate wireless communication channels. As the needs for operating with higher data rates become more pressing, OFDM systems have emerged as an effective physical-layer solution.This short monograph is intended as a tutorial which highlights the deleterious aspects of the wireless channel and presents why OFDM is

  9. Artificial intelligence in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rondeau, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    This cutting-edge resource offers practical overview of cognitive radio, a paradigm for wireless communications in which a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters. The alteration of parameters is based on the active monitoring of several factors in the external and internal radio environment. This book offers a detailed description of cognitive radio and its individual parts. Practitioners learn how the basic processing elements and their capabilities are implemented as modular components. Moreover, the book explains how each component can be developed and t

  10. Embracing interference in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gollakota, Shyamnath

    2014-01-01

    The wireless medium is a shared resource. If nearby devices transmit at thesame time, their signals interfere, resulting in a collision. In traditionalnetworks, collisions cause the loss of the transmitted information. For thisreason, wireless networks have been designed with the assumption thatinterference is intrinsically harmful and must be avoided.This book, a revised version of the author's award-winning Ph.D.dissertation, takes an alternate approach: Instead of viewing interferenceas an inherently counterproductive phenomenon that should to be avoided, wedesign practical systems that tra

  11. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...

  12. WIRELESS FOR A NUCLEAR FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D; Joe Cordaro, J

    2007-03-28

    The introduction of wireless technology into a government site where nuclear material is processed and stored brings new meaning to the term ''harsh environment''. At SRNL, we are attempting to address not only the harsh RF and harsh physical environment common to industrial facilities, but also the ''harsh'' regulatory environment necessitated by the nature of the business at our site. We will discuss our concepts, processes, and expected outcomes in our attempts to surmount the roadblocks and reap the benefits of wireless in our ''factory''.

  13. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  14. Emerging wireless networks concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makaya, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An authoritative collection of research papers and surveys, Emerging Wireless Networks: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications explores recent developments in next-generation wireless networks (NGWNs) and mobile broadband networks technologies, including 4G (LTE, WiMAX), 3G (UMTS, HSPA), WiFi, mobile ad hoc networks, mesh networks, and wireless sensor networks. Focusing on improving the performance of wireless networks and provisioning better quality of service and quality of experience for users, it reports on the standards of different emerging wireless networks, applications, and service fr

  15. Principles of wireless access and localization

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlavan, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive, encompassing and accessible text examining a wide range of key Wireless Networking and Localization technologies This book provides a unified treatment of issues related to all wireless access and wireless localization techniques.  The book reflects principles of design and deployment of infrastructure for wireless access and localization for wide, local, and personal networking.   Description of wireless access methods includes design and deployment of traditional TDMA and CDMA technologies and emerging Long Term Evolution (LTE) techniques for wide area cellular networks, the

  16. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikookar, Homayoun; Prasad, Ramjee

    communications. Due to tutorial nature of the book it can also be adopted as a textbook on the subject in the Telecommunications Engineering curriculum. Problems at the end of each chapter extend the reader's understanding of the subject. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications will aslo...... be useful for practicing engineers from industry who deal with the wireless systems that are designed and analyzed with the UWB technique.......Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology is the cutting edge technology for wireless communications with a wide range of applications. In Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications UWB principles and technologies for wireless communications are explained clearly. Key issues such as UWB...

  17. Algorithms for energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.

    2007-01-21

    The recent advances in microsensor and semiconductor technology have opened a new field within computer science: the networking of small-sized sensors which are capable of sensing, processing, and communicating. Such wireless sensor networks offer new applications in the areas of habitat and environment monitoring, disaster control and operation, military and intelligence control, object tracking, video surveillance, traffic control, as well as in health care and home automation. It is likely that the deployed sensors will be battery-powered, which will limit the energy capacity significantly. Thus, energy efficiency becomes one of the main challenges that need to be taken into account, and the design of energy-efficient algorithms is a major contribution of this thesis. As the wireless communication in the network is one of the main energy consumers, we first consider in detail the characteristics of wireless communication. By using the embedded sensor board (ESB) platform recently developed by the Free University of Berlin, we analyze the means of forward error correction and propose an appropriate resync mechanism, which improves the communication between two ESB nodes substantially. Afterwards, we focus on the forwarding of data packets through the network. We present the algorithms energy-efficient forwarding (EEF), lifetime-efficient forwarding (LEF), and energy-efficient aggregation forwarding (EEAF). While EEF is designed to maximize the number of data bytes delivered per energy unit, LEF additionally takes into account the residual energy of forwarding nodes. In so doing, LEF further prolongs the lifetime of the network. Energy savings due to data aggregation and in-network processing are exploited by EEAF. Besides single-link forwarding, in which data packets are sent to only one forwarding node, we also study the impact of multi-link forwarding, which exploits the broadcast characteristics of the wireless medium by sending packets to several (potential

  18. Wireless Medical Devices for MRI-Guided Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Madhav

    Wireless techniques can play an important role in next-generation, image-guided surgical techniques with integration strategies being the key. We present our investigations on three wireless applications. First, we validate a position and orientation independent method to noninvasively monitor wireless power delivery using current perturbation measurements of switched load modulation of the RF carrier. This is important for safe and efficient powering without using bulky batteries or invasive cables. Use of MRI transmit RF pulses for simultaneous powering is investigated in the second part. We develop system models for the MRI transmit chain, wireless powering circuits and a typical load. Detailed analysis and validation of nonlinear and cascaded modeling strategies are performed, useful for decoupled optimization of the harvester coil and RF-DC converter. MRI pulse sequences are investigated for suitability for simultaneous powering. Simulations indicate that a 1.8V, 2 mA load can be powered with a 100% duty cycle using a 30° fGRE sequence, despite the RF duty cycle being 44 mW for a 30° flip angle, consistent with model predictions. Investigations on imaging artifacts indicates that distortion is mostly restricted to within the physical span of the harvester coil in the imaging volume, with the homogeneous B1+ transmit field providing positioning flexibility to minimize this for simultaneous powering. The models are potentially valuable in designing wireless powering solutions for implantable devices with simultaneous real-time imaging in MRI-guided surgical suites. Finally in the last section, we model endovascular MRI coil coupling during RF transmit. FEM models for a series-resonant multimode coil and quadrature birdcage coil fields are developed and computationally efficient, circuit and full-wave simulations are used to model inductive coupling. The Bloch Siegert B1 mapping sequence is used for validating at 24, 28 and 34 microT background excitation

  19. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the key enabler for a myriad of applications, from low-power RFIDs, and wireless sensors, to wirelessly charged electric vehicles, and even massive power transmission from space solar cells. One of the major challenges in designing implantable biomedical devices is the size and lifetime of the battery. Thus, replacing the battery with a miniaturized wireless power receiver (WPRx) facilitates designing sustainable biomedical implants in smaller volumes for sentient medical applications. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a miniaturized, fully integrated, wirelessly powered implantable sensor with on-chip antenna, designed and implemented in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process. As a batteryless device, it can be implanted once inside the body with no need for further invasive surgeries to replace batteries. The proposed single-chip solution is designed for intraocular pressure monitoring (IOPM), and can serve as a sustainable platform for implantable devices or IoT nodes. A custom setup is developed to test the chip in a saline solution with electrical properties similar to those of the aqueous humor of the eye. The proposed chip, in this eye-like setup, is wirelessly charged to 1V from a 5W transmitter 3cm away from the chip. In the second part, we propose a self-biased, differential rectifier with enhanced efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for the medical implant communication service (MICS) band at 433MHz. It demonstrates an efficiency improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and a dynamic range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm input power for 1V output voltage and a peak PCE of 65% are achieved for a 50k load. In the third part, we propose a wide-range, differential RF-to-DC power converter using an adaptive, self-biasing technique. The proposed architecture doubles

  20. Wireless Ways: Business and Personal Applications of Wireless Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joe

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Art Technology Group (ATG), an electronic business and customer management company, and the work they have done with wireless technology. Highlights include designing virtual offices and supporting the resulting virtual community; the mobility it allows; problems with bandwidth; and display issues. (LRW)

  1. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  2. Low-cost wireless neural recording system and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeffrey A; Borna, Amir; Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin; Lewandowski, Brian; Schmidt, Marc; Najafi, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    We describe a flexible wireless neural recording system, which is comprised of a 15-channel analog FM transmitter, digital receiver and custom user interface software for data acquisition. The analog front-end is constructed from commercial off the shelf (COTS) components and weighs 6.3g (including batteries) and is capable of transmitting over 24 hours up to a range over 3m with a 25microV(rms) in-vivo noise floor. The Software Defined Radio (SDR) and the acquisition software provide a data acquisition platform with real time data display and can be customized based on the specifications of various experiments. The described system was characterized with in-vitro and in-vivo experiments and the results are presented.

  3. Event-triggered cooperative target tracking in wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kelin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the issues of low communication bandwidth supply and limited battery capacity are very crucial for wireless sensor networks, this paper focuses on the problem of event-triggered cooperative target tracking based on set-membership information filtering. We study some fundamental properties of the set-membership information filter with multiple sensor measurements. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the set-membership information filter, under which the boundedness of the outer ellipsoidal approximation set of the estimation means is guaranteed. Second, the equivalence property between the parallel and sequential versions of the set-membership information filter is presented. Finally, the results are applied to a 1D event-triggered target tracking scenario in which the negative information is exploited in the sense that the measurements that do not satisfy the triggering conditions are modelled as set-membership measurements. The tracking performance of the proposed method is validated with extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. A Wireless Flexible Sensorized Insole for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Crea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform.

  5. A Wireless Flexible Sensorized Insole for Gait Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Simona; Donati, Marco; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform. PMID:24412902

  6. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  7. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eung Jun; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Jeon, Seokhee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  8. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  9. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  10. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-05-05

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks.

  11. Opportunities and Challenges for Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Mahmood Jawad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional power supply cords have become less important because they prevent large-scale utilization and mobility. In addition, the use of batteries as a substitute for power cords is not an optimal solution because batteries have a short lifetime, thereby increasing the cost, weight, and ecological footprint of the hardware implementation. Their recharging or replacement is impractical and incurs operational costs. Recent progress has allowed electromagnetic wave energy to be transferred from power sources (i.e., transmitters to destinations (i.e., receivers wirelessly, the so-called wireless power transfer (WPT technique. New developments in WPT technique motivate new avenues of research in different applications. Recently, WPT has been used in mobile phones, electric vehicles, medical implants, wireless sensor network, unmanned aerial vehicles, and so on. This review highlights up-to-date studies that are specific to near-field WPT, which include the classification, comparison, and potential applications of these techniques in the real world. In addition, limitations and challenges of these techniques are highlighted at the end of the article.

  12. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikookar, Homayoun; Prasad, Ramjee

    Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology is the cutting edge technology for wireless communications with a wide range of applications. In Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications UWB principles and technologies for wireless communications are explained clearly. Key issues such as UWB...... wireless channels, interference, signal processing as well as applications and standardization activities are addressed. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications provides easy-to-understand material to (graduate) students and researchers working in the field of commercial UWB wireless...... communications. Due to tutorial nature of the book it can also be adopted as a textbook on the subject in the Telecommunications Engineering curriculum. Problems at the end of each chapter extend the reader's understanding of the subject. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications will aslo...

  13. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikookar, Homayoun; Prasad, Ramjee

    communications. Due to tutorial nature of the book it can also be adopted as a textbook on the subject in the Telecommunications Engineering curriculum. Problems at the end of each chapter extend the reader's understanding of the subject. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications will aslo......Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology is the cutting edge technology for wireless communications with a wide range of applications. In Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications UWB principles and technologies for wireless communications are explained clearly. Key issues such as UWB...... wireless channels, interference, signal processing as well as applications and standardization activities are addressed. Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications provides easy-to-understand material to (graduate) students and researchers working in the field of commercial UWB wireless...

  14. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  15. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  16. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  17. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET...... the worst conversion efficiency (25%), a minimum of 214 ± 25 mW of electrical energy per second could be generated. This amount exceeds the energy consumed by the wireless sensors that can be used to gather parameters describing animal behavior such as neck and head movement. This study suggests...... are not easily accessible. Therefore, exploring novel sources of energy generation rather than operating electronics only on limited power supplies such as batteries is a major challenge. Monitoring free-ranging animal behavior is an application in which the entities (animals) within the MANET are not readily...

  18. Rodent scope: a user-configurable digital wireless telemetry system for freely behaving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David; Kliese, Russell; Windels, Francois; Nolan, Christopher; Stratton, Peter; Sah, Pankaj; Wiles, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz-3 kHz) and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz-3 kHz). Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m.

  19. Rodent scope: a user-configurable digital wireless telemetry system for freely behaving animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz-3 kHz and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz-3 kHz. Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m.

  20. Power source for wireless sensors in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddis, Sherif; Schwesinger, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present investigations on wireless sensors for fluid control inside a pipe. Autarkic sensors are in the technical trend. They are typically connected with a transceiver unit for data transmission. Sensors usually need a lower amount of energy than data transceivers. Therefore, they are commonly supplied via wires or batteries with electricity. With common technologies, this request leads to high requirements on tightness in liquids since poor sealing could easily lead to failures. Replacement of batteries inside pipes is complicated and almost accompanied by a flow interruption. The application of energy harvesters as power supply is therefore a good alternative. In our studies we used flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters of PVDF (Poly-Vinylidene-Di-Fluoride). All harvesting units consist of piezoelectric PVDF-foils as active layers and Aluminum-foils as electrodes. The layers were stacked alternating on each other and wound to a spool. A LDPE-film wraps the spool and prevents the inflow of liquids. The device has following parameters: No. of windings: 4 in air, 4, 5, 7 in water Dimensions: 15 mm Ø 22mm Materials: PDVF: 25μm Aluminimum: 6μm, LDPE: 25μm A ring shaped bluff body was placed inside the pipe to induce turbulence in the fluid stream. As the harvesters have been arranged downstream of the bluff body, they were forced to oscillate independent of the media. In each case, deformation of the active layers led to a polarization and a separation of electrical charges. Experiments were carried out in a wind channel as well as in a water pipe. In air, the spool oscillates with a frequency of about 30Hz, at a wind speed of about 7m/s. A -Voltage of about 4V (peak-peak) was measured. This delivers in case of power adjustment, power values of about 0.54μW. In water, the velocity of the fluid was limited to nearly one tenth. Oscillation starts only at a water speed above 0.6m/s. The average oscillation frequency is about 18Hz. At a velocity

  1. Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various architectures have been developed for wireless sensor networks. Many of them leave to the programmer important concepts as the way in which the inter-task communication and dynamic reconfigurations are addressed. In this paper we describe the characteristics of a new architecture we proposed

  2. Wireless Networks: a brief introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wireless communication: What? Why? How many types? What is cell? Is it different from fixed landline structure? 1G systems: FDMA/FDD and Analog FM ... CDMA: IS-95 (also known as CDMA-one). 3G systems: High data rate and wideband communication. Internet access, Voice over IP (VoIP), high network capacity etc.

  3. Approximate Inference for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten

    This thesis investigates signal processing techniques for wireless communication receivers. The aim is to improve the performance or reduce the computationally complexity of these, where the primary focus area is cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) (and extensions...

  4. Adaptability in dynamic wireless networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, V.G.

    2012-01-01

    Software for networked embedded systems faces several challenges when the deployed network is subject to changing circumstances during operation. Typically, inter-node communication and network connectivity are two crucial aspects that are directly affected by dynamics such as failing wireless links

  5. EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS LINKS .... less reliable predictors of link quality. They recognised that the accuracy of the results of their work was, however, affected by delay im- posed by measurement window and the period of the ... a digital computer and analysing the results. Although.

  6. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-06-11

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation.

  7. Gigabit Wireless for Network Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedel, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Uninterrupted, high-bandwidth network connectivity is crucial for higher education. Colleges and universities increasingly adopt gigabit wireless solutions because of their fiber-equivalent performance, quick implementation, and significant return on investment. For just those reasons, Rush University Medical Center switched from free space optics…

  8. Breaking Free with Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, John

    2002-01-01

    Discusses wireless local area networks (LANs) which typically consist of laptop computers that connect to fixed access points via infrared or radio signals. Topics include wide area networks; personal area networks; problems, including limitations of available bandwidth, interference, and security concerns; use in education; interoperability;…

  9. Securing underwater wireless communication networks

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Aladrén, Mari Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Underwater wireless communication networks are particularly vulnerable to malicious attacks due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delays, and low bandwidth of acoustic channels. The unique characteristics of the underwater acoustic communication channel, and the differences between underwater sensor networks and their ground-based counterparts require the development of efficient and reliable security mechanisms. In this article, a compl...

  10. Data centric wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The vision of wirteless sensing systems requires the development of devices and technologies that can be pervasive without being intrusive. The basic component of such a smart environment will be a small node with sensing and wireless communications capabilities, able to organize itself flexibly

  11. Wireless Crew Communication Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Ronald D.; Romero, Andy; Juge, David

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing discussions with crew currently onboard the ISS as well as the crew debriefs from completed ISS missions indicate that issues associated with the lack of wireless crew communication results in increased crew task completion times and lower productivity, creates cable management issues, and increases crew frustration.

  12. Design And Construction Of Wireless Charging System Using Inductive Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Lam Mung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless charging system described by using the method of inductive coupling. In this project oscillation circuit converts DC energy to AC energytransmitter coil to transmit magnetic field by passing frequency and then induce the receiver coil. The properties of Induction coupling are wavemagnetic field-wideband rangevery shortcm efficiencyhight and operation frequencyLF-bandseveral handred kHz.The project shows as a small charging for 5V battery of phone in this method. The system bases on coupling magnetic field then designed and constructed as two parts. There are transmitter part and receiver part. The transmitter coil transmitter part transmits coupling magnetic field to receiver coil receiver part by passing frequency at about 1.67MHz. The Amperes law Biot-Savart law and Faraday law are used to calculate the inductive coupling between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The calculation of this law shows how many power transfer in receiver part when how many distance between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The system is safe for users and neighbouring electronic devices. To get more accurate wireless charging system it needs to change the design of the following keywords.

  13. Design of Networked Low-Cost Wireless Noise Measurement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka KIVELÄ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise is considered as one of the big issues in environmental pollutions. Typical noise sources like traffic can have great influence on wellbeing and healthy. In this paper, we report the sensor function design and implementation of a wireless sensor network application for measuring environmental acoustic noise. The sensing system is built on Atmega128 and CC2420 platform. The protocol stack is based on CiNet stack with a global synchronization scheme and supports multi-hop communications. Strict filtering function specified by ITU-R 468 (namely A-weighting is followed. Both the indoor and outdoor test results were compared with a standard sound level meter and showed a less than ± 2.1 dB mean differences in both short-term and long-term measurement. Power consumption has been measured that a single AA-type battery can sustain the application. Comparing to the traditional noise measurement method, the designed wireless sensor network solution is much lower in cost.

  14. A Wireless 32-Channel Implantable Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Routhu, Sudhamayee; Moon, Kee S; Lee, Sung Q; Youm, WooSub; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2016-09-24

    All neural information systems (NIS) rely on sensing neural activity to supply commands and control signals for computers, machines and a variety of prosthetic devices. Invasive systems achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by eliminating the volume conduction problems caused by tissue and bone. An implantable brain machine interface (BMI) using intracortical electrodes provides excellent detection of a broad range of frequency oscillatory activities through the placement of a sensor in direct contact with cortex. This paper introduces a compact-sized implantable wireless 32-channel bidirectional brain machine interface (BBMI) to be used with freely-moving primates. The system is designed to monitor brain sensorimotor rhythms and present current stimuli with a configurable duration, frequency and amplitude in real time to the brain based on the brain activity report. The battery is charged via a novel ultrasonic wireless power delivery module developed for efficient delivery of power into a deeply-implanted system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo tests on a behaving primate to record the local field potential (LFP) oscillation and stimulate the target area at the same time.

  15. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-11-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers.

  16. A Wireless 32-Channel Implantable Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Su

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available All neural information systems (NIS rely on sensing neural activity to supply commands and control signals for computers, machines and a variety of prosthetic devices. Invasive systems achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by eliminating the volume conduction problems caused by tissue and bone. An implantable brain machine interface (BMI using intracortical electrodes provides excellent detection of a broad range of frequency oscillatory activities through the placement of a sensor in direct contact with cortex. This paper introduces a compact-sized implantable wireless 32-channel bidirectional brain machine interface (BBMI to be used with freely-moving primates. The system is designed to monitor brain sensorimotor rhythms and present current stimuli with a configurable duration, frequency and amplitude in real time to the brain based on the brain activity report. The battery is charged via a novel ultrasonic wireless power delivery module developed for efficient delivery of power into a deeply-implanted system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo tests on a behaving primate to record the local field potential (LFP oscillation and stimulate the target area at the same time.

  17. Evaluation of SVR: A Wireless Sensor Network Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network

  18. A Passive and Wireless Sensor for Bone Plate Strain Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a sensor for monitoring bone plate strain in real time. The detected bone plate strain could be used for judging the healing state of fractures in patients. The sensor consists of a magnetoelastic material, which can be wirelessly connected and passively embedded. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sensor, a tibia-bone plate-screw (TBS model was established using the finite element analysis method. A variation of the bone plate strain was obtained via this model. A goat hindquarter tibia was selected as the bone fracture model in the experiment. The tibia was fixed on a high precision load platform and an external force was applied. Bone plate strain variation during the bone fracture healing process was acquired with sensing coils. Simulation results indicated that bone plate strain decreases as the bone gradually heals, which is consistent with the finite element analysis results. This validated the soundness of the sensor reported here. This sensor has wireless connections, no in vivo battery requirement, and long-term embedding. These results can be used not only for clinical practices of bone fracture healing, but also for bone fracture treatment and rehabilitation equipment design.

  19. Communication techniques and challenges for wireless food quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Pötsch, Thomas; Lloyd, Chanaka

    2014-06-13

    Remote measurement of product core temperature is an important prerequisite to improve the cool chain of food products and reduce losses. This paper examines and shows possible solutions to technical challenges that still hinder practical applications of wireless sensor networks in the field of food transport supervision. The high signal attenuation by water-containing products limits the communication range to less than 0.5 m for the commonly used 2.4 GHz radio chips. By theoretical analysis of the dependency of signal attenuation on the operating frequency, we show that the signal attenuation can be largely reduced by the use of 433 MHz or 866 MHz devices, but forwarding of messages over multiple hops inside a sensor network is mostly unavoidable to guarantee full coverage of a packed container. Communication protocols have to provide compatibility with widely accepted standards for integration into the global Internet, which has been achieved by programming an implementation of the constrained application protocol for wireless sensor nodes and integrating into IPv6-based networks. The sensor's battery lifetime can be extended by optimizing communication protocols and by in-network pre-processing of the sensor data. The feasibility of remote freight supervision was demonstrated by our full-scale 'Intelligent Container' prototype.

  20. Miniature wireless recording and stimulation system for rodent behavioural testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, R. C.; Dempster, J.; Pratt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Elucidation of neural activity underpinning rodent behaviour has traditionally been hampered by the use of tethered systems and human involvement. Furthermore the combination of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) and various neural recording modalities can lead to complex and time-consuming laboratory setups. For studies of this type, novel tools are required to drive forward this research. Approach. A miniature wireless system weighing 8.5 g (including battery) was developed for rodent use that combined multichannel DBS and local-field potential (LFP) recordings. Its performance was verified in a working memory task that involved 4-channel fronto-hippocampal LFP recording and bilateral constant-current fimbria-fornix DBS. The system was synchronised with video-tracking for extraction of LFP at discrete task phases, and DBS was activated intermittently at discrete phases of the task. Main results. In addition to having a fast set-up time, the system could reliably transmit continuous LFP at over 8 hours across 3-5 m distances. During the working memory task, LFP pertaining to discrete task phases was extracted and compared with well-known neural correlates of active exploratory behaviour in rodents. DBS could be wirelessly activated/deactivated at any part of the experiment during EEG recording and transmission, allowing for a seamless integration of this modality. Significance. The wireless system combines a small size with a level of robustness and versatility that can greatly simplify rodent behavioural experiments involving EEG recording and DBS. Designed for versatility and simplicity, the small size and low-cost of the system and its receiver allow for enhanced portability, fast experimental setup times, and pave the way for integration with more complex behaviour.

  1. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... No. 812-14066] ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... (``Act''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b..., reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing wireless...

  2. Development and Successful Application of a Tree Movement Energy Harvesting Device, to Power a Wireless Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knight

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly more common as a means to sense, measure, record and transmit data for scientific and engineering evaluation, remotely and autonomously. Usually, remotely located sensor nodes are powered by batteries which are recharged by solar or wind energy harvesters. Sometimes nodes are located in areas where these forms of energy harvesting are not possible due to local conditions, such as under the canopy of a forest. This article outlines the design and testing of a device capable of harvesting energy from tree movement, and shows the device powering a wireless sensor node continuously. The device uses the force and displacement of the movement of a tree trunk (of a 6 m tall tree to drive an electromagnetic generator that recharges a nickel metal hydride battery. The battery stores the energy from which a ~0.5 mW wireless sensor node is powered continuously. This demonstrated method of energy harvesting may allow the placement and powering of nodes in locations previously not possible.

  3. Average Throughput Performance of Myopic Policy in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Omer Melih; Demirekler, Mubeccel

    2017-09-26

    This paper considers a single-hop wireless sensor network where a fusion center collects data from M energy harvesting wireless sensors. The harvested energy is stored losslessly in an infinite-capacity battery at each sensor. In each time slot, the fusion center schedules K sensors for data transmission over K orthogonal channels. The fusion center does not have direct knowledge on the battery states of sensors, or the statistics of their energy harvesting processes. The fusion center only has information of the outcomes of previous transmission attempts. It is assumed that the sensors are data backlogged, there is no battery leakage and the communication is error-free. An energy harvesting sensor can transmit data to the fusion center whenever being scheduled only if it has enough energy for data transmission. We investigate average throughput of Round-Robin type myopic policy both analytically and numerically under an average reward (throughput) criterion. We show that Round-Robin type myopic policy achieves optimality for some class of energy harvesting processes although it is suboptimal for a broad class of energy harvesting processes.

  4. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  5. Wireless RF communication in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Inke; Ricciardi, Lucas; Hall, Leonard; Hansen, Hedley; Varadan, Vijay; Bertram, Chris; Maddocks, Simon; Enderling, Stefan; Saint, David; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2008-02-01

    This paper focuses on wireless transcutaneous RF communication in biomedical applications. It discusses current technology, restrictions and applications and also illustrates possible future developments. It focuses on the application in biotelemetry where the system consists of a transmitter and a receiver with a transmission link in between. The transmitted information can either be a biopotential or a nonelectric value like arterial pressure, respiration, body temperature or pH value. In this paper the use of radio-frequency (RF) communication and identification for those applications is described. Basically, radio-frequency identification or RFID is a technology that is analogous to the working principle of magnetic barcode systems. Unlike magnetic barcodes, passive RFID can be used in extreme climatic conditions—also the tags do not need to be within close proximity of the reader. Our proposed solution is to exploit an exciting new development in making circuits on polymers without the need for battery power. This solution exploits the principle of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device on a polymer substrate. The SAW device is a set of interdigitated conducting fingers on the polymer substrate. If an appropriate RF signal is sent to the device, the fingers act as microantennas that pick up the signal, and this energy is then converted into acoustic waves that travel across the surface of the polymer substrate. Being a flexible polymer, the acoustic waves cause stresses that can either contract or stretch the material. In our case we mainly focus on an RF controllable microvalve that could ultimately be used for fertility control.

  6. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  7. Autonomous Wireless Self-Charging for Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bin Junaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the ability to operate in confined spaces and to hover over point of interest, but they have limited flight time and endurance. Conventional contact-based charging system for UAVs has been used, but it requires high landing accuracy for proper docking. Instead of the conventional system, autonomous wireless battery charging system for UAVs in outdoor conditions is proposed in this paper. UAVs can be wirelessly charged using the proposed charging system, regardless of yaw angle between UAVs and wireless charging pad, which can further reduce their control complexity for autonomous landing. The increased overall mission time eventually relaxes the limitations on payload and flight time. In this paper, a cost effective automatic recharging solution for UAVs in outdoor environments is proposed using wireless power transfer (WPT. This research proposes a global positioning system (GPS and vision-based closed-loop target detection and a tracking system for precise landing of quadcopters in outdoor environments. The system uses the onboard camera to detect the shape, color and position of the defined target in image frame. Based on the offset of the target from the center of the image frame, control commands are generated to track and maintain the center position. Commercially available AR.Drone. was used to demonstrate the proposed concept which is equppied with bottom camera and GPS. Experiments and analyses showed good performance, and about 75% average WPT efficiency was achieved in this research.

  8. A Wireless Sensor System for Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Detection of Motor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Medina-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless fault detection system for industrial motors that combines vibration, motor current and temperature analysis, thus improving the detection of mechanical faults. The design also considers the time of detection and further possible actions, which are also important for the early detection of possible malfunctions, and thus for avoiding irreversible damage to the motor. The remote motor condition monitoring is implemented through a wireless sensor network (WSN based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The deployed network uses the beacon-enabled mode to synchronize several sensor nodes with the coordinator node, and the guaranteed time slot mechanism provides data monitoring with a predetermined latency. A graphic user interface offers remote access to motor conditions and real-time monitoring of several parameters. The developed wireless sensor node exhibits very low power consumption since it has been optimized both in terms of hardware and software. The result is a low cost, highly reliable and compact design, achieving a high degree of autonomy of more than two years with just one 3.3 V/2600 mAh battery. Laboratory and field tests confirm the feasibility of the wireless system.

  9. IO-Link Wireless enhanced factory automation communication for Industry 4.0 applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heynicke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the Industry 4.0 initiative, Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS or Cyber Manufacturing Systems (CMS can be characterized as advanced networked mechatronic production systems gaining their added value by interaction with the ambient Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT. In this context appropriate communication technologies and standards play a vital role to realize the manifold potential improvements in the production process. One of these standards is IO-Link. In 2016 more than 5 million IO-Link nodes have been produced and delivered, still gaining increasing acceptance for the communication between sensors, actuators and the control level. The steadily increasing demand for more flexibility in automation solutions can be fulfilled using wireless technologies. With the wireless extension for the IO-Link standard, which will be presented in this article, maximum cycle times of 5 ms can be achieved with a probability that this limit will be exceeded to be at maximum one part per billion. Also roaming capabilities, wireless coexistence mechanisms and the possibility to include battery-powered or energy-harvesting sensors with very limited energy resources in the realtime network were defined. For system planning, setup, operation and maintenance, the standard engineering tools of IO-Link can be employed so that the backward compatibility with wired IO-Link solutions can be guaranteed. Interoperability between manufacturers is a key requirement for any communication standard, thus a procedure for IO-Link Wireless testing is also suggested.

  10. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, Richard C; Almajidy, Rand K; Kirch, Robert D; Cassel, Jean C; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours.

  11. A wireless multi-channel bioimpedance measurement system for personalized healthcare and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Javier; Ausín, José Luis; Lorido, Antonio Manuel; Redondo, Francisco; Duque-Carrillo, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Miniaturized, noninvasive, wearable sensors constitute a fundamental prerequisite for pervasive, predictive, and preventive healthcare systems. In this sense, this paper presents the design, realization, and evaluation of a wireless multi-channel measurement system based on a cost-effective high-performance integrated circuit for electrical bioimpedance (EBI) measurements in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The resulting on-chip spectrometer provides high measuring EBI capabilities and together with a low-cost, commercially available radio frequency transceiver device. It provides reliable wireless communication, constitutes the basic node to build EBI wireless sensor networks (EBI-WSNs). The proposed EBI-WSN behaves as a high-performance wireless multi-channel EBI spectrometer, where the number of channels is completely scalable and independently configurable to satisfy specific measurement requirements of each individual. A prototype of the EBI node leads to a very small printed circuit board of approximately 8 cm2 including chip-antenna, which can operate several years on one 3-V coin cell battery and make it suitable for long-term preventive healthcare monitoring.

  12. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Pinnell

    Full Text Available With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems. As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours.

  13. A Novel Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Based on Energy Harvesting for Mechanical Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been expected to improve the capability of capturing mechanical vibration dynamic behaviors and evaluating the current health status of equipment. While the expectation for mechanical vibration monitoring using WSNs has been high, one of the key limitations is the limited lifetime of batteries for sensor node. The energy harvesting technologies have been recently proposed. One of them shares the same main idea, that is, energy harvesting from ambient vibration can be converted into electric power. Employing the vibration energy harvesting, a novel self-powered wireless sensor node has been developed to measure mechanical vibration in this paper. The overall architecture of node is proposed. The wireless sensor node is described into four main components: the energy harvesting unit, the microprocessor unit, the radio transceiver unit, and accelerometer. Moreover, the software used to control the operation of wireless node is also suggested. At last, in order to achieve continuous self-powered for nodes, two operation modes including the charging mode and discharging mode are proposed. This design can effectively solve the problem of continuous supply power of sensor node for mechanical vibration monitoring.

  14. A Survey on Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Bicycle Performance Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have greatly advanced in the past few decades and are now widely used, especially for remote monitoring; the list of potential uses seems endless. Three types of wireless sensor technologies (Bluetooth, ZigBee, and ANT have been used to monitor the biomechanical and physiological activities of bicycles and cyclists, respectively. However, the wireless monitoring of these activities has faced some challenges. The aim of this paper is to highlight various methodologies for monitoring cycling to provide an effective and efficient way to overcome the various challenges and limitations of sports cycling using wireless sensor interfaces. Several design criteria were reviewed and compared with different solutions for the implementation of current WSN research, such as low power consumption, long distance communications, small size, and light weight. Conclusions were drawn after observing the example of an advanced and adaptive network technology (ANT network highlighting reduced power consumption and prolonged battery life. The power saving achieved in the slave node was 88–95% compared to the similar ANT protocol used in the medical rehabilitation.

  15. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  16. Wireless and mobile systems in telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Safdari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to deploy mobile and wireless systems in healthcare, because they have many benefits for healthcare systems. The objectives of this article were introducing various systems, applications, and standards of the wireless and mobile telemedicine. Material and Methods: This review study was conducted in 2010. To conduct the study, published articles in the years 2005 to 2012, in English with an emphasis on wireless and mobile technologies in health were studied. Search was done with key words include telemedicine, wireless health systems, health and telecommunications technology in databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, Proquest. The collected data were analyzed. Results: Telemedicine system in the ambulance, telemedicine systems in space, telecardiology systems, EEG system, ultrasound system are some types of wireless and mobile systems in telemedicine. PDA-based mobile and wireless telemedicine application, based PDA drug application, and patient tracking application are some of wireless and mobile applications of telemedicine. The most important standards of wireless and mobile telemedicine are HL7, DICOM, SNOMed, and ICD-9-CM. Conclusion: There are many challenges in the wireless and mobile systems in telemedicine, despite the many benefits. Slow speed in sending pictures and video, lack of attention to the privacy in the design of these systems, environmental variables and the number of users during the day are some of these challenges. It is recommended to consider these challenges during the planning and designing of wireless and mobile systems in telemedicine.

  17. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang; Xu, Wenyao

    2017-09-26

    "Smart Pavement" is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor-ePave-to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system's performance and explore the trade-off.

  18. Analysis of In-Route Wireless Charging for the Shuttle System at Zion National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Ragatz, Adam; Markel, Tony; Kelly, Ken

    2016-10-05

    System right-sizing is critical to implementation of wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EVs). This study will analyze potential WPT scenarios for the electrification of shuttle buses at Zion National Park utilizing a modelling tool developed by NREL called WPTSim. This tool uses second-by-second speed, location, and road grade data from the conventional shuttles in operation to simulate the incorporation of WPT at fine granularity. Vehicle power and state of charge are simulated over the drive cycle to evaluate potential system designs. The required battery capacity is determined based on the rated power at a variable number of charging locations. The outcome of this work is an analysis of the design tradeoffs for the electrification of the shuttle fleet with wireless charging versus conventional overnight charging.

  19. A Wearable Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Smart Environment Monitoring in Safety Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antolín

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a wearable wireless sensor network aimed at monitoring harmful gases in industrial environments. The proposed solution is based on a customized wearable sensor node using a low-power low-rate wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN communications protocol, which as a first approach measures CO2 concentration, and employs different low power strategies for appropriate energy handling which is essential to achieving long battery life. These wearables nodes are connected to a deployed static network and a web-based application allows data storage, remote control and monitoring of the complete network. Therefore, a complete and versatile remote web application with a locally implemented decision-making system is accomplished, which allows early detection of hazardous situations for exposed workers.

  20. Jammer Localization Using Wireless Devices with Mitigation by Self-Configuration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Mamoon Ashraf

    Full Text Available Communication abilities of a wireless network decrease significantly in the presence of a jammer. This paper presents a reactive technique, to detect and locate the position of a jammer using a distributed collection of wireless sensor devices. We employ the theory of autonomic computing as a framework to design the same. Upon detection of a jammer, the affected nodes self-configure their power consumption which stops unnecessary waste of battery resources. The scheme then proceeds to determine the approximate location of the jammer by analysing the location of active nodes as well as the affected nodes. This is done by employing a circular curve fitting algorithm. Results indicate a high degree of accuracy in localizing a jammer has been achieved.