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Sample records for wire-driven microarchitectural design

  1. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zheng; Du, Ruxu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum ro...

  2. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum robots' actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire-driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  3. Design of Processors with Reconfigurable Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mokhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy becomes a dominating factor for a wide spectrum of computations: from intensive data processing in “big data” companies resulting in large electricity bills, to infrastructure monitoring with wireless sensors relying on energy harvesting. In this context it is essential for a computation system to be adaptable to the power supply and the service demand, which often vary dramatically during runtime. In this paper we present an approach to building processors with reconfigurable microarchitecture capable of changing the way they fetch and execute instructions depending on energy availability and application requirements. We show how to use Conditional Partial Order Graphs to formally specify the microarchitecture of such a processor, explore the design possibilities for its instruction set, and synthesise the instruction decoder using correct-by-construction techniques. The paper is focused on the design methodology, which is evaluated by implementing a power-proportional version of Intel 8051 microprocessor.

  4. DENA: A Configurable Microarchitecture and Design Flow for Biomedical DNA-Based Logic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiki, Zohre; Jahanian, Ali

    2017-10-01

    DNA is known as the building block for storing the life codes and transferring the genetic features through the generations. However, it is found that DNA strands can be used for a new type of computation that opens fascinating horizons in computational medicine. Significant contributions are addressed on design of DNA-based logic gates for medical and computational applications but there are serious challenges for designing the medium and large-scale DNA circuits. In this paper, a new microarchitecture and corresponding design flow is proposed to facilitate the design of multistage large-scale DNA logic systems. Feasibility and efficiency of the proposed microarchitecture are evaluated by implementing a full adder and, then, its cascadability is determined by implementing a multistage 8-bit adder. Simulation results show the highlight features of the proposed design style and microarchitecture in terms of the scalability, implementation cost, and signal integrity of the DNA-based logic system compared to the traditional approaches.

  5. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Wilson, Thomas S; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewicki, James P

    2016-06-15

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.

  6. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of a Wire-Driven Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Robot with Nonlinear Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Niu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot-aided rehabilitation has become an important technology to restore and reinforce motor functions of patients with extremity impairment, whereas it can be extremely challenging to achieve satisfactory tracking performance due to uncertainties and disturbances during rehabilitation training. In this paper, a wire-driven rehabilitation robot that can work over a three-dimensional space is designed for upper-limb rehabilitation, and sliding mode control with nonlinear disturbance observer is designed for the robot to deal with the problem of unpredictable disturbances during robot-assisted training. Then, simulation and experiments of trajectory tracking are carried out to evaluate the performance of the system, the position errors, and the output forces of the designed control scheme are compared with those of the traditional sliding mode control (SMC scheme. The results show that the designed control scheme can effectively reduce the tracking errors and chattering of the output forces as compared with the traditional SMC scheme, which indicates that the nonlinear disturbance observer can reduce the effect of unpredictable disturbances. The designed control scheme for the wire-driven rehabilitation robot has potential to assist patients with stroke in performing repetitive rehabilitation training.

  7. Co-simulation of Six DOF Wire Driven Parallel Mechanism Based on ADAMS and Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Aofei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model of the 6 DOF Wire Driven Parallel Mechanism (WDPM system is introduced. Based on MATLAB system, the simulation of the inverse dynamic model is achieved. According to the simulation result, the mechanical model for the WDPM system is reasonable. Using ADAMS system, the dynamic model of the virtual prototype is verified by the simulation analysis. The combined control model based on ADAMS/Simulink is derived. The WDPM control system is designed with MATLAB/Simulink. The torque control method is selected for the outer ring and the PD control method for the inner ring. Combined with the ADAMS control model and control law design, the interactive simulation analysis of the WDPM system is completed. According to the simulation results of the spatial circle tracking and line tracking at the end of the moving platform, the tracking error can be reduced by the designed control algorithm. The minimum tracking error is 0.2 mm to 0.3 mm. Therefore, the theoretical foundation for designing hardware systems of the WDPM control system is established.

  8. Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Modern processors are highly optimized systems where every single cycle of computation time matters. Many optimizations depend on the data that is being processed. Software-based microarchitectural attacks exploit effects of these optimizations. Microarchitectural side-channel attacks leak secrets from cryptographic computations, from general purpose computations, or from the kernel. This leakage even persists across all common isolation boundaries, such as processes, containers, and virtual ...

  9. Transmission Characteristics on Wire-Driven Links of a Bridge Transported Servo Manipulator for the ACP Equipment Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Suk; Jin, Jae Hyun; Song, Tae Gil; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2004-01-01

    A bridge transported servo manipulator (BTSM) system for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) has been developed to overcome the limitation of access, which is a drawback of mechanical master-slave manipulators (MSM) for the equipment maintenance. The servo manipulator is composed of a slave manipulator attached to the telescoping tube sets equipped with the overhead bridge installed at a hot cell and a master manipulator installed at an out-of-hot cell. Each manipulator has 7 degrees-of-freedom (DOF): a body rotation, an upper-arm tilt, a lower-arm tilt, a lower-arm rotation, a wrist pan and tilt, and a grasp motion. A wire-driven mechanism for a lower-arm rotation, a wrist pan and tilt, and a grasp motion of the manipulator has been adopted to increase the handling capacity compared to the manipulator weight and decrease the friction. The main disadvantage of the wire-driven mechanism is that if one link is in motion, other links can be affected. In this paper, the transmission characteristics among the wire-driven links have been formulated to overcome this drawback. The unexpected behaviors are confirmed by analyses of transmission characteristics as well as experiments. Also, the experimental results show that the unexpected behaviors are greatly decreased by the proposed compensation equations

  10. A microarchitecture for resource-limited superscalar microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Todd David

    1999-11-01

    Microelectronic components in space and satellite systems must be resistant to total dose radiation, single-even upset, and latchup in order to accomplish their missions. The demand for inexpensive, high-volume, radiation hardened (rad-hard) integrated circuits (ICs) is expected to increase dramatically as the communication market continues to expand. Motorola's Complementary Gallium Arsenide (CGaAsTM) technology offers superior radiation tolerance compared to traditional CMOS processes, while being more economical than dedicated rad-hard CMOS processes. The goals of this dissertation are to optimize a superscalar microarchitecture suitable for CGaAsTM microprocessors, develop circuit techniques for such applications, and evaluate the potential of CGaAsTM for the development of digital VLSI circuits. Motorola's 0.5 mum CGaAsTM process is summarized and circuit techniques applicable to digital CGaAsTM are developed. Direct coupled FET, complementary, and domino logic circuits are compared based on speed, power, area, and noise margins. These circuit techniques are employed in the design of a 600 MHz PowerPCTM arithmetic logic unit. The dissertation emphasizes CGaASTM-specific design considerations, specifically, low integration level. A baseline superscalar microarchitecture is defined and SPEC95 integer benchmark simulations are used to evaluate the applicability of advanced architectural features to microprocessors having low integration levels. The performance simulations center around the optimization of a simple superscalar core, small-scale branch prediction, instruction prefetching, and an off-chip primary data cache. The simulation results are used to develop a superscalar microarchitecture capable of outperforming a comparable sequential pipeline, while using only 500,000 transistors. The architecture, running at 200 MHz, is capable of achieving an estimated 153 MIPS, translating to a 27% performance increase over a comparable traditional pipelined

  11. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture of th...

  12. Cache timing attacks on recent microarchitectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Alexandres; Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Cache timing attacks have been known for a long time, however since the rise of cloud computing and shared hardware resources, such attacks found new potentially devastating applications. One prominent example is S$A (presented by Irazoqui et al at S&P 2015) which is a cache timing attack against...... AES or similar algorithms in virtualized environments. This paper applies variants of this cache timing attack to Intel's latest generation of microprocessors. It enables a spy-process to recover cryptographic keys, interacting with the victim processes only over TCP. The threat model is a logically...... separated but CPU co-located attacker with root privileges. We report successful and practically verified applications of this attack against a wide range of microarchitectures, from a two-core Nehalem processor (i5-650) to two-core Haswell (i7-4600M) and four-core Skylake processors (i7-6700). The attack...

  13. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... of lateral condyle in the young adult. There were no statistical significances in the mechanical properties apart from the Young’s modulus of adolescent in anterior-posterior direction was significantly lower than the other groups. DISCUSSION: This is the first study on the 3-D microarchitecture of human......, Switzerland) resulting in cubic voxel sizes of 10*10*10 m3. Microarchitectural properties were calculated, and the mean values for either tibia, medial or lateral condyle were used in analyses. Furthermore, the samples were first tested non-destructively in compression in antero-posterior (AP) and medial...

  14. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-02-18

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  15. Medullar fat influences texture analysis of trabecular microarchitecture on X-ray radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappard, Daniel; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Gallois, Yves; Mercier, Philippe; Basle, Michel F.; Audran, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Alteration of trabecular architecture is a predictor of fracture risk in osteoporosis. Until now, microarchitecture analysis is difficult to evaluate in routine clinical practice for osteoporosis. Texture analysis on X-ray images has been advocated to be a suitable method to assess microarchitecture in bone diseases. The X-ray acquisition conditions have been often taken into consideration; however, the influence of anatomical conditions on texture parameters has received little interest. Because fat is a well-known problem with computed tomography and densitometry, we have designed a cadaver study to compare the influence of marrow lipids on numerous texture parameters. Twenty-one human distal radii were obtained, radiographed, and analyzed using a software that measures: heterogeneity, skeletonized parameters, run-lengths and fractal dimensions. Texture parameters were measured before, and after an extensive delipidation period lasting 3 weeks. Quality of the radiographs was improved after defatting. Delipidation had a very significant effect on measurements: afterwards defatting, the images were less blurred, and a better delineation of trabeculae and marrow cavities was obtained. This provoked an increase of parameters based on the grey level distribution but had no influence on parameters describing the reticulated honeycomb microarchitecture of the trabeculae (i.e., fractal dimension). Some parameters appeared anisotropy-sensitive, due to the different constitution and size of the trabeculae. The fat content of bone marrow induces noise that can modify some texture parameters. One should take into account the fat content of the marrow when using texture analysis to compare patients with osteoporosis due to various etiologies

  16. Microarchitectural adaptations in aging and osteoarthrotic subchondral bone tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2010-01-01

    . These diseases are among the major health care problems in terms of socio-economic costs. The overall goals of the current series of studies were to investigate the age-related and osteoarthrosis (OA) related changes in the 3-D microarchitectural properties, mechanical properties, collagen and mineral quality......-related development of guinea pig OA; secondly, the potential effects of hyaluronan on OA subchondral bone tissues; and thirdly, the effects on OA progression of an increase in subchondral bone density by inhibition of bone remodeling with a bisphosphonate. These investigations aimed to obtain more insight...... into the age-related and OA-related subchondral bone adaptations.   Microarchitectural adaptation in human aging cancellous bone The precision of micro-CT measurement is excellent. Accurate 3-D micro-CT image datasets can be generated by applying an appropriate segmentation threshold. A fixed threshold may...

  17. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    , the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of specimen...... and lateral condyle. These samples were micro-CT scanned (vivaCT 40, Scanco Medical AG, Switzerland) resulting in cubic voxel sizes of 10.5⁎10.5⁎10.5μm(3). Microarchitectural properties were calculated. The samples were then tested in compression followed by collagen and mineral determination. Interestingly...

  18. Unraveling bacterial networks and their antimicrobial susceptibility on silicon microarchitectures using intrinsic phase-shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Heidi; Holtzman, Liran; Haimov, Yuri; Weizman, Daniel; Kashi, Yechezkel; Nativ, Ofer; Halachmi, Sarel; Segal, Ester

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in which photonic 2D silicon microarrays are employed as both the optical transducer element and as a preferable solid-liquid interface for bacterial colonization. We harness the intrinsic ability of the micro-architectures to relay optical phase-shift reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements (termed PRISM) and incorporate it into a platform for culture-free, label-free tracking of bacterial accumulation, proliferation, and death. This assay employs microfluidic channels interfaced with PRISM chips and is carried out in a two-stage process, namely bacteria seeding and antibiotic incubation. Bacteria proliferation within the microtopologies results in an increase in refractive index of the medium, yielding an increase in optical path difference, while cell death or bacteriostatic activity results in decreasing or unchanged values. The optical responses of bacteria to various concentrations of relevant antibiotics have been tracked in real time, allowing for accurate determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values within 2-3 hours. We further extended this work to analyze antibiotic susceptibilities of clinical isolates and direct urine samples derived from patients at neighboring hospitals in newly designed, disposable microfluidic devices. This has opened the door to the observation of unique bacterial behaviors, as we can evaluate bacterial adhesion, growth, and antibiotic resistance on different microarchitectures, different surface chemistries, and even different strains. Motility, charge, and biofilm abilities have been explored for their effect of bacterial adhesion to the microstructures as we further develop our method of rapid, label-free AST for full clinical application.

  19. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...

  20. Remodelling of the microarchitecture of resistance arteries in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Leurgans, Thomas

    Small resistance artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension [1, 2] and diabetes (types I and II) [3, 4]. In particular, the media-to-lumen ratio (M:L) is predictive of cardiovascular events. The exact nature of this resistance artery remodeling...... in comparison to other well-studied microvascular beds (e.g. rat mesentery). In the future we aim to compare the microarchitecture of small resistance arteries from parietal pericardial biopsies between patients with and without (treated) hypertension, diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. 1. Buus, N.H., et...... al., Small artery structure during antihypertensive therapy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension. J Hypertens, 2013. 31(4): p. 791-7. 2. Mathiassen, O.N., et al., Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential...

  1. Synthesis of three-dimensional flower-like BiOCl:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) globular microarchitectures and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100715 (Korea, Republic of); Zhu, Gang-Qiang [Department of Physics, Shanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Yang, Woochul, E-mail: wyang@dongguk.edu [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flower-like Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}-activated BiOCl globular microarchitectures have been synthesized. • Ostwald ripening and recrystallization are responsible for the growth mechanism of BiOCl microarchitectures. • Efficient red-emission from Eu{sup 3+}:BiOCl is observed due to the well-crystallized structures of the microarchitectures. - Abstract: Three-dimensional flower-like Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}-activated BiOCl globular microarchitectures were synthesized by the solvothermal method employing urea as a dispersing agent for the first time. The crystal structure, morphologies and luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped BiOCl have been systematically investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy, respectively. The unit cell volumes show a nearly linear decrease by about 0.18 and 0.15% with increasing Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} concentration up to 9 mol%, respectively. All of the prepared samples show flower-like globular microarchitectures with an average diameter about 3–5 μm with different Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} concentrations. Possible formation mechanism for the flower-like microarchitectures is proposed on the basis of time-dependent experiment. Both BiOCl:Eu{sup 3+} and BiOCl:Sm{sup 3+} samples show a strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4} transition (700 nm) of Eu{sup 3+} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition (600 nm) of Sm{sup 3+}, respectively. This work sheds some light on the design and preparation of red-emitting phosphors with novel microstructures.

  2. The fabrication and cell culture of three-dimensional rolled scaffolds with complex micro-architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaxiong; Li Xiao; Qu Xiaoli; Zhu Lin; He Jiankang; Zhao Qian; Wu Wanquan; Li Dichen

    2012-01-01

    Cell cultures for tissue engineering are traditionally prepared on two-dimensional or three-dimensional scaffolds with simple pores; however, this limits mass transportation, which is necessary for cell viability and function. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed for fabricating porous scaffolds with designed complex micro-architectures. Channels devised by computer-aided design were used to simulate features of blood vessels in native rat liver. Rapid prototyping and microreplication were used to produce a negative polydimethylsiloxane mold, and then a planar porous scaffold with predefined microchannel parameters was obtained by freeze-drying a silk fibroin/gelatin solution of an optimized concentration. After seeding with rat primary hepatocytes, the planar scaffold was rolled up to build spatial channels. By reconstructing the three-dimensional channel model in the scaffold in the form of micro-computed topography data and observing the cross-sections of the scroll, we confirmed that the bent channels were still interconnected, with restricted deviations. A comparison of the primary hepatocyte culture in the scaffolds with and without the devised channels proved that our design influenced cell organization and improved cell survival and proliferation. This method can be used for the construction of complex tissues for implantation and for culturing cells in vitro for biological tests and observations.

  3. Fluence-dependent sputtering yield of micro-architectured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Christopher S.R.; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail: ghoniem@ucla.edu; Li, Gary Z.; Matlock, Taylor S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Dodson, Chris A.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sputtering yield is shown to be transient and heavily dependent on surface architecture. • Fabricated nano- and Microstructures cause geometric re-trapping of sputtered material, which leads to a self-healing mechanism. • Initially, the sputtering yield of micro-architectured Mo is approximately 1/2 the value as that of a planar surface. • The study demonstrates that the sputtering yield is a dynamic property, dependent on the surface structure of a material. • A developed phenomenological model mathematically describes the transient behavior of the sputtering yield as a function of plasma fluence. - Abstract: We present an experimental examination of the relationship between the surface morphology of Mo and its instantaneous sputtering rate as function of low-energy plasma ion fluence. We quantify the dynamic evolution of nano/micro features of surfaces with built-in architecture, and the corresponding variation in the sputtering yield. Ballistic deposition of sputtered atoms as a result of geometric re-trapping is observed, and re-growth of surface layers is confirmed. This provides a self-healing mechanism of micro-architectured surfaces during plasma exposure. A variety of material characterization techniques are used to show that the sputtering yield is not a fundamental property, but that it is quantitatively related to the initial surface architecture and to its subsequent evolution. The sputtering yield of textured molybdenum samples exposed to 300 eV Ar plasma is roughly 1/2 of the corresponding value for flat samples, and increases with ion fluence. Mo samples exhibited a sputtering yield initially as low as 0.22 ± 5%, converging to 0.4 ± 5% at high fluence. The sputtering yield exhibits a transient behavior as function of the integrated ion fluence, reaching a steady-state value that is independent of initial surface conditions. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the observed transient sputtering phenomenon, and to

  4. Bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength in men with active acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paula P B; Amlashi, Fatemeh G; Yu, Elaine W; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Gerweck, Anu V; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Lawson, Elizabeth; Nachtigall, Lisa B; Biller, Beverly M K; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Bouxsein, Mary; Tritos, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Both acromegaly and adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are associated with increased fracture risk. Sufficient data are lacking regarding cortical bone microarchitecture and bone strength, as assessed by microfinite element analysis (µFEA). To elucidate both cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength in men with active acromegaly or GHD compared to healthy controls. Cross-sectional study at a clinical research center, including 48 men (16 with acromegaly, 16 with GHD and 16 healthy controls). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength (µFEA) at the radius and tibia. aBMD was not different between the 3 groups at any skeletal site. At the radius, patients with acromegaly had greater cortical area ( P  acromegaly had lower trabecular bone density ( P  = 0.0082), but no differences in cortical bone microstructure. Compressive strength and failure load did not significantly differ between groups. These findings persisted after excluding patients with hypogonadism. Bone microarchitecture was not deficient in patients with GHD. Both cortical and trabecular microarchitecture are altered in men with acromegaly. Our data indicate that GH excess is associated with distinct effects in cortical vs trabecular bone compartments. Our observations also affirm the limitations of aBMD testing in the evaluation of patients with acromegaly. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Exploiting Hardware Vulnerabilities to Attack Embedded System Devices: a Survey of Potent Microarchitectural Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos P. Fournaris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT and Operational Technology (OT systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them from many well-know cyber attacks there is a lurking danger that is still overlooked. Apart from the software vulnerabilities that typical malicious programs use, there are some very interesting hardware vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to mount devastating software or hardware attacks (typically undetected by software countermeasures capable of fully compromising any embedded system device. Real-time microarchitecture attacks such as the cache side-channel attacks are such case but also the newly discovered Rowhammer fault injection attack that can be mounted even remotely to gain full access to a device DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory. Under the light of the above dangers that are focused on the device hardware structure, in this paper, an overview of this attack field is provided including attacks, threat directives and countermeasures. The goal of this paper is not to exhaustively overview attacks and countermeasures but rather to survey the various, possible, existing attack directions and highlight the security risks that they can pose to security critical embedded systems as well as indicate their strength on compromising the Quality of Service (QoS such systems are designed to provide.

  6. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of human osteoporotic, osteoarthrotic and rheumatoid arthritic cancellous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    , OP often leads to skeletal fractures, and OA and RA result in severe joint disability. Over the last a few decades, much significant research on the properties has been carried out on these diseases, however, a detailed comparison of the microarchitecture of cancellous bones of these diseases...... is not available. In this study, we investigated three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitectural properties of OP, OA and RA cancellous bone. We hypothesized that there were significant differences in microarchitecture among OP, OA and RA bone tissues that might lead to different bone quality. Materials and Method...... Twenty OP, fifty OA, and twelve RA femur heads were harvested from patients undergone total hip replacement surgery. Cubic cancellous bone samples (8*8*8 mm3) were prepared and scanned with a high resolution microtomographic system (vivaCT 40, Scanco Medical AG., Brüttisellen, Switzerland). Then micro...

  7. Preliminary result on trabecular bone score (TBS in lumbar vertebrae with experimentally altered microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Di Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary research is to investigate the reliability of a new qualitative parameter, called Trabecular Bone Score (TBS, recently proposed for evaluating the microarchitectural arrangement of cancellous bone in scans carried out by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Vertebral bodies of 15 fresh samples of lumbar spines of adult pig were analysed either in basal conditions and with altered microarchitecture of the cancellous bone obtained by progressive drilling. The examined bony areas do not show changes in bone mineral density (BMD, whereas TBS values decrease with the increasing alteration of the vertebral microtrabecular structure. Our preliminary data seem to confirm the reliability of TBS as a qualitative parameter useful for evaluating the microarchitectural strength in bony areas quantitatively analysed by DXA.

  8. Three-dimensional evaluation of human jaw bone microarchitecture: correlation between the microarchitectural parameters of cone beam computed tomography and micro-computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Eun; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Huh, Kyung-Hoe

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the potential feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Sixty-eight specimens from four pairs of human jaw were scanned using both micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of 19.37-μm voxel size and CBCT of 100-μm voxel size. The correlation of 3-dimensional parameters between CBCT and micro-CT was evaluated. All parameters, except bone-specific surface and trabecular thickness, showed linear correlations between the 2 imaging modalities (P < .05). Among the parameters, bone volume, percent bone volume, trabecular separation, and degree of anisotropy (DA) of CBCT images showed strong correlations with those of micro-CT images. DA showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.693). Most microarchitectural parameters from CBCT were correlated with those from micro-CT. Some microarchitectural parameters, especially DA, could be used as strong predictors of bone quality in the human jaw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic alcohol abuse in men alters bone mechanical properties by affecting both tissue mechanical properties and microarchitectural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruel, M; Granke, M; Bosser, C; Audran, M; Hoc, T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-induced secondary osteoporosis in men has been characterized by higher fracture prevalence and a modification of bone microarchitecture. Chronic alcohol consumption impairs bone cell activity and results in an increased fragility. A few studies highlighted effects of heavy alcohol consumption on some microarchitectural parameters of trabecular bone. But to date and to our knowledge, micro- and macro-mechanical properties of bone of alcoholic subjects have not been investigated. In the present study, mechanical properties and microarchitecture of trabecular bone samples from the iliac crest of alcoholic male patients (n=15) were analyzed and compared to a control group (n=8). Nanoindentation tests were performed to determine the tissue's micromechanical properties, micro-computed tomography was used to measure microarchitectural parameters, and numerical simulations provided the apparent mechanical properties of the samples. Compared to controls, bone tissue from alcoholic patients exhibited an increase of micromechanical properties at tissue scale, a significant decrease of apparent mechanical properties at sample scale, and significant changes in several microarchitectural parameters. In particular, a crucial role of structure model index (SMI) on mechanical properties was identified. 3D microarchitectural parameters are at least as important as bone volume fraction to predict bone fracture risk in the case of alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Staged Event-Driven Architecture As A Micro-Architecture Of Distributed And Pluginable Crawling Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Siwik

    2013-01-01

    attention paid to its crucial architectural element i.e. design, implementation and applying of staged event-driven architecture being a micro-architecture of Cassiopeia’s agents i.e. its key computational and processing units

  11. Low-Dose, Ionizing Radiation and Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Alwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis can profoundly affect the aged as a consequence of progressive bone loss; high-dose ionizing radiation can cause similar changes, although less is known about lower doses (≤100 cGy. We hypothesized that exposure to relatively low doses of gamma radiation accelerates structural changes characteristic of skeletal aging. Mice (C57BL/6J-10 wk old, male were irradiated (total body; 0-sham, 1, 10 or 100 cGy 137Cs and tissues harvested on the day of irradiation, 1 or 4 months later. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify microarchitecture of high turnover, cancellous bone. Irradiation at 100 cGy caused transient microarchitectural changes over one month that were only evident at longer times in controls (4 months. Ex vivo bone cell differentiation from the marrow was unaffected by gamma radiation. In conclusion, acute ionizing gamma irradiation at 100 cGy (but not at 1 cGy or 10 cGy exacerbated microarchitectural changes normally found during progressive, postpubertal aging prior to the onset of age-related osteoporosis.

  12. Assessment of vertebral microarchitecture in overt and mild Cushing's syndrome using trabecular bone score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinolas, Helene; Grouthier, Virginie; Mehsen-Cetre, Nadia; Boisson, Amandine; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Mesguich, Charles; Bordenave, Laurence; Tabarin, Antoine

    2018-05-21

    Osteoporotic fractures associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) may occur despite normal bone mineral density (BMD). Few studies have described alterations in vertebral microarchitecture in glucocorticoid-treated patients and during CS. Trabecular bone score (TBS) estimates trabecular microarchitecture from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry acquisitions. Our aim was to compare vertebral BMD and TBS in patients with overt CS and mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACE), and following cure of overt CS. University Hospital. Monocentric retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of consecutive patients. A total of 110 patients were studied: 53 patients had CS (35, 11 and 7 patients with Cushing's disease, bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic ACTH secretion respectively); 39 patients had MACE (10 patients with a late post-operative recurrence of Cushing's disease and 29 patients with adrenal incidentalomas); 18 patients with non-secreting adrenal incidentalomas. 14 patients with overt CS were followed for up to 2 years after cure. Vertebral osteoporosis at BMD and degraded microarchitecture at TBS were found in 24% and 43% of patients with CS, respectively (P < .03). As compared to patients with nonsecreting incidentalomas, patients with MACE had significantly decreased TBS (P < .04) but not BMD. Overt fragility fractures tended to be associated with low TBS (P = .07) but not with low BMD. TBS, but not BMD values, decreased with the intensity of hypercortisolism independently of its aetiology (P < .01). Following remission of CS, TBS improved more markedly and rapidly than BMD (10% vs 3%, respectively; P < .02). Trabecular bone score may be a promising, noninvasive, widely available and inexpensive complementary tool for the routine assessment of the impact of CS and MACE on bone in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Visceral Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Bone Microarchitecture in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Broe, Kerry E; Zhou, Yanhua; Boyd, Steven K; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hannan, Marian T; Lim, Elise; McLean, Robert R; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Bouxsein, Mary L; Kiel, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has been traditionally considered to protect the skeleton against osteoporosis and fracture. Recently, body fat, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT), has been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk for some types of fractures. We studied VAT and bone microarchitecture in 710 participants (58% women, age 61.3 ± 7.7 years) from the Framingham Offspring cohort to determine whether cortical and trabecular BMD and microarchitecture differ according to the amount of VAT. VAT was measured from CT imaging of the abdomen. Cortical and trabecular BMD and microarchitecture were measured at the distal tibia and radius using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We focused on 10 bone parameters: cortical BMD (Ct.BMD), cortical tissue mineral density (Ct.TMD), cortical porosity (Ct.Po), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), cortical bone area fraction (Ct.A/Tt.A), trabecular density (Tb.BMD), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), total area (Tt.Ar), and failure load (FL) from micro-finite element analysis. We assessed the association between sex-specific quartiles of VAT and BMD, microarchitecture, and strength in all participants and stratified by sex. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and in women, menopausal status, then repeated adjusting for body mass index (BMI) or weight. At the radius and tibia, Ct.Th, Ct.A/Tt.A, Tb.BMD, Tb.N, and FL were positively associated with VAT (all p-trend <0.05), but no other associations were statistically significant except for higher levels of cortical porosity with higher VAT in the radius. Most of these associations were only observed in women, and were no longer significant when adjusting for BMI or weight. Higher amounts of VAT are associated with greater BMD and better microstructure of the peripheral skeleton despite some suggestions of significant deleterious changes in cortical measures in the non-weight bearing radius. Associations were

  14. Microarchitecture Parameters Describe Bone Structure and Its Strength Better Than BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Topoliński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Hypothesis. Some papers have shown that bone mineral density (BMD may not be accurate in predicting fracture risk. Recently microarchitecture parameters have been reported to give information on bone characteristics. The aim of this study was to find out if the values of volume, fractal dimension, and bone mineral density are correlated with bone strength. Methods. Forty-two human bone samples harvested during total hip replacement surgery were cut to cylindrical samples. The geometrical mesh of layers of bone mass obtained from microCT investigation and the volumes of each layer and fractal dimension were calculated. The finite element method was applied to calculate the compression force F causing ε=0.8% strain. Results. There were stronger correlations for microarchitecture parameters with strength than those for bone mineral density. The values of determination coefficient R2 for mean volume and force were 0.88 and 0.90 for mean fractal dimension and force, while for BMD and force the value was 0.53. The samples with bigger mean bone volume of layers and bigger mean fractal dimension of layers (more complex structure presented higher strength. Conclusion. The volumetric and fractal dimension parameters better describe bone structure and strength than BMD.

  15. Effects of Nrf2 Deficiency on Bone Microarchitecture in an Experimental Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ibáñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Redox imbalance contributes to bone fragility. We have evaluated the in vivo role of nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, an important regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress, in bone metabolism using a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods. Ovariectomy was performed in both wild-type and mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2−/−. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed by μCT. Serum markers of bone metabolism were also measured. Reactive oxygen species production was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123. Results. Sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice exhibit a loss in trabecular bone mineral density in femur, accompanied by a reduction in cortical area in vertebrae. Nrf2 deficiency tended to increase osteoblastic markers and significantly enhanced osteoclastic markers in sham-operated animals indicating an increased bone turnover with a main effect on bone resorption. We have also shown an increased production of oxidative stress in bone marrow-derived cells from sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice and a higher responsiveness of bone marrow-derived cells to osteoclastogenic stimuli in vitro. Conclusion. We have demonstrated in vivo a key role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of bone microarchitecture.

  16. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, L.; Peyrin, F.; Yot, S.; Basset, O.; Odet, Ch.; Apostal, L.; Peyrin, F.; Boller, E.; Tabary, J.; Dinten, J.M.; Boudousq, V.; Kotzki, P.O.

    2004-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography (μCT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray μCT at the ESRF. The 3D digital images were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurrence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identifying the most relevant 2D texture parameters. (authors)

  17. MRI of the hip at 7T: feasibility of bone microarchitecture, high-resolution cartilage, and clinical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gregory; Deniz, Cem M; Honig, Stephen; Egol, Kenneth; Regatte, Ravinder R; Zhu, Yudong; Sodickson, Daniel K; Brown, Ryan

    2014-06-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of performing bone microarchitecture, high-resolution cartilage, and clinical imaging of the hip at 7T. This study had Institutional Review Board approval. Using an 8-channel coil constructed in-house, we imaged the hips of 15 subjects on a 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We applied: 1) a T1-weighted 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) sequence (0.23 × 0.23 × 1-1.5 mm(3) ) for bone microarchitecture imaging; 2) T1-weighted 3D FLASH (water excitation) and volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (0.23 × 0.23 × 1.5 mm(3) ) with saturation or inversion recovery-based fat suppression for cartilage imaging; 3) 2D intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences without and with fat saturation (0.27 × 0.27 × 2 mm) for clinical imaging. Bone microarchitecture images allowed visualization of individual trabeculae within the proximal femur. Cartilage was well visualized and fat was well suppressed on FLASH and VIBE sequences. FSE sequences allowed visualization of cartilage, the labrum (including cartilage and labral pathology), joint capsule, and tendons. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of performing a clinically comprehensive hip MRI protocol at 7T, including high-resolution imaging of bone microarchitecture and cartilage, as well as clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2014-01-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...

  19. Genetic and environmental variances of bone microarchitecture and bone remodeling markers: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerem, Åshild; Bui, Minh; Wang, Xiaofang; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Hopper, John L; Zebaze, Roger; Seeman, Ego

    2015-03-01

    All genetic and environmental factors contributing to differences in bone structure between individuals mediate their effects through the final common cellular pathway of bone modeling and remodeling. We hypothesized that genetic factors account for most of the population variance of cortical and trabecular microstructure, in particular intracortical porosity and medullary size - void volumes (porosity), which establish the internal bone surface areas or interfaces upon which modeling and remodeling deposit or remove bone to configure bone microarchitecture. Microarchitecture of the distal tibia and distal radius and remodeling markers were measured for 95 monozygotic (MZ) and 66 dizygotic (DZ) white female twin pairs aged 40 to 61 years. Images obtained using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were analyzed using StrAx1.0, a nonthreshold-based software that quantifies cortical matrix and porosity. Genetic and environmental components of variance were estimated under the assumptions of the classic twin model. The data were consistent with the proportion of variance accounted for by genetic factors being: 72% to 81% (standard errors ∼18%) for the distal tibial total, cortical, and medullary cross-sectional area (CSA); 67% and 61% for total cortical porosity, before and after adjusting for total CSA, respectively; 51% for trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; all p accounted for 47% to 68% of the variance (all p ≤ 0.001). Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between tibial cortical porosity and medullary CSA were higher for MZ (rMZ  = 0.49) than DZ (rDZ  = 0.27) pairs before (p = 0.024), but not after (p = 0.258), adjusting for total CSA. For the remodeling markers, the data were consistent with genetic factors accounting for 55% to 62% of the variance. We infer that middle-aged women differ in their bone microarchitecture and remodeling markers more because of differences in their genetic factors than

  20. Defects in cortical microarchitecture among African-American women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E W; Putman, M S; Derrico, N; Abrishamanian-Garcia, G; Finkelstein, J S; Bouxsein, M L

    2015-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have increased fracture risk. We found that African-American women with DM2 have increased cortical porosity and lower cortical bone density at the radius than non-diabetic controls. These cortical deficits are associated with hyperglycemia and may contribute to skeletal fragility associated with DM2. Fracture risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) despite normal areal bone mineral density (aBMD). DM2 is more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. It is not known whether African-American women with DM2 have deficits in bone microstructure. We measured aBMD at the spine and hip by DXA, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT in 22 DM2 and 78 non-diabetic African-American women participating in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). We also measured fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. Age, weight, and aBMD at all sites were similar in both groups. At the radius, cortical porosity was 26% greater, while cortical vBMD and tissue mineral density were lower in women with DM2 than in controls. There were no differences in radius total vBMD or trabecular vBMD between groups. Despite inferior cortical bone properties at the radius, FEA-estimated failure load was similar between groups. Tibia vBMD and microarchitecture were also similar between groups. There were no significant associations between cortical parameters and duration of DM2 or HOMA-IR. However, among women with DM2, higher fasting glucose levels were associated with lower cortical vBMD (r=-0.54, p=0.018). DM2 and higher fasting glucose are associated with unfavorable cortical bone microarchitecture at the distal radius in African-American women. These structural deficits may contribute to the increased fracture risk among women with DM2. Further, our results suggest that hyperglycemia may be involved in mechanisms of skeletal fragility associated with DM2.

  1. Modelization of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture using Markov random fields with a multi-level clique system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, T.; Dinten, J.M.; Peyrin, F.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging trabecular bone micro-architecture in vivo non-invasively is still a challenging issue due to the complexity and small size of the structure. Thus, having a realistic 3D model of bone micro-architecture could be useful in image segmentation or image reconstruction. The goal of this work was to develop a 3D model of trabecular bone micro-architecture which can be seen as a problem of texture synthesis. We investigated a statistical model based on 3D Markov Random Fields (MRF's). Due to the Hammersley-Clifford theorem MRF's may equivalently be defined by an energy function on some set of cliques. In order to model 3D binary bone texture images (bone / background), we first used a particular well-known subclass of MRFs: the Ising model. The local energy function at some voxel depends on the closest neighbors of the voxels and on some parameters which control the shape and the proportion of bone. However, simulations yielded textures organized as connected clusters which even when varying the parameters did not approach the complexity of bone micro-architecture. Then, we introduced a second level of cliques taking into account neighbors located at some distance d from the site s and a new set of cliques allowing to control the plate thickness and spacing. The 3D bone texture images generated using the proposed model were analyzed using the usual bone-architecture quantification tools in order to relate the parameters of the MRF model to the characteristic parameters of bone micro-architecture (trabecular spacing, trabecular thickness, number of trabeculae...). (authors)

  2. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...... by glucocorticoid treatment and the changes in properties of cancellous bone were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term glucocorticoid treatment. However, the influence on cortical bone has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid on sheep...

  3. X-ray vector radiography for bone micro-architecture diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA). Although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility, its visualisation implies an imaging resolution better than 100 {mu}m, which limits the field of view and increases the necessary radiation dose. Here we describe a new method, X-ray Vector Radiography (XVR), based on X-ray scattering rather than absorption as contrast source, which yields information about the local orientation and degree of anisotropy of the bone micro-structure. This information is highly relevant for osteoporosis diagnostic. We demonstrate the feasibility by showing first experimental X-ray Vector Radiographies of human vertebra bone samples, yielding information on the trabecular structure.

  4. Effect of swimming exercise on three-dimensional trabecular bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yong-In; Sone, Teruki; Ohnaru, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kensuke; Fukunaga, Masao

    2015-11-01

    Swimming is generally considered ineffective for increasing bone mass in humans, at least compared with weight-bearing sports. However, swimming exercise has sometimes been shown to have a strong positive effect on bone mass in small animals. This study investigated the effects of swimming on bone mass, strength, and microarchitecture in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX or sham operations were performed on 18-wk-old female Fisher 344 rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham sedentary (Sham-CON), sham swimming exercised (Sham-SWI), OVX sedentary (OVX-CON), and OVX swimming exercised (OVX-SWI). Rats in exercise groups performed swimming in a water bath for 60 min/day, 5 days/wk, for 12 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) in right femurs was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Three-dimensional trabecular architecture at the distal femoral metaphysis was analyzed using microcomputed tomography (μCT). Geometrical properties of diaphyseal cortical bone were evaluated in the midfemoral region using μCT. The biomechanical properties of femurs were analyzed using three-point bending. Femoral BMD was significantly decreased following ovariectomy. This change was suppressed by swimming. Trabecular bone thickness, number, and connectivity were decreased by ovariectomy, whereas structure model index (i.e., ratio of rod-like to plate-like trabeculae) increased. These changes were also suppressed by swimming exercise. Femurs displayed greater cortical width and maximum load in SWI groups than in CON groups. Together, these results demonstrate that swimming exercise drastically alleviated both OVX-induced decreases in bone mass and mechanical strength and the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture in rat models of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  6. Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Tissue Quality Long-term After Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Herrera, Sabina; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogués, Xavier; Vera, María; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Mir, Marisa; Güerri, Roberto; Crespo, Marta; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Pascual, Julio

    2017-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is used to assess bone health in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Trabecular bone score and in vivo microindentation are novel techniques that directly measure trabecular microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone at a tissue level and independently predict fracture risk. We tested the bone status of long-term KTR using all 3 techniques. Cross-sectional study including 40 KTR with more than 10 years of follow-up and 94 healthy nontransplanted subjects as controls. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar spine and the hip. Trabecular bone score was measured by specific software on the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of lumbar spine in 39 KTR and 77 controls. Microindentation was performed at the anterior tibial face with a reference-point indenter device. Bone measurements were standardized as percentage of a reference value, expressed as bone material strength index (BMSi) units. Multivariable (age, sex, and body mass index-adjusted) linear regression models were fitted to study the association between KTR and BMD/BMSi/trabecular bone score. Bone mineral density was lower at lumbar spine (0.925 ± 0.15 vs 0.982 ± 0.14; P = 0.025), total hip (0.792 ± 0.14 vs 0.902 ± 0.13; P bone score was borderline lower (1.21 ± 0.14 vs 1.3 ± 0.15; adjusted P = 0.072) in KTR. Despite persistent decrease in BMD, trabecular microarchitecture and tissue quality remain normal in long-term KTR, suggesting important recovery of bone health.

  7. Liposomal Encapsulation for Systemic Delivery of Propranolol via Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teong, Benjamin; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Tsai, Wei-Hsin; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Huang, Han Hsiang

    2017-04-13

    The stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol (PRP) on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells suggested that the prepared liposomes-encapsulated PRP exerts anabolic effects on bone in vivo. Iontophoresis provides merits such as sustained release of drugs and circumvention of first pass metabolism. This study further investigated and evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of liposomal PRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats via iontophoresis. Rats subjected to OVX were administered with pure or liposomal PRP via iontophoresis or subcutaneous injection twice a week for 12 weeks. Changes in the microarchitecture at the proximal tibia and the fourth lumbar spine were assessed between pure or liposomal PRP treated and non-treated groups using micro-computed tomography. Administration of liposomal PRP at low dose (0.05 mg/kg) via iontophoresis over 2-fold elevated ratio between bone volume and total tissue volume (BV/TV) in proximal tibia to 9.0% whereas treatment with liposomal PRP at low and high (0.5 mg/kg) doses via subcutaneous injection resulted in smaller increases in BV/TV. Significant improvement of BV/TV and bone mineral density (BMD) was also found in the fourth lumbar spine when low-dose liposomal PRP was iontophoretically administered. Iontophoretic low-dose liposomal PRP also elevated trabecular numbers in tibia and trabecular thickness in spine. Enhancement of bone microarchitecture volumes has highlighted that liposomal formulation with transdermal iontophoresis is promising for PRP treatment at the lower dose and with longer duration than its clinical therapeutic range and duration to exhibit optimal effects against bone loss in vivo.

  8. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Collagen and Elastin Pressure-Dependent Microarchitectures in Live, Human Resistance Arteries by Label-Free Fluorescence Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Thorsted, Bjarne; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic contribution of resistance artery remodeling is documented in essential hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Investigations and development of microstructurally motivated mathematical models for understanding the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries...... in health and disease have the potential to aid understanding how disease and medical treatments affect the human microcirculation. To develop these mathematical models, it is essential to decipher the relationship between the mechanical and microarchitectural properties of the microvascular wall....... In this work, we describe an ex vivo method for passive mechanical testing and simultaneous label-free three-dimensional imaging of the microarchitecture of elastin and collagen in the arterial wall of isolated human resistance arteries. The imaging protocol can be applied to resistance arteries of any species...

  10. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  11. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W.; Boyd, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD) mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal) or late (postpubertal) time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostruc...

  12. Modic (endplate) changes in the lumbar spine: bone micro-architecture and remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Egon; Parkinson, Ian H; Truong, Le-Hoa; Chong, Kuan C; Fazzalari, Nicola L; Osti, Orso L

    2015-09-01

    In the literature, inter-vertebral MRI signal intensity changes (Modic changes) were associated with corresponding histological observations on endplate biopsies. However, tissue-level studies were limited. No quantitative histomorphometric study on bone biopsies has yet been conducted for Modic changes. The aim of this study was to characterise the bone micro-architectural parameters and bone remodelling indices associated with Modic changes. Forty patients suffering from disabling low back pain, undergoing elective spinal surgery, and exhibiting Modic changes on MRI (Modic 1, n = 9; Modic 2, n = 25; Modic 3, n = 6), had a transpedicular vertebral body biopsy taken of subchondral bone. Biopsies were first examined by micro-CT, for 3D morphometric analysis of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation, trabecular number, and structure model index. Then, samples underwent histological analysis, for determination of bone remodelling indices: osteoid surface to bone surface ratio (OS/BS), eroded surface to bone surface (ES/BS) and osteoid surface to eroded surface ratio (OS/ES). Micro-CT analysis revealed significantly higher BV/TV (up to 70% increase, p < 0.01) and Tb.Th (up to +57%, p < 0.01) in Modic 3 biopsies, compared to Modic 1 and 2. Histological analysis showed significantly lower OS/BS in Modic 2 biopsies (more than 28% decrease, p < 0.05) compared to 1 and 3. ES/BS progressively decreased from Modic 1 to 2 to 3, whereas OS/ES progressively increased with significantly higher values in Modic 3 (up to 159% increase, p < 0.05) than in Modic 1 and 2. Significant differences were found in bone micro-architectural parameters and remodelling indices among Modic types. Modic 1 biopsies had evidence of highest bone turnover, possibly due to an inflammatory process; Modic 2 biopsies were consistent with a reduced bone formation/remodelling stage; Modic 3 biopsies suggested a more stable sclerotic phase, with significantly

  13. CASPER: Embedding Power Estimation and Hardware-Controlled Power Management in a Cycle-Accurate Micro-Architecture Simulation Platform for Many-Core Multi-Threading Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Ravindran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promising performance improvement observed in emerging many-core architectures in high performance processors, high power consumption prohibitively affects their use and marketability in the low-energy sectors, such as embedded processors, network processors and application specific instruction processors (ASIPs. While most chip architects design power-efficient processors by finding an optimal power-performance balance in their design, some use sophisticated on-chip autonomous power management units, which dynamically reduce the voltage or frequencies of idle cores and hence extend battery life and reduce operating costs. For large scale designs of many-core processors, a holistic approach integrating both these techniques at different levels of abstraction can potentially achieve maximal power savings. In this paper we present CASPER, a robust instruction trace driven cycle-accurate many-core multi-threading micro-architecture simulation platform where we have incorporated power estimation models of a wide variety of tunable many-core micro-architectural design parameters, thus enabling processor architects to explore a sufficiently large design space and achieve power-efficient designs. Additionally CASPER is designed to accommodate cycle-accurate models of hardware controlled power management units, enabling architects to experiment with and evaluate different autonomous power-saving mechanisms to study the run-time power-performance trade-offs in embedded many-core processors. We have implemented two such techniques in CASPER–Chipwide Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, and Performance Aware Core-Specific Frequency Scaling, which show average power savings of 35.9% and 26.2% on a baseline 4-core SPARC based architecture respectively. This power saving data accounts for the power consumption of the power management units themselves. The CASPER simulation platform also provides users with complete support of SPARCV9

  14. Micro-architecture embedding ultra-thin interlayer to bond diamond and silicon via direct fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jongsik; Xin, Yan; Lee, Jinhyung; Kim, Young-Gyun; Subhash, Ghatu; Singh, Rajiv K.; Arjunan, Arul C.; Lee, Haigun

    2018-05-01

    The continuous demand on miniaturized electronic circuits bearing high power density illuminates the need to modify the silicon-on-insulator-based chip architecture. This is because of the low thermal conductivity of the few hundred nanometer-thick insulator present between the silicon substrate and active layers. The thick insulator is notorious for releasing the heat generated from the active layers during the operation of devices, leading to degradation in their performance and thus reducing their lifetime. To avoid the heat accumulation, we propose a method to fabricate the silicon-on-diamond (SOD) microstructure featured by an exceptionally thin silicon oxycarbide interlayer (˜3 nm). While exploiting the diamond as an insulator, we employ spark plasma sintering to render the silicon directly fused to the diamond. Notably, this process can manufacture the SOD microarchitecture via a simple/rapid way and incorporates the ultra-thin interlayer for minute thermal resistance. The method invented herein expects to minimize the thermal interfacial resistance of the devices and is thus deemed as a breakthrough appealing to the current chip industry.

  15. Exposure to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation Alters Bone Progenitor Cells and Bone Microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Florence; Swift, Joshua M; Greene, Elisabeth S; Allen, Matthew R; Cunningham, David A; Braby, Leslie A; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent. In this study, mice were irradiated with a total-body dose of 0.17, 0.5 or 1 Gy to quantify the early (day 3 postirradiation) and delayed (day 21 postirradiation) effects of radiation on bone microarchitecture and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Female BALBc mice (4 months old) were divided into four groups: irradiated (0.17, 0.5 and 1 Gy) and sham-irradiated controls (0 Gy). Micro-computed tomography analysis of distal femur trabecular bone from animals at day 21 after exposure to 1 Gy of X-ray radiation revealed a 21% smaller bone volume (BV/TV), 22% decrease in trabecular numbers (Tb.N) and 9% greater trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) compared to sham-irradiated controls (P X-rays, whereas osteoclastogenesis was enhanced. A better understanding of the effects of radiation on osteoprogenitor cell populations could lead to more effective therapeutic interventions that protect bone integrity for individuals exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation.

  16. Food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Satoshi; Park, Jong-Hoon; Agata, Umon; Oda, Masaya; Higano, Michito; Aikawa, Yuki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone disorders in young male athletes has not been well understood. We hypothesized that bone fragility is caused by low energy availability, due to insufficient food intake and excessive exercise energy expenditure in young male athletes. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of food restriction on bone strength and bone morphology in exercised growing male rats, using three-point bending test, dual-energy X-ray absormetry, and micro-computed tomography. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into the following groups: the control (Con) group, exercise (Ex) group, food restriction (R) group, and food restriction plus exercise (REx) group after a 1-wk acclimatization period. Thirty-percent food restriction in the R and REx groups was carried out in comparison with that in the Con group. Voluntary running exercise was performed in the Ex and REx groups. The experimental period lasted 13 wk. At the endpoint of this experiment, the bone strength of the femurs and tibial BMD in the REx group were significantly lower than those in the Con group. Moreover, trabecular bone volume and cortical bone volume in the REx group were also significantly lower than those in the Con group. These findings indicate that food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

  17. Relationships between in vivo dynamic knee joint loading, static alignment and tibial subchondral bone microarchitecture in end-stage knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B C; Solomon, L B; Mercer, G; Reynolds, K J; Thewlis, D; Perilli, E

    2018-04-01

    To study, in end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients, relationships between indices of in vivo dynamic knee joint loads obtained pre-operatively using gait analysis, static knee alignment, and the subchondral trabecular bone (STB) microarchitecture of their excised tibial plateau quantified with 3D micro-CT. Twenty-five knee OA patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty underwent pre-operative gait analysis. Mechanical axis deviation (MAD) was determined radiographically. Following surgery, excised tibial plateaus were micro-CT-scanned and STB microarchitecture analysed in four subregions (anteromedial, posteromedial, anterolateral, posterolateral). Regional differences in STB microarchitecture and relationships between joint loading and microarchitecture were examined. STB microarchitecture differed among subregions (P knee adduction moment (KAM) and internal rotation moment (|r|-range: 0.54-0.74). When controlling for walking speed, KAM and MAD, the ERM explained additional 11-30% of the variations in anteromedial BV/TV and medial-to-lateral BV/TV ratio (R 2  = 0.59, R 2  = 0.69, P knee joint loading indices in end-stage knee OA patients. Particularly, anteromedial BV/TV correlates strongest with ERM, whereas medial-to-lateral BV/TV ratio correlates strongest with indicators of medial-to-lateral joint loading (MAD, KAM) and rotational moments. However, associations with ERM should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships between age and microarchitectural descriptors of iliac trabecular bone determined by microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguette, C; Ramond-Roquin, A; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably. Coxal bone of a personal forensic collection whose age and gender were known (DNA identification) were used. Bone samples, centered on the same area than bone biopsy. MicroCT (pixel size: 36μm) was used to measure BV/TV and morphometric trabecular parameters of microarchitecture. An adjusted Z-score was calculated for BV/TV to compare with normative tables and a right/left comparison of trabecular parameters was provided. Twenty-seven iliac bones, which 20 forming 10 complete pelvises, aged between 24 and 73y.o. (average of 47.7 y.o.) were used. All adjusted Z-score were within normal values. There was a strong positive correlation between right and left sides for Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, but an insignificant correlation was obtained for BV/TV. Normative tables between age and BV/TV are valid and therefore usable in anthropology. They may represent an alternative to determine the age at death. Nevertheless, it requires a precise technique that could be a drawback in current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of ovariectomy on BMD, micro-architecture and biomechanics of cortical and cancellous bones in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Lei, Wei; Hu, Yun-yu; Wang, Hai-qiang; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun; Fu, Suo-chao; Han, Yi-sheng

    2008-11-01

    Osteoporotic/osteopenia fractures occur most frequently in trabeculae-rich skeletal sites. The purpose of this study was to use a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dual energy X-ray absorptionmeter (DEXA) to investigate the changes in micro-architecture and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sheep model resulted from ovariectomy (OVX). Biomechanical tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the trabecular bone. Twenty adult sheeps were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (n=8), group 1 (n=4) and group 2 (n=8). In groups 1 and 2, all sheep were ovariectomized (OVX); in the sham group, the ovaries were located and the oviducts were ligated. In all animals, BMD for lumbar spine was obtained during the surgical procedure. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and femoral condyle was determined 6 months (group 1) and 12 months (group 2) post-OVX. Lumbar spines and femora were obtained and underwent BMD scan, micro-CT analysis. Compressive mechanical properties were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral condyles. BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties of cancellous bone did not decrease significantly at 6 months post-OVX. Twelve months after OVX, BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties decreased significantly. The results of linear regression analyses showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r=0.945, R2=0.886) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (r=0.783, R2=0.586) had strong (R2>0.5) correlation to compression stress. In OVX sheep, changes in the structural parameters of trabecular bone are comparable to the human situation during osteoporosis was induced. The sheep model presented seems to meet the criteria for an osteopenia model for fracture treatment with respect to morphometric and mechanical properties. But the duration of OVX must be longer than 12 months to ensure the animal model can be established successfully.

  20. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kristensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal or late (postpubertal time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostructure and vertebral trabecular microarchitecture, and mechanical properties were determined using finite element analyses. In the GHD animals, bone macrostructure was 25 to 43% smaller as compared to the GH-sufficient (GHS controls (P<0.001. GHD animals had 20% and 19% reductions in bone volume ratio (BV/TV and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, respectively. Whole bone mechanical properties of the GHD mice were lower at the femur and vertebra (67% and 45% resp. than the GHS controls (P<0.001. Both early and late GH treatment partially recovered the bone macrostructure (15 to 32 % smaller than GHS controls and the whole bone mechanical properties (24 to 43% larger than GHD animals although there remained a sustained 27–52% net deficit compared to normal mice (P<0.05. Importantly, early treatment with GH led to a recovery of BV/TV and Tb.Th with a concomitant improvement of trabecular mechanical properties. Therefore, the results suggest that GH treatment should start early, and that measurements of microarchitecture should be considered in the management of GHD.

  2. Kefir improves bone mass and microarchitecture in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Chuang, C-H; Tu, M-Y; Tsai, T-C; Chang, S-Y; Chen, C-M

    2015-02-01

    Kefir treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats could significantly decrease the levels of bone turnover markers and prevent OVX-induced bone loss, deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, and biomechanical dysfunction that may be due to increase intracellular calcium uptake through the TRPV6 calcium channel. Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to an increased fracture risk. The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women due to estrogen deficiency, as the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts towards increased levels of bone resorption. Among various methods of prevention and treatment for osteoporosis, an increase in calcium intake is the most commonly recommended preventive measure. Kefir is a fermented milk product made with kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including immunomodulating-, antithrombotic-, antimicrobial-, and calcium-absorption-enhancing bioactivities. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kefir on osteoporosis prophylaxis in an ovariectomized rat model. A total of 56 16-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 7 experimental groups: sham (normal), OVX/Mock, OVX/1X kefir (164 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/2X kefir (328 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/4X kefir (656 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/ALN (2.5 mg/kg BW/day), and OVX/REBONE (800 mg/kg BW/day). After 12-week treatment with kefir, the bone physiology in the OVX rat model was investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible transport mechanism involved in calcium absorption using the Caco-2 human cell line. A 12-week treatment with kefir on the OVX-induced osteoporosis model reduced the levels of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx), bone turnover markers, and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.). Additionally, treatment with kefir increased

  3. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Pankaj, Pankaj; Patton, James T; Howie, Colin R; Goffin, Jérôme M; Merwe, Andrew van der; Wallace, Robert J; Porter, Daniel E; Simpson, A Hamish

    2013-10-01

    The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing.

  4. Imaging and modeling of acute pressure-induced changes of collagen and elastin microarchitectures in pig and human resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Leurgans, Thomas M; Spronck, Bart; Heusinkveld, Maarten H G; Thorsted, Bjarne; Rosenstand, Kristoffer; Nissen, Inger; Hansen, Ulla M; Brewer, Jonathan R; Bagatolli, Luis A; Rasmussen, Lars M; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon; Reesink, Koen D; De Mey, Jo G R

    2017-07-01

    The impact of disease-related changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries largely remains to be established. Resistance arteries from both pig and human parietal pericardium (PRA) display a different ECM microarchitecture compared with frequently used rodent mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that the biaxial mechanics of PRA mirror pressure-induced changes in the ECM microarchitecture. This was tested using isolated pig PRA as a model system, integrating vital imaging, pressure myography, and mathematical modeling. Collagenase and elastase digestions were applied to evaluate the load-bearing roles of collagen and elastin, respectively. The incremental elastic modulus linearly related to the straightness of adventitial collagen fibers circumferentially and longitudinally (both R 2 ≥ 0.99), whereas there was a nonlinear relationship to the internal elastic lamina elastin fiber branching angles. Mathematical modeling suggested a collagen recruitment strain (means ± SE) of 1.1 ± 0.2 circumferentially and 0.20 ± 0.01 longitudinally, corresponding to a pressure of ~40 mmHg, a finding supported by the vital imaging. The integrated method was tested on human PRA to confirm its validity. These showed limited circumferential distensibility and elongation and a collagen recruitment strain of 0.8 ± 0.1 circumferentially and 0.06 ± 0.02 longitudinally, reached at a distending pressure below 20 mmHg. This was confirmed by vital imaging showing negligible microarchitectural changes of elastin and collagen upon pressurization. In conclusion, we show here, for the first time in resistance arteries, a quantitative relationship between pressure-induced changes in the extracellular matrix and the arterial wall mechanics. The strength of the integrated methods invites for future detailed studies of microvascular pathologies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to quantitatively relate pressure

  5. Spine Trabecular Bone Score as an Indicator of Bone Microarchitecture at the Peripheral Skeleton in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, Matthew; Hans, Didier; Cortez, Natalia; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Agarawal, Sanchita; Zhang, Chengchen; Nikkel, Lucas; Iyer, Sapna; Fusaro, Maria; Guo, Edward X; McMahon, Donald J; Shane, Elizabeth; Nickolas, Thomas L

    2017-04-03

    Studies using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography showed progressive abnormalities in cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and biomechanical competence over the first year after kidney transplantation. However, high-resolution peripheral computed tomography is a research tool lacking wide availability. In contrast, the trabecular bone score is a novel and widely available tool that uses gray-scale variograms of the spine image from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess trabecular quality. There are no studies assessing whether trabecular bone score characterizes bone quality in kidney transplant recipients. Between 2009 and 2010, we conducted a study to assess changes in peripheral skeletal microarchitecture, measured by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography, during the first year after transplantation in 47 patients managed with early corticosteroid-withdrawal immunosuppression. All adult first-time transplant candidates were eligible. Patients underwent imaging with high-resolution peripheral computed tomography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry pretransplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplantation. We now test if, during the first year after transplantation, trabecular bone score assesses the evolution of bone microarchitecture and biomechanical competence as determined by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography. At baseline and follow-up, among the 72% and 78%, respectively, of patients having normal bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, 53% and 50%, respectively, were classified by trabecular bone score as having high fracture risk. At baseline, trabecular bone score correlated with spine, hip, and ultradistal radius bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and cortical area, density, thickness, and porosity; trabecular density, thickness, separation, and heterogeneity; and stiffness and failure load by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography

  6. Morphologically tuned 3D/1D rutile TiO{sub 2} hierarchical hybrid microarchitectures engineered by one-step surfactant free hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria John, Maria Angelin Sinthiya [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K., E-mail: ramamurthi.k@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, K. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramesh Babu, R. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} 1D-NRs are tuned to 3D/1D-HHMs by increasing growth temperature-first report. • TiO{sub 2} seeded glass substrates are used to reduce the lattice mismatch of TiO{sub 2} HHMs. • Growth temperature influences the structural, morphological and optical properties. • Possible growth mechanism is proposed for morphological changes. - Abstract: Present investigation reports on the surfactant free hydrothermal synthesize of the morphologically tuned hierarchical hybrid rutile titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) microarchitectures showing three dimensional microflower structures and cook pine tree like structures on the one dimensional nanorods formed over TiO{sub 2} seed layer coated glass substrates by tuning growth temperature. TiO{sub 2} seed layer of ∼100 nm thick was coated on the glass substrates employing sol–gel spin coating method and then rutile TiO{sub 2} microarchitectures were synthesized on the TiO{sub 2} seed layer by one-step surfactant free hydrothermal method. Deposited samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. Influence of the growth temperature on the crystallinity, morphology and optical properties along with the growth mechanism to achieve hierarchical microarchitectures was investigated. Present work revealed that the structural, morphological and optical properties of the TiO{sub 2} hierarchical microarchitectures strongly depend on the growth temperature. Further we proposed a model for the cause to effect possible morphological changes of rutile TiO{sub 2} microarchitectures as a function of growth temperatures on the TiO{sub 2} seeded glass substrates.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Sclerostin, and Bone Microarchitecture in Patients With Osteoporotic Fractures of the Proximal Femur: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlyn, Philipp K E; Cornelius, Norina; Haffner, Dieter; Zaage, Franziska; Kasch, Cornelius; Schober, Hans-Christof; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Fischer, Dagmar-C

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional observational cohort study was designed to simultaneously investigate bone microarchitecture and serum markers of bone metabolism in elderly osteoporotic patients experiencing a trochanteric or femoral neck fracture. Special emphasis was put on renal function, sclerostin and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Eighty-two patients (median age: 84 years; 49 trochanteric fractures) scheduled for emergency surgery due to an osteoporotic fracture participated. Bone specimens for ex vivo microcomputed X-ray tomography were sampled during surgery. Blood samples for laboratory workup were collected before surgery (t0) and 1 day afterward (t1). Fifty-eight patients consented to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning of the lumbar spine and/or contralateral femoral neck after recovery during the in-patient stay. Samples were grouped according to the site of fracture. Regression coefficients were controlled for age and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), if appropriate. Patients experiencing a femoral neck fracture presented with better preserved renal function (eGFR) and lower C-terminal fragment of fibroblast growth factor-23 (cFGF-23) concentrations compared to those with trochanteric fractures. By contrast, serum sclerostin was similar at both time points and did not differ between groups. Age-adjusted correlation analysis revealed negative associations between eGFR and cFGF-23 determined at t1 (R=-0.34; ptrochanteric and femoral neck fractures, respectively. Our study provides evidence that not only an age-related decline of renal function but also the type of skeletal injury may contribute to the circulating concentrations of cFGF-23. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Collagen and Elastin Pressure-dependent Microarchitectures in Live, Human Resistance Arteries by Label-free Fluorescence Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Thorsted, Bjarne; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenic contribution of resistance artery remodeling is documented in essential hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Investigations and development of microstructurally motivated mathematical models for understanding the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries...... in health and disease have the potential to aid understanding how disease and medical treatments affect the human microcirculation. To develop these mathematical models, it is essential to decipher the relationship between the mechanical and microarchitectural properties of the microvascular wall...... of interest. Image analyses are described for quantifying i) pressure-induced changes in internal elastic lamina branching angles and adventitial collagen straightness using Fiji and ii) collagen and elastin volume densities determined using Ilastik software. Preferably all mechanical and imaging measurements...

  9. Defining the bone morphometry, micro-architecture and volumetric density profile in osteopenic vs non-osteopenic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Yu, Fiona Wai-Ping; Yu, Wing-Sze; Zhu, Feng; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2017-06-01

    Osteopenia has been widely reported in about 30 % of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the bone quality profile of the 70 % non-osteopenic AIS defined by areal bone mineral density (BMD) with conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been adequately studied. Our purpose was to verify whether abnormal volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone structure (morphometry and micro-architecture) also existed in the non-osteopenic AIS when compared with matched controls using both DXA and high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). This was a case-control cross-sectional study. 257 AIS girls with a mean age of 12.7 (SD = 0.8) years old and 187 age- and gender-matched normal controls with an average age of 12.9 (SD = 0.5) years old were included. Areal BMD (aBMD) and bone quality were measured with standard DXA and HR-pQCT, respectively. The parameters of HR-pQCT could be categorized as bone morphometry, vBMD and bone micro-architecture. The results were compared between the osteopenic AIS and osteopenic control, and between the non-osteopenic AIS and non-osteopenic control. In addition to the lower aBMD and vBMD, osteopenic AIS showed significantly greater cortical perimeter and trabecular area than the osteopenic control even after adjustments of age (P architecture and volumetric density profile compared with their normal matched controls. The observed abnormalities were suggestive of decreased endocortical bone apposition or active endocortical resorption that could affect the mechanical bone strength in AIS. The underlying pathomechanism might be attributed to abnormal bone modeling/remodeling that could be associated with the etiopathogenesis of AIS.

  10. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture, and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess peripheral bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone remodeling in adult type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with and without diabetic microvascular disease (MVD+ and MVD-, respectively) and to compare them with age-, gender......-, and height-matched healthy control subjects (CoMVD+ and CoMVD-, respectively). The secondary goal was to assess differences in MVD- and MVD+ patients. Fifty-five patients with T1DM (MVD+ group: n = 29) were recruited from the Funen Diabetes Database. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high...... in MVD+ and MVD- groups in comparison to controls, they were similar between the MVD+ and MVD- groups. The results of our study suggest that the presence of MVD was associated with deficits in cortical and trabecular bone vBMD and microarchitecture that could partly explain the excess skeletal fragility...

  11. The micro-architecture of human cancellous bone from fracture neck of femur patients in relation to the structural integrity and fracture toughness of the tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Greenwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is clinically assessed from bone mineral density measurements using dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA. However, these measurements do not always provide an accurate fracture prediction, arguably because DXA does not grapple with ‘bone quality’, which is a combined result of microarchitecture, texture, bone tissue properties, past loading history, material chemistry and bone physiology in reaction to disease. Studies addressing bone quality are comparatively few if one considers the potential importance of this factor. They suffer due to low number of human osteoporotic specimens, use of animal proxies and/or the lack of differentiation between confounding parameters such as gender and state of diseased bone. The present study considers bone samples donated from patients (n = 37 who suffered a femoral neck fracture and in this very well defined cohort we have produced in previous work fracture toughness measurements (FT which quantify its ability to resist crack growth which reflects directly the structural integrity of the cancellous bone tissue. We investigated correlations between BV/TV and other microarchitectural parameters; we examined effects that may suggest differences in bone remodelling between males and females and compared the relationships with the FT properties. The data crucially has shown that TbTh, TbSp, SMI and TbN may provide a proxy or surrogate for BV/TV. Correlations between FT critical stress intensity values and microarchitecture parameters (BV/TV, BS/TV, TbN, BS/BV and SMI for osteoporotic cancellous tissue were observed and are for the first time reported in this study. Overall, this study has not only highlighted that the fracture model based upon BMD could potentially be improved with inclusion of other microarchitecture parameters, but has also given us clear clues as to which of them are more influential in this role.

  12. Changes in bone geometry and microarchitecture caused by intermittent administration of PTH. Comparison with those by exercise load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keiya

    2010-01-01

    There have been several studies showing that periodical intermittent medication with parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increases in cancellous bone mass. However, there have been almost no reports comparing the effects of periodical intermittent PTH medication on bone microarchitecture with changes caused by physiological stimulation such as exercise load. In this study, we compared the effects of these two interventions on the microarchitecturural deterioration of femoral cancellous bone associated with unloading, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and the effects of PTH administration and motion loading on improvement of the deteriorated structure. In the study, 32 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group without tail suspension (CON), a control recovery group after suspension (S+C), a suspension/PTH group (S+P), and a suspension/jumping exercise group (S+J). Periodical intermittent human PTH (1-34) was given periodically to the S+P group rats at a dose of 75 μg/kg/day five times a week for five weeks, after two weeks of exercise with suspension of the tail. The rats in the S+J group performed 40 cm-high jumping 10 times/day five times a week for five weeks. After this conditioning, upon examination, bilateral femurs were removed and the right distal metaphysis was scanned using micro-CT to obtain images of the cancellous bone region of the femur. Based on the tomographic data, indices of cancellous bone microarchitecture was the index of trabecular bone structure were determined by using three-dimensional image analysis system. In addition, to examine the geometric properties of the diaphysis, mid-portion images of the bone shaft of the left femur were obtained by micro-CT, and then the mechanical bone strength of the left femur was determined by performing a three-point bending test. Compared to the S+C group, the S+P and S+J groups showed significantly higher bone volume, bone surface mass values, superficial bone

  13. Hydrogel elasticity and microarchitecture regulate dental-derived mesenchymal stem cell-host immune system cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Yu, Bo; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-09-15

    The host immune system (T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines) has been shown to compromise bone regeneration ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have recently shown that hydrogel, used as an encapsulating biomaterial affects the cross-talk among host immune cells and MSCs. However, the role of hydrogel elasticity and porosity in regulation of cross-talk between dental-derived MSCs and immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the modulus of elasticity and porosity of the scaffold influence T-lymphocyte-dental MSC interplay by regulating the penetration of inflammatory T cells and their cytokines. Moreover, we demonstrated that alginate hydrogels with different elasticity and microporous structure can regulate the viability and determine the fate of the encapsulated MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Our in vivo data show that alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity could prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascades, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. Additionally, dental-derived MSCs encapsulated in hydrogel with higher elasticity exhibited lower expression levels of NF-kB p65 and Cox-2 in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the mechanical characteristics and microarchitecture of the microenvironment encapsulating MSCs, in addition to presence of T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines, affect the fate of encapsulated dental-derived MSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that alginate hydrogel regulates the viability and the fate of the encapsulated dental-derived MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascade, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. MSCs encapsulated in

  14. New bone formation and trabecular bone microarchitecture of highly porous tantalum compared to titanium implant threads: A pilot canine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Whan; Wen, Hai Bo; Gubbi, Prabhu; Romanos, Georgios E

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated new bone formation activities and trabecular bone microarchitecture within the highly porous region of Trabecular Metal™ Dental Implants (TM) and between the threads of Tapered Screw-Vent® Dental Implants (TSV) in fresh canine extraction sockets. Eight partially edentulated dogs received four implants (4.1 mmD × 13 mmL) bilaterally in mandibular fresh extraction sockets (32 TM, 32 TSV implants), and allowed to heal for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Calcein was administered to label mineralizing bone at 11 and 4 days before euthanasia for dogs undergoing all four healing periods. Biopsies taken at each time interval were examined histologically. Histomorphometric assay was conducted for 64 unstained and 64 stained slides at the region of interest (ROI) (6 mm long × 0.35 mm deep) in the midsections of the implants. Topographical and chemical analyses were also performed. Histomorphometry revealed significantly more new bone in the TM than in the TSV implants at each healing time (p = .0014, .0084, .0218, and .0251). Calcein-labeled data showed more newly mineralized bone in the TM group than in the TSV group at 2, 8, and 12 weeks (p = .045, .028, .002, respectively) but not at 4 weeks (p = .081). Histologically TM implants exhibited more bone growth and dominant new immature woven bone at an earlier time point than TSV implants. The parameters representing trabecular bone microarchitecture corroborated faster new bone formation in the TM implants when compared to the TSV implants. TM exhibited an irregular faceted topography compared to a relatively uniform microtextured surface for TSV. Chemical analysis showed peaks associated with each implant's composition material, and TSV also showed peaks reflecting the elements of the calcium phosphate blasting media. Results suggest that the healing pathway associated with the highly porous midsection of TM dental implant could enable faster and stronger secondary implant stability than

  15. The pattern of trabecular bone microarchitecture in the distal femur of typically developing children and its effect on processing of magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlesky, Christopher M; Whitney, Daniel G; Carter, Patrick T; Allerton, Brianne M; Kirby, Joshua T; Miller, Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to assess trabecular bone microarchitecture in humans; however, image processing can be labor intensive and time consuming. One aim of this study was to determine the pattern of trabecular bone microarchitecture in the distal femur of typically developing children. A second aim was to determine the proportion and location of magnetic resonance images that need to be processed to yield representative estimates of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Twenty-six high resolution magnetic resonance images were collected immediately above the growth plate in the distal femur of 6-12year-old typically developing children (n=40). Measures of trabecular bone microarchitecture [i.e., apparent trabecular bone volume to total volume (appBV/TV), trabecular number (appTb.N), trabecular thickness (appTb.Th) and trabecular separation (appTb.Sp)] in the lateral aspect of the distal femur were determined using the twenty most central images (20IM). The average values for appBV/TV, appTb.N, appTb.Th and appTb.Sp from 20IM were compared to the average values from 10 images (10IM), 5 images (5IM) and 3 images (3IM) equally dispersed throughout the total image set and one image (1IM) from the center of the total image set using linear regression analysis. The resulting mathematical models were cross-validated using the leave-one-out technique. Distance from the growth plate was strongly and inversely related to appBV/TV (r(2)=0.68, p0.05). However, there was a progressive decrease in the strength of the relationships as a smaller proportion of images were used to predict estimates from 20IM (r(2)=0.98 to 0.99 using 10IM, 0.94 to 0.96 using 5IM, 0.87 to 0.90 using 3IM and 0.66 to 0.72 using 1IM; all pimage sets agreed extremely well with estimates from 20IM. The findings indicate that partial magnetic resonance image sets can be used to provide reasonable estimates of trabecular bone microarchitecture status in the distal femur of typically

  16. Relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro: Application of a stratified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2012-08-01

    The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21-0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.

  17. Diffusion profiling of tumor volumes using a histogram approach can predict proliferation and further microarchitectural features in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Beeskow, Anne; Dieckow, Julia; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Krause, Matthias; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Hirsch, Franz-Wolfgang; Surov, Alexey

    2018-05-31

    Medulloblastomas are the most common central nervous system tumors in childhood. Treatment and prognosis strongly depend on histology and transcriptomic profiling. However, the proliferative potential also has prognostical value. Our study aimed to investigate correlations between histogram profiling of diffusion-weighted images and further microarchitectural features. Seven patients (age median 14.6 years, minimum 2 years, maximum 20 years; 5 male, 2 female) were included in this retrospective study. Using a Matlab-based analysis tool, histogram analysis of whole apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volumes was performed. ADC entropy revealed a strong inverse correlation with the expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 (r = - 0.962, p = 0.009) and with total nuclear area (r = - 0.888, p = 0.044). Furthermore, ADC percentiles, most of all ADCp90, showed significant correlations with Ki67 expression (r = 0.902, p = 0.036). Diffusion histogram profiling of medulloblastomas provides valuable in vivo information which potentially can be used for risk stratification and prognostication. First of all, entropy revealed to be the most promising imaging biomarker. However, further studies are warranted.

  18. Trabecular bone microarchitecture analysis, a way for an early detection of genetic dwarfism? Case study of a dwarf mother's offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Antony; Hoogland, Menno; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier; Waters-Rist, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    A 66 year-old woman with a disproportionate dwarfism and who bore seven children was discovered at the Middenbeemster archaeological site (The Netherlands). Three are perinates and show no macroscopic or radiological evidence for a FGFR3 mutation causing hypo-or achondroplasia. This mutation induces dysfunction of the growth cartilage, leading to abnormalities in the development of trabecular bone. Because the mutation is autosomal dominant, these perinates have a 50% risk of having been affected. This study determines whether trabecular bone microarchitecture (TBMA) analysis is useful for detecting genetic dwarfism. Proximal metaphyses of humeri were μCT-scanned with a resolution of 7-12 μm. Three volumes of interest were segmented from each bone with TIVMI© software. The TBMA was quantified in BoneJ© using six parameters on which a multivariate analysis was then performed. Two of the Middenbeemster perinates show a quantitatively different TBMA organization. These results and the family's medical history suggest a diagnosis of genetic dwarfism for this two perinates. This study provides evidence to support the efficacy of μCT for diagnosing early-stage bone disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between age, rotator cuff integrity, and osseous microarchitecture of greater tuberosity: Where should we put anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholinne, Erica; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sung Jung; Park, So Hyun; Jeon, In-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of the greater tuberosity with or without rotator cuff tear and to obtain optimum location for anchor screw insertion for rotator cuff repair. Twenty-five humeral heads were harvested from 13 male cadavers of mean age 58.4 years, including 6 humeri with rotator cuff tear and 19 intact humeri. Six regions of interest (proximal, intermediate, and distal zones of the superficial and deep regions) were divided into the anterior (G1), middle (G2), and posterior (G3) areas of the greater tuberosity. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were evaluated. Total trabecular bone volume was greater in subjects 50 years old but did not differ significantly in subjects with and without rotator cuff tear. Cortical thickness in both intact and torn rotator cuff groups was significantly greater in the proximal and intermediate zones than in the distal zone. Cortical thickness was related to anatomic location rather than age or cuff tear. The optimal location for anchor screw insertion during rotator cuff repair is either the proximal or intermediate region of the greater tuberosity. Age has more influence in terms of trabecular bone volume loss than rotator cuff integrity. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Bone Growth in Young Rats and Microarchitecture and Remodeling in Ageing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. C. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent skeletal disorder in the elderly that causes serious bone fractures. Peak bone mass achieved at adolescence has been shown to predict bone mass and osteoporosis related risk fracture later in life. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol compound, may have the potential to promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption. However, it is unclear whether it can aid bone growth and bone mass accumulation during rapid growth and modulate bone metabolism during ageing. Using rat models, the current study investigated the potential effects of resveratrol supplementation during the rapid postnatal growth period and in late adulthood (early ageing on bone microarchitecture and metabolism. In the growth trial, 4-week-old male hooded Wistar rats on a normal chow diet were given resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg/day or vehicle control for 5 weeks. In the ageing trial, 6-month-old male hooded Wistar rats were treated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 3 months. Treatment effects in the tibia were examined by μ-computer tomography (μ-CT analysis, bone histomorphometric measurements and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR gene expression analysis. Resveratrol treatment did not affect trabecular bone volume and bone remodeling indices in the youth animal model. Resveratrol supplementation in the early ageing rats tended to decrease trabecular bone volume, Sirt1 gene expression and increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in bone, all of which were statistically insignificant. However, it decreased osteocalcin expression (p = 0.03. Furthermore, serum levels of bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides type I collagen (CTX-1 were significantly elevated in the resveratrol supplementation group (p = 0.02 with no changes observed in serum levels of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. These results in rat models suggest that resveratrol supplementation does not significantly affect bone

  1. Machine learning based analytics of micro-MRI trabecular bone microarchitecture and texture in type 1 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gulshan B; Robertson, Douglas D; Laney, Dawn A; Gambello, Michael J; Terk, Michael

    2016-06-14

    Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, affecting bone metabolism, structure and strength. Current bone assessment methods are not ideal. Semi-quantitative MRI scoring is unreliable, not standardized, and only evaluates bone marrow. DXA BMD is also used but is a limited predictor of bone fragility/fracture risk. Our purpose was to measure trabecular bone microarchitecture, as a biomarker of bone disease severity, in type 1 GD individuals with different GD genotypes and to apply machine learning based analytics to discriminate between GD patients and healthy individuals. Micro-MR imaging of the distal radius was performed on 20 type 1 GD patients and 10 healthy controls (HC). Fifteen stereological and textural measures (STM) were calculated from the MR images. General linear models demonstrated significant differences between GD and HC, and GD genotypes. Stereological measures, main contributors to the first two principal components (PCs), explained ~50% of data variation and were significantly different between males and females. Subsequent PCs textural measures were significantly different between GD patients and HC individuals. Textural measures also significantly differed between GD genotypes, and distinguished between GD patients with normal and pathologic DXA scores. PCA and SVM predictive analyses discriminated between GD and HC with maximum accuracy of 73% and area under ROC curve of 0.79. Trabecular STM differences can be quantified between GD patients and HC, and GD sub-types using micro-MRI and machine learning based analytics. Work is underway to expand this approach to evaluate GD disease burden and treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FPGA-based distributed computing microarchitecture for complex physical dynamics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Gianluca; Pace, Calogero; Pantano, Pietro; Bilotta, Eleonora

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed computing system, called DCMARK, aimed at solving partial differential equations at the basis of many investigation fields, such as solid state physics, nuclear physics, and plasma physics. This distributed architecture is based on the cellular neural network paradigm, which allows us to divide the differential equation system solving into many parallel integration operations to be executed by a custom multiprocessor system. We push the number of processors to the limit of one processor for each equation. In order to test the present idea, we choose to implement DCMARK on a single FPGA, designing the single processor in order to minimize its hardware requirements and to obtain a large number of easily interconnected processors. This approach is particularly suited to study the properties of 1-, 2- and 3-D locally interconnected dynamical systems. In order to test the computing platform, we implement a 200 cells, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation solver and perform a comparison between simulations conducted on a high performance PC and on our system. Since our distributed architecture takes a constant computing time to solve the equation system, independently of the number of dynamical elements (cells) of the CNN array, it allows us to reduce the elaboration time more than other similar systems in the literature. To ensure a high level of reconfigurability, we design a compact system on programmable chip managed by a softcore processor, which controls the fast data/control communication between our system and a PC Host. An intuitively graphical user interface allows us to change the calculation parameters and plot the results.

  3. Effect of Denosumab on Peripheral Compartmental Bone Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, Marco; Meyer, Ursina; Frey, Diana; Graf, Nicole; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized controlled clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients (NCT01377467) we have recently shown that RANKL inhibition with denosumab significantly improved areal bone mineral density (aBMD) when given during the first year after transplantation. The effect of denosumab on skeletal microstructure and bone strength in kidney transplant recipients is not known. The purpose of the present bone microarchitecture ancillary study was to investigate high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) data from the distal tibia and distal radius in 24 study patients that had been randomized to receive either two injections of denosumab 60 mg at baseline and after 6 months (n=10) or no treatment (n=14). Consistent with the full trial findings, denosumab reduced biomarkers of bone turnover, and significantly increased aBMD at the lumbar spine (median difference of 4.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 - 7.8; pBone quality as assessed by total and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (Tot. vBMD, Ct.vBMD) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) increased significantly at the tibia, while changes at the radius were less pronounced. The trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD), thickness (Tb. Th), separation (Tb.Sp) and number (Tb.N) and the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) at the tibia and the radius did not significantly change in both treatment groups. Micro-finite element analysis (µFEA) showed that bone stiffness increased significantly at the tibia (median difference 5.6%; 95% CI 1.8% - 9.2%; p=0.002) but not at the radius (median difference 2.9%, 95% CI -3.7% - 9.1%; p=0.369). Likewise, failure load increased significantly at the tibia (median difference 5.1%; 95% CI 2.1% - 8.1%; p=0.002) but not at the radius (median difference 2.4%, 95% CI -3.2% - 8.5%; p=0.336). These findings demonstrate that denosumab improves bone density and bone quality in first-year kidney transplant recipients at risk to develop osteoporosis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S

  4. Role of endocortical contouring methods on precision of HR-pQCT-derived cortical micro-architecture in postmenopausal women and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, C E; Johnston, J D; Cooper, D M L; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A

    2016-02-01

    Precision errors of cortical bone micro-architecture from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) ranged from 1 to 16 % and did not differ between automatic or manually modified endocortical contour methods in postmenopausal women or young adults. In postmenopausal women, manually modified contours led to generally higher cortical bone properties when compared to the automated method. First, the objective of the study was to define in vivo precision errors (coefficient of variation root mean square (CV%RMS)) and least significant change (LSC) for cortical bone micro-architecture using two endocortical contouring methods: automatic (AUTO) and manually modified (MOD) in two groups (postmenopausal women and young adults) from high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) scans. Second, it was to compare precision errors and bone outcomes obtained with both methods within and between groups. Using HR-pQCT, we scanned twice the distal radius and tibia of 34 postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD 74 ± 7 years) and 30 young adults (27 ± 9 years). Cortical micro-architecture was determined using AUTO and MOD contour methods. CV%RMS and LSC were calculated. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA were used to compare mean CV% and bone outcomes between the methods within and between the groups. Significance was accepted at P young adults, postmenopausal women had better precision for radial cortical porosity (precision difference 9.3 %) and pore volume (7.5 %) with MOD. Young adults had better precision for cortical thickness (0.8 %, MOD) and tibial cortical density (0.2 %, AUTO). In postmenopausal women, MOD resulted in 0.2-54 % higher values for most cortical outcomes, as well as 6-8 % lower radial and tibial cortical BMD and 2 % lower tibial cortical thickness. Results suggest that AUTO and MOD endocortical contour methods provide comparable repeatability. In postmenopausal women, manual modification of endocortical contours led to

  5. Characterization of trabecular bone plate-rod microarchitecture using multirow detector CT and the tensor scale: Algorithms, validation, and applications to pilot human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Punam K.; Liu, Yinxiao; Chen, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Letuchy, Elena M.; Xu, Ziyue; Amelon, Ryan E.; Burns, Trudy L.; Torner, James C.; Levy, Steven M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease associated with increased risk of low-trauma fractures leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Clinically, osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD); however, increasing evidence suggests that trabecular bone (TB) microarchitectural quality is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. A tensor scale based algorithm for in vivo characterization of TB plate-rod microarchitecture at the distal tibia using multirow detector CT (MD-CT) imaging is presented and its performance and applications are examined. Methods: The tensor scale characterizes individual TB on the continuum between a perfect plate and a perfect rod and computes their orientation using optimal ellipsoidal representation of local structures. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using computer-generated phantom images at a resolution and signal-to-noise ratio achievable in vivo. The robustness of the method was examined in terms of stability across a wide range of voxel sizes, repeat scan reproducibility, and correlation between TB measures derived by imaging human ankle specimens under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. Finally, the application of the method was evaluated in pilot human studies involving healthy young-adult volunteers (age: 19 to 21 yr; 51 females and 46 males) and patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (age: 19 to 21 yr; six males and six females). Results: An error of (3.2% ± 2.0%) (mean ± SD), computed as deviation from known measures of TB plate-width, was observed for computer-generated phantoms. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 was observed for tensor scale TB measures in repeat MD-CT scans where the measures were averaged over a small volume of interest of 1.05 mm diameter with limited smoothing effects. The method was found to be highly stable at different voxel sizes with an error of (2.29% ± 1.56%) at an in vivo voxel size

  6. Early effects of zoledronic acid and teriparatide on bone microarchitecture, remodeling and collagen crosslinks: comparison between iliac crest and lumbar vertebra in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero-Muzy, N R; Chavassieux, P M; Bouxsein, M L; Gineyts, E; Garnero, P; Chapurlat, R D

    2012-10-01

    Iliac crest bone biopsies are used to assess the mechanism of action of drug treatments, yet there are little data comparing this site to sites prone to fracture. The purpose of this study was to compare the delay and the amplitude of responses to treatment in two different bone sites. The short-term effects of zoledronic acid and teriparatide on microarchitecture, collagen crosslinks and bone remodeling were evaluated in iliac crest and lumbar vertebrae. Aged ewes (n=8/gr) received either vehicle (CTRL) or a single injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL, 10mg) or daily injections of teriparatide (TPTD, 20 μg/d) for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly for assessing bone turnover markers. At the end of the study, a transiliac bone biopsy (IC) and L1 lumbar vertebrae (LV1) were collected to assess bone microarchitecture; pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), pentosidine (PEN) content, static and dynamic parameters of bone remodeling. In CTRL, Tb-BV/TV was significantly higher in LV1 than IC (psALP (p<0.001) and sCTX (p<0.001) were observed in the ZOL-group whereas in TPTD-group, after transient increases, they returned to baseline values. When compared to their respective CTRL, ZOL induced significant increases in Tb.BV/TV, Conn.D, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, in IC but not in LV1. Regardless of the site, ZOL markedly depressed the bone turnover: The static parameters of bone formation significantly decreased and the diminution of MS/BS, BFR/BS and Ac.f varied from -94 to -98% vs CTRL (p<0.01 to 0.001). It was associated with a diminution of the DPD content and the PYD/DPD ratio mainly in IC cortices. In contrast, after 3 months, TPTD did not modify the 3D structure and microarchitecture in IC and LV1, except a trend of higher Conn.D in IC, compared to IC-CTRL. TPTD treatment induced a significant increase in cortical porosity in LV1 (p<0.05) when compared to LV1-CTRL. Static parameters of bone formation and resorption were augmented in both sites, significantly

  7. Adaptations in the Microarchitecture and Load Distribution of Maternal Cortical and Trabecular Bone in Response to Multiple Reproductive Cycles in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M. J.; Altman-Singles, Allison R.; Li, Yihan; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Li, Connie; Liu, X. Sherry

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy, lactation, and weaning result in dramatic changes in maternal calcium metabolism. In particular, the increased calcium demand during lactation causes a substantial degree of maternal bone loss. This reproductive bone loss has been suggested to be largely reversible, as multiple clinical studies have found that parity and lactation history have no adverse effect on post-menopausal fracture risk. However, the precise effects of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery on maternal bone structure are not well understood. Our study aimed to address this question by longitudinally tracking changes in trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia in rats throughout three cycles of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning using in vivo μCT. We found that the trabecular thickness underwent a reversible deterioration during pregnancy and lactation, which was fully recovered after weaning, while other parameters of trabecular microarchitecture (including trabecular number, spacing, connectivity density, and structure model index) underwent a more permanent deterioration which recovered minimally. Thus, pregnancy and lactation resulted in both transient and long-lasting alterations in trabecular microstructure. In the meantime, multiple reproductive cycles appeared to improve the robustness of cortical bone (resulting in an elevated cortical area and polar moment of inertia), as well as increase the proportion of the total load carried by the cortical bone at the proximal tibia. Taken together, changes in the cortical and trabecular compartments suggest that while rat tibial trabecular bone appears to be highly involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis during female reproduction, cortical bone adapts to increase its load-bearing capacity, allowing the overall mechanical function of the tibia to be maintained. PMID:28109138

  8. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative and de...... and descriptive HR-pQCT data from a large population-based sample of Danish Caucasian women and men (n = 499) aged 20-80 years. In young adults (...

  9. Design and Demonstration of RSFQ Processor Datapath for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Microarchitecture for Wide Datapath RSFQ Processors: Design Study , IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, (06 2011): 787. doi: 10.1109/TASC...undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and will receive scholarships or fellowships for further studies in science...size of 4.4 mm x 3.0 nun and consists of - 4000 Josephson junctions. The total length of passive transmission lines (PTL) used in wiring is - 0.2m

  10. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  11. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  12. In Vivo Over-expression of Circulating Dlk1/Pref-1 Protein Using Hydrodynamic-based Gene Transfer Leads to Lower Bone mass With Marked Effects on Trabecular Bone Micro-architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    determined by PIXImus (LunarR) and micro-CT (ScancoR) respectively. We could only localize the plasmid in the liver and no complications were detected due to transgene expression. Serum levels of FA1 in Dlk1 injected mice (Dlk1+mice) was elevated by more than 15 folds compared to control saline injected mice...... and BMD was negatively correlated with the circulating levels of FA1. Micro-CT analysis revealed significantly decreased micro-architectural parameters of trabecular bone in the distal femur and proximal tibia of the Dlk1+mice compared to controls (see table). Naked DNA delivery by hydrodynamic injection...

  13. Shape of a clamped stiff harpsichord wire driven at a resonant frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, Hilliard Kent; Boucher, Mathew A.

    2002-05-01

    A wire transversely driven by a sinusoidal force at the resonant frequency of a vibrational mode vibrates at the driving frequency and at harmonics generated by nonlinear processes in the wire. If the amplitude of a harmonic is measured as a function of position along the wire, its shape is revealed. It differs significantly from a sinusoid in the vicinity of either end of the wire because the ends are clamped and the wire has significant stiffness. The shapes of various harmonics have been determined for a brass harpsichord wire, 70 cm long, from optical detector measurements made at different distances from a clamped end. Knowledge of shape facilitates the determination of antinode amplitudes of harmonics when the gross motion of the wire is so large that the detectors must be positioned near an end of the wire because of their very limited dynamic range. Some observations of harmonics and related phenomena were reported previously [Hanson et al., J. Acoust Soc. Am. 108, 2592 (2000); 106, 2141 (1999)]. The shape information is also needed to help separate nonlinear effects possibly occurring in the detectors from those of interest, occurring in the wire itself.

  14. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  15. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  16. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko A.J.; Zioupos, Peter; Aula, Antti; Risteli, Juha; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Jämsä, Timo; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr −/− ) and wild-type (Ahr +/+ ) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr +/+ mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr −/− mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr +/+ mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr −/− mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr +/+ mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation results in increased trabecular bone

  17. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.herlin@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Finnilä, Mikko A.J., E-mail: mikko.finnila@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Zioupos, Peter, E-mail: p.zioupos@cranfield.ac.uk [Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University, Shrivenham SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Aula, Antti, E-mail: antti.aula@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Risteli, Juha, E-mail: juha.risteli@ppshp.fi [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Jämsä, Timo, E-mail: timo.jamsa@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Tuukkanen, Juha, E-mail: juha.tuukkanen@oulu.fi [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja, E-mail: merja.korkalainen@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Hakansson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Viluksela, Matti, E-mail: matti.viluksela@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup −/−}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup −/−} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup −/−} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation

  18. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig...... by providing ideas about future research for investigating mobilities in situ as a kind of “staging,” which he notes is influenced by the “material turn” in social sciences....... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  19. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture; Evaluation de l'analyse de la texture de radiographies 2D pour evaluer les micro architecture 3D d'os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, L.; Peyrin, F.; Yot, S.; Basset, O.; Odet, Ch. [CREATIS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UMR CNRS 5515), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Apostal, L.; Boller, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Tabary, J.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Boudousq, V.; Kotzki, P.O. [Faculte de Medecine, Lab. de Biophysique Medicale, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2004-07-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography ({mu}CT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray {mu}CT at the ESRF. The 3D digital images were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurrence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identifying the most relevant 2D texture parameters. (authors)

  20. Repeated administration of mazindol reduces spontaneous pain-related behaviors without modifying bone density and microarchitecture in a mouse model of complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced knee arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-González, LE; Martínez-Martínez, A; Vargas-Muñoz, VM; Acosta-González, RI; Plancarte-Sánchez, R; Anaya-Reyes, M; Fernández del Valle-Laisequilla, C; Reyes-García, JG; Jiménez-Andrade, JM

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of dopaminergic system in the development of rheumatoid arthritis-related pain, a major symptom in this disease, has not been explored. Therefore, the anti-nociceptive effect of mazindol, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, was evaluated in a model of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Furthermore, as studies have shown that the dopaminergic system regulates bone metabolism, the effect of mazindol on bone mass and microarchitecture was determined. Methods Adult ICR male mice received intra-articular injections of either CFA or saline into the right knee joint every week. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors (flinching and guarding) and locomotor activity were assessed at day 26 post-first CFA, following which, a single intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered dose of mazindol was given (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg). Then, the antinociceptive effect of a repeated administration of 3 mg/kg mazindol (daily, i.p.; day 15–day 26) was evaluated. Additionally, at day 26, the participation of D1-like, D2-like or opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effect of mazindol was evaluated. The effect of mazindol on bone density and microarchitecture was evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Results Acute administration of mazindol decreased the spontaneous pain-like behaviors in a dose-dependent manner without reducing the knee edema. However, mazindol at 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity; therefore, 3 mg/kg mazindol was used for further studies. Repeated administration of 3 mg/kg mazindol significantly decreased the pain-like behaviors without modifying locomotor activity. The antinociceptive effect of mazindol was blocked by administration of a D2-like receptor antagonist (haloperidol), but not by administration of D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) or an opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone). Repeated administration of mazindol did not significantly modify the density and microarchitecture of periarticular bone of the arthritic

  1. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  2. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (pdiet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (pdiet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (pdiet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeated administration of mazindol reduces spontaneous pain-related behaviors without modifying bone density and microarchitecture in a mouse model of complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced knee arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo-González LE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available LE Robledo-González,1 A Martínez-Martínez,1 VM Vargas-Muñoz,1 RI Acosta-González,2 R Plancarte-Sánchez,3 M Anaya-Reyes,4 C Fernández del Valle-Laisequilla,5 JG Reyes-García,6 JM Jiménez-Andrade1 1Laboratorio de Farmacología, 2Departamento de Análisis Clínicos, Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Reynosa-Aztlán, UAT, Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico; 3Departamento de Anestesiología, Terapia Intensiva y Clínica del Dolor, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Investigación Clínica y Farmacovigilancia, 5Investigación Clínica y Farmacovigilancia, Productos Medix, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico; 6Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The role of dopaminergic system in the development of rheumatoid arthritis-related pain, a major symptom in this disease, has not been explored. Therefore, the antinociceptive effect of mazindol, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, was evaluated in a model of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis. Furthermore, as studies have shown that the dopaminergic system regulates bone metabolism, the effect of mazindol on bone mass and microarchitecture was determined.Methods: Adult ICR male mice received intra-articular injections of either CFA or saline into the right knee joint every week. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors (flinching and guarding and locomotor activity were assessed at day 26 post-first CFA, following which, a single intraperitoneally (i.p. administered dose of mazindol was given (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg. Then, the antinociceptive effect of a repeated administration of 3 mg/kg mazindol (daily, i.p.; day 15–day 26 was evaluated. Additionally, at day 26, the participation of D1-like, D2-like or opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effect of mazindol was evaluated. The effect of mazindol on bone density and microarchitecture was evaluated by micro

  4. Facile fabrication of flower like self-assembled mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}: In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers with electron beam sensitive thin petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul Prakasam, Balasubramaniam, E-mail: arul7777@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Manu; Peuronen, Anssi [Department of Chemistry, Laboratories of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Muruganandham, Manickavachagam [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122 (United States); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    A template and capping-reagent free facile fabrication method for mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of flower-like In(OH){sub 3} particles under benign hydrothermal conditions is reported. Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of morphology is also described. Both In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures were analyzed with SEM, EDX, TEM and powder X-ray diffraction. The crystal sizes for In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calculated using the Scherrer equation. In In(OH){sub 3} the thin flakes at the periphery of micro flowers were electron beam sensitive. The mechanism of self-assembly process was analyzed as well. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal fabrication In(OH){sub 3} self-assembled porous hierarchical architectures. • Induced dehydration in beam sensitive In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers. • Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of flower like morphology. • Phase pure synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the average crystal size of ∼37 nm.

  5. Microarchitecture of the Augmented Bone Following Sinus Elevation with an Albumin Impregnated Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (BoneAlbumin versus Anorganic Bovine Bone Mineral: A Randomized Prospective Clinical, Histomorphometric, and Micro-Computed Tomography Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivovics Márton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin has been identified as an endogenous protein that is integral to early bone regeneration. We hypothesized that albumin addition to allografts may result in better bone remodeling than what can be achieved with anorganic xenografts. Sinus elevations were performed at 32 sites of 18 patients with the lateral window technique. Sites either received filling with an anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM, BioOss, Geistlich, CH or albumin impregnated allograft (BoneAlbumin, OrthoSera, AT. After 6-months patients received dental implants and 16 bone core biopsy samples were obtained from the ABBM filled, and 16 from the BoneAlbumin augmented sites. The biopsies were examined by histomorphometry and µCT. Percentage of the residual graft in the BoneAlbumin group was 0–12.7%, median 5.4% vs. ABBM 6.3–35.9%, median 16.9%, p < 0.05. Results of the µCT analysis showed that the microarchitecture of the augmented bone in the BoneAlbumin group resembles that of the native maxilla in morphometric parameters Trabecular Pattern Factor and Connectivity. Our data show that while ABBM successfully integrates into the newly formed bone tissue as persisting particles, BoneAlbumin is underway towards complete remodeling with new bone closely resembling that of the intact maxilla.

  6. Design and Structure-Function Characterization of 3D Printed Synthetic Porous Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cambre N; Miller, Andrew T; Hollister, Scott J; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2018-04-01

    3D printing is now adopted for use in a variety of industries and functions. In biomedical engineering, 3D printing has prevailed over more traditional manufacturing methods in tissue engineering due to its high degree of control over both macro- and microarchitecture of porous tissue scaffolds. However, with the improved flexibility in design come new challenges in characterizing the structure-function relationships between various architectures and both mechanical and biological properties in an assortment of clinical applications. Presently, the field of tissue engineering lacks a comprehensive body of literature that is capable of drawing meaningful relationships between the designed structure and resulting function of 3D printed porous biomaterial scaffolds. This work first discusses the role of design on 3D printed porous scaffold function and then reviews characterization of these structure-function relationships for 3D printed synthetic metallic, polymeric, and ceramic biomaterials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Exploring Many-Core Design Templates for FPGAs and ASICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Lebedev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a highly productive approach to hardware design based on a many-core microarchitectural template used to implement compute-bound applications expressed in a high-level data-parallel language such as OpenCL. The template is customized on a per-application basis via a range of high-level parameters such as the interconnect topology or processing element architecture. The key benefits of this approach are that it (i allows programmers to express parallelism through an API defined in a high-level programming language, (ii supports coarse-grained multithreading and fine-grained threading while permitting bit-level resource control, and (iii reduces the effort required to repurpose the system for different algorithms or different applications. We compare template-driven design to both full-custom and programmable approaches by studying implementations of a compute-bound data-parallel Bayesian graph inference algorithm across several candidate platforms. Specifically, we examine a range of template-based implementations on both FPGA and ASIC platforms and compare each against full custom designs. Throughout this study, we use a general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU implementation as a performance and area baseline. We show that our approach, similar in productivity to programmable approaches such as GPGPU applications, yields implementations with performance approaching that of full-custom designs on both FPGA and ASIC platforms.

  8. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  9. System Level Design of Reconfigurable Server Farms Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangook Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As today’s hardware architecture becomes more and more complicated, it is getting harder to modify or improve the microarchitecture of a design in register transfer level (RTL. Consequently, traditional methods we have used to develop a design are not capable of coping with complex designs. In this paper, we suggest a way of designing complex digital logic circuits with a soft and advanced type of SystemVerilog at an electronic system level. We apply the concept of design-and-reuse with a high level of abstraction to implement elliptic curve crypto-processor server farms. With the concept of the superior level of abstraction to the RTL used with the traditional HDL design, we successfully achieved the soft implementation of the crypto-processor server farms as well as robust test bench code with trivial effort in the same simulation environment. Otherwise, it could have required error-prone Verilog simulations for the hardware IPs and other time-consuming jobs such as C/SystemC verification for the software, sacrificing more time and effort. In the design of the elliptic curve cryptography processor engine, we propose a 3X faster GF(2m serial multiplication architecture.

  10. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  11. Designing Communication Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes

    2016-01-01

    Innovating in the field of new media genres requires methods for producing designs that can succeed in being disseminated and used outside of design research labs. This article uses the author's experiences with the development of university courses in communication design to address the research...... question: How can we design courses to give students the competencies they need to work as designers of new media? Based on existing approaches from UX design and other fields, I present a model that has demonstrated its usefulness in the development of commercial products and services. The model...

  12. New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongjin

    2012-07-01

    Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing a large field-of-view two-photon microscope using optical invariant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Jonathan R; Park, Jasmine J; Rosen, Isaac A; Kraft, Andrew W; Wright, Patrick W; Reisman, Matthew D; Côté, Daniel C; Culver, Joseph P

    2018-04-01

    Conventional two-photon microscopy (TPM) is capable of imaging neural dynamics with subcellular resolution, but it is limited to a field-of-view (FOV) diameter [Formula: see text]. Although there has been recent progress in extending the FOV in TPM, a principled design approach for developing large FOV TPM (LF-TPM) with off-the-shelf components has yet to be established. Therefore, we present a design strategy that depends on analyzing the optical invariant of commercially available objectives, relay lenses, mirror scanners, and emission collection systems in isolation. Components are then selected to maximize the space-bandwidth product of the integrated microscope. In comparison with other LF-TPM systems, our strategy simplifies the sequence of design decisions and is applicable to extending the FOV in any microscope with an optical relay. The microscope we constructed with this design approach can image [Formula: see text] lateral and [Formula: see text] axial resolution over a 7-mm diameter FOV, which is a 100-fold increase in FOV compared with conventional TPM. As a demonstration of the potential that LF-TPM has on understanding the microarchitecture of the mouse brain across interhemispheric regions, we performed in vivo imaging of both the cerebral vasculature and microglia cell bodies over the mouse cortex.

  14. Biomechanical aspects of initial intraosseous stability and implant design: a quantitative micro-morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kivanç; Chang, Ting-Ling; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Fanuscu, Mete I

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this biomechanical study was to explore the effect of bone micro-morphology on initial intraosseous stability of implants with different designs. Straumann and Astra Tech dental implants were placed into anterior and posterior regions of completely edentulous maxilla and mandible of a human cadaver. Experiments were undertaken to quantify initial implant stability and bone micro-morphology. Installation torque values (ITVs) and implant stability quotients (ISQs) were measured to determine initial intraosseous implant stability. For quantification of relative bone volume and micro-architecture, sectioned implant-bone and bone core specimens of each implant placement site were consecutively scanned and trabecular bone was analyzed in a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) unit. Experimental outcomes were evaluated for correlations among implant designs, initial intraosseous implant stability and bone micro-structural parameters. ITVs correlated higher with bone volume fraction (BV/TV) than ISQs, at 88.1% and 68.9% levels, respectively. Correlations between ITVs and micro-morphometric parameters were significant at the 95% confidence level (Pimplant designs used were not significant at the 95% confidence level (P>0.05). Bone micro-morphology has a prevailing effect over implant design on intraosseus initial implant stability, and ITV is more sensitive in terms of revealing biomechanical properties at the bone-implant interface in comparison with ISQ.

  15. Prompting Designers to Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2006-01-01

    Recent research suggest that engineering designers need assistance to understand what information is relevant for their particular design problem. They require guidance in formulating their queries and also to understand what information is relevant for them. This paper presents an approach to pr...

  16. Winged design; Befluegeltes Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tilman

    2013-10-15

    Today the wind rotor blades are about 80 meter long. To keep them light and transportable designers and material scientists come up with a number of ideas. Will the carbon fiber prevail against the glass fiber? [German] Ueber 80 Meter messen die laengsten Rotorblaetter heute. Um sie leicht und transportfaehig zu halten, lassen sich Designer und Materialforscher einiges einfallen. Wird sich die Kohlefaser gegen die Glasfaser durchsetzen?.

  17. Dansk Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    Indhold: Hvad er design?; Hvor kommer dansk design fra?; Produktdesign; Tekstil- og tøjdesign; Design af møbler og boligindretning; Bygningen og design; Arbejdets design; Transportdesign; Offentligt design; Grafisk design; Nye tider og en ny slags design...

  18. Resilient architecture design for voltage variation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa

    2013-01-01

    Shrinking feature size and diminishing supply voltage are making circuits sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations within the microprocessor, caused by normal workload activity changes. If left unattended, voltage fluctuations can lead to timing violations or even transistor lifetime issues that degrade processor robustness. Mechanisms that learn to tolerate, avoid, and eliminate voltage fluctuations based on program and microarchitectural events can help steer the processor clear of danger, thus enabling tighter voltage margins that improve performance or lower power consumption. We describe

  19. Analytic processor model for fast design-space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, R.; Mariani, G.; Anghel, A.; Dittmann, G.; Vermij, E.; Corporaal, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytic model that takes as inputs a) a parametric microarchitecture-independent characterization of the target workload, and b) a hardware configuration of the core and the memory hierarchy, and returns as output an estimation of processor-core performance. To validate

  20. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasetty, Vikram Arkalgud

    2011-01-01

    This book provides insight into the practical design of VLSI circuits. It is aimed at novice VLSI designers and other enthusiasts who would like to understand VLSI design flows. Coverage includes key concepts in CMOS digital design, design of DSP and communication blocks on FPGAs, ASIC front end and physical design, and analog and mixed signal design. The approach is designed to focus on practical implementation of key elements of the VLSI design process, in order to make the topic accessible to novices. The design concepts are demonstrated using software from Mathworks, Xilinx, Mentor Graphic

  1. Architectonics: Design of Molecular Architecture for Functional Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M B; Govindaraju, Thimmaiah

    2018-02-20

    biomolecules like amino acids and nucleobases as auxiliaries. Naphthalenediimide (NDI), perylenediimide (PDI), and few other molecular systems serve as functional modules. The effects of stereochemistry and minute structural modifications in the molecular designs on the supramolecular interactions, and construction of self-assembled zero-dimensional (OD), one-dimensional (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) nano- and microarchitectures like particles, spheres, cups, bowls, fibers, belts, helical belts, supercoiled helices, sheets, fractals, and honeycomb-like arrays are discussed in extensive detail. Additionally, we present molecular systems that showcase the elegant designs of coassembly, templated assembly, hierarchical assembly, transient self-assembly, chiral denaturation, retentive helical memory, self-replication, supramolecular regulation, supramolecular speciation, supernon linearity, dynamic pathway complexity, supramolecular heterojunction, living supramolecular polymerization, and molecular machines. Finally, we describe the molecular engineering principles learnt over the years that have led to several applications, namely, organic electronics, self-cleaning, high-mechanical strength, and tissue engineering.

  2. An Overview of Scaffold Design and Fabrication Technology for Engineered Knee Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current surgical treatments for meniscal tears suffer from subsequent degeneration of knee joints, limited donor organs and inconsistent post-treatment results. Three clinical scaffolds (Menaflex CMI, Actifit® scaffold and NUsurface® Meniscus Implant are available on the market, but additional data are needed to properly evaluate their safety and effectiveness. Thus, many scaffold-based research activities have been done to develop new materials, structures and fabrication technologies to mimic native meniscus for cell attachment and subsequent tissue development, and restore functionalities of injured meniscus for long-term effects. This study begins with a synopsis of relevant structural features of meniscus and goes on to describe the critical considerations. Promising advances made in the field of meniscal scaffolding technology, in terms of biocompatible materials, fabrication methods, structure design and their impact on mechanical and biological properties are discussed in detail. Among all the scaffolding technologies, additive manufacturing (AM is very promising because of its ability to precisely control fiber diameter, orientation, and pore network micro-architecture to mimic the native meniscus microenvironment.

  3. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  4. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  5. Evidensbaseret design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Debatindlæg om evidensbaseret design, som argumenterer for at det dels er en gammeldags, modernistisk tilgang til design, dels ikke baserer sig på evidens.......Debatindlæg om evidensbaseret design, som argumenterer for at det dels er en gammeldags, modernistisk tilgang til design, dels ikke baserer sig på evidens....

  6. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Gul Khawaja

    Full Text Available With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  7. Development of a novel method for surgical implant design optimization through noninvasive assessment of local bone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiuma, D; Brianza, S; Tami, A E

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed to improve the design of locking implants by finding the optimal paths for the anchoring elements, based on a high resolution pQCT assessment of local bone mineral density (BMD) distribution and bone micro-architecture (BMA). The method consists of three steps: (1) partial fixation of the implant to the bone and creation of a reference system, (2) implant removal and pQCT scan of the bone, and (3) determination of BMD and BMA of all implant-anchoring locations along the actual and alternative directions. Using a PHILOS plate, the method uncertainty was tested on an artificial humerus bone model. A cadaveric humerus was used to quantify how the uncertainty of the method affects the assessment of bone parameters. BMD and BMA were determined along four possible alternative screw paths as possible criteria for implant optimization. The method is biased by a 0.87 ± 0.12 mm systematic uncertainty and by a 0.44 ± 0.09 mm random uncertainty in locating the virtual screw position. This study shows that this method can be used to find alternative directions for the anchoring elements, which may possess better bone properties. This modification will thus produce an optimized implant design. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FPGA design

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This book describes best practices for successful FPGA design. It is the result of the author's meetings with hundreds of customers on the challenges facing each of their FPGA design teams. By gaining an understanding into their design environments, processes, what works and what does not work, key areas of concern in implementing system designs have been identified and a recommended design methodology to overcome these challenges has been developed. This book's content has a strong focus on design teams that are spread across sites. The goal being to increase the productivity of FPGA design t

  9. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand....... Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design...

  10. Design What?%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    processes, which require specific development methods across a wide range of disciplines, from industrial design over graphic communication to service and digital design and strategic corporate development. The book addresses both established methods and recent research in design processes at leading design...... idea to the end-result. The goal for this graphic non-fiction project is to document and present both historical and current developments in design methodology, from the early attempts at documenting procedures for design process management at the Bauhaus School in the 1920s to contemporary design...

  11. An experimental microarchitecture for a superconducting qantum processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Rol, M.A.; Bultink, C.C.; Someren, J. van; Khammassi, N.; Ashraf, I.; Vermeulen, R.F.L.; De Sterke, J.C.; Vlothuizen, W.J.; Schouten, R.N.; Almudever, C.G.; DiCarlo, L.; Bertels, K.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum computers promise to solve certain problems that are intractable for classical computers, such as factoring large numbers and simulating quantum systems. To date, research in quantum computer engineering has focused primarily at opposite ends of the required system stack: devising high-level

  12. Bone Quality: The Mechanical Effects of Microarchitecture and Matrix Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Day (Judd)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this body of work we have examined some of the current concepts pertaining to the relation between bone mass, bone quality and the mechanical properties of bone. In our first series of studies we used a model of human osteoarthritis to investigate the implications of changes in the

  13. Heavy metals accumulation affects bone microarchitecture in osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Feola, Maurizio; Romano, Lorenzo; Rao, Cecilia; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Tarantino, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    Bone metabolism is affected by mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors and plays a major role in osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the influence of environmental pollution on the occurrence of osteoporosis is still unclear and controversial. In this context, heavy metals are the most important pollutants capable to affect bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heavy metals accumulation in bone tissues could be related to the altered bone metabolism and architecture of osteoporotic patients. To this end, we analyzed 25 bone head biopsies osteoporotic patients and 25 bone head biopsies of osteoarthritic patients. Moreover we enrolled 15 patients underwent hip arthroplasty for high-energy hip fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head as a control group. Bone head biopsies were studied by BioQuant-osteo software, scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. We found a prevalence of lead, cadmium and chromium accumulation in osteoporotic patients. Noteworthy, high levels of sclerostin, detected by immunohistochemistry, correlate with the accumulation of heavy metal found in the bone of osteoporotic patients, suggesting a molecular link between heavy metal accumulation and bone metabolism impairment. In conclusion, the presence of heavy metals into bone shed new light on the comprehension of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis since these elements could play a non redundant role in the development of osteoporosis at cellular/molecular and epigenetic level. Nevertheless, in vivo and in vitro studies need to better elucidate the molecular mechanism in which heavy metals can participate to osteoporosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1333-1342, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An experimental microarchitecture for a superconducting qantum processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Rol, M.A.; Bultink, C.C.; van Someren, J.; Khammassi, N.; Ashraf, I.; Vermeulen, R.F.L.; de Sterke, J.C.; Vlothuizen, W.J.; Schouten, R.N.; García Almudever, C.; Di Carlo, L.; Bertels, K.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum computers promise to solve certain problems that are intractable for classical computers, such as factoring large numbers and simulating quantum systems. To date, research in quantum computer engineering has focused primarily at opposite ends of the required system stack: devising

  15. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D K

    2014-01-01

    Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) design has moved from costly curiosity to an everyday necessity, especially with the proliferated applications of embedded computing devices in communications, entertainment and household gadgets. As a result, more and more knowledge on various aspects of VLSI design technologies is becoming a necessity for the engineering/technology students of various disciplines. With this goal in mind the course material of this book has been designed to cover the various fundamental aspects of VLSI design, like Categorization and comparison between various technologies used for VLSI design Basic fabrication processes involved in VLSI design Design of MOS, CMOS and Bi CMOS circuits used in VLSI Structured design of VLSI Introduction to VHDL for VLSI design Automated design for placement and routing of VLSI systems VLSI testing and testability The various topics of the book have been discussed lucidly with analysis, when required, examples, figures and adequate analytical and the...

  16. Design Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Ilpo; Krogh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When design research builds on design practice, it may contribute to both theory and practice of design in ways richer than research that treats design as a topic. Such research, however, faces several tensions that it has to negotiate successfully in order not to lose its character as research....... This paper looks at constructive design research which takes the entanglement of theory and practice as its hallmark, and uses it as a test case in exploring how design researchers can work with theory, methodology, and practice without losing their identity as design researchers. The crux of practice based...... design research is that where classical research is interested in singling out a particular aspect and exploring it in depth, design practice is characterized by balancing numerous concerns in a heterogenous and occasionally paradoxical product. It is on this basis the notion of design accountability...

  17. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  18. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  19. Business design or Creative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2008-01-01

    Business design is about turning good ideas into future business, but it requires a great entrepreneurial opportunity to be exploited via a valid strategic and organizational design. The literature says much about how entrepreneurs design strategies and organizations, but how do they design...

  20. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  1. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Design anthropology is a call for a different way of involving anthropology and participatory observation within practices of designing technologies, services, policies and infrastructure that does not aim towards changing human behavior. Here design is considered the process and not the object...... of inquiry. The paper presents a short history of design anthropology, its theoretical underpinnings and methodologies. Theoretically, the emerging field is influenced by processual, critical and action orientated approaches in anthropology. I argue that by combining anthropological methodology and knowledge...... with the future orientated imaginative praxis of design skill and collaborative design processes, anthropology and design could learn from each other. I conclude by referring to what theories, methods, and approaches are in use by practitioners of design anthropology....

  2. Danish design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Hvordan dansk design bliver innovativt og verdensberømt igen som i storhedstiden i 1950- og 60'erne......Hvordan dansk design bliver innovativt og verdensberømt igen som i storhedstiden i 1950- og 60'erne...

  3. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  4. Research Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    Gunnar Scott Reinbacher (editor) Antology.  Research Design : Validation in Social Sciences. Gunnar Scott Reinbacher: Introduction. Research design and validity. 15p Ole Riis: Creative Research design. 16 p Lennart Nørreklit: Validity in Research Design. 24p Gitte Sommer Harrits: Praxeological...... Scott Reinbacher: Multidisciplinary Research Designs in Problem Based Research. The case of an european project on chronical diseases, the Tandem project (Training Alternmative Networking Skills in Diabetes Management). 15p Niels Nørgaard Kristensen: A qualitative bottom up approach to post modern...... knowledge: An integrated strategy for combining "explaining" and "understanding". 22p Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen & Viola Burau: Comparative research designs. 40p Rasmus Antoft & Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen: Studying organizations by a Pragmatic Research Design: the case of qualitative case study  designs. 31p...

  5. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  6. Breakwater design

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.; van den Bos, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    For this book we have deliberately chosen that the text should follow a more or less logical design procedure for breakwaters. It follows the required design steps from the system level down to the individual crosssection level, and in time from conceptual design to construction. This systematic approach starts at the functional description of breakwaters, system analysis including side-effects and derivation of boundary conditions and continues to the actual design, first of the main armour ...

  7. Design typology and design organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Wognum, N.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    research society has recognised normative procedural models of designing as being a reasonable answer to the question: How do designing proceed? The reasoning behind the models, from which the design methodology model by [Pahl & Beitz 1995], may be seen as a characteristic one, was a mix of human problem......The idea of focusing upon the creation of a design typology was articulated by [Andreasen & Wognum 2000] and detailed by [Andreasen & Wognum 2001]. The aim was to propose a typology, which could serve as identification of design types and design research contributions. For a long period the design...... solving-, design management-, and artefact nature-reasoning. Critique has been raised to that type of models as being neither explanatory nor instructive. If we accept these models as merely being pragmatically "stepping-stone" explanations of what happens during designing, it is interesting to observe...

  8. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... and emerging production methods....

  9. Radiopharmacy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which should be considered when designing a radiopharmacy are examined. These include the levels and types of radioactivity and the functions, location, size and layout of the radiopharmacy. Aspects of the design process including environmental cleanliness in enclosed spaces and microbiological safety cabinets are also discussed. Finally the current publications available on recommendations and guidelines for radiopharmacy designs are briefly reviewed. (UK)

  10. Breakwater design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; van den Bos, J.P.

    For this book we have deliberately chosen that the text should follow a more or less logical design procedure for breakwaters. It follows the required design steps from the system level down to the individual crosssection level, and in time from conceptual design to construction. This systematic

  11. Design Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillary, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizing part of a seminar on iodide filter testing the author classifies the design information on iodine filters which was presented at the meeting in terms of design requirements - species to be trapped sorption materials and engineering factors -, design evaluation, applications and operational experience

  12. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...... ‘synergies from interdisciplinary perspectives’ by discussing and elaborating on differing academic perspectives, theoretical backgrounds, and design concept definitions, and evaluating their unique contribution to a general core of design research. This book is an exciting contribution to this little...

  13. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  14. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    define conceptual designing as a constructive framing and re-framing activity, which is mediated by and targeted at the creation of new design concepts. Conceptual designing as an approach is valuable for addressing the fuzziness and ambiguity typical of research that explores novel areas with new...... partners, methods and resources. It is by no means a new phenomenon, and the main contribution of the article is the clarification of conceptual designing as a particular approach to designing and researching. The approach embraces openness, resource-construction and collaboration. We conclude...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...

  15. ECO DESIGN IN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eco-design is a new domain, required by the new trends and existing concerns worldwide, generated by the necessity of adopting new design principles. New design principles require the designer to provide a friendly relationship between concept created, environment and consume. This "friendly" relationship should be valid both at present and in the future, generating new opportunities for product, product components or materials from which it was made. Awareness, by the designer, the importance of this new trend, permits the establishment of concepts that have as their objective the protection of present values and ensuring the legacy of future generations. Ecodesig, by its principles, is involved in the design process, from early stage, the stage of product design. Priority objective of the designers will consist in reducing the negative effects on the environment through the entire life cycle and after it is taken out of use. The main aspects of the eco-design will consider extending product exploitation, make better use of materials, reduction of emission of waste. The design process in the "eco"domein must be started by selecting the function of the concept, materials and technological processes, causing the shape of macro and micro geometric of the product through an analysis that involves optimizing and streamlining the product. This paper presents the design process of a cross-sports footwear concept, built on the basis of the principles of ecodesign

  16. Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2007-01-01

    In resent years the two main design schools in Denmark (Danmarks Designskole and Designskolen Kolding ) undergo many changes. The overall goal for both is to obtain status as a university, and they will be evaluated in this regard in 2010. Transforming a vocational school with long handicraft...... traditions into a research based institution for higher education is demanding. Danmarks Designskole is in the middle of this process, many activities are initiated, both employees and students are involved, and from outside representatives from various design professions. The design process has many...... stakeholders with various interests and opinions. The aim it is not to design a computer system, a service or product but re-designing curriculum, work procedures, self images etc. which support educating designers of the future. This paper reports on two investigations that have been carried through as part...

  17. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...

  18. Workspace Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke

    Arbejdsmiljø adresseres sjældent i den klassike tekniske tilgang til arbejdspladsdesign. Workspace Design konceptet er et alternativ tilgang til design eller re-design af arbejdspladser, baseret på en socio-teknisk systemforståelse, hvor hovedprincipperne er 1) transformation af...... arbejdsmiljørådgiveren til facilitator af arbejdspladsdesignprocessen og 2) transformation af medarbejderne til co-designere af deres egen arbejdsplads. Dette ph.d.-projekt er en del af Workspace Design forskningsprogrammet som har udviklet og testet Workspace Design konceptet og de tilhørende metoder ved intervention i...... arbejdspladsdesignprocesser i tre virksomheder tilhørende henholdsvis industri-, service- og sundhedssektoren. Ph.d.-projektet har belyst hvordan en medarbejderinvolverende designproces kan iscenesættes og faciliteres af arbejdsmiljøprofessionelle ved hjælp af kreative, visuelle metoder inspireret af Participatory Design...

  19. Design culture and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    2014-01-01

    to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we understand and discuss design education as part of a cultural phenomenon. The aim of our research is to develop new dialogue...... tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we seek to develop an alternative transformational strategy that may further the design of products....... In this paper we discuss ways in which design education might contribute in changing the current professional culture in order to meet the need for more sustainable futures....

  20. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Nielsen, M. W.; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    and describe the decision process. Specific attention is given to how the engineering input was presented and how it was able to facilitate the design development. Site and context, building shape, organization of functions and HVAC-systems were all included to obtain a complete picture of the building......, low-energy consumption, and high-quality indoor environment. We use this case study to investigate how technical knowledge about building performance can be integrated into the conceptual design stage. We have selected certain points during the design process that represented design challenges...

  1. Design Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankl, Kathrina

    2014-01-01

    . The exhibition is oriented along disciplines such as inclusive design, which calls for products to be designed in such a way that they are equally attractive to people of all ages. Despite the existence of innovative design concepts, the number of well-designed products available on the market is low. While many...... courageous projects for "best agers" and "golden agers" never get beyond the prototype stage, products that paint a more "beige" picture of everyday life can be found in large numbers. This fact raises some key questions: Does the existing product culture reflect today's views on old age? Do contemporary...

  2. Team designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and gi...... thinking and communication in design. Trying to answer the question: How can visual system models facilitate learning in design thinking and team designing?......Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and give...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...

  3. Design Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2006-01-01

    Design is moreover recognised as an important strategic tool in achieving competitive business´, products and services in a global market. As design becomes a more complex matter, due to a general increase in knowledge, requirements and internationalisation, more professions are involved....... As such it acts a managing tool for both leaders and participants in the design process. This paper builds on long term practical experiment with development and use of a simple tool to support management of complex design matters in diverse groups. Concerning education it has supported the development of new...

  4. Designated Places

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Census 2000 Place Names provides a seamless statewide GIS layer of places, including census designated places (CDP), consolidated cities, and incorporated places,...

  5. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  6. Cryostat Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, V [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to give non-expert engineers and scientists working in the domain of accelerators a general introduction to the main disciplines and technologies involved in the design and construction of accelerator cryostats. Far from being an exhaustive coverage of these topics, an attempt is made to provide simple design and calculation rules for a preliminary design of cryostats. Recurrent reference is made to the Large Hadron Collider magnet cryostats, as most of the material presented is taken from their design and construction at CERN.

  7. Interior Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  8. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion...

  9. Publication Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  10. Designing friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stronks, B.; van der Vet, P.E.; Rosenberg, D.

    2003-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents are virtual humans that can interact with humans using verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. In most cases, they have been designed for short interactions. This paper asks the question how one would start to design synthetic characters that can become your

  11. Design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Mark T. Bomberg

    2009-01-01

    Overall, despite the lack of exact input data, the use of design tools, including models, is much superior to the simple following of rules of thumbs, and a moisture analysis should be standard procedure for any building envelope design. Exceptions can only be made for buildings in the same climate, similar occupancy, and similar envelope construction. This chapter...

  12. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    1999-01-01

    A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)......A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)...

  13. Persuasive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2013-01-01

    of the specific context. This paper argues that the claim of persuasive design may not be the ability to change the user’s attitude or behaviour towards a given subject, but rather on the ability to create designs, which adapt the context in a way, which facilitates the ability to act within the opportune moment....

  14. Japansk design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen udspringer af interviews med ti af Japans bedste møbeldesignere, grafikere, arkitekter og designfirmaer. Efter samtalerne var der tre træk ved japansk design, som trådte frem: god økonomi, fantasi og vovemod. Det bedste japanske design fusionerer vovemod med den unikke japanske kultur med...

  15. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  16. Performance Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    Contribution to conference: Art and Presence The emerging field of Performance Design is unfolded as a bastard form of research/art/design/practice, with shapeshifting, monstruous, hybrid and transformational qualities. The potential for presencing, which emerges out of momentarily transgressing...

  17. Design law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU......This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU...

  18. Furniture design

    CERN Document Server

    Smardzewski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the principles of designing furniture as wooden structures, this book discusses issues related to the history of furniture structures, their classification and characteristics, ergonomic approaches to anthropometric requirements and safety of use. It presents key methods and highlights common errors in designing the characteristics of the materials, components, joints and structures, as well as looking at the challenges regarding developing associated design documentation. Including analysis of how designers may go about calculating the stiffness and endurance of parts, joints and whole structures, the book analyzes questions regarding the loss of furniture stability and the resulting threats to health of the user, putting forward a concept of furniture design as an engineering processes. Creating an attractive, functional, ergonomic and safe piece of furniture is not only the fruit of the work of individual architects and artists, but requires an effort of many people working ...

  19. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  20. ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2013-01-01

    of activity conforming to an authoritative design method. Analysis of the result showed that of the 66 cases, 4.5% reported carrying out all six categories of activity. 39.3% carried out or reported just one step. The study also found that the predominant focus of reported design activity is in the initial...

  1. Designing Users/Designing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper addresses issues of user conceptualisation and representation in the processes of designing and innovating artifacts and use-practices. It is informed by early as well as more recent insights from technology studies within the new sociology of technology (e.g. Akrich 1995, Bijker & Law...... and competencies. Characteristic of these projects are the interplay between the social and the technical dimensions in the process of product development, and the students are expected to apply socio-technical methodologies in their strategies. The students’ need to inform the design through iteratively...... themes ranging from user-oriented design to product redesign and workspace design, etc. It is expected that some of the insights gained from these projects may be related outside of the immediate context of the classroom, to inform the notion of competencies in engineering design and sociotechnical...

  2. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume provides an introduction to the emerging field of design anthropology from the point of view of anthropologists engaging in its development. Contributors include young anthropologists with experience in the field and leading theoreticians, who combine to articulate the specific...... style of knowing involved in doing design anthropology. So far design anthropology has been developed mostly in the practice of industry and the public sector, in particular in Scandinavia and the US, and the sustained academic reflection to support this practice is still in its early stages. This book...... will contribute to this theoretical reflection and provide a reference for practitioners, teachers and students of anthropology, as well as design and innovation....

  3. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  4. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  5. Design '82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The papers in the symposium cover many aspects of the economy and effectiveness of chemical engineering design in industrial plants. Among the topics dealt with are the special problems associated with nuclear reprocessing plants. (U.K.)

  6. Persuasiv design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the theme issue on “Persuasive design”. Design/methodology/approach – This editorial describes the essential ideas and purposes of persuasive design (PD). PD's relation to other IT‐disciplines and rhetoric in general is discussed. A special...... to rhetoric and the concomitant implications for library and information systems is largely original (when compared with other discussions of PD)....

  7. Mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts for a 1000 mw thermal stationary power plant employing the UF6 fueled gas core breeder reactor are examined. Three design combinations-gaseous UF6 core with a solid matrix blanket, gaseous UF6 core with a liquid blanket, and gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket were considered. Results show the gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket was best suited to the power plant concept.

  8. Mechanisms Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design such mechan......Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design...... using criteria such as size, performance parameters, operation environment, etc. Content: Understanding Mechanisms Design (2 weeks) Definitions, mechanisms representations, kinematic diagrams, the four bar linkage, mobility, applications of mechanisms, types of mechanisms, special mechanisms, the design......: equations for various mechanisms. At the end of this module you will be able to analyze existing mechanisms and to describe their movement. Designing mechanisms (7 weeks) Type synthesis and dimensional synthesis, function generation, path generation, three precision points in multi-loop mechanisms...

  9. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  10. INFRASTRUCTURING DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie

    The fact that the average citizen in Western societies is aging has significant implications for national welfare models. What some call ’the grey tsunami’ has resulted in suggestions for, and experiments in, re-designing healthcare systems and elderly care. In Denmark, one attempted solution...... that are imagined as the target group for welfare technology, and where are they located? Based on ethnographic explorations of ’welfare technology’ and related figures that include not only ’the elderly’, but also ’prototypes’ and ’partnership’ the dissertation analyses the processes and socio...... for collaborative design to happen. The implication of this is that technological design should not be imagined as the foundation for shaping more effective health care practices and better welfare. Instead, possibilities for improving practices through welfare technology emerge out of heterogeneous assemblages...

  11. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point......Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities...... of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices...

  12. Design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes.

  13. Dark Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Any design idea or intervention in the world is based on an underpinning logic or a set of normative principles and values. At times such will be very explicit, at other times they will be unspoken and tacit. In this paper the underpinning values leading to power exercise, social exclusion, and d...... of technologies (e.g. Graham 2010). The paper re-works how inequalities are ‘staged’ through overt and covert design ideas and interventions shaping and re-shaping the social geography of a world increasingly marked by the rights, abilities, and opportunities to move freely – or not!...

  14. Design & Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, Per; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    The new design and innovation programme at DTU is challenging some of the standard concepts dominating most engineering educations. The programme, its background, context and basic educational ideas are presented and discussed in this paper. To build competences that match the need for innovative...... and design oriented engineers in industry and society has turned out to challenge a number of the standard – and often taken for granted – concepts in engineering education still dominated world wide by rather strict norms and concepts of learning that do not challenge the students creativity and innovative...

  15. Lighting Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Mullins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of design developed from three experiments show how distinct qualitative and quantitative criteria in different disciplinary traditions can be integrated successfully, despite disparate technical/scientific, social scientific and art/humanities backgrounds. The model is applied to a pedagogical curriculum......Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory...

  16. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 14: VLSI Design presents a comprehensive exposition and assessment of the developments and trends in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) electronics. This volume covers topics that range from microscopic aspects of materials behavior and device performance to the comprehension of VLSI in systems applications. Each article is prepared by a recognized authority. The subjects discussed in this book include VLSI processor design methodology; the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer); the VLSI testing program; silicon compilers for VLSI; and special

  17. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms...

  18. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  19. Design junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    . This case study illustrates how dominant regimes of practice, established through the conception of pathogen bacteria and antibacterial treatments and disinfection, are now creating signals that call into question fundamental design of hygiene practices. By examining the epistemic assumptions of scientific...

  20. Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...

  1. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  2. Appraising design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Acronyms ADM Army Design Methodology AFRICOM Africa Command CAS Complex Adaptive System COCOM...the case studies. It does not analyze the moral forces of training, quality of troops, and readiness. It also does not analyze national strength in...Second Lebanese War.110 Issues included a lack of vests, medical equipment, radios, ammunition, night vision devices (NVD), and food and water for the

  3. Dwelling Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    Children's inventions go far beyond track housing or Ethan Allen furniture; they foreshadow the most innovative ideas in building forms and interior designs. Children improvise with containers and find places in a home that suggest enticing dwellings. A drawer left open becomes a balcony, soap trays become cots, and the space between twin beds…

  4. Probabilistic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.

    This chapter describes how partial safety factors can be used in design of vertical wall breakwaters and an example of a code format is presented. The partial safety factors are calibrated on a probabilistic basis. The code calibration process used to calibrate some of the partial safety factors...

  5. Intimate Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul

    2017-01-01

    I examine how design can reflect on and critically discuss political and cultural issues of intimate technologies, such as gender and identity, embodied experiences, privacy, intimate data and sharing. In presenting my PhD project's background, research objectives, hypothesis and methodological...

  6. Collaborative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…

  7. Integreret Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Klavs; Lenau, Torben Anker; Kristensen, Tore

    Integreret Design (ItD) var et tværdisciplinært kursus, der gennemførtes i samarbejde mellem Danmarks Designskole, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet og Handelshøjskolen i København i årene 1998 - 2001. Som støtte for undervisningen blev der udviklet et kompendium i bogform, som udgives af Danmarks...

  8. Didaktisk Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin

    projekter - Individuelle fordybelsesprojekter. Forfatterne introducerer begrebet elever som didaktiske designere og viser med konkrete eksempler fra dansk, matematik og tværfaglige forløb, hvordan læreren med et overordnet rammedesign kan understøtte elevernes design af deres egne læreprocesser og dermed...

  9. Safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2004-01-01

    JAERI established the safety design philosophy of the HTTR based on that of current reactors such as LWR in Japan, considering inherent safety features of the HTTR. The strategy of defense in depth was implemented so that the safety engineering functions such as control of reactivity, removal of residual heat and confinement of fission products shall be well performed to ensure safety. However, unlike the LWR, the inherent design features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) enables the HTTR meet stringent regulatory criteria without much dependence on active safety systems. On the other hand, the safety in an accident typical to the HTGR such as the depressurization accident initiated by a primary pipe rupture shall be ensured. The safety design philosophy of the HTTR considers these unique features appropriately and is expected to be the basis for future Japanese HTGRs. This paper describes the safety design philosophy and safety evaluation procedure of the HTTR especially focusing on unique considerations to the HTTR. Also, experiences obtained from an HTTR safety review and R and D needs for establishing the safety philosophy for the future HTGRs are reported

  10. Design i Danmark = Danish Design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Uffe

    2003-01-01

    Titlen på denne forelæsning har 3 led skønt det ser ud som om der er 4. Design i Danmark er en geografisk afgrænsning af et ikke særligt veldefineret begreb, der både kan dække over ting og aktiviteter, mens Danish Design er en fælles hat man har markedsført en række produkter under, for at få...... værdiopfattelse før fra det ene produkt til det andet. Et Brand ville det hedde i dag....

  11. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘m......Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely...... that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...

  12. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    of life’ for billions of people in the everyday life. This paper is structured in three parts. After the general introduction we present the mobilities theory perspective of ‘staging mobilities’ and connects this to the empirical phenomenon of parking lots and their design. The paper ends in section three......Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the backgound of the ‘mobilities turn’ (for short review paper on this see; Sheller 2011, Vannini 2010) this paper proposes a further development...... of the perspective in the direction of a material and design oriented turn. In order to fulfill this purpose we articulate a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘mobilities design’. In our understanding time has come to articulate ‘Mobilities Design’ as a dedicated research field in and of its own...

  13. Design Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knoche, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Taking a case study approach, we synchronised two courses to focus on the students working with learning and applying tools in the one course and acting on understandings gained to produce artefacts in the other. Design/methodology/approach – Working with real users throughout all stages...... focused evaluation methods using tangible representations; identified the relationship from these findings for subsequent re-design rationales; and discussed and critiqued each other’s work using multiple feedback, teach-back and discursive strategies. Findings – We found that in-depth coverage...... of material, working with real data and users at all stages of assessment and producing visualisations from evaluations, naturally forced student motivation to act and redesign better solutions. We noted improved attendance and students reported high engagement and content appreciation. Research limitations...

  14. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  15. Designing Privacy-by-Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.H.C. van; Boonstra, D.; Everts, M.H.; Rijn, M. van; Paassen, R.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    The proposal for a new privacy regulation d.d. January 25th 2012 introduces sanctions of up to 2% of the annual turnover of enterprises. This elevates the importance of mitigation of privacy risks. This paper makes Privacy by Design more concrete, and positions it as the mechanism to mitigate these

  16. Design livre: cannibalistic interaction design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amstel, Frederick; Vassao, C.A.; Ferraz, G.B.; Formia, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a historical account of cannibalism as used to explain how Brazilians integrate foreign cultural influences into their own culture and introduces a design praxis based on it. From Modernism to Digital Culture, cannibalism is a recurring tactic used to overcome cultural traditions

  17. Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  18. Mechanical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by (1). It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x 0 2 n where n is the step of attenuation desired and x 0 is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  19. Designed Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    The 2008 financial crisis has left traces in the built environment of Copenhagen like many other places: Building projects are left unfinished or their function or finish is changed due to new economic circumstances. An ethnographic exploration of these traces exposes central aspects of what is a......, and when the ceilings leak water, the residents suspect it to be a consequence of the crisis. The paper discusses how market forces interact with the material surroundings we inhabit and explores the relationship between controlled and uncontrollable in the design of places....

  20. From experiment to design -- Fault characterization and detection in parallel computer systems using computational accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Keun Soo

    This dissertation summarizes experimental validation and co-design studies conducted to optimize the fault detection capabilities and overheads in hybrid computer systems (e.g., using CPUs and Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs), and consequently to improve the scalability of parallel computer systems using computational accelerators. The experimental validation studies were conducted to help us understand the failure characteristics of CPU-GPU hybrid computer systems under various types of hardware faults. The main characterization targets were faults that are difficult to detect and/or recover from, e.g., faults that cause long latency failures (Ch. 3), faults in dynamically allocated resources (Ch. 4), faults in GPUs (Ch. 5), faults in MPI programs (Ch. 6), and microarchitecture-level faults with specific timing features (Ch. 7). The co-design studies were based on the characterization results. One of the co-designed systems has a set of source-to-source translators that customize and strategically place error detectors in the source code of target GPU programs (Ch. 5). Another co-designed system uses an extension card to learn the normal behavioral and semantic execution patterns of message-passing processes executing on CPUs, and to detect abnormal behaviors of those parallel processes (Ch. 6). The third co-designed system is a co-processor that has a set of new instructions in order to support software-implemented fault detection techniques (Ch. 7). The work described in this dissertation gains more importance because heterogeneous processors have become an essential component of state-of-the-art supercomputers. GPUs were used in three of the five fastest supercomputers that were operating in 2011. Our work included comprehensive fault characterization studies in CPU-GPU hybrid computers. In CPUs, we monitored the target systems for a long period of time after injecting faults (a temporally comprehensive experiment), and injected faults into various types of

  1. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  2. Democratic design experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Designers and design researchers are increasingly exploring societal challenges through engagements with issues that call forward new publics and new modes of democratic citizenship. Whatever this is called design activism, social design, adversarial design, participatory design or something else...

  3. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  4. Design Argumentation in Academic Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We explore design argumentation as a resource when teaching interaction design in a university setting. We propose that design argumentation can help bridge between practice-based design education and theoretical issues from university curricula. In this paper, we outline the idea of design...

  5. Dansk design - English edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    Indhold: Hvad er design?; Hvor kommer dansk design fra?; Produktdesign; Tekstil- og tøjdesign; Design af møbler og boligindretning; Bygningen og design; Arbejdets design; Transportdesign; Offentligt design; Grafisk design; Nye tider og en ny slags design...

  6. Fatigue design of a mechanically biocompatible lattice for a proof-of-concept femoral stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnejad Khanoki, Sajad; Pasini, Damiano

    2013-06-01

    A methodology is proposed to design a spatially periodic microarchitectured material for a two-dimensional femoral implant under walking gait conditions. The material is composed of a graded lattice with controlled property distribution that minimizes concurrently bone resorption and interface failure. The periodic microstructure of the material is designed for fatigue fracture caused by cyclic loadings on the hip joint as a result of walking. The bulk material of the lattice is Ti6AL4V and its microstructure is assumed free of defects. The Soderberg diagram is used for the fatigue design under multiaxial loadings. Two cell topologies, square and Kagome, are chosen to obtain optimized property gradients for a two-dimensional implant. Asymptotic homogenization (AH) theory is used to address the multiscale mechanics of the implant as well as to capture the stress and strain distribution at both the macro and the microscale. The microstress distribution found with AH is also compared with that obtained from a detailed finite element analysis. For the maximum value of the von Mises stress, we observe a deviation of 18.6% in unit cells close to the implant boundary, where the AH assumption of spatial periodicity of the fluctuating fields ceases to hold. In the second part of the paper, the metrics of bone resorption and interface shear stress are used to benchmark the graded cellular implant with existing prostheses made of fully dense titanium implant. The results show that the amount of initial postoperative bone loss for square and Kagome lattice implants decreases, respectively, by 53.8% and 58%. In addition, the maximum shear interface failure at the distal end is significantly reduced by about 79%. A set of proof-of-concepts of planar implants have been fabricated via Electron Beam Melting (EBM) to demonstrate the manufacturability of Ti6AL4V into graded lattices with alternative cell size. Optical microscopy has been used to measure the morphological parameters

  7. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  8. Sharing the design intent between industrial designers and engineering designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Esben Skov; Møller, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to understand the challenges sharing the product frame between industrial designers with the engineering designers. The study is based on six case studies. The analysis showed correspondence between industrial designers and engineering designers in their understanding...... of the key elements of the context and concept. However the analysis also showed a lack of correspondence between the industrial designers and engineering designers in regards to the product framing and thereby how the different elements of the product frame is connected and interrelated....

  9. Service design : Tuning the industrial design profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeswijk Visser, F.

    2013-01-01

    Design is not only about the design and production of goods, but is increasingly addressing complex social issues nowadays. Roles of designers are becoming more and more varied, and at the same time other professionals are increasingly using design tools in their business, organizational or other

  10. Designing for critique, designing for reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    litteraturliste og et stikordsregister. Bogen rummer kapitlerne: “Visual topography: analysing the visual context of an interactive interface” af Lise Agerbæk, “Designing (with) Creativity” af Heidi Philipsen, “Designing for critique, designing for reflection – the (re)emergence of aesthetics in current design...

  11. Designing interfaces patterns for effective interaction design

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2005-01-01

    This convenient resource offers advice on creating user-friendly interface designs--whether they're delivered on the Web, a CD, or a smart" devices like a cell phone. Solutions to common UI design problems are expressed as a collection of patterns--each one containing concrete examples, recommendations, and warnings. Intended for designers with basic UI design knowledge

  12. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Enabling Exascale Hardware and Software Design through Scalable System Virtualization"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Peter August [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-17

    ), although a prototype connecting Palacios with the GEM5 architectural simulator was demonstrated, our conclusion was that such a platform was less useful for design space exploration than anticipated due to inherent complexity of the connection between the instruction set architecture level and the microarchitectural level. For effort (4), we found that a code injection approach proved to be more fruitful. The results of our efforts are publicly available in the open source Palacios codebase and published papers, all of which are available from the project web site, v3vee.org. Palacios is currently one of the two codebases (the other being Sandia’s Kitten lightweight kernel) that underlies the node operating system for the DOE Hobbes Project, one of two projects tasked with building a systems software prototype for the national exascale computing effort.

  14. Design methods and design theory for architectural design management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Achten, H.H.; Pels, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most parties that an architectural design manager meets in daily practice are engaged to some degree with design. What these parties are actually doing in a project is contingent with the concrete design project. Additionally, each party has some stake, and may employ different strategies to solve

  15. Managing collaborative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative design has been emerging in building projects everywhere. The more complex a building project becomes, the closer and more intensive collaboration between the design actors is required. This research focuses on collaborative design in the conceptual architecture design phase,

  16. Design for Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility......A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility...

  17. Design is an Attitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare Riise

    2005-01-01

    Arttiklen beskriver den mexicanske designer Rafael Davidsons arbejder gennem en menneskealder, samt hans visioner for mexicansk design i fremtiden.......Arttiklen beskriver den mexicanske designer Rafael Davidsons arbejder gennem en menneskealder, samt hans visioner for mexicansk design i fremtiden....

  18. Design Research between Design and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The discourse on architecture and design research in Denmark in the past thirty years has been stuck in a unproductive dichotomy between research through design on the one hand and a phantom image of academic and theoretical, word-based research on the other. Advocates of the research through...... design strand have argued, that architecture and design research must follow an architecture and design methodology – designing – and be communicated by means of architecture and design media – images and artefacts. Essentially, this view sees no difference between architecture and design research...... and practice, as expressed in the notion of research as ‘artistic innovation work’. On the other hand, the pressure to expand research in architecture and design has seen a movement towards adopting traditional research paradigms from the technical and social sciences and humanities. For many architects...

  19. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses...... on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but we propose an approach...... sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation...

  20. Design of modern experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hweon

    1984-03-01

    This book is for researchers and engineers, which is written to focus on practical design of experiments. It gives descriptions of conception of design of experiments, basic statistics theory, one way design of experiment, two-way layout without repetition, two-way layout with repetition, partition, a correlation analysis and regression analysis, latin squares, factorial design, design of experiment by table of orthogonal arrays, design of experiment of response surface, design of experiment on compound, Evop, and design of experiment of taguchi.

  1. Computational Design Tools for Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    In an architectural conceptual sketching process, where an architect is working with the initial ideas for a design, the process is characterized by three phases: sketching, evaluation and modification. Basically the architect needs to address three areas in the conceptual sketching phase......: aesthetical, functional and technical requirements. The aim of the present paper is to address the problem of a vague or not existing link between digital conceptual design tools used by architects and designers and engineering analysis and simulation tools. Based on an analysis of the architectural design...... process different digital design methods are related to tasks in an integrated design process....

  2. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  3. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  4. Design rules for dynamic organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design rules are contingent if-then statements about what a good design should be for a given situation. Today’s challenge is to look forward to devise organization design rules for a different future with greater uncertainty and greater interdependency – all with dynamic performance...... demands. These new demands call for new design rules for coordination, incentives and leadership, among others. Our existing rules are mostly based upon past experience and empirical studies of what is. What might be – going beyond what we have observed and explained of yesterday and today to help design...... for a future new situation – is a disciplined response to examine the new contingencies of organizational design and their design consequences. Computational laboratories permit us to go beyond what is to develop and examine new design possibilities and boundaries to explore a future world of what might be. We...

  5. Money and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Borcuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of the money design on willingness to make purchases. In this paper, we focus on three aspects that structure the relation between money and design: the link between design and finance (in general, determinants of design and perspective of currency design. The main research problem explored in this paper is: Does the money design have influence on the willingness to make purchases by employees/employers at design studios, design students and students of economics/management? The main hypothesis is as follows – the more experience in design practice, the more important is money design.

  6. Design as Value Celebration: Rethinking Design Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces knowledge of the rhetorical genre of epideictic to design. The aim is to provide designers with concepts that stimulate their ability to deliberate about design choices and explore the arguments they may be making about the human-made world. The article begins with explora...

  7. Ergonomics in design or design in ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Design in Scandinavia has a long tradition of participation in the development of society. Designers in the Nordic countries have taken pride in concerning themselves with problems of everyday living and the design communities at large have been committed proponents of a socially responsible appr...

  8. Eindhoven school for technological design : design education and design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, H.M.G.J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.Th.

    1995-01-01

    Nine years after starting the two-year post-graduate programme on technological design [Ackermans and Trum, 1988], Eindhoven University of Technology (EUT) decided to enhance the development of synthesis-oriented engineering education by establishing a post-graduate school for technological design.

  9. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  10. The Distributed Criterion Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and illustrates a novel form of the changing criterion design called the distributed criterion design, which represents perhaps the first advance in the changing criterion design in four decades. The distributed criterion design incorporates elements of the multiple baseline and A-B-A-B designs and is well suited to applied…

  11. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside ... hunt for drugs of the future. Medicines By Design in PDF | E-PUB Tell Us What You ...

  12. Design Sea State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    National codes of practice which specifies the design wave climate on a given location do not yet exist. Nevertheless, decision on the design wave climate is one of the most important tasks of the designer....

  13. Responsive web design workflow

    OpenAIRE

    LAAK, TIMO

    2013-01-01

    Responsive Web Design Workflow is a literature review about Responsive Web Design, a web standards based modern web design paradigm. The goals of this research were to define what responsive web design is, determine its importance in building modern websites and describe a workflow for responsive web design projects. Responsive web design is a paradigm to create adaptive websites, which respond to the properties of the media that is used to render them. The three key elements of responsi...

  14. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  15. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  16. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  17. Integrated circuit design using design automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-09-01

    Although the use of computer aids to develop integrated circuits is relatively new at Sandia, the program has been very successful. The results have verified the utility of the in-house CAD design capability. Custom IC's have been developed in much shorter times than available through semiconductor device manufacturers. In addition, security problems were minimized and a saving was realized in circuit cost. The custom CMOS IC's were designed at less than half the cost of designing with conventional techniques. In addition to the computer aided design, the prototype fabrication and testing capability provided by the semiconductor development laboratory and microelectronics computer network allows the circuits to be fabricated and evaluated before the designs are transferred to the commercial semiconductor manufacturers for production. The Sandia design and prototype fabrication facilities provide the capability of complete custom integrated circuit development entirely within the ERDA laboratories

  18. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  19. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  20. Analyses for designing objects in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Norihiro; Miyamura, Hiroko N.; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    Defining factors to induce the damage that can be assumed in the mechanical structures, it is a loaded work to analyze a damage possibility point derived by the assumption phenomenon that can occur is, but it is the important designing process. Taking factors caused by the earthquake as an example, and simulating the phenomenon that can be assumed, the computational result was analyzed with information visualization. A damage possibility point by analyzing the result mathematically. The illustration of analytical results may give points to designers as means for a designer to recognize a damage possibility point from the sensitivity of the designer. (author)

  1. Performative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    visitors and participants to engage and interact with the city. Inspired by Lefebvre statement that "the most beautiful cities were those where festivals were not planned in advance” (Lefebvre 1987:36), I will discuss how urban designers can design engaging spaces, where the potentials of the city can...... unfold. Is it, for instance, the formal aesthetics of the design or rather the socio-cultural codes of the existing urban space that engage people? The paper engages in three urban performance designs: 1) The 10th Avenue Plaza at the Highline in New York 2) The temporary installations at Boble Plads......Urban design has come to mean many things. From the architectural masterplans to the informal urban design in temporary spaces and event designs. The paper will focus on urban designs engaging urban designs. Engaging urban design can broadly be understood as temporary design installations inviting...

  2. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN FORMULA DESIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: reinforced concrete slabs, flexure, m. 1. Introduction ntroduction ntroduction. An evaluation of the flexural resistance of reinforced concrete solid slabs with the optimu weight required for structural safety a economy and as stated in design codes. 5] is presented. It is a well-known fact by many design enginee.

  4. Reframing Design: Design Thinking and Mediation Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Design Thinking’ has proven to be a fruitful way to deal with societal problems and challenges. But what does it in fact mean to approach problems as design problems? What does it imply for our ways to understand societal challenges, and for the ways in which we address them? In order to answer

  5. Design Thinking Pedagogy: The Educational Design Ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Cara; Straker, Kara

    2017-01-01

    As global industries change and technology advances, traditional education systems might no longer be able to supply companies with graduates who possess an appropriate mix of skills and experience. The recent increased interest in Design Thinking as an approach to innovation has resulted in its adoption by non-design-trained professionals. This…

  6. Ethical Design Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine how ethical challenges can be approached in and through design fiction. To do so, we develop a new framework for analysis as well as creation of design fictions. Our main focus will be on design fiction within a strategical setting, connecting the notion of design fiction...

  7. Empirical research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis

  8. Delimiting Inclusive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper was written as an answer to the question raised by my PhD dissertation on accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design (ID) methods: can Inclusive Design be delimited? The literature on Inclusive Design deals almost entrirely with consumer product design and assistive...

  9. Design, Desire, and Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Kevin M.; Boldt, Gail

    2018-01-01

    In response to the rise in popularity of concepts of "design" in education research, pedagogy, and curriculum design, in this article we consider how the New London Group conceived of the role of student design practices as an outcome of pedagogy, as well as the parallel role of design in teaching practices. In this descriptive analysis,…

  10. Designing Healthcare Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah E. Klein

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is generated when designers collaborate with scientists and clinicians. Who are designers? Professionals trained to uncover people’s spoken and unspoken needs (human factors researchers, to generate tangible products and services that address these needs in new and better ways (industrial and graphic designers, and to ensure that the design intent is preserved in the final manufactured form (engineers.

  11. Analysis of Design Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1998-01-01

    In design practice a process where a satisfactory solution is created within limited resources is required. However, since the design process is not well understood, research into how engineering designers actually solve design problems is needed. As a contribution to that end a research project...

  12. Design as Gesamtkunstwerk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    Three texts on the historical development of ideas of total design: "The Art of Transgression" on contemporary projects between art, design and architecture; "Design as Gesamtkunstwerk" on the early modern total designs from Morris to Gropius (but mirrored in Panton) & "Throughout any Scale...

  13. Instant responsive web design

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial approach which will teach the readers what responsive web design is and how it is used in designing a responsive web page.If you are a web-designer looking to expand your skill set by learning the quickly growing industry standard of responsive web design, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of CSS is assumed.

  14. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  15. CBETA Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstaetter, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mayes, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This Design Report describes the baseline design of the Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator, as it exists on the date of its publication in June 2017. The Design Report will not change frequently in the future. In contrast, the parameter sheets that summarize the CBETA design will respond as quickly and as thoroughly as necessary to maintain con guration control.

  16. CBETA Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstaetter, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mayes, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This Design Report describes the baseline design of the Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator, as it exists on the date of its publication in June 2017. The Design Report will not change frequently in the future. In contrast, the parameter sheets that summarize the CBETA design will respond as quickly and as thoroughly as necessary to maintain configuration control.

  17. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  18. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  19. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  20. Design and Iconic Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The VW Beetle, Apple, Porsche … many iconic brands have reached their status with groundbreaking designs. But what makes these designs so special? And is it really the design factor that accounts for the overall success of a brand? Dr. Walter de Silva shares with us his thoughts on iconic designs, the design process and the role of design in branding. Open your heart and mind to his extensive experience in developing designs for Volkswagen, Audi and other brands of the Volkswagen Group

  1. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  2. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  3. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design?s potential for re-distributing power and authority......n this paper we focus on ?patient-democracy? and ?shared decision-making? seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... of democracy and the democratic practices that belong to each of these. For designers working to increase patient democracy it is of vital importance to be able to distinguish different structures underlying democratic practices and to work out methods for prototyping democracy. In design research...

  4. Conceptualizing Aesthetics in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to introduce and discuss aesthetics as an approach to understand how design frames experience. In doing so, the chapter combines two philosophical interests in design, design phenomenology and design aesthetics, in order to promote a framework for discussing the impact...... of aesthetic meaning construction on experience. First, the chapter raises the phenomenological question of the relationship between design and experience, specifically, how design conditions experience. Second, in looking at aesthetics in terms of a) the sensual appeal of design, b) design objects...... as aesthetic media that frame modes of understanding, and c) contextual factors, such as media, influencing what is regarded as aesthetic, it is the thesis of the chapter that a reflective concept of design aesthetics can be employed to differentiate between three different ways in which design frame our...

  5. Participatory workspace design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design...... process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study...... where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually...

  6. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  7. Managing collaborative design

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative design has been emerging in building projects everywhere. The more complex a building project becomes, the closer and more intensive collaboration between the design actors is required. This research focuses on collaborative design in the conceptual architecture design phase, especially during the elaboration of the masterplan and the development of the preliminary building designs. This research is descriptive and has two aims. First, it aims at describing the characteristics a...

  8. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...... in which 25 educators as part of a digital fabrication and design program were able to critically reflect on their teaching practice....

  9. Designing Futures in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Crosby

    2016-01-01

    Design is a wide reaching and unruly idea, often associated with seamless global mobility, ubiquitous consumerism, elite urban tastes, and fast paced economic growth. But design is also increasingly understood to be operating at edges, as a necessary response to the ethical and political challenges of advanced global capitalism. Design is both the problem and the solution, and effects everything. As Tony Fry writes ‘Design–the designer and designed objects, images, systems and things–shapes t...

  10. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Game design is an art form that deals with inherently interactive artifacts. Game designers craft games (assembled from rule systems and content), but they really seek to manipulate play: the interaction between games and players. When developing new games that are similar to past games, a designer may rely on previous experience with related designs and relatively easy access to players familiar with conventional design choices. When exploratorily venturing into uncharted territory, uncoveri...

  11. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  12. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  13. Digital Interior Design by Stailia Design Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the thesis work is to research and create a web based service in a field of interior design. With my project, I am hoping to find out whether this kind of web service in the field of interior design can work in general and that the process together with the actual order form on internet is smooth from both customer and company point of view. The company has interior design related services but none entirely executed on the web. The target is to create a totally new service/pr...

  14. Database modeling and design logical design

    CERN Document Server

    Teorey, Toby J; Nadeau, Tom; Jagadish, HV

    2011-01-01

    Database systems and database design technology have undergone significant evolution in recent years. The relational data model and relational database systems dominate business applications; in turn, they are extended by other technologies like data warehousing, OLAP, and data mining. How do you model and design your database application in consideration of new technology or new business needs? In the extensively revised fifth edition, you'll get clear explanations, lots of terrific examples and an illustrative case, and the really practical advice you have come to count on--with design rules

  15. Database modeling and design logical design

    CERN Document Server

    Teorey, Toby J; Nadeau, Tom; Jagadish, HV

    2005-01-01

    Database systems and database design technology have undergone significant evolution in recent years. The relational data model and relational database systems dominate business applications; in turn, they are extended by other technologies like data warehousing, OLAP, and data mining. How do you model and design your database application in consideration of new technology or new business needs? In the extensively revised fourth edition, you'll get clear explanations, lots of terrific examples and an illustrative case, and the really practical advice you have come to count on--with design rul

  16. The design explorer project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Annelise Mark; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Buur, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process....... The project introduces a new approach to support of design; instead of design guidelines, support is given by creating a transparent information environment in which designers can navigate freely according to their individual preferences. The project is based on a framework that structures the dimensions......, or categories, of domain information which need to be available for a system or product designer/design team in order to determine the characteristics of the artefact, or object of design. These dimensions include information about the different work domains in which the product plays a role during its lifetime...

  17. The interactive design collaboratorium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental process in which a prototype was developed of an interactive design collaboatorium, in cooperation with a group of usability designers. In a longterm research cooperation, this usability group has changed its work practice in order to work in the design...... collaboratorium. The design collaboratorium was developed to move usability design away from a lab towards an open physical and organizational space where designer, users and engineers meet and collaborate, or work alongside each other. The cooperation between researchers and the usability gruop has resulted...... in practical experimentation in projects and in design of an experimental design collaboratorium emploing electronic whiteboards, 3D design documentation, etc. This experimental prototype has been evaluated in cooperative workshops. We report on the results of this evaluation....

  18. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...... hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...... the scene, it starts out by briefly examining ideas on this issue presented in existing research literature. Hereafter, it introduces three basic forms in which design work can lead to theory that is referred to as extending theories, scaffolding theories and blending theories. Finally, it is discussed how...

  19. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations...... and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding...

  20. Radiological design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design

  1. Can design science be used for design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Markfoged, Kim; Andersen, Jesper Lund

    2010-01-01

    software development projects. They studied the literature, chose appropriate starting theories, designed their own development processes, used them to build small mobile applications, documented their experiences and evaluated those experiences by writing research articles. A more experienced researcher...

  2. Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...

  3. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  4. Handbook of optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses. This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also di

  5. Professional ASPNET Design Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Professional ASP.NET Design Patterns will show you how to implement design patterns in real ASP.NET applications by introducing you to the basic OOP skills needed to understand and interpret design patterns. A sample application used throughout the book is an enterprise level ASP.NET website with multi-tiered, SOA design techniques that can be applied to your future ASP.NET projects. Read about each design pattern in detail, including how to interpret the UML design, how to implement it in ASP.NET, its importance for ASP.NET development, and how it's integrated into the final project.

  6. Introduction to combinatorial designs

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, WD

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial theory is one of the fastest growing areas of modern mathematics. Focusing on a major part of this subject, Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition provides a solid foundation in the classical areas of design theory as well as in more contemporary designs based on applications in a variety of fields. After an overview of basic concepts, the text introduces balanced designs and finite geometries. The author then delves into balanced incomplete block designs, covering difference methods, residual and derived designs, and resolvability. Following a chapter on the e

  7. Optimal Hospital Layout Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine

    foundation. The basis of the present study lies in solving the architectural design problem in order to respond to functionalities and performances. The emphasis is the practical applicability for architects, engineers and hospital planners for assuring usability and a holistic approach of functionalities...... a correlation matrix. The correlation factor defines the framework for conceptual design, whereby the design considers functionalities and their requirements and preferences. It facilitates implementation of evidence-based design as it is prepared for ongoing update and it is based on actual data. Hence......, this contribution is a model for hospital design, where design derives as a response to the defined variables, requirements and preferences....

  8. REDOing Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Götzen, Amalia De

    2017-01-01

    that are being developed in design education and research. The value in use, the infrastructuring and the governance levels are explained with the specific tools and approaches required according to the specific aim of the design activity: that is, whether it is about understanding, transforming or communicating......Service design education is still young and it is still interpreted in many different ways, according to the design programs where it usually plays a minor role. Very few education schemes provide a complete curriculum on service design, facing the challenge of equipping a designer who will want...

  9. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  10. KALIMER design concept report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sub, Sim Yoon; Kim, Yeon Sik; Whan, Wim Myung; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  11. KALIMER design concept report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon.

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs

  12. Designing the design at JPL'S innovation foundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Freeman, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    NASA is a dynamic and living organization. Looking at it through the optics of cybernetics, we can describe it as an autopoietic system. It has to sustain itself, and compete successfully to be viable. Its organizational elements have to interact with the broader environment by maintaining and improving its processes that generate the means for future sustainability. It also needs to bring up follow-on generations who are not simply aligning with the status quo, but also improve the system's viability. For government-run programs, organizational, programmatic and project management practices are often rigidly linear. They can be characterized as observed first-order cybernetic systems, where the paradigm is bound by well-established requirements. At the implementation level this does not readily accommodate flexibility and change. To address this, broadening the system's worldview is needed from the strategic level. This corresponds to an observing second-order cybernetic system, where strategic leadership can overwrite the rules of a first-order system. Changing the worldview of an organization can be complex and face much resistance. Still, with the appropriate strategic-level support, it can be achieved by introducing novel languages, new perspectives, and adding new disciplines to existing ones. In effect, this helps to broaden the organizational paradigm, and subsequently influence its mission, impact the culture, and open up its core processes. These changes can be effectively introduced through design conversations in the early formulation stages, when new ideas are conceived. Within NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, early-stage concept developments are performed at a specially formulated environment, called the Innovation Foundry. Within this office, a continuous effort is being made on designing the design processes, which helps to broaden the variety of the option trades. It is achieved by an added focus on conversations and the inclusion of non

  13. Mechanical characterization of structurally porous biomaterials built via additive manufacturing: experiments, predictive models, and design maps for load-bearing bone replacement implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, D; Bagheri, Z S; Johnston, R B; Liu, L; Tanzer, M; Pasini, D

    2017-11-01

    Porous biomaterials can be additively manufactured with micro-architecture tailored to satisfy the stringent mechano-biological requirements imposed by bone replacement implants. In a previous investigation, we introduced structurally porous biomaterials, featuring strength five times stronger than commercially available porous materials, and confirmed their bone ingrowth capability in an in vivo canine model. While encouraging, the manufactured biomaterials showed geometric mismatches between their internal porous architecture and that of its as-designed counterpart, as well as discrepancies between predicted and tested mechanical properties, issues not fully elucidated. In this work, we propose a systematic approach integrating computed tomography, mechanical testing, and statistical analysis of geometric imperfections to generate statistical based numerical models of high-strength additively manufactured porous biomaterials. The method is used to develop morphology and mechanical maps that illustrate the role played by pore size, porosity, strut thickness, and topology on the relations governing their elastic modulus and compressive yield strength. Overall, there are mismatches between the mechanical properties of ideal-geometry models and as-manufactured porous biomaterials with average errors of 49% and 41% respectively for compressive elastic modulus and yield strength. The proposed methodology gives more accurate predictions for the compressive stiffness and the compressive strength properties with a reduction of the average error to 11% and 7.6%. The implications of the results and the methodology here introduced are discussed in the relevant biomechanical and clinical context, with insight that highlights promises and limitations of additively manufactured porous biomaterials for load-bearing bone replacement implants. In this work, we perform mechanical characterization of load-bearing porous biomaterials for bone replacement over their entire design

  14. Optimum study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C; Rao, D C

    2001-01-01

    Because simplistic designs will lead to prohibitively large sample sizes, the optimization of genetic study designs is critical for successfully mapping genes for complex diseases. Creative designs are necessary for detecting and amplifying the usually weak signals for complex traits. Two important outcomes of a study design--power and resolution--are implicitly tied together by the principle of uncertainty. Overemphasis on either one may lead to suboptimal designs. To achieve optimality for a particular study, therefore, practical measures such as cost-effectiveness must be used to strike a balance between power and resolution. In this light, the myriad of factors involved in study design can be checked for their effects on the ultimate outcomes, and the popular existing designs can be sorted into building blocks that may be useful for particular situations. It is hoped that imaginative construction of novel designs using such building blocks will lead to enhanced efficiency in finding genes for complex human traits.

  15. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  16. Prestressed concrete design

    CERN Document Server

    Hurst, MK

    1998-01-01

    This edition provides up-to-date guidance on the detailed design of prestressed concrete structures. All major topics are dealt with, including prestressed flat slabs, an important and growing application in the design of buildings.

  17. Algebraic design theory

    CERN Document Server

    Launey, Warwick De

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial design theory is a source of simply stated, concrete, yet difficult discrete problems, with the Hadamard conjecture being a prime example. It has become clear that many of these problems are essentially algebraic in nature. This book provides a unified vision of the algebraic themes which have developed so far in design theory. These include the applications in design theory of matrix algebra, the automorphism group and its regular subgroups, the composition of smaller designs to make larger designs, and the connection between designs with regular group actions and solutions to group ring equations. Everything is explained at an elementary level in terms of orthogonality sets and pairwise combinatorial designs--new and simple combinatorial notions which cover many of the commonly studied designs. Particular attention is paid to how the main themes apply in the important new context of cocyclic development. Indeed, this book contains a comprehensive account of cocyclic Hadamard matrices. The book...

  18. Food packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    2007-01-01

    'Food product design - An integrated approach' deals with food product design from a technological perspective. It presents creative techniques for the innovation process and structured methodologies to translate consumer wishes into product properties based on Quality Function Deployment.

  19. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  20. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  1. Participatory Design with Dyslectics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Participatory Design has been used successfully in many projects but the question is how participatory design works with people with a cognitive disorder like dyslexia. In this study, we analyzed observations of participatory design sessions with dyslectic participants for developing designs...... of a reading software application by applying two participatory design methods: the IDEAS and CI methods. Furthermore, we conducted online surveys to gather information on dyslectics participants’ and their special-education teachers’ opinion regarding the participatory design process, methods and final...... designs. The results indicate that participatory design works effectively with dyslectic people provided the participation of Proxy Users to represent dyslectics, when it is necessary, the participation of an experienced on dyslexia facilitator who has the knowledge to address incidents caused due...

  2. Designing an Educational Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Hansen, Charina Benedikte Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    When designing games with learning purposes used in a classroom, there often occur problems about the lack of learning content or the lack of game contents. Other disadvantages of existing educational games are the difficulty to provide a continual balance between the challenge and the pupils......’ skill to control and solve the given task. In this paper we suggest three different perspectives that need to be communicated across in order to design a useful educational game: teachers, pupils and game designers. It is our intention with this paper to suggest some design principles for educational...... games, and to integrate teachers, pupils and game designers needs and requirements. To set up these design principles for educational games we have used a holistic perspective. This means that the design principles must be seen in coherence within the social and physical environment. The design...

  3. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  4. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  5. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  6. Energy design for architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  7. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  8. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  9. DMS message design workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  10. Berm Breakwater Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. Reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent...

  11. Learning Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, David; Blat, Josep; Garcia, Rocío; Vogten, Hubert; Kwong, KL

    2005-01-01

    Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  12. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  13. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  14. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  15. Dwelling with design

    OpenAIRE

    Paavilainen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Dwelling with Design offers a throughout look at the domestic meanings of design. The research is based on studying households in and around Helsinki, in order to find out what role, if any, design plays in the domestication of a product. The picture emerging from the research is quite different from design’s public and professional image represented for example in the interior decoration magazines, where designed qualities such as usability, reliability, interesting branding and aesthetic co...

  16. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  17. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  18. Design for Disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Design for Disassembly’ is becoming a familiar part of discourses on environmental strategies for construction and sustainable design. The concept originates in industrial design and pertains to a wide range of strategies for reuse and recycling, all of which highlight a whole-of-life approach t...... to materials and buildings. Design for Disassembly is particularly relevant to prefabricated and industrialized construction; as such methodologies already contain within them the possibility for easy deconstruction, whether for maintenance, refurbishment or reuse....

  19. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  20. Designing for Interaction Proxemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil

    2018-01-01

    Design of interactive technology provides opportunities as well as constraints in how a group of users can organize in a shared space. The core argument of interaction proxemics is to consider this in designing for collaboration. In my thesis, I focus on conceptualizing design of ubicomp...

  1. Information Design Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  2. Designing for social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, C.C.M.; Trotto, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concepts that helps us to get grip on how we make sense of the world or the way we give meaning to our lives is essential for the field of design, since designers produce proposals for action and experience through their designed artefacts. They create opportunities through which a person can

  3. Bayesian Geostatistical Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diggle, Peter; Lophaven, Søren Nymand

    2006-01-01

    locations to, or deletion of locations from, an existing design, and prospective design, which consists of choosing positions for a new set of sampling locations. We propose a Bayesian design criterion which focuses on the goal of efficient spatial prediction whilst allowing for the fact that model...

  4. DesignLAK17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla; Milligan, Sandra; Corrin, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Notions of what constitutes quality in design in traditional on-campus or online teaching and learning may not always translate into scaled digital environments. The DesignLAK17 workshop builds on the DesignLAK16 workshop to explore one aspect of this theme, namely the opportunities arising from...

  5. Lehigh Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Vincent G.; Luyben, William L.; Silebi, Cesar A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-semester senior design course that combines traditional steady-state economic process design with dynamic plantwide control. This unique course has been taught at Lehigh for more than a decade and has garnered rave reviews from students, industry, and ABET. Each student design group has its own industrial consultant who…

  6. DEEP EMPATHIC DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAQUELLI Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Empathic design is often described as a creative process that translates observations - typically of people and their behaviours into design ideas. Another similar and closely related expression is user centred design, which attempts to turn the attention away from an object or product towards its usefulness and usability. The central premise of empathic design is that the best-designed products and services result from understanding the needs of the people who will use them. User-centred designers engage actively with end-users to gather insights that drive design from the earliest stages of product and service development, right through the design process.[1] Our standard definitions and understanding of empathic design or user centred design are well recognised and widely practiced, particularly taught in design schools and in professional creative business. This paper extends and explores a deeper understanding of empathy within a systems thinking framework where the observer and subject are both components of empathic design. It proposes that empathy can be described as the bonds of connection with others (in its traditional interpretation, but also with an ecological, social and economic context.

  7. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  8. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  9. Conceptual thermal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Present thermal design tools and methods insufficiently support the development of structural concepts engaged by typical practicing designers. Research described in this thesis identifies the main thermal design problems in practice. In addition, models and methods are developed that support an

  10. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  11. Embodied Design Ideation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Vallgårda, Anna; Tomico, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Embodied design ideation practices work with relationships between body, material and context to enliven design and research potential. Methods are often idiosyncratic and – due to their physical nature – not easily transferred. This presents challenges for designers wishing to develop and share ...

  12. Designing Online Education Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the main elements that characterize online course design. Topics include design constraints; analysis of learning needs; defining objectives; course prerequisites; content structuring; course flexibility; learning strategies; evaluation criteria; course activities; course structure; communication architecture; and design evaluation.…

  13. Cryogenic moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the present design of the two cold moderators to be built for the Spallation Neutron Source. It discusses the reasons behind a number of the design features and highlights several problem areas requiring solutions before a final design can be constructed

  14. Designers in Britain 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, CT.

    The Society of Industrial Artists and Designers (SIAD) has for over 40 years been working to establish design as a profession with a status equivalent to that of architecture or engineering. Intended as a selective review of recent British illustration and design in industry, advertising, and publishing, this volume is the seventh in a series…

  15. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  16. Prototyping Design and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Kramp, Gunnar; Schiønning Mortensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly common that design firms go from working with their client’s development department on specific products, to discussing strategic issues directly with the company’s management. In this new territory designers face a number of challenges. Designers are traditionally trained to ‘...

  17. Situating universal design architecture: designing with whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To respond to growing calls for a theoretical unpacking of Universal Design (UD), a disparate movement cohering around attempts to design spaces and technologies that seek to allow use by all people (to the fullest extent possible). The on-going embedding of UD into architectural practice and pedagogy represents an opportune juncture at which to draw learning from other distinct-but-related transformatory architectural movements. Sociological-theoretical commentary. UD has to date, and necessarily, been dominated by the practice contexts from which it emerged. Appealing as a short-hand for description of "designing-for-all", in most cases UD has come to stand in as a term to signal a general intent in this direction and as an umbrella term for the range of technical design resources that have been developed under these auspices. There remains a fundamental ambivalence vis-à-vis the question of users' power/capacity to influence decision-making in the design process in UD; technically-oriented typologies of bodies predominate in influential UD architectural accounts. UD represents rich technical and pedagogical resources for those architects committed to transforming the existing built environment so as to be less hostile to a wide range of users. However, within UD, unpacking the social role of the professional architect vis-à-vis a variety of publics is an important, but hitherto underdeveloped, challenge; issues concerning professional-citizen power relations continue to animate parallel architectural politics, and UD can both contribute and draw much from these on-going explorations. Implications for Rehabilitation Universal Design (UD) architecture shares a close affinity with rehabilitation practice, with the creation of built environments that allow use by individuals with a wide range of capacities a priority for both. While an effective communicative "bridge" between professions, UD's deployment typically leaves unspoken the capacity of users to

  18. Enhanced Design Alternative I: Low Temperature Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  19. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  20. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  1. Integrated Structural Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to EU legislation. And a successful engineering student must be prepared to work in the open-ended, multidisciplinary environment necessary to produce structures which comply with EIA demands. This paper describes an innovative course developed at the Technical University of Denmark which integrates...... landscaping and structural design. The integrated courses create a setting for learning about the design of large-scale structures and involve geometry, statics, computer simulation, graphical design and landscape architecture. Together, they educate engineers who can take part in the early design phases...... of a project, function well in design teams, and comply with EU EIA demands....

  2. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  3. Interior design for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  4. Exemplary Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels

    The didactic principle of exemplary learning may be defined briefly as 'learning by example'. In design education, working with a practical example is particularly appropriate, because design by definition is about creating a solution to a practical problem. Indeed, some design theorists claim......, including: If design knowing is bound to a given practical design context, how is it possible to generalize such knowing, as presumably required by an exemplary learning approach? To explore these questions, an account is given of the theories of exemplary learning proposed by Martin Wagenschein and Oskar...

  5. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  6. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  7. Towards programmatic design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Löwgren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of design research entails research where design practice forms part of the knowledge production. Based on our characterization of the nature of design, we propose to conceptualize this kind of research as programmatic design research. Two ongoing PhD projects in interaction design are presented as examples of programmatic research processes, highlighting issues to do with the virtues and qualities of the processes, the interplay of optics and engagements in a hermeneutical dynamic, and the production of takeaways for the academic community.

  8. Worldviews for Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2006-01-01

    aware of, I demonstrate how 'insidious inconsistency ' may infect design theory if we ignore this admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound methaphysical foundations ('worldviews') for design theory - and obtain philosophical insights......I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically...

  9. Design Characteristics as Basis for Design Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The application of modern feature based CAD systems has in many companies lead to significant rationalisation of design, particulary the "down stream" acticities such as NC code generation, FEM analysis, mould flow simulation and documentation. The subject of this paper is the "up stream" activit......The application of modern feature based CAD systems has in many companies lead to significant rationalisation of design, particulary the "down stream" acticities such as NC code generation, FEM analysis, mould flow simulation and documentation. The subject of this paper is the "up stream...

  10. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory...... approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues...

  11. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  12. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  13. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. K.; Kim, G. K.; Yeo, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  14. LISA system design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallusti, M [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R, E-mail: marcello.sallusti@esa.in, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: dennis.weise@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: marcel.berger@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: Hans.Reiner.Schulte@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, Claude-Dornier-Str., 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  15. LISA system design highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallusti, M; Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R

    2009-01-01

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  16. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  17. Teaching engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blessing, Lucienne; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    The importance og engineering design as an industrial activity, and the increasingly complex and dynamic context in which it takes place, has led to the wish to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of engineering design in practice as well as in education. Although attempts have been made...... to improve design for centuries, it was not until well in the second half of the 20th century that engineering design became a research topic (see pahl and Beitz (1996), Heymann (2004) for historical overviews). Engineering research, such as research into thermodynamics, mechanics and materials, has a much...... by PhD students. This has created the demand for a clear, efficient way of learning the crafmanship of doing design research, a demand which is in strong contrast to the state of design research in general. This article reflects the authors' efforts in running a summer school om engineering design...

  18. Roller bearing geometry design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  19. Ethics and technology design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context...... of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....

  20. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  1. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian...... PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process......, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize...

  2. Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents the current approach to implementing educational technology with learning design at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, by introducing the concept of ‘efficient learning design’. The underlying hypothesis is that implementing learning design is more than...... engaging educators in the design process and developing teaching and learning, it is a shift in educational practice that potentially requires a stakeholder analysis and ultimately a business model for the deployment. What is most important is to balance the institutional, educator, and student...... perspectives and to consider all these in conjunction in order to obtain a sustainable, efficient learning design. The approach to deploying learning design in terms of the concept of efficient learning design, the catalyst for educational development, i.e. the learning design model and how it is being used...

  3. Is Engineering Design Disappearing from Design Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Most systems and products need to be engineered during their design, based upon scientific insight into principles, mechanisms, materials and production pos-sibilities, leading to reliability, durability and value for the user. Despite the central importance and design’s crucial dependency...

  4. Future steam generator designs. Single wall designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, O [Nuclear Power Company Ltd, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1978-10-01

    The easily removable 'U' tube design style adopted in the UK for the existing PFR Steam Generators, the Replacement Units now in production and for the future CDFR, gives the operator an extremely valuable option in the event of a water/steam leak occurring inside the Steam Generator. He can choose to shut-down, attempt to find the leak, assess damage, repair, revalidate and return to service in situ, or he can elect to remove the defect unit and replace with a 'proven' spare before returning the circuit to power. With the latter approach the resultant outage time is a known entity of about two weeks. If a repair is attempted in situ, predictions of outage time can become a matter of guesswork since one has no 'guaranteed' method of leak location and the assessment of secondary damage may be very time consuming, depending on the size and type of the original leak together with the particular design style of the Steam Generator. A further significant advantage of the removable 'U' tube design concept is that periodic interchanging of bundles with a spare enables routine chemical cleaning and thorough scheduled tube inspections, with specimen tube sample removal if required for monitoring purposes. If necessary, bundle decontamination can be undertaken to assess engineering deterioration to various degrees of thoroughness ranging from 100% equivalent factory final assembly inspection, to partial decontamination operating via a glovebox type of maintenance bag arrangement, examining local points of both shell and tube areas of the bundle. Many lessons from the last five years' experience of PFR will be incorporated into the design of the CDFR and PFR Steam Generators have two very good examples of how the designer can ease or severely handicap the operator in coping with sodium/water leakages. Good, quick access to tube ends is achieved in the existing PFR Evaporator by simply unbolting the steam/water closure head, but on the superheater and reheater hand-caps have

  5. Future steam generator designs. Single wall designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.

    1978-01-01

    The easily removable 'U' tube design style adopted in the UK for the existing PFR Steam Generators, the Replacement Units now in production and for the future CDFR, gives the operator an extremely valuable option in the event of a water/steam leak occurring inside the Steam Generator. He can choose to shut-down, attempt to find the leak, assess damage, repair, revalidate and return to service in situ, or he can elect to remove the defect unit and replace with a 'proven' spare before returning the circuit to power. With the latter approach the resultant outage time is a known entity of about two weeks. If a repair is attempted in situ, predictions of outage time can become a matter of guesswork since one has no 'guaranteed' method of leak location and the assessment of secondary damage may be very time consuming, depending on the size and type of the original leak together with the particular design style of the Steam Generator. A further significant advantage of the removable 'U' tube design concept is that periodic interchanging of bundles with a spare enables routine chemical cleaning and thorough scheduled tube inspections, with specimen tube sample removal if required for monitoring purposes. If necessary, bundle decontamination can be undertaken to assess engineering deterioration to various degrees of thoroughness ranging from 100% equivalent factory final assembly inspection, to partial decontamination operating via a glovebox type of maintenance bag arrangement, examining local points of both shell and tube areas of the bundle. Many lessons from the last five years' experience of PFR will be incorporated into the design of the CDFR and PFR Steam Generators have two very good examples of how the designer can ease or severely handicap the operator in coping with sodium/water leakages. Good, quick access to tube ends is achieved in the existing PFR Evaporator by simply unbolting the steam/water closure head, but on the superheater and reheater hand-caps have

  6. New Dimensions in Microarchitecture Harnessing 3D Integration Technologies (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-06

    Quad Core Bandwidth and Latency Boundaries General Purpose Processor Loads Latency limited Ba nd w id th li m ite dProcessor load trade -off between I...delay No= number of ckts at 1V do= ckt delay at 1V From “3D Intergration ” Special Topic Sessionl W. Haensch, ISSCC ‘07, 2/07 11 DARPA MTS March 6, 2007

  7. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified...... matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes...... in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 May...

  8. Microarchitecture and protective mechanisms in synovial tissue from clinically and arthroscopically normal knee joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M. D.; Barg, E.; Weedon, H.; Papengelis, V.; Smeets, T.; Tak, P. P.; Kraan, M.; Coleman, M.; Ahern, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Synovial biopsies are used to study synovial immunopathology and are increasingly applied for the evaluation of new therapeutic strategies in chronic arthritis. Therefore, it is essential to be informed on the complete spectrum of synovial immunopathology. Objective: To describe the

  9. Study of bone microarchitecture abnormalities in mice through microct due to U and Th chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taam, Pedro; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inaya

    2009-01-01

    The di calcium phosphate, widely used to manufacture fertilizers and animal ration, is extracted from rock minerals. Some of these rocks, as fluoroapatite and collophanite, had together with the calcium phosphate, traces of elements as Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Th and U. Most of these elements are considered to be proper additives for fertilizers and animal ration. In the same time, the presence of U and Th is inappropriate and potentially harmful. The risks posed are more than radioactive exposure, it is rather chemical contamination and its biological effects, since U and Th have strong chemical affinity with many substances present in live organisms, specially phosphorus. The effects of U and Th in bone microarchiteture are still unknown. The aim of this work was to study bone microarchiteture changes in mice fed with animal ration enriched with uranyl phosphate and thorium nitrate, both compounds present in the nuclear fuel cycle. At regular intervals(24, 72, 120 and 168 hours after beginning of the enriched feeding) subjects were sacrificed, blood and bone samples were collected and U and Th levels measured through wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF). We present the data of U and Th blood level and microarchiteture evaluation through micro computed tomography (microCT) for each mice studied. The results showed that the intake of U and Th does indeed affect bone porosity. (author)

  10. The Impact of Fat and Obesity on Bone Microarchitecture and Strength in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Dimitri, Paul

    2017-05-01

    A complex interplay of genetic, environmental, hormonal, and behavioral factors affect skeletal development, several of which are associated with childhood fractures. Given the rise in obesity worldwide, it is of particular concern that excess fat accumulation during childhood appears to be a risk factor for fractures. Plausible explanations for this higher fracture risk include a greater propensity for falls, greater force generation upon fall impact, unhealthy lifestyle habits, and excessive adipose tissue that may have direct or indirect detrimental effects on skeletal development. To date, there remains little resolution or agreement about the impact of obesity and adiposity on skeletal development as well as the mechanisms underpinning these changes. Limitations of imaging modalities, short duration of follow-up in longitudinal studies, and differences among cohorts examined may all contribute to conflicting results. Nonetheless, a linear relationship between increasing adiposity and skeletal development seems unlikely. Fat mass may confer advantages to the developing cortical and trabecular bone compartments, provided that gains in fat mass are not excessive. However, when fat mass accumulation reaches excessive levels, unfavorable metabolic changes may impede skeletal development. Mechanisms underpinning these changes may relate to changes in the hormonal milieu, with adipokines potentially playing a central role, but again findings have been confounding. Changes in the relationship between fat and bone also appear to be age and sex dependent. Clearly, more work is needed to better understand the controversial impact of fat and obesity on skeletal development and fracture risk during childhood.

  11. Late Effects of Heavy Ion Irradiation on Ex Vivo Osteoblastogenesis and Cancellous Bone Microarchitecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Luan Hoang; Alwood, Joshua; Kumar, Akhilesh; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged spaceflight causes degeneration of skeletal tissue with incomplete recovery even after return to Earth. We hypothesize that heavy ion irradiation, a component of Galactic Cosmic Radiation, damages osteoblast progenitors and may contribute to bone loss during long duration space travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere. Male, 16 week old C57BL6/J mice were exposed to high LET (56 Fe, 600MeV) radiation using either low (5 or 10cGy) or high (50 or 200cGy) doses at the NASA Space Radiation Lab and were euthanized 3 - 4, 7, or 35 days later. Bone structure was quantified by microcomputed tomography (6.8 micron pixel size) and marrow cell redox assessed using membrane permeable, free radical sensitive fluorogenic dyes. To assess osteoblastogenesis, adherent marrow cells were cultured ex vivo, then mineralized nodule formation quantified by imaging and gene expression analyzed by RT PCR. Interestingly, 3 - 4 days post exposure, fluorogenic dyes that reflect cytoplasmic generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (DAF FM Diacetate or CM H2DCFDA) revealed irradiation (50cGy) reduced free radical generation (20-45%) compared to sham irradiated controls. Alternatively, use of a dye showing relative specificity for mitochondrial superoxide generation (MitoSOX) revealed an 88% increase compared to controls. One week after exposure, reactive oxygen/nitrogen levels remained lower(24%) relative to sham irradiated controls. After one month, high dose irradiation (200 cGy) caused an 86% decrement in ex vivo nodule formation and a 16-31% decrement in bone volume to total volume and trabecular number (50, 200cGy) compared to controls. High dose irradiation (200cGy) up regulated expression of a late osteoblast marker (BGLAP) and select genes related to oxidative metabolism (Catalase) and DNA damage repair (Gadd45). In contrast, lower doses (5, 10cGy) did not affect bone structure or ex vivo nodule formation, but did down regulate iNOS by 0.54 - 0.58 fold. Thus, both low and high doses of heavy ion irradiation cause time dependent, adaptive changes in redox state within marrow cells but only high doses (50, 200cGy) inhibit osteoblastogenesis and cause cancellous bone loss. We conclude space radiation has the potential to cause persistent damage to bone marrow derived stem and progenitor cells for osteoblasts despite adaptive changes in cellular redox state.

  12. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending...... and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group....... Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between...

  13. Study of bone microarchitecture abnormalities in mice through microct due to U and Th chemical contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Pedro; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: taam@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico

    2009-07-01

    The di calcium phosphate, widely used to manufacture fertilizers and animal ration, is extracted from rock minerals. Some of these rocks, as fluoroapatite and collophanite, had together with the calcium phosphate, traces of elements as Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Th and U. Most of these elements are considered to be proper additives for fertilizers and animal ration. In the same time, the presence of U and Th is inappropriate and potentially harmful. The risks posed are more than radioactive exposure, it is rather chemical contamination and its biological effects, since U and Th have strong chemical affinity with many substances present in live organisms, specially phosphorus. The effects of U and Th in bone microarchiteture are still unknown. The aim of this work was to study bone microarchiteture changes in mice fed with animal ration enriched with uranyl phosphate and thorium nitrate, both compounds present in the nuclear fuel cycle. At regular intervals(24, 72, 120 and 168 hours after beginning of the enriched feeding) subjects were sacrificed, blood and bone samples were collected and U and Th levels measured through wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF). We present the data of U and Th blood level and microarchiteture evaluation through micro computed tomography (microCT) for each mice studied. The results showed that the intake of U and Th does indeed affect bone porosity. (author)

  14. The role of skeletal micro-architecture in diagenesis and dating of Acropora palmata

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiak, P. J.; Andersen, M. B.; Hendy, E. J.; Potter, E. K.; Johnson, K. G.; Penkman, K. E H

    2016-01-01

    Past variations in global sea-level reflect continental ice volume, a crucial factor for understanding the Earth’s climate system. The Caribbean coral Acropora palmata typically forms dense stands in very shallow water and therefore fossil samples mark past sea-level. Uranium-series methods are commonly used to establish a chronology for fossil coral reefs, but are compromised by post mortem diagenetic changes to coral skeleton. Current screening approaches are unable to identify all altered ...

  15. The role of skeletal micro-architecture in diagenesis and dating of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiak, P. J.; Andersen, M. B.; Hendy, E. J.; Potter, E. K.; Johnson, K. G.; Penkman, K. E. H.

    2016-06-01

    Past variations in global sea-level reflect continental ice volume, a crucial factor for understanding the Earth's climate system. The Caribbean coral Acropora palmata typically forms dense stands in very shallow water and therefore fossil samples mark past sea-level. Uranium-series methods are commonly used to establish a chronology for fossil coral reefs, but are compromised by post mortem diagenetic changes to coral skeleton. Current screening approaches are unable to identify all altered samples, whilst models that attempt to correct for 'open-system' behaviour are not applicable across all diagenetic scenarios. In order to better understand how U-series geochemistry varies spatially with respect to diagenetic textures, we examine these aspects in relation to skeletal micro-structure and intra-crystalline amino acids, comparing an unaltered modern coral with a fossil A. palmata colony containing zones of diagenetic alteration (secondary overgrowth of aragonite, calcite cement and dissolution features). We demonstrate that the process of skeletogenesis in A. palmata causes heterogeneity in porosity, which can account for the observed spatial distribution of diagenetic features; this in turn explains the spatially-systematic trends in U-series geochemistry and consequently, U-series age. We propose a scenario that emphasises the importance of through-flow of meteoric waters, invoking both U-loss and absorption of mobilised U and Th daughter isotopes. We recommend selective sampling of low porosity A. palmata skeleton to obtain the most reliable U-series ages. We demonstrate that intra-crystalline amino acid racemisation (AAR) can be applied as a relative dating tool in Pleistocene A. palmata samples that have suffered heavy dissolution and are therefore unsuitable for U-series analyses. Based on relatively high intra-crystalline concentrations and appropriate racemisation rates, glutamic acid and valine are most suited to dating mid-late Pleistocene A. palmata. Significantly, the best-preserved material in the fossil specimen yields a U-series age of 165 ± 8 ka, recording a paleo sea-level of -35 ± 7 msl during the MIS 6.5 interstadial on Barbados.

  16. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of the proximal femur in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B. L.; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    microstructure has an important impact on bone quality. Recently, the quantification of bone architecture based on micro-CT has been widely used in the research of various bone diseases. OBJECTIVE: To observe the osteoarthritis- and rheumatoid arthritis-related changes in the properties of the proximal femur...... based on micro-CT, thus to compare the bone microstructure in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: Femoral heads were collected from primary osteoarthritis (n=10) and rheumatoid arthritis (n=7) patients undergoing total hip replacement. A 10-mm segment of the femoral neck was cut...... from each individual femur, perpendicular to the main trabecular direction on X-ray films. The specimens were analyzed by using micro-CT system. After scanning, the data were transferred to three-dimensional images, and then detailed structural parameters of the cortical bone, cancellous bone...

  17. Bone mineral density and microarchitecture in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, S.; Shanbhogue, V. V.; Hansen, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study of 45 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, we found no evidence of secondary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of fractures but the underlying mechanisms have not been set...

  18. Designer's unified cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, William T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Swanson, G. D.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model has been initiated. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state of the art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a data base and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. The approach, goals, plans, and progress is presented for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  19. Designers' unified cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  20. Learning for design reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Alex; Duffy, Sandra M.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade "design assistance", that is, where the computer is viewed as an Intelligent Design Assistant (IDA), has emerged in knowledge based design support and has formed the basic research strategy for the CAD Cantre, University of Strathclyde, since the mid-1980s. Within this philos......Over the past decade "design assistance", that is, where the computer is viewed as an Intelligent Design Assistant (IDA), has emerged in knowledge based design support and has formed the basic research strategy for the CAD Cantre, University of Strathclyde, since the mid-1980s. Within...... this philosophy, an IDA would act as a colleague to a designer, providing guidance, learning from past experiences, carrying out semi- and fully-automated tasks, explaining its reasoning and in essence complementing the designer's own natural skills, and thus leaving the ultimate decision-making, control......, and responsibility with the designer.The ability to learn and evolve has been recognized as one of the key components of an IDA for it to fully support the designer's activities. Consequently, we have been directing our research effort on two main fronts, formalizing our understanding and developing models...

  1. The design game in Participatory Design and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used...... in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction....

  2. Computational Protein Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe

    Proteins are the major functional group of molecules in biology. The impact of protein science on medicine and chemical productions is rapidly increasing. However, the greatest potential remains to be realized. The fi eld of protein design has advanced computational modeling from a tool of support...... to a central method that enables new developments. For example, novel enzymes with functions not found in natural proteins have been de novo designed to give enough activity for experimental optimization. This thesis presents the current state-of-the-art within computational design methods together...... with a novel method based on probability theory. With the aim of assembling a complete pipeline for protein design, this work touches upon several aspects of protein design. The presented work is the computational half of a design project where the other half is dedicated to the experimental part...

  3. The Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heape, Chris

    was to also understand what was meaningful to the students in their process of designing, a hermeneutic phenomenological research perspective was also adopted throughout this study, where human actions and language are considered as expressions of meaning in the context within which they occur. From......, the one effecting the other. As much as the processes of construction, exploration and expansion of a Design Space can be described in general terms as social and as design activities, it also emerged that there are a number of interrelated processes, sensibilities and skills in constant transaction...... the shifting flow of adjustments and perspectives necessary to relate to the ongoing contingency of a design task. From these interweavings a design proposal is gradually pulled to the fore as an emergent composition, a figure of parts that is directly related to the structure and ground of a Design Space...

  4. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  5. IMPROVING CONCEPTUAL DESIGN QUALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Stuart; Robotham, Antony John

    1999-01-01

    designer to identify clear targets for design improvement and to measure the effectiveness of any new solution, whilst attention to QFD ensures customer requirements are still being satisfied.Often, SME's are not aware of many of the best design practices and so are not able to meet the demand......This paper will consider how Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) processes can be used to improve the design quality of products at the concept stage. We appreciate that both QFD and DFMA are techniques that have been used for some time by mature product...... quality is maintained in design project work. The projects described have been carried out with products manufactured by small to medium sized enterprises (SME's), where we have found significant opportunities for product improvement. The quantitative nature of DFMA analysis results allows the novice...

  6. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics......, and computational methods tools to trigger creativity and innovative understanding of relation between form material and a increasingly wide range of performances in architectural design. The ultimate goal is to pursue a design approach that aims at embracing rather than excluding the complexity implicit...

  7. Ethics and technology design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillanceenabling technology. I call attention to a “positivist problem” that has to do with the connection between the design context......, a design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde’s concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory...

  8. Teaching sustainable design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.; Haggard, K.; Knuckles, A.; Le Noble, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sustainable design is inclusive, holistic and integrative. It require humility and guts, caring and a certain degree of stubbornness. It helps to do it cooperatively in a group. Human interest in sustainability has gained a great deal of impetus over the last several years as the problems of the late 20th and the early 21st century have become clearer. Design for sustainability broadens and integrates many previously separate design concerns to create a unified approach that is both compelling and ripe with new possibilities. Ecosystem regeneration, ecological land use planning, biometric design, regional environmental and economic viability, natural landscape maintenance, resource optimization, integrated infrastructure system, neotraditional and pedestrian oriented urban design, passive solar architecture, appropriate technology, renewable building materials, healthy buildings, and the aesthetics of place; are a few of these design concerns that, when welded together, can create sustainability.

  9. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  10. The Strategic Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    In this article I argue, and exemplify, that designers working in close relation with industry, can have significant influence on the nature and the quality of the products (or services) produced by the companies. In order to achieve this, the designer must become one of the decisive factors...... in the strategic framework of the company. This is done by taking the design process to the business floor of the company and using the design competence to innovate, not only products, but the fundamental concepts for product selection. Using design as a strategic tool will cause entirely new products to emerge...... and will make entire groups of products change into services. In this way new markets will appear to benefit the innovative companies, and if designers do their job well, the focus will be on the users, and thereby benefiting them as well. An example of this process is Novo Nordisk. This pharmaceutical company...

  11. Liaison based assembly design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  12. Posthumanism and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Forlano

    Full Text Available Since at least the mid-1980s, design has been dominated by a human-centered and user-centered paradigm. Currently, the implications of technological and environmental transformations are challenging designers to focus on complex socio-technical systems. This article traces emergent discussions around posthumanism from across a range of disciplines and perspectives, and considers examples from emerging design practices that emphasize the interrelations between human and nonhuman actors. Specifically, this article reviews literature from actor-network theory (ANT, feminist new materialism, object-oriented ontology, non-representational theory, and transhumanism to inform the development of new methodologies and practices in the field of design. Finally, this article presents critiques of posthumanism from critical race theory and decolonial theory to consider how emergent design perspectives might better support values such as equality and justice for humans and nonhumans that have been traditionally ignored in design processes.

  13. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Naokazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Tada, Eisuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  14. Automation of substation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milks, D. [Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA (United States); Scullion, T. [AutomationForce, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Smart libraries and substation design tools are now being used by electric utilities to simplify and optimize the design of electrical control systems. A rules-based design and database approach was used to determine the placement of connections and for designing schematics, panel layouts wiring diagrams and cable schedules. Substation design solutions can reduce labour resources and field errors. Methods of synthesizing technologies in a database-centric architecture were discussed along with methods of selecting and adopting appropriate design technologies and methods for gaining efficiencies and managing change within organizations. The study demonstrated that the successful adoption of new technology requires a clear understanding of business objectives, technology requirements, and management support. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Design of mechanical joints

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A cornerstone publication that covers the basic principles and practical considerations of design methodology for joints held by rivets, bolts, weld seams, and adhesive materials, Design of Mechanical Joints gives engineers the practical results and formulas they need for the preliminary design of mechanical joints, combining the essential topics of joint mechanics...strength of materials...and fracture control to provide a complete treatment of problems pertinent to the field of mechanical connections.

  16. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  17. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  18. Learning Python design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a tutorial-based and user-friendly approach to covering Python design patterns. Its concise presentation means that in a short space of time, you will get a good introduction to various design patterns.If you are an intermediate level Python user, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Python programming is essential. Some knowledge of UML is also required to understand the UML diagrams which are used to describe some design patterns.

  19. Designing for Interactional Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis further defines how to reach Interactional Empowerment through design for users. Interactional Empowerment is an interaction design program within the general area of affective interaction, focusing on the users’ abil­ity to reflect, express themselves and engage in profound meaning-making. This has been explored through design of three systems eMoto, Affective Di­ary and Affective Health, which all mirror users’ emotions or bodily reactions in interaction in some way. From these ...

  20. The Seismographic Design Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salamon, Karen Lisa; Engholm, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the theoretical development of the design concept through two centuries in Europe and North America. Drawing on the academic disciplines of design history and anthropology, the authors present seminal moments in the theorization of “design”. Historically formativ...... argues for a more historically reflective glance on theory’s influence on the moulding of practice from ideology also in the context of design, and presents itself as a step in this self reflective direction....

  1. Rectenna system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Nalos, E. J.; Ott, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The function of the rectenna in the solar power satellite system is described and the basic design choices based on the desired microwave field concentration and ground clearance requirements are given. One important area of concern, from the EMI point of view, harmonic reradiation and scattering from the rectenna is also designed. An optimization of a rectenna system design to minimize costs was performed. The rectenna cost breakdown for a 56 w installation is given as an example.

  2. The Designer as Facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2009-01-01

    a very strong relation to design practice. Focusing on so-called emotional values the project investigates how stakeholders and end-users can actively contribute to the design process. Even though that the collaborating company has an in-house design unit responsible for certain emotional as well...... as functional aspects in the development process it is a highly technical and functional trade. It is therefore assumed that there is a ‘sleeping' potential which can be released investigating emotional values....

  3. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on their intuition and require solutions based on pure reason. The author of this paper argues for bringing intuitive decision making back into interior design as a legitimate design tactic.

  4. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  5. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  6. Design as Montage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette

    The paper explores the role of video and (visual) anthropology in design and product development processes from creating insights about users to developing design ideas in interdisciplinary teams. In the paper we suggest montage as a metaphor for understanding how meaning and ideas are created...... in design processes. Rather than viewing montage as a particular style of filmmaking, we see the design process itself as a montage, a process where different heterogeneous materials – sketches, video, prototypes, etc. – as well as different professional and disciplinary perspectives are brought together...

  7. Design of the EFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.H.; Debru, M.

    1992-01-01

    The design work on the European Fast Reactor (EFR) started in the spring of 1988 at the request of the EFR Utilities Group (EFRUG), which comprises electricity producing utilities from France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy. Other European utilities have expressed their interest in joining the EFR project. The EFR design work is being performed by EFR Associates, a group of design and construction companies that includes: (1) Novatome, a division of Framatome, France; (2) NNC, a member of the GEC group of companies, Great Britain; and (3) Siemens Engineerzeugung KWU, Germany. A first consistent design of a nuclear island for the EFR as submitted to EFRUG in the spring of 1990. This design combines the best features from previous national designs (SPX2, SNR2, and CDFR). Since 1990, the design validation work has been in an advanced stage, and EFR Associates proposal for the main features of a consistent design, which was presented to EFRUG in autumn 1991 (mid-phase 2), represented an important milestone in the design phase of the project

  8. Communicating (by) Design 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkær, Tim Nøhr

    The paper discusses the current change of role and status of the representation as a means to communicate design in the digital era. It outlines two opposite directions for the development of software-technology, and brings forward current research, on the didactic aspects of introducing digital...... software into the curriculum of architechture and design education. The paper describes a workshop held at the Danish Design School, where students proficient in using digital media, are challenged to use analogue models instead, to rediscover and utilize some of the creative potentials offered......; Ambiguity; Heuristics; Design education...

  9. VT Designated Downtown Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Downtown designation provides communities with financial incentives, training and technical assistance to support local efforts to restore historic buildings,...

  10. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  11. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  12. Clockwork game design

    CERN Document Server

    Burgun, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Only by finding and focusing on a core mechanism can you further your pursuit of elegance in strategy game design.Clockwork Game Design is the most functional and directly applicable theory for game design. It details the clockwork game design pattern, which focuses on building around fundamental functionality. You can then use this understanding to prescribe a system for building and refining your rulesets. A game can achieve clarity of purpose by starting with a strong core, then removing elements that conflict with that core while adding elements that support it.Filled with examples and exe

  13. Industrial Design: Tableware

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Martha Lynn Luttrell

    2006-01-01

    The goal of my graduate thesis is to design a dinner service set suitable for mass manufacture. The purpose of completing an academic study of dinnerware as an industrial designer is to gain a mastery of a product used everyday in and out of the home. With such a rich history in ceramics, it is challenging to design a new dinner service set that is functional, enhances the aesthetics of a meal and sustains the intimate relationship of everyday use by adapting to lives. My particular design id...

  14. Design (research) practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    possibilities through experimentation (Brandt and Binder 2007). Likewise in relation to design research we have argued that “the possible is always contingent and though research may convincingly provide arguments for certain possibilities both search and arguments have to be guided by programs that set...... substantiate or challenge this view and the dialectic between program and probing is in our view central to any design practice” (Binder and Redström 2006: 4). Our suggestion is to see design research practices as fundamentally homologous to any other design practices both in terms of the way they are driven...

  15. Programmable Array Logic Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal

    2007-01-01

    Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)

  16. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  17. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  18. Process design (exterior – interior design)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...

  19. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  20. The design of the MAD Design Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included

  1. Problem and design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and machine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gil

    1982-04-01

    The contents of this book are basic of design drawing, problem of machine design, problem of precision design drawing, problem of planar figure of sheet metal, design drawing for solution of machine design, design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and design drawing for planar figure of sheet metal. It tells of the problems and gives the solutions on precision design drawing and machine design.

  2. Typography of web design

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlířová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Typography is one of the most important elements of web design and marketing. Good typography makes web design more appealing, which is important for readers in evaluating titles and the quality of text. The aim of this thesis is to provide a characterization of good and bad typography. I will use this characterization to identify modern typographical trends in a digital background....

  3. Subgrade design models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available procedure commonly used in South Africa, namely the South African Mechanistic-Empirical Design Method (SAMDM). This was achieved through the development of a new design approach and permanent deformation model for the pavement subgrade. The new distress...

  4. Textiles and Apparel Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on textiles and apparel design. The units cover: (1) fiber/fiber characteristics and textile development (including fabrication and dyeing, printing, and finishing); (2) textile and apparel design industries (including their history and…

  5. Optimal Market Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Goeree, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces three methodological advances to study the optimal design of static and dynamic markets. First, we apply a mechanism design approach to characterize all incentive-compatible market equilibria. Second, we conduct a normative analysis, i.e. we evaluate alternative competition and

  6. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  7. Cavity design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous computer programs are available to help accelerator physicists and engineers model and design accelerator cavities and other microwave components. This article discusses the problems these programs solve and the principles upon which these programs are based. Some examples of how these programs are used in the design of accelerator cavities are also given

  8. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  9. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  10. Design of timber groynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, U.; Crossman, M.; Verhagen, H.J.; Howard, S.; Simm, J.

    2003-01-01

    The performance and durability of timber groynes (or 'groins') is highly dependent on the design and detailing of the structure. Using knowledge and experience developed over generations an effective functional design can be achieved, which may ultimately result in lower whole life costs and provide

  11. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  12. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  13. Designing well with others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Have you ever been sitting in a game-design workshop trying to make a game work when suddenly someone suggested incorporating elements like drawing a card or rolling a die as a contribution to creating a functional design? How did that make you feel? Yes, so did I, but please read a bit...

  14. Design for Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeries, Larry

    Experiences suggested within this visual arts packet provide high school students with awareness of visual expression in graphic design, product design, architecture, and crafts. The unit may be used in whole or in part and includes information about art careers and art-related jobs found in major occupational fields. Specific lesson topics…

  15. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    as the poetics of construction, thus it may be considered as an essential activity in the development of the architectural design process.  Similar to the complex nature of the tectonic, the design process is an ongoing movement of interpretation, mediation, and decision making where the skills of the architect...

  16. Designing with precedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, G.

    2003-01-01

    Every year designers are challenged to generate new and unique product forms. Often, the design and form of previous products constitutes a basis for the generation of new ones. What role then do existing products play in the generation and development of new product forms? How can this role be

  17. Evaluation in participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    his paper focuses on evaluation in Participatory Design (PD), and especially upon how the central aims of mutual learning, empowerment, democracy and workplace quality have been assessed. We surveyed all Participatory Design Conference papers (1990-2014) and papers from special journal issues on PD...

  18. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian...

  19. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...

  20. Design Specification and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This is chapter 7 in an edited book that presents a number of issues of fundamental importance for the design of integrated hardware software products such as embedded, communication, and multimedia systems. This book is the result of a series of Ph.D. courses on hardware/software co-design held...

  1. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  2. Against (Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Indrajaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of this article is an attempt to show that the word research in traditional sense (within the Cartesian scheme is hostile to design activity. It will reduce the process of design into a merely fix mechanical process, burying the aspect of imagination, creativity, and more importantly proposing in it that is a crucial aspect to design. This imposition might indiscipline (in a formal academic sense design as a discipline in human sciences. In order to achieve this, the article is divided in three sections. The first section will discuss what scientific research is and what traditionally presupposed in it: objective, neutral, and a-historical; simply the disinterestedness of research. As for the second, epistemological concerns on traditional scientific research from two philosophers of science will be discussed: Thomas S. Kuhn and Paul K. Feyerabend. As for the third, the closing section, an attempt to delineate design and what designers do in comparison to scientists’ will be discussed. It is how design and designers are different in their manners with traditional science and scientist. 

  3. Future product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    This paper (in form of overheads) formulate new challenges and possibilities for engineering design, utilizing rationalization effect from modularisation, re-use and transparaency.......This paper (in form of overheads) formulate new challenges and possibilities for engineering design, utilizing rationalization effect from modularisation, re-use and transparaency....

  4. Mirror fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.; Carlson, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent conceptual reactor designs based on mirror confinement are described. Four components of mirror reactors for which materials considerations and structural mechanics analysis must play an important role in successful design are discussed. The reactor components are: (a) first-wall and thermal conversion blanket, (b) superconducting magnets and their force restraining structure, (c) neutral beam injectors, and (d) plasma direct energy converters

  5. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  6. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  7. Design of apron feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C.M.

    1987-12-01

    This paper discusses practical aspects of apron feeder design, and includes information on how to make the first selection. Various aspects of design such as feeder speed, material depth, chain-pitch, roller loading, wheels/sprockets and chain roller friction are elaborated in detail. 8 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Evaluating aesthetics in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    : an aesthetics of sensual relation and an aesthetics of communicative self-reflection. Following these concepts the article raises questions of dealing with design as a structure of sensual appearance, and of design as an act of communication that can contain an aesthetic coding in letting an idea or content...

  9. STEAM by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  10. Creativity for designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to modern and interdisciplinary concepts related to creativity and creative processes. The selected topics are of special relevance to professionals of any kind in connection with their work as designers. Some useful creative tools and approaches are also...... outlined. Finally, practical recommendations to enhance and apply creative work in design are elaborated....

  11. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  12. Miniature rectenna design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Hubregt J.

    2017-01-01

    For powering small wireless IoT nodes, compact, efficient rectifying antennas have been realized. A first design for 868 and 915 MHz is described. Based on the lessons learned, a new design for 2.45 GHz is realized that is a factor 13 smaller in size.

  13. Optimized rectenna design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keyrouz, S.; Smolders, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Design steps are outlined for maximizing the RF-to-dc power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a rectenna. It turns out that at a frequency of 868 MHz, a high-ohmic loaded rectifier will lead to a highly sensitive and power conversion efficient rectenna. It is demonstrated that a rectenna thus designed,

  14. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  15. Understanding collaborative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinsmann, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fast product follow-ups and increasing customer demands have changed product design from a rather unstructured process, into a systematic activity. Nowadays, both companies and researchers have developed the organizational aspects of integrated product design. However, attention to the collaborative

  16. Assessing Intercultural Training Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Training designs are critical to the success of intercultural training programmes. A common typology for classifying intercultural training designs distinguishes among the following dimensions: experiential discovery versus didactic expository and culture-specific versus culture-general training. The purpose of this paper is to assess different…

  17. Design mentoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 a design engineer on-line mentoring tool was developed and implemented The purpose of the tool was to assist senior engineers : mentoring new engineers to the INDOT design process and improve their technical competency. This approach saves se...

  18. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  19. Supercollider design submitted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The research and development programme for the proposed US Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) passed a major milestone on schedule with the submission of a conceptual design report to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on 31 March. Since then, the design has been favourably reviewed by DOE officials

  20. Fuel design and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemer, H.

    1975-01-01

    The essential aspects of the design and engineering of fuel assemblies for LWR reactors are outlined, and the major criteria to be met by the materials used are given. The fuel rods must be mechanically designed to withstand many stresses which are shortly dealt with here. (RB) [de

  1. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  2. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2009-01-01

    and modeling of explicit and implicit end-user needs and requirements on both the building to be designed and the supporting design tools. The paper provides grounds to higher success rate in capture of explicit and implicit end user needs and requirements on functional performance in use and re...

  3. SSC design update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    Recent developments in the design and construction of the SSC are presented. Topics include status of the 20 TeV Collider rings, including interaction regions, utility regions, and main arcs, plus some remarks on the injector accelerators. Remaining issues facing the design of the colliding beams synchrotron and its injectors are discussed

  4. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  5. Jewelry Design by Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Presidential campaigns bring out the expression of strong political sentiments in the jewelry and pins that people wear to declare their allegiances. Images, flags, symbols, and words are all elements that are incorporated into designs that make decisive visual statements. In this article, the author's high-school metals class students design a…

  6. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....

  7. Practical column design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsche, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the aspects that need to be considered when designing distillation columns in practice. It discusses the influencing parameters as well as the equations governing them, and presents several numerical examples. The book is intended both for experienced designers and for those who are new to the subject.

  8. Teachers as designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; McKenney, Susan; Kali, Yael; Sagy, Ornit

    2014-01-01

    Design of (technology-enhanced) learning activities and materials is one fruitful process through which teachers learn and become professionals. To facilitate this process, research is needed to understand how teachers learn through design, how this process may be supported, and how teacher

  9. Web of Design Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Christina

    2017-01-01

    of this thesis is to exemplify how an exploratory research setup may move architectural design practice into a more social and open design space. Enlightened by Actor Network Theory combined with Hans-Jörg Reinbergers conceptual framework for analyzing experimental research practice, it enters and proceeds...

  10. Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  11. Design Thinking for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  12. Grading efficiency in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; van der Bijl-Brouwer, Mieke; Buck, L.; . Frateur, G.; Ion, B.; McMahon, C.; Baelus, C.; de Grande, G.; Vervulgen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The academic world is constantly under pressure to deliver maximum output for a minimum of (public) costs. For Design education this is important, because doing Design cannot be learned from a book. As teaching costs are mainly driven by the costs of supervisors, the amount of time invested in

  13. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  14. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  15. Deliberately by design, or ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles; Brandt, Charlotte; Carugati, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    , this article sets the stage to investigate in detail the case of EA transformation at Arla Foods. The main goal with this article is to delineate a research design to uncover the transformation process from three perspectives: Design thinking, Institutional theory, and Sociomateriality....

  16. Deliberately by Design, Or?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles; Brandt, Charlotte J; Carugati, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    , this article sets the stage to investigate in detail the case of EA transformation at Arla Foods. The main goal with this article is to delineate a research design to uncover the transformation process from three perspectives: Design thinking, Institutional theory, and Sociomateriality....

  17. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  18. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  19. Is Design a Plus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Vistisen, Peter; Gudiksen, Sune Klok

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we will discuss an epistemological dilemma that occurred when implementing design into established humanistic education at Aalborg University, which is a problems-based learning (PBL) university. From our empirical observations, having implemented design into the humanistic curriculum, a series...

  20. Science and design revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker published a paper in Design Studies, arguing against the conventional science–design distinction. Finding their position highly controversial, we opposed it in a paper of our own, to which Farrell and Hooker have now responded with a defence of their view...