WorldWideScience

Sample records for wire garment hangers

  1. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  2. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1197 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  3. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... garment hangers from Vietnam are materially injuring a U.S. industry, all unliquidated entries of such... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-812] Steel Wire Garment Hangers...''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist...

  4. 78 FR 54272 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Commission defined a single Domestic Industry consisting of all domestic producers of steel wire garment... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1123 (Review)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers... the antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from China would be likely to lead to...

  5. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in...

  6. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... affiliates, further processed the unfinished hangers in Vietnam, packed, and exported the finished garment... conclusion that Angang commingles the two groups of merchandise in a work-in-progress warehouse. Therefore...

  7. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final Phase of...) under section 735(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in...

  8. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United...

  9. 76 FR 27994 - First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...,'' (``Decision Memo''), dated concurrently with this notice, for a discussion of the post-case brief letters... the order are wooden, plastic, and other garment hangers that are not made of steel wire. Also... use of facts available (``FA'') is appropriate to account for Dingli's consumption of its hydrochloric...

  10. 75 FR 68758 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    .... Specifically excluded from the scope of the order are wooden, plastic, and other garment hangers that are not...; Kaiping Youming Hardware & Plastic Products Co., Ltd.; Kuehne & Nagel Ltd.; Laidlaw Company LLC; Laidlaw... Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 73 FR 55039 (September 24, 2008) (``PET Film''). Factor Valuations In...

  11. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... the Social Republic of Vietnam and the Imposition of Countervailing Duties Against Steel Wire Garment... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import... of Vietnam (Vietnam) filed in proper form by M&B Metal Products Company, Inc., Innovative Fabrication...

  12. 77 FR 75973 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., the Hamico Companies), and Infinite Industrial Hanger Limited (Infinite) and Supreme Hanger Company... which we are measuring subsidies is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Case History The events..., or latex (industrial) hangers. Specifically excluded from the scope of the investigation are (a...

  13. 75 FR 42685 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... process--the forming/shaping of drawn steel wire into a hanger--occurs in the PRC with heavy and complex machinery. Citing to the factor of production consumption ratios reported by Gangyuan, one of the... hangers, without the need for equipment or machinery. Petitioner cites to the International Trade...

  14. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Case History In accordance with section 705(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... shirt, suit, strut, caped, or latex (industrial) hangers. Specifically excluded from the scope are (a...) (collectively, the Hamico Companies) Infinite Industrial Hanger Limited (Infinite) and 90.42 Supreme Hanger...

  15. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... surrogate value (``SV'') information. On November 28, 2011, Petitioner,\\3\\ Shanghai Wells Hanger Co., Ltd.\\4... labor surrogate value (``SV''), and the dumping margin calculation for Shanghai Wells in the final... Surrogate Financial Statements Comment 5: Proper Inflator for Labor Surrogate Value Company-Specific Issue...

  16. 76 FR 27007 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... determined that India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Ukraine, and Peru are countries comparable to the PRC and also determined that Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and... processing in the United States under section 781(a) of the Act, the language regarding the value of...

  17. 77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Schedule of the United States, that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value and... presentation at the conference. A nonparty who has testimony that may aid the Commission's deliberations may... the investigations. Parties may file written testimony in connection with their presentation at the...

  18. 78 FR 70271 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... also Statement of Administrative Action accompanying the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, H.R. Doc. No... accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because the PRC is a nonmarket economy within the meaning of section.... Bona Fides Analysis 7. Non-Market Economy Status 8. Separate Rates 9. Separate Rates Recipients 10. Use...

  19. 77 FR 66952 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... (Hong Kong) Enterprise Ltd.; Delmar International (China Inc.; Hangzhou Chenyang Plastic Dipping Co....; Zhejiang Perfect Arts & Crafts Co., Ltd.; Zhejiang Tatzhou Hongda Metal Products Co., Ltd. (a/k/a Taizhou Hongda Metal Materials Co., Ltd.); Zhejiang Willing Foreign Trading Co. Ltd.; and Zhuocheng Plastic Co...

  20. 76 FR 66903 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Random Access Memory Semiconductors from Taiwan, 63 FR 8909, 8932 (February 23, 1998). \\43\\ See, e.g... respondent in a LTFV investigation); Kompass Food Trading Int'l v. United States, 24 CIT 678, 683 (2000...

  1. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and... be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733 of the... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination: Coated Free Sheet Paper...

  2. 77 FR 32930 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... not listed based on export value/volume. On February 14, 2012, Infinite and SEA Hamico confirmed that... published the Carrier Bags from Vietnam Final Determination in which we found the CVD law applicable to...\\ Additionally, for reasons stated in the Carrier Bags from Vietnam Decision Memorandum at Comment 3, we are...

  3. 77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Export Joint Stock Company, Nam A Hamico Export Joint Stock Company, and Linh Sa Hamico Company Limited.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Case History On December 29, 2011, the Department received a countervailing duty (CVD... of South East Asia Hamico Export Joint Stock Company (SEA Hamico), Nam A Hamico Export Joint Stock...

  4. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-market economy (``NME'') country are subject to government control, and because only the companies listed..., 2000) and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at Comment 1; Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe, 74 FR at 4915; Certain Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the...

  5. 77 FR 3731 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... scope language (``Second Scope Revision''). In accordance with section 732(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930... Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.\\19\\ Based on the information provided by Petitioners, we...

  6. 76 FR 14918 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ....; Guangdong Provincial Taoyue Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Guangxi Yikai Industry and Trade Co., Ltd. ; Guangzhou Haojin Motorcycle Company; Guangzhou Zhuocheng Plastic Co., Ltd.; Guilin Betterall Household Articles Co... International Trade Transportation Co., Ltd.; Shanghai International Trade Yee Da Imp. & Ex. Co. Ltd.; Shanghai...

  7. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... not file separate-rate applications or certifications submitted comments regarding this finding... and in the form requested, and significantly impeded this proceeding and (2) the PRC-Wide Entity... ``Corroboration of Information'' section. Final Results of the Administrative Review The weighted-average dumping...

  8. 77 FR 46055 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration..., or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in... Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Final Negative Critical Circumstances: Carbon...

  9. 77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration..., or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in... Fair Value, 77 FR 46055 (August 2, 2012) (``Preliminary Determination''). Period of Investigation The...

  10. Garment Counting in a Textile Warehouse by Means of a Laser Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Santos Martínez-Sala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile logistic warehouses are highly automated mechanized places where control points are needed to count and validate the number of garments in each batch. This paper proposes and describes a low cost and small size automated system designed to count the number of garments by processing an image of the corresponding hanger hooks generated using an array of phototransistors sensors and a linear laser beam. The generated image is processed using computer vision techniques to infer the number of garment units. The system has been tested on two logistic warehouses with a mean error in the estimated number of hangers of 0.13%.

  11. ESD GARMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCARLAT Răzvan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Protective equipment represents an alternative for the sustainable development of companies and for human health protection. The insertion of "invisible functionalities" in textile structures, the use of functional elements as part of the whole garment are just a few tools which define "freedom" of creation in the field of textiles. The electrical, chemical and mechanical properties of conductive textiles are crucial for intelligent textiles. ESD garments are used to protect sensitive devices from electrostatic discharges that can occur from the normal clothing of the human operators. ESD garments on the market don’t solve all the problems raised by accidental electrostatic discharges. This is because the fabric, from which the garment is made, must fulfill at the same time two contradictory conditions: high resistivity, to limit the charging process and energy transfer in case of an eventual discharge, and high conductivity, to facilitate the dissipation process of charges, thus limiting the accumulation of charge on the fabric. To obtain an ESD garment with superior qualities, the present paper proposes the development of a bilayer structure using the integral knitting technique. The outer layer, which comes in contact with the working environment, is mainly dissipative (DL which ensures the protection against short circuit and limitation of electrostatic energy transfer into the working environment, while the inner layer, which comes in contact with the human operator, is mainly conductive (CL, providing the controlled drainage of accumulated electrostatic charge.

  12. Stress Analysis of Cyrano Capsule Hanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2000-01-01

    Base on the requirement criteria on nuclear installation, and to complete the document of the cyrano capsule facility the analysis of the cyrano capsule hanger has been done. The cyrano capsule hanger by the overhang installation on the main support of fixed bridge is a main support of whole of the cyrano capsule and frame. By using W 4 x 13 shave as main hanger of cyrano capsule, the maximum allowable stress was found to be bigger than the actual stress. From the final analysis it can be concluded that the hanger of the cyrano capsule is in safe condition

  13. 75 FR 14138 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ...'s Republic of China Requestor: Care Line Industries, Inc.; certain bags designed for hospital use... terminated the scope inquiry filed on behalf of Target; July 6, 2009. A-570-918: Steel Wire Garment Hangers... inquiry filed on behalf of American Hanger; September 25, 2009. A-570-918: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from...

  14. Protective garment ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  15. Adding functionality to garments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available various functionalities, such as retention of appearance, durability, comfort, handle and tailorability can be enhanced in garments. The tests used to assess and quantify the different functionalities are described....

  16. Hanger-type laundry monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Kouno, Yoshio; Yanagishima, Ryouhei; Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Nakatani, Masahiro

    1987-01-01

    Laundry monitor is installed in nuclear power plants or other nuclear facilities in order to efficiently detect radioactive contamination remains on the surfaces of the working clothes which were used in the controlled area and washed afterward. The number of the working clothes which must be measured has been increasing in accordance with the increase of the nuclear facilities. This fact and recent intensified radiation control require automatic, high-speed and high sensitive measurement. Conveyer-type laundry monitor in which the working clothes are inserted by the metal net conveyer has been generally used, and recently new system with an automatic folder has become more popular. But, this type of system has not so big capacity because the clothes are conveyed longitudinally and also requires considerable wide space when installed. Fuji electric Co., Ltd. has been engaging in research and development for an optimum laundry monitor system used in nuclear facilities since the joint investigation with ten electric power companies in Japan in 1982. Consequently hanger-type laundry monitor system using automatic hanger conveyer was developed and 2 systems were delivered to Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. in 1986. This system permits to detect radioactive contamination on the working clothes, pick the contaminated clothes out and fold the uncontaminated clothes fully automatically and continuously. Moreover it allows to shorten the measurement time because the clothes are conveyed transversely and save the installation space, so that this will be regarded as considerably complete system in the world. This report describes the outline of the hanger-type laundry monitor system. (author)

  17. 76 FR 10558 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Magnets from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: Medical Action Industries, Inc.; whether its raw...; initiated April 5, 2010. A-570-918: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: M&B Metal Products Inc.; whether certain imports of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist...

  18. 77 FR 32568 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China Requestor: Ashley Furniture Industries Inc...; initiated September 27, 2011. A-570-918: Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers; requested July 21, 2011; initiated October 3, 2011. A...

  19. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  20. Moderator inlet line hanger replacement for Pickering nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.A.; Bowman, J.M.; Symmons, W.R.; El-Nesr, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS), Units 1 and 2 were shutdown for large scale fuel channel replacement. Other nonroutine inspection and maintenance activities were performed to determine the overall condition of the units and it was seen that a moderator inlet line hanger (identified as HR-29) had failed in both units. Subsequent inspections during planned maintenance outages of Pickering NGS Units 3 and 4 revealed that hanger HR-29 had failed and required replacement. A research program was conducted to find a suitable technique. These problems included accessing tooling through small inspection ports, manipulating tooling from a significant distance and the high radiation fields within the vault. This paper describes the program undertaken to replace hanger HR-29. (author)

  1. Dependent seniors garment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, A. L.; Carvalho, M. A.; Lopes, H. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is part of a PhD research in Textile Engineering at University of Minho and aims to establish an ergonomic pattern design methodology to be used in the construction of garments for elderly women, aged 65 and over, dependent of care. The research was developed with a close contact with four institutions involved in supporting this aged population, located in the cities of Guimarães (Portugal) and Teresina (Brazil). These clothes should be adequate to their anthropometrics and their special needs, in accordance with important functional factors for the dependency of their caregiver, such as: care for the caregiver and comfort for the user. Questions regarding the functional properties of the materials, the pattern design process, trimmings and the assembling process of the garments are specially considered in the desired comfort levels, in order to provide an adequate handling by facilitating the dressing and undressing tasks, but also to assure the user the needed comfort in all its variables.

  2. 76 FR 74041 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... received a timely request to revoke in part the antidumping duty order on Steel Wire Garment Hangers from.../30/11 Garment Hangers \\4\\ A-570-918 Angang Clothes Rack Manufacture Angang Clothes Rack Manufacture.... Shanghai China Light Industry International Shanghai Jianhai International Trade Co., Ltd. Shanghai Jinda...

  3. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  4. Garment-Integrated Bend Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gioberto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Garment-integrated sensors equip clothes with a smart sensing capability, while preserving the comfort of the user. However, this benefit can be to the detriment of sensing accuracy due to the unpredictability of garment movement (which affects sensor positioning and textile folds (which can affect sensor orientation. However, sensors integrated directly into garments or fabric structures can also be used to detect the movement of the garment during wearing. Specifically, a textile bend sensor could be used to sense folds in the garment. We tested a garment-integrated stitched sensor for five types of folds, stitched on five different weights of un-stretchable denim fabric and analyzed the effects of fold complexity and fabric stiffness, under un-insulated and insulated conditions. Results show that insulation improves the linearity and repeatability of the sensor response, particularly for higher fold complexity. Stiffer fabrics show greater sensitivity, but less linearity. Sensor response amplitude is larger for more complex fold geometries. The utility of a linear bending response (insulated and a binary shorting response (un-insulated is discussed. Overall, the sensor exhibits excellent repeatability and accuracy, particularly for a fiber-based, textile-integrated sensor.

  5. Garment personalization via identity transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilkrot, Roy; Cohen-Or, Daniel; Shamir, Ariel; Liu, Ligang

    2013-01-01

    A new system provides a virtual experience akin to trying on clothing. It clones the user's photographic image into a catalog of images of models wearing the desired garments. Simple offline training extracts the user's head. Segmentation accurately separates the face, hair, and background, employing both a three-kernel statistical model and graph cuts. The system adjusts the resulting image's skin color according to a statistical model and relights the head via spherical harmonics. Finally, using a parametric model, the system warps the clone's body dimensions to fit the user's dimensions. This creates high-quality compositions of the user's image and the given garment.

  6. English in the Garment Shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Lorrie

    This text for limited-English-speaking workers in the garment industry consits of illustrated vocabulary words, grammar lessons, narratives or brief readings, and exercises on employment-related topics. The first section focuses on shop talk, including job-specific vocabulary, simple expressions and explanations, social language, seeking and…

  7. 78 FR 46575 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... from China (A-570- 919) (1st Review). Steel Wire Garment Hangers Jennifer Moats (202) 482-5047. from... receives a Notice of Intent to Participate from a member of the domestic industry within 15 days of the...

  8. Recommendation in Motion: Intelligent Hypertouch Garment Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent CAD garment design becomes more and more popular by attracting the attentions from both manufacturers and professional stylists. The existing garment CAD systems and clothing simulation software fail to provide user-friendly interfaces as well as dynamic recommendation during the garment creation process. In this paper, we propose an intelligent hypertouch garment design system, which dynamically predicts the possible solutions along with the intelligent design procedure. User behavioral information and dynamic shape matching are used to learn and predict the desired garment patterns. We also propose a new hypertouch concept of gesture-based interaction for our system. We evaluate our system with a prototype platform. The results show that our system is effective, robust, and easy to use for quick garment design.

  9. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  10. PENGENDALIAN MESIN HOIST HANGER DALAM PROSES PTC/ED MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology demands efficient and work speed, so it needs a system which can handleseveral things.This problem can be covered with PLC (Programmable Logic Control that can integrateseveral self standing component to be an integrated control system and can be changed the configurationwithout change all instrument. Modify the ladder program can alter system of PLC. This paper showsHoist Hanger system in PTC/ED (Pre Treatment Chemical/Electrocoat Dispotition process that controlledby PLC. Above input from limit switch, sensor, or the other input, PLC system drives the motorrelay Hoist Hanger machine. That cause the motor relay Hoist Hanger change its condition, so the movingof Hoist Hanger machine will be suitable with PLC program.

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of the Hanger Vibrations on the Great Belt East Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos; Larsen, Allan

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2001, the Great Belt East Bridge exhibited large-amplitude hanger vibrations having elliptical orbits for wind speeds of between 16 - 17 m/s. Vibration amplitudes were in the order of 1.4m in the across-wind direction and 1.0m in the along-wind. In this paper, a preliminary...... investigation behind the causes of this relatively isolated hanger vibration event on the Great Belt East Bridge is undertaken. One of the main assumptions of the investigation is that coincidental icy conditions may have contributed in some way to large hanger response, by changing the cylindrical cross......-sectional shape or partially changing the surface texture of the hangers. The change in shape or the surface texture has the effect of a change in the aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients in a certain Reynolds number range which in turn may lead to a form of “drag instability”. From the visual observations...

  12. 78 FR 72630 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...., Ltd Winnsen Industry Co., Ltd THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: Steel Wire Garment 10/1/12-9/30/13... Hongfei Plastic Industry Co. Ltd........ Zhejiang Jaguar Import & Export Co. Ltd Zhejiang Lucky Cloud... separate rate, all other exporters of Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the PRC who have not qualified for a...

  13. Development and application of a packer-type drilling-free liner hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In liner cementing, the upper cement plug and inner components of a common hanger needs to be drilled out after cementing, which will result in a poor cementing quality or even gas leakage at the flare opening. Therefore, a new packer-type drilling-free liner hanger has been developed, and a hydraulic setting-control packer, a flexible drilling-free seal box, and an auxiliary bearing back-off mechanism that go with the line hanger have been designed at the same time. Specific operation procedures include: (1 run in the liner string to the designed depth, then fully circulate the drilling fluid, finally drop the ball. When the tripping ball gets into the seat, the pressure will go up to cut off the hanging control pin and set the hanger; (2 continue to hold the pressure and cut off the ball seat pin to form circulation; (3 trip in the drill pipe to exert pressure on the hanger, back off to release the hanger from the running tool; (4 lower the drill pipe plug upon the completion of cement injection, cut off the releasing control pin of hollow casing plug, and run down further to bump with the bumping assembly; (5 remove the cementing head and connect the kelly driver, hold pressure again, then slowly pull up the drill tools, exert hydraulic pressure on the setting hydraulic cylinder of the packer assembly to cut off the setting control pin and set the packer; and (6 pull up the tools to the flare opening and wash out excessive cement slurry by circulating to realize free drilling of the whole hole. The successful application of the liner hanger in 127 mm diameter liner in Well BQ203-H1 indicates that the packer-type liner hanger has such advantages as easy hanging and back-off, accurate bumping, simple setting, and sound sealing performance.

  14. Smarten up garments through knitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.; Obermann, M.; Weber, M. O.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart textiles are a growing and fascinating field with enormous potential in the field of wearable electronics: shirts with integrated electrodes, socks stimulating the blood circulation or heating clothing are just a few examples of wearable, smart textile products. Most often, the technology of choice for on-the-body-worn smart textiles is knitting as it results in stretchable and, hence comfortable garments. This presentation explores the knitting technology in respect to smart textiles giving an overview of current research activities as well as commercially available products on the market. It further intends to foster the transfer of research approaches into business applications as well as to develop new challenging research ideas.

  15. Parametric Study on Responses of a Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge to Sudden Breakage of a Hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.

  16. Parametric study on responses of a self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of a hanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenliang; Jiang, Meng; Huang, Cailiang

    2014-01-01

    The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.

  17. Development of advanced test methods for cleanroom garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.Y.H.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Ye, Yan

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a cleanroom garment in the operating environment of a semiconductor fabrication facility is determined by the properties of the garment fabric and the garment design. Ideally, the garment fabric should be highly permeable to water vapor and essentially impermeable to particles. The design of the garment should minimize the discharge of particles generated by the wearer into the cleanroom air. This paper describes a three-part test method for cleanroom garments to determine water vapor transmission through the garment fabric, particle penetration through the garment fabric under specified conditions of pressure drop and velocity, and the reduction in particle generation and discharge into the cleanroom by the garment. The performance of some typical cleanroom garments as measured by this test method is described and compared

  18. Clothing hanger injuries: pediatric head and neck traumas in the United States, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Andrew; Pierce, Matthew; Wang, Hongkun; Harley, Earl H

    2014-02-01

    To discuss pediatric clothing hanger injuries and review the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System to elucidate frequency and promote increased public awareness among pediatric otolaryngologists. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Database. A retrospective review of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System provided a nationally weighted sampling estimate of 394 pediatric incident reports involving clothing hangers. Each incident report was analyzed for impalement, facial laceration, and contusion injuries to the mouth, face, and head. In addition, hospital disposition and location of the described incident were also obtained. Upon review of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, incident rates of pediatric oral impalement (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.41), facial laceration (95% CI, 0.22-0.41), and facial abrasion injuries (95% CI, 0.15-0.44) frequently involved the metal clothing hanger design. In addition, most of the reported injuries occurred within the home and involved lacerations to the oral cavity. This is the first multiyear, nationally representative study to analyze clothing hanger injuries in the pediatric population. We demonstrate that these injuries occur more frequently than the medical literature currently reports and also elucidate that children are more likely to obtain laceration injuries by metal clothing hangers within the home. Furthermore, we provide a recommendation for standardization of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System such that product safety analysis may occur and reduce further pediatric incidents.

  19. Immune functions of the garment workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Ferdous, K J; Hossain, M; Zahid, M S H; Islam, L N

    2012-10-01

    Occupational exposure to cotton dust, fibers, metal fumes and different chemicals used in the aparrel manufacturing industries cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems in the garment workers that may also affect their immune function. To assess the immune system function in garment workers. A total of 45 workers of a garment factory, and 41 control subjects, not exposed to the garment working environment were enrolled in this study. In the study subjects, the complement system function was assessed as bactericidal activity on Escherichia coli DH5α cells using the standard plate count method. Serum complement components C3 and C4 were measured by immunoprecipitation, and IgG was measured by immunonephelometry. The bactericidal activity of serum complement in the garment workers (range: 93.5%-99.9%) was significantly (pgarment workers, the mean levels of complement C3, and C4 were 1.75 and 0.26 g/L, respectively that were close to those of the controls. The mean IgG level in the garment workers was 13.5 g/L that was significantly (pgarment factory may affect the immune system.

  20. An evaluation of iced bridge hanger vibrations through wind tunnel testing and quasi-steady theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, A.

    2012-01-01

    roughness is also examined. The static force coefficients are used to predict parameter regions where aerodynamic instability of the iced bridge hanger might be expected to occur, through use of an adapted theoretical 3- DOF quasi-steady galloping instability model, which accounts for sectional axial......Bridge hanger vibrations have been reported under icy conditions. In this paper, the results from a series of static and dynamic wind tunnel tests on a circular cylinder representing a bridge hanger with simulated thin ice accretions are presented. The experiments focus on ice accretions produced...... for wind perpendicular to the cylinder at velocities below 30 m/s and for temperatures between -5C and -1C. Aerodynamic drag, lift and moment coefficients are obtained from the static tests, whilst mean and fluctuating responses are obtained from the dynamic tests. The influence of varying surface...

  1. A review of technology of personal heating garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Modern technology makes garments smart, which can help a wearer to manage in specific situations by improving the functionality of the garments. The personal heating garment (PHG) widens the operating temperature range of the garment and improves its protection against the cold. This paper describes several kinds of PHGs worldwide; their advantages and disadvantages are also addressed. Some challenges and suggestions are finally addressed with regard to the development of PHGs.

  2. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  3. FEATURES OF DESIGN OF TIED-ARCH BRIDGES WITH FLEXIBLE INCLINED SUSPENSION HANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Samosvat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation and analysis of the hanger arrangement and the structural stability of a Network arch bridge – a tied-arch bridge with inclined hangers that cross each other at least twice. It is also necessary to make a comparative analysis with other types of hanger arrangements. Methodology. The authors in their research investigated a large number of parameters to determine their influence in the force distribution in the arch. Eventually they determined optimal values for all parameters. These optimal values allowed developing a design guide that leads to optimal arch design. When solving this problem, the authors used three-dimensional finite element models and the objective was to determine the most suitable solution for a road bridge, with a span of 100 meters, consisting of two inclined steel arches, located on a road with two traffic lanes, subjected to medium traffic. The virtual prototype of the model is performed by finite element simulator Midas Civil. Findings. In this study, for the bridge deck, a concrete tie appears to be the best solution considering the structural behavior of network arches, but economic advantages caused by easier erection may lead to steel or a composite bridge deck as better alternatives. Design requirements and local conditions of each particular bridge project will decide the most economic deck design.Originality. To ensure passenger comfort and the stability and continuity of the track, deformations of bridges are constricted. A network arch is a stiff structure with small deflections and therefore suitable to comply with such demands even for high speed railway traffic.
A network arch bridge with a concrete tie usually saves more than half the steel required for tied arches with vertical hangers and concrete ties. Practical value. Following the study design advice given in this article leads to savings of about 60 % of structural steel compared with conventional tied arch bridges with

  4. Empowering women through humane workplaces: Garment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will also assess the development impact of improvement in job quality among young female workers, and what interventions can best address the current conditions of working women in the garment industry. The project will be implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the industrial psychology, ...

  5. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry....

  6. Biomedical Use of Aerospace Personal Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Callaway, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems are required during extravehicular activity (EVA) to remove the metabolic heat generated by the suited astronaut. The Extravehicular and Protective Systems (STE) Branch of NASA Ames Research Center has developed advanced concepts or liquid cooling garments for both industrial and biomedical applications for the past 25 years. Examples of this work include: (1) liquid cooled helmets for helicopter pilots and race car drivers; (2) vests for fire and mine rescue personnel; (3) bras to increase the definition of tumors during thermography; (4) lower body garments for young women with erythomelaigia; and (5) whole body garments used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The benefits of the biomedical application of artificial thermoregulation received national attention through two recent events: (1) the liquid-cooled garment technology was inducted into the United States Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame (1993); and (2) NASA has signed a joint Memorandum of Understanding with the Multiple Sclerosis Association (1994) to share this technology for use with MS patient treatment. The STE Branch is currently pursuing a program to refine thermoregulatory design in light of recent technology developments that might be applicable for use by several medical patient populations. Projects have been initiated to apply thermoregulatory technology for the treatment and/or rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, migraine headaches, and to help prevent the loss of hair during chemotherapy.

  7. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest a...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry.......This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...

  10. Post-retail Responsibility of Garments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2014-01-01

    stakeholder group in order to find sustainable solutions for garments’ end of life. The field is still new with limited best practice, however, two main strategies of how fashion companies address post-retail responsibility of their products can be distinguished: second hand retailing and product take......-back schemes. Originality/value – This paper contributes to research by advancing understanding of fashion industry's role in the end-of-life of their products and the associated opportunities and challenges. This study belongs to the first round of research that directly addresses the post-consumer textile......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the reuse and recycling of garments from the fashion industry's perspective. Through multiple case studies the paper maps the emerging organizational field of post-retail responsibility of garments, describing how and why several fashion companies...

  11. Fashion garment manufacturing - FGM and cyclability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F. D.; Dos Santos, M. C. L.

    2017-10-01

    This article, derived from an ongoing research, presents the possibilities of reducing the inappropriate disposal of textile residues generated by the fabric cutting sector of the Fashion Garment Manufacturing (FGM). The raw material used is very varied, resulting in a large number of productive processes. FGM produces clothing that has as its main features a short life cycle, a high rate of diversification and differentiation, and small production batches, resulting in few similar parts. The production process is differentiated according to the characteristics of the fabric and the look of the garment. During the production process, at least 10% of textile waste is generated during the cutting process, which is constantly discarded in an inadequate way. The Cyclability theory is researched aiming at the possibility of reduction in the generation of waste and elimination of inappropriate disposal. The case study presents the action research carried out in three small Brazilian companies to study the applicability of the Cyclability theory.

  12. Sequence trajectory generation for garment handling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Honghai; Lin, Hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel generic approach to the planning strategy of garment handling systems. An assumption is proposed to separate the components of such systems into a component for intelligent gripper techniques and a component for handling planning strategies. Researchers can concentrate on one of the two components first, then merge the two problems together. An algorithm is addressed to generate the trajectory position and a clothes handling sequence of clothes partitions, which ar...

  13. Interactive Garments: Flexible Technologies for Textile Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Anupam Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Upon reviewing the literature and the pragmatic work done in the field of E- textiles, it is observed that the applications of wearable technologies have found a steady growth in the field of military, medical, industrial, sports; whereas fashion is at a loss to know how to treat this technology and bring it to market. The purpose of this paper is to understand the practical issues of integration of electronics in garments; cutting patterns for mass production, maintaining the basic propertie...

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  15. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  16. Vietnam's Garment Industry – Origins and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Phuong, Dung

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the origin and future of Vietnam's garment industry. Recent research has shown that garments business have been shifting from china to Vietnam because in Vietnam, comparatively labor costs are more cheaper than china. The rearrangement of production amenities to Vietnam - with strong government support to the garments industry, increasing exports if textile product, strong trade relations and selected goals have helped to expand of textile and apparel industry in Vietn...

  17. Intracorporeal Traction of the Rectum with a Beaded Plastic Urinary Drainage Bag Hanger: Comparison with Conventional Laparoscopic Rectal Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Woo; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Kim, Young Jin

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery with proper total mesorectal excision is a challenge for colorectal surgeons during trouble shooting. We used a beaded plastic urinary drainage bag hanger to encircle the rectum and clamp laparoscopic rectal transaction in this study. Sixty-three patients with rectal cancer underwent laparoscopic radical rectal resection with curative intent between February 2015 and December 2015. Plastic beaded form urinary Foley catheter bag hanger was inserted intracorporeally via right lower 12-mm trocar, encircling the rectal tube distal to the rectal lesion followed by fastening. Thirty patients in the rectal resection group (28 laparoscopic, 2 robotic-assisted) using the commercial beaded plastic hanger for Foley catheter drainage were compared to 33 patients who underwent conventional laparoscopic rectal resection. Low anterior resection was performed for both groups. The Foley bag hanger group had less operation time (162.6 min vs. 187.3 min, p = 0.006) and fewer numbers of stapler cartilage (1.6 vs. 2.1, p = 0.001). Intracorporeal ligation of the rectum with a beaded plastic Foley catheter bag hanger could be used as a valuable method for rectal handling and transaction in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

  18. Compression garments and exercise: no influence of pressure applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliard, Samuel; Chauveau, Michel; Moscatiello, Timothée; Cros, François; Ecarnot, Fiona; Becker, François

    2015-03-01

    Compression garments on the lower limbs are increasingly popular among athletes who wish to improve performance, reduce exercise-induced discomfort, and reduce the risk of injury. However, the beneficial effects of compression garments have not been clearly established. We performed a review of the literature for prospective, randomized, controlled studies, using quantified lower limb compression in order to (1) describe the beneficial effects that have been identified with compression garments, and in which conditions; and (2) investigate whether there is a relation between the pressure applied and the reported effects. The pressure delivered were measured either in laboratory conditions on garments identical to those used in the studies, or derived from publication data. Twenty three original articles were selected for inclusion in this review. The effects of wearing compression garments during exercise are controversial, as most studies failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect on immediate or performance recovery, or on delayed onset of muscle soreness. There was a trend towards a beneficial effect of compression garments worn during recovery, with performance recovery found to be improved in the five studies in which this was investigated, and delayed-onset muscle soreness was reportedly reduced in three of these five studies. There is no apparent relation between the effects of compression garments worn during or after exercise and the pressures applied, since beneficial effects were obtained with both low and high pressures. Wearing compression garments during recovery from exercise seems to be beneficial for performance recovery and delayed-onset muscle soreness, but the factors explaining this efficacy remain to be elucidated. Key pointsWe observed no relationship between the effects of compression and the pressures applied.The pressure applied at the level of the lower limb by compression garments destined for use by athletes varies widely between

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. A heat dissipating model for water cooling garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water cooling garment is a functional clothing used to dissipate human body’s redundant energy in extravehicular environment or other hot environment. Its heat dissipating property greatly affects body’s heat balance. In this paper, a heat dissipating model for the water cooling garment is established and verified experimentally using the experimental thermal-manikin.

  4. Balancing competitiveness and equity in the garment industry ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... A new study comparing the garment-export industries in Honduras and Nicaragua challenges the conventional wisdom that competing on the basis of cheap labour is the only option for poor garment-producing countries. ... Read the report summary in English or Spanish. For the full report, produced in ...

  5. A heat dissipating model for water cooling garments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Kai; Jiao Ming-Li; Liu Zhe; Zhang Wei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A water cooling garment is a functional clothing used to dissipate human body’s redundant energy in extravehicular environment or other hot environment. Its heat dissipating property greatly affects body’s heat balance. In this paper, a heat dissipating model for the water cooling garment is established and verified experimentally using the experimental thermal-manikin.

  6. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry....

  7. Heart monitoring garments using textile electrodes for healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Seung; Koo, Su-Min; Lee, Joohyeon; Cho, Hakyung; Kang, Da-Hye; Song, Ha-Young; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Lee, Young-Jae

    2011-04-01

    We measured the electrical activity signals of the heart through vital signs monitoring garments that have textile electrodes in conductive yarns while the subject is in stable and dynamic motion conditions. To measure the electrical activity signals of the heart during daily activities, four types of monitoring garment were proposed. Two experiments were carried out as follows: the first experiment sought to discover which garment led to the least displacement of the textile electrode from its originally intended location on the wearer's body. In the second, we measured and compared the electrical activity signals of the heart between the wearer's stable and dynamic motion states. The results indicated that the most appropriate type of garment sensing-wise was the "cross-type", and it seems to stabilize the electrode's position more effectively. The value of SNR of ECG signals for the "cross-type" garment is the highest. Compared to the "chest-belt-type" garment, which has already been marketed commercially, the "cross-type" garment was more efficient and suitable for heart activity monitoring.

  8. An Automated System for Garment Texture Design Class Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emon Kumar Dey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic identification of garment design class might play an important role in the garments and fashion industry. To achieve this, essential initial works are found in the literature. For example, construction of a garment database, automatic segmentation of garments from real life images, categorizing them into the type of garments such as shirts, jackets, tops, skirts, etc. It is now essential to find a system such that it will be possible to identify the particular design (printed, striped or single color of garment product for an automated system to recommend the garment trends. In this paper, we have focused on this specific issue and thus propose two new descriptors namely Completed CENTRIST (cCENTRIST and Ternary CENTRIST (tCENTRIST. To test these descriptors, we used two different publically available databases. The experimental results of these databases demonstrate that both cCENTRIST and tCENTRIST achieve nearly about 3% more accuracy than the existing state-of-the art methods.

  9. Research and design of hanger and support series of nuclear safety class process piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Chengzhang; Shi Jiemin

    1995-12-01

    Hangers and supports of nuclear safety class piping are an important part of primary system piping in a nuclear power plant. They will directly affect the reliability of operation, the period at construction and the investment for a nuclear power plant. It is an absolutely necessary job for Pakistan Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Project to research and design a series of piping supports in accordance with ASME-III NF. It is also an important designing for developing nuclear power plant later in China. After working over two years, a series of piping supports of nuclear safety class which have 57 types and more than 2460 specifications have been designed. This series is perfect, and can satisfy the requirements of piping final designing for nuclear power plant. This series of hangers and supports is mainly used in the process piping of nuclear safety class 1,2,3. They can also be used in other piping of nuclear safety class and piping with aseismic requirement of non-nuclear safety class

  10. Cyclic microwave treatment of pressed garments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan E. [PRESSET, Inc. (United States)

    2001-01-31

    In the early 1990's there was a resurgence in what was called "wrinkle free" garments. It had been popular in the 1960's. As cotton products gained a larger share of the fiber market in apparel, "wrinkle free" became a very strong marketing effort. Because we were very knowledgeable in this market we investigated the problem that had plagued it in the 60's, namely product quality. To make "wrinkle free" garments one had to either buy a fabric that was treated with chemicals, called resins, that when "cured" would impart the "wrinkle free" qualities to the garment permanently.

  11. The Influence of Textile Materials Mechanical Properties upon Virtual Garment Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina ANCUTIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D virtual representation of garment provides high potential for design, product development and marketing processes, especially in mass customization strategies implementation. Clothing industry rapidly turns to virtual simulation which not only presents realistic 3D view of garment but also simulates mechanical behaviour of materials. 3D CAD systems can be used to define strain distribution in virtual garment which describes garment fit without actually producing the garment. Strain and distance ease between body and garment depends not only upon body measurements and garment construction, but also on mechanical and structural properties of selected material. The aim of this research was to investigate virtual garment fit using "Modaris 3D Fit" (Lectra software subjected to fabrics mechanical (tensile, bending, shear and structural (composition, thickness, area density properties investigating strain distribution in garment and distance ease between garment and human body. It was defined that for diagonal cut garments the highest influence upon garment fit has fabric tensile properties in weft direction. The highest influence is obtained at high distance ease and small strain values zones and at negative distance ease and high strain values zones. Therefore, presented method could be used for tight-fitted garments also for garments with draperies on purpose to investigate garment fit upon fabrics used.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.486

  12. Gendered histories: garment production and migration in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    F Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The author's impetus to write this paper stems from reflections on the history of clothing production in a mosaic of localities in western-central Mexico. In the 1990s, in addition to generating the largest flows of, mostly male, transnational migrants, these areas have become the most important garment producers in Mexico. Exploring the interconnectedness of industrial change, gendered patterns of migration, and gendered relations of production, the author provides a short history of garment...

  13. 76 FR 73596 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...: Raw Flexible Magnets from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Medical Action Industries Inc... Republic of China Requestor: Acme Furniture Industry Inc.; whether its partially upholstered daybed with...; preliminary ruling March 31, 2011. A-570-918: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China...

  14. The gendered workplaces of women garment workers in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Başak

    2017-10-01

    Drawing on 20 semi-structured interviews with women garment workers in a low-income neighbourhood of Istanbul, and observations in the ateliers where they worked, this article examines their work experiences in the gendered and sexualised work atmosphere of garment workshops. There are three interrelated levels upon which the gender-related issues emerge in women garment workers' stories. The first set of discourses portrays young female garment workers in highly sexualised terms, and the second concerns the use of kinship vocabulary and avoidance of impersonal work relationships. That is, women workers' experiences in capitalist production sites were trivialised and regulated through the sexualisation of their bodies and the deployment of kinship idioms while addressing their role at the workplace. The third level analyses women's submissive, subversive or contradictory responses to these gendered disciplinary techniques and representations, i.e. the construction of their subjectivities. These three levels point to two things: first, cultural presumptions about marriage, women's sexuality and reproductive cycles are materialised at the workplace. Second, gendered instantiations of these presumptions in a specific work environment are both informed by their familial roles (such as daughter, wife, mother, widowed) and inform their future reproductive preferences (whether they marry, have a child, get a divorce, etc.). This article shows how the ways in which women's difference is construed and acted upon in the garment industry are inseparable from women's reproductive decisions.

  15. A CNN Based Approach for Garments Texture Design Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sofiqul Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying garments texture design automatically for recommending the fashion trends is important nowadays because of the rapid growth of online shopping. By learning the properties of images efficiently, a machine can give better accuracy of classification. Several Hand-Engineered feature coding exists for identifying garments design classes. Recently, Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs have shown better performances for different object recognition. Deep CNN uses multiple levels of representation and abstraction that helps a machine to understand the types of data more accurately. In this paper, a CNN model for identifying garments design classes has been proposed. Experimental results on two different datasets show better results than existing two well-known CNN models (AlexNet and VGGNet and some state-of-the-art Hand-Engineered feature extraction methods.

  16. Upgrading and Strategic Options of Garment Producers in the Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John; Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Focus of this study of the garment industry in Malaysia, Vietnam and Ghana is on the industry's position in the global value chain and the strategic options available for the local garment producers. The study indicates a number of optional strategies for the entreprenurial garment producers....

  17. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  18. Lean production teams and health in garment manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P R; Mullarkey, S

    2000-04-01

    The impact of lean production on psychological health was assessed by comparing lean production teams in garment manufacture with a traditional system for making similar garments. Work design characteristics were examined as mediators of the impact of work organization on health. Findings indicate both positive and negative direct effects of teamworking on aspects of autonomy, work demands, and social climate. In turn, both positive and negative direct effects of work design on psychological health were found, which combine to give no overall difference between the groups. This study suggests that the balance between positive and negative effects of lean production teamworking depends on management choices in the form of work design.

  19. Contextual Innovation, Growth And Income In Garment Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the link between contextual innovation, business growth and income for garment micro-businesses based on survey data collected from Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Iringa and Mbeya Regions. The survey (on which the paper is based ) intended to find out the role of information in the promotion of micro- ...

  20. Release of BSR's "Child Labour in Myanmar's Garment Sector" Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... The research found that young workers are participating in the garment sector, but that they typically make up a small percentage of a factor's workforce and the presence of underage ... Related Employment and Growth initiatives include: Better Jobs in Asia and Reforming Labour Markets in Myanmar.

  1. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  2. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  3. Method of and apparatus for decontaminating radioactive garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, J.A.; Morrison, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Garments are deposited in a cleaning drum which is agitated during a wash cycle. A dry cleaning solvent is continuously added to the drum during the wash cycle and continuously removed from the drum during the wash cycle to flush the radioactive particulate material separated from the garments into a sump. The solvent is pumped from the sump for addition to the drum during the wash cycle and the pumped solvent is filtered to remove substantially all of the radioactive particulate material suspended in the solvent. Radiation sensors permit monitoring of the recycled solvent to ensure satisfactory operation of filters. The solvent is cleaned by a distilling apparatus, a condenser and a moisture separating apparatus. A fan dryer is provided. (author)

  4. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international......International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... hemisphere, and to a high degree in Europe, while processing and production of fur garments now more and more takes place in Asia. The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialization within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia...

  5. Garment Selection for Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    efficiency particulate air) or better filtered air is circulated through the cleanroom to provide a clean environment and remove contaminants...Ref. 4), dates back to 1968, with minor revisions being made in 194. Particles and fibers are collected on a 47-mm-diameter gridded membrane filter ...particles from both woven and nonwoven garments down to 0.3 ;Lm in size. A new fully au- tomated drum tester, th.. RTC-2000 rotating test chamber

  6. Feasibility Study on Tension Estimation Technique for Hanger Cables Using the FE Model-Based System Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sik Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanger cables in suspension bridges are partly constrained by horizontal clamps. So, existing tension estimation methods based on a single cable model are prone to higher errors as the cable gets shorter, making it more sensitive to flexural rigidity. Therefore, inverse analysis and system identification methods based on finite element models are suggested recently. In this paper, the applicability of system identification methods is investigated using the hanger cables of Gwang-An bridge. The test results show that the inverse analysis and systemic identification methods based on finite element models are more reliable than the existing string theory and linear regression method for calculating the tension in terms of natural frequency errors. However, the estimation error of tension can be varied according to the accuracy of finite element model in model based methods. In particular, the boundary conditions affect the results more profoundly when the cable gets shorter. Therefore, it is important to identify the boundary conditions through experiment if it is possible. The FE model-based tension estimation method using system identification method can take various boundary conditions into account. Also, since it is not sensitive to the number of natural frequency inputs, the availability of this system is high.

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sarah R; Vijitha de Silva, P; Lipscomb, Hester J; Ostbye, Truls

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their association with sociodemographic risk factors among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka. 1058 randomly selected female garment factory workers employed in the free trade zone of Kogalla, Sri Lanka were recruited to complete two interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and health behaviors. Musculoskeletal complaints among female garment workers in the FTZ of Kogalla are less common than expected. Sociocultural factors may have resulted in underreporting and similarly contribute to the low rates of healthcare utilization by these women. 164 (15.5%) of workers reported musculoskeletal symptoms occurring more than 3 times or lasting a week or more during the previous 12-month period. Back (57.3%) and knee (31.7%) were the most common sites of pain. Although most symptomatic women reported that their problems interfered with work and leisure activities, very few missed work as a result of their pain. Prevalence correlated positively with increased age and industry tenure of less than 12 months. Job type, body mass index, and education were not significant predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  8. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A G K; Benjamin, A I

    2013-05-01

    Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study.

  9. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  10. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  11. Garment needs of pregnant women based on content analysis of in-depth interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simone S M; Yu, Winnie W M; Lao, Terence T; Chow, Daniel H K; Chung, Joanne W Y; Li, Yi

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify the needs, concerns and problems of pregnant women when using maternity support garments. Maternity support belt is regarded as helpful in reducing low back pain during pregnancy. However, several garment-related problems exist which might lead to poor adherence behaviour undermining the benefit of garment therapy. A qualitative exploratory study. METHODS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 pregnant Chinese women who experienced low back pain during pregnancy. All the interviews followed an interview guide and different maternity support garments were shown to the participants as a method of tangible objects to stimulate responses. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results showed that 60% of pregnant women discontinued using maternity support garments due to excessive heat, perceived ineffectiveness, itchiness, excessive pressure around the abdomen and inconvenience of adjustment. The content analysis generated five main themes of needs including effective function, safety, skin comfort, ease to put on and take off and aesthetics of maternity support garments. The findings of the five main themes of needs were largely consistent with previous studies examining medical garments for overall satisfaction and compliance. The results revealed that women's physiological and psychological changes during pregnancy influenced their clothing preferences on both functional and aesthetical values. Maternity support garments are convenient and easily-accessible therapy to manage LBP during pregnancy and are frequently recommended and worn by pregnant women. However, inappropriate choice of garment therapy not only led to ineffectiveness but also undesirable effects. The key findings of the five main themes of garment needs in pregnant women will facilitate healthcare professionals in providing evidence-based advice to assist patients in the selection of an appropriate and optimal maternity support garment. These

  12. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  13. Impact of Macro Environmental Factors on Garments Industry That Drives Export in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that Garments industry of Bangladesh has drawn a special attention to the mass people in the world because of being both cost leader and quality leader at the same time. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the garments industry in Bangladesh which is going to be an emerging tiger in the world economy. It also aims to assess the impact of macro-environmental factors affecting the industry by PESTEL analysis. Again, five forces model has been analyzed to assess the impacts of competitive external factors on the Garments industry in Bangladesh. Furthermore, Garments sector competitive responses to the primary issues affecting the industry have been evaluated here. It also outlines the primary external influences to which this industry is subject. In this case, SWOT analysis has been conducted to assess the competitive position of this industry in comparison with the global perspective. The study suggests that total export is highly correlated with the exports of garments. It also finds that there is severe lacking in the safety and security compliance, wages and compensations and code of conduct of the current organizations. Moreover, GSP facility withdrawn can impact severely on the ready made garments of Bangladesh to compete with price in the international market with China, India and Vietnam etc. The ready made garments sector of Bangladesh is enjoying cost leadership as a source of completive advantage because of cheap labor. Finally, the study would like to recommend for further improvement of garment sector in Bangladesh.

  14. 16 CFR 1615.63 - Policy regarding garment production unit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding garment production unit identification. 1615.63 Section 1615.63 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...) Interpretations and Policies § 1615.63 Policy regarding garment production unit identification. No provision of...

  15. 16 CFR 1616.63 - Policy regarding garment production unit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding garment production unit identification. 1616.63 Section 1616.63 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.63 Policy regarding garment production unit identification. No provision of 16...

  16. The use of textiles in the construction of tailored garments for women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of textiles in the construction of tailored garments for women: a case study of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka community. ... However, it is interesting to note that the respondents expressed the desire to acquire tailored garments made from Nigerian textiles if the problems identified are addressed. Keywords: ...

  17. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  18. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Soft Smart Garments for Lower Limb Joint Position Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Totaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing human movement requires lightweight, flexible systems capable of detecting mechanical parameters (like strain and pressure while being worn comfortably by the user, and not interfering with his/her activity. In this work we address such multifaceted challenge with the development of smart garments for lower limb motion detection, like a textile kneepad and anklet in which soft sensors and readout electronics are embedded for retrieving movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed around knee and ankle. Results show an excellent behavior in the ~30% strain range, hence the correlation between sensors’ responses and the optically tracked Euler angles is allowed for basic lower limb movements. Bending during knee flexion/extension is detected, and it is discriminated from any external contact by implementing in real time a low computational algorithm. The smart anklet is designed to address joint motion detection in and off the sagittal plane. Ankle dorsi/plantar flexion, adduction/abduction, and rotation are retrieved. Both knee and ankle smart garments show a high accuracy in movement detection, with a RMSE less than 4° in the worst case.

  20. ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR AND GIMP - AN APPROACH TO GARMENT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDRIE Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing clothes has become easier with the use of clothing design software. One of the most popular and basic software made for garments design is Adobe Illustrator. It enables designers and small to medium businesses to create clothing designs with easy access to all assets, including images, colors, brushes, and type styles. While Illustrator has all the necessary elements and features that are ideal for creating designer clothing, GIMP provides basic set of tools for image editing. When used in combination with one another, these two programs provide just about all the tools an apparel designer needs to draw fashion design sketches, technical flat sketches, CAD presentations, graphic artworks, design embroideries etc. In this paper we show how to use the instruments of those two software in order to draw a woman jacket’s garments components and to fill with texture the jacket created. By utilizing Illustrator’s Symbol we created libraries of jacket components (puller zipper, label, then the brushes to design the zipper detail. Finally, by a drag and drop we added the zipper, the zipper puller and the label. GIMP gave us access to precise fabric textures which make our output so realistic that you can almost touch the fabric.

  1. Compression garment promotes muscular strength recovery after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazushige; Morishima, Takuma

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) for 24 h on changes in muscular strength and blood parameters over time after resistance exercise. Nine trained men conducted resistance exercises (10 repetitions of 3-5 sets at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for nine exercises) in two trials, wearing either a CG or a normal garment (CON) for 24 h after exercise. Recovery of muscular strength, blood parameters, muscle soreness, and upper arm and thigh circumference were compared between the trials. Both trials showed decreases in maximal strength after the exercise (P exercise (P strength was also improved in the CG trial 24 h after exercise (P exercise were similar in both trials. Wearing a CG after resistance exercise facilitates the recovery of muscular strength. Recovery for upper body muscles significantly improved within 3-8 h after exercise. However, facilitation of recovery of lower limb muscles by wearing the CG took a longer time.

  2. Optimalisasi Produksi Di Industri Garment Dengan Menggunakan Metode Simpleks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Rachman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Aplikasi optimalisasi Produksi dan Keuntungan pada perusahaan Garment ini dibangun untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Aplikasi ini memiliki kemampuan dalam mengolah data bahan baku benang, data waktu kerja, data kebutuhan produksi dan data beban untuk dilakukan perhitungan pengoptimalan. Adapun dasar perhitungan yang dilakukan meliputi perhitungan optimasi menggunakan metode Simpleks dan Visual Basic 6. Hasil keluaran dari aplikasi ini adalah banyak yang diproduksi berdasarkan sumber daya benang yang ada, biaya total beban pengeluaran yang dikeluarkan saat proses produksi serta keuntungan kotor dan bersih dari penjualan. Aplikasi ini dapat meningkatkan keuntungan perusahaan dan tingkat prosentase keuntungan bergantung pada besar harga perbandingan penjualan antara produk yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Metode simpleks, Linier Programming, Abstract Application optimization of Production and Profits in Garment company is built to overcome these problems. This application has the ability to process data yarn materials, work time data, the data needs of production and expense data for calculation optimization. The basis of calculation was conducted on the optimization calculations using the Simplex method and Visual Basic 6. The output of this application is many are produced based on the resources existing threads, the total cost of expenditure incurred during the production process as well as gross and net profits from sales. This application can increase corporate profits and the percentage of large profits depend on the price comparison between the sale of one product to another. Keywords: optimization, simplex method, Linear Programming.

  3. Confounding compression: the effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Williams, Ned; Driller, Matthew William; Shing, Cecilia Mary; Fell, James William; Halson, Shona Leigh; Halson, Shona Louise

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the interface pressure exerted by lower body sports compression garments, in order to assess the effect of garment type, size and posture in athletes. Twelve national-level boxers were fitted with sports compression garments (tights and leggings), each in three different sizes (undersized, recommended size and oversized). Interface pressure was assessed across six landmarks on the lower limb (ranging from medial malleolus to upper thigh) as athletes assumed sitting, standing and supine postures. Sports compression leggings exerted a significantly higher mean pressure than sports compression tights (P sports compression garments is significantly affected by garment type, size and posture assumed by the wearer.

  4. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  5. Effects Of Combinations Of Patternmaking Methods And Dress Forms On Garment Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujii Chinami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of the combinations of patternmaking methods and dress forms on the appearance of a garment. Six upper garments were made using three patternmaking methods used in France, Italy, and Japan, and two dress forms made in Japan and France. The patterns and the appearances of the garments were compared using geometrical measurements. Sensory evaluations of the differences in garment appearance and fit on each dress form were also carried out. In the patterns, the positions of bust and waist darts were different. The waist dart length, bust dart length, and positions of the bust top were different depending on the patternmaking method, even when the same dress form was used. This was a result of differences in the measurements used and the calculation methods employed for other dimensions. This was because the ideal body shape was different for each patternmaking method. Even for garments produced for the same dress form, the appearances of the shoulder, bust, and waist from the front, side, and back views were different depending on the patternmaking method. As a result of the sensory evaluation, it was also found that the bust and waist shapes of the garments were different depending on the combination of patternmaking method and dress form. Therefore, to obtain a garment with better appearance, it is necessary to understand the effects of the combinations of patternmaking methods and body shapes.

  6. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  7. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  8. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Morphing Compression Garments for Space Medicine and Extravehicular Activity Using Active Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Bradley T; Newman, Dava J

    2016-02-01

    Compression garments tend to be difficult to don/doff, due to their intentional function of squeezing the wearer. This is especially true for compression garments used for space medicine and for extravehicular activity (EVA). We present an innovative solution to this problem by integrating shape changing materials-NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) coil actuators formed into modular, 3D-printed cartridges-into compression garments to produce garments capable of constricting on command. A parameterized, 2-spring analytic counterpressure model based on 12 garment and material inputs was developed to inform garment design. A methodology was developed for producing novel SMA cartridge systems to enable active compression garment construction. Five active compression sleeve prototypes were manufactured and tested: each sleeve was placed on a rigid cylindrical object and counterpressure was measured as a function of spatial location and time before, during, and after the application of a step voltage input. Controllable active counterpressures were measured up to 34.3 kPa, exceeding the requirement for EVA life support (29.6 kPa). Prototypes which incorporated fabrics with linear properties closely matched analytic model predictions (4.1%/-10.5% error in passive/active pressure predictions); prototypes using nonlinear fabrics did not match model predictions (errors >100%). Pressure non-uniformities were observed due to friction and the rigid SMA cartridge structure. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of controllable compression technology incorporating active materials, a novel contribution to the field of compression garment design. This technology could lead to easy-to-don compression garments with widespread space and terrestrial applications.

  10. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  11. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  12. An empirical study on absenteeism in Garment industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available bsenteeism is a major challenge for any organization in the current competitive world. Curbing absenteeism helps organizations achieve their targets and increases productivity. This study highlights the major causes of absenteeism in the production division of a garment industry under various dimensions, which influence on absenteeism like work environment, organizational culture, relation and co-operation, compensation and rewards, facilities, job satisfactory and security, and general factors. The Study helps to identify reasons for employee absenteeism in production division. Sample of 180 employees responses were considered for the study from the universe and the data were analysed, statistically. The study shows that the major factors like wages, other source of income, and bad relationship with supervisors were contributing to the major absence of employees from work. This clearly indicates that work environment, relation and co-operation, facilities provided by the organization and job satisfaction were the main components which are causing the employee absenteeism.

  13. Integration methods for thermosensitive gel systems in garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, A.; Rödel, H.; Stoll, A.; Liske, A.; Zehm, D.

    2017-10-01

    Humans live and work under severe thermophysiological conditions, which are characterized by extreme temperatures and humidities. Furthermore, additional burdens can arise from physical activities of the human body or the work conditions (resulting in psychological stress) [1]. The thermoregulation of the human body compensates such situations and maintains the core body temperature at 37°C (98,6 °F). The currently used systems for supporting human thermoregulation, such as PCM-equipped surface structures or mobile water-based cooling units have the disadvantage that the running cooling process is neither switchable nor reversible. Another promising possibility for a personal cooling is the use of temperature-dependent superabsorbers (so-called LCST and UCST) in garments, which absorb the human sweat and transmit it to the environment by evaporation. Cooling during evaporation results in heat transfer from the human body.

  14. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  15. Space Suit Glove Pressure Garment Metacarpal Joint and Robotic Hand Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacesuit glove pressure garments have been a design challenge for NASA since the inception of spacesuits. The human hand demands a complex range of motions, a close...

  16. Visual-Simulation-Based Personalized Garment Block Design Method for Physically Disabled People with Scoliosis (PDPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presented a novel method using 3D simulation methods to design customized garments for physically disabled people with scoliosis (PDPS. The proposed method is based on the virtual human model created from 3D scanning, permitting to simulate the consumer’s morphological shape with atypical physical deformations. Next, customized 2D and 3D virtual garment prototyping tools will be used to create products through interactions. The proposed 3D garment design method is based on the concept of knowledge-based design, using the design knowledge and process already applied to normal body shapes successfully. The characters of the PDPS and the relationship between human body and garment are considered in the prototyping process. As a visualized collaborative design process, the communication between designer and consumer is ensured, permitting to adapt the finished product to disabled people afflicted with severe scoliosis.

  17. Impact of a Protective Vest and Spacer Garment on Exercise-Heat Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...). Volunteers wore the US Army battle dress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles...

  18. Development of Gradient Compression Garments for Protection Against Post Flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronaut health. No in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective to date. NASA currently uses an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during reentry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. The Russian Space Agency currently uses a mechanical counter-pressure garment (Kentavr) that is difficult to adjust alone, and prolonged use may result in painful swelling at points where the garment is not continuous (feet, knees, and groin). To improve comfort, reduce upmass and stowage requirements, and control fabrication and maintenance costs, we have been evaluating a variety of gradient compression, mechanical counter-pressure garments, constructed from spandex and nylon, as a possible replacement for the current AGS. We have examined comfort and cardiovascular responses to knee-high garments in normovolemic subjects; thigh-high garments in hypovolemic subjects and in astronauts after space flight; and 1-piece, breast-high garments in hypovolemic subjects. These gradient compression garments provide 55 mmHg of compression over the ankle, decreasing linearly to 35 mmHg at the knee. In thigh-high versions the compression continues to decrease to 20 mmHg at the top of the leg, and for breast-high versions, to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Measures of efficacy include increased tilt survival time, elevated blood pressure and stroke volume, and lower heart-rate response to orthostatic stress. Results from these studies indicate that the greater the magnitude of compression and the greater the area of coverage, the more effective the compression garment becomes. Therefore, we are currently testing a 3-piece breast-high compression garment on astronauts after short-duration flight. We chose a 3-piece garment consisting of thigh-high stockings and shorts, because it is easy to don and comfortable to wear, and should provide the same level of protection as the 1-piece

  19. The Design of a Therapy Garment for Preschool Children with Sensory Integration Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Haar, Sherry J.

    1998-01-01

    THE DESIGN OF A THERAPY GARMENT FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH SENSORY INTEGRATION DYSFUNCTION Sherry J. Haar (ABSTRACT) A design process developed by Joann Boles was used to develop a therapy garment for three four-year-old boys with sensory integrative dysfunction who participated in occupational therapy using sensory integrative methods. The design process framework has four stages: (a) problem development, (b) needs assessment, (c) prototype development, and (d) evalu...

  20. Contribution of garment fit and style to thermal comfort at the lower body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Böhnisch, Sonja; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2016-12-01

    The heat and mass transfer between the human body and the environment is not only affected by the properties of the fabric, but also by the size of the air gap thickness and the magnitude of the contact area between the body and garment. In this clothing-human-environment system, there is also an interaction between the clothing and the physiological response of the wearer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the air gap thickness and the contact area for the male lower body in relation to the garment fit and style using a three-dimensional (3D) body scanning method with a manikin. Moreover, their relation with the physiological response of the lower body was analysed using the physiological modelling. The presented study showed that the change in the air gap thickness and the contact area due to garment fit was greater for legs than the pelvis area due to regional differences of the body. Furthermore, the garment style did not have any effect on the core temperature or total water loss of the lower body, whereas the effect of garment fit on the core temperature and total water loss of lower body was observed only for 40 °C of ambient temperature. The skin temperatures were higher for especially loose garments at thigh than the tight garments. Consequently, the results of this study indicated that the comfort level of the human body for a given purpose can be adjusted by selection of fabric type and the design of ease allowances in the garment depending on the body region.

  1. Article comprising a garment or other textile structure for use in controlling body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    There is disclosed an article for use in cooling body temperature which comprises a garment having a coat and pant, with each having a body section adapted to receive a portion of the torso of the wearer and extensions from the body section to receive the wearer's limbs. The garment includes a system for circulating temperature controlling fluid from a suitable source through patches removably received in pockets in each of body section and extensions.

  2. Reproducibility of repeated measurements with the Kikuhime pressure sensor under pressure garments in burn scar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerckhove, Eric; Fieuws, Steffen; Massagé, Patrick; Hierner, Robert; Boeckx, Willy; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Laperre, Jan; Anthonissen, Mieke

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the reproducibility of repeated measurements with the Kikuhime pressure sensor under two different types of pressure garments used in the treatment and prevention of scars after burns. Also efficiency of garments was assessed in clinical circumstances by assessing pressure loss and residual pressure after 1 month. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and repeated measurements with 1-month time lapse were examined on 55 sites in 26 subjects by means of intra-class correlation coefficients and standard error of measurements. Results showed good to excellent ICC and low SEMs in the two conditions. There was a significant difference in pressure after 1 month between elastic tricot and weft knit garments, although evolution of pressure loss after 1 month was similar. Concerning different locations, there was a significant difference in pressure loss after 1 month between gloves and sleeves with the largest pressure loss for sleeves. Considering these results we concluded that the Kikuhime pressure sensor provides valid and reliable information and can be used in comparative clinical trials to evaluate pressure garments used in burn scar treatment. Secondly, elastic tricot garments in our study tended to have higher clinical pressures but both types of garments had similar pressure loss over time.

  3. A right to live: girl workers in the Bangladeshi garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahra, G N; Rahman, F

    1995-06-01

    According to a survey conducted in 1989, there are 772 approved and registered garment factories in Bangladesh. These factories employ approximately 300,000 individuals, 90% of whom are women. A more recent estimate in a Bangladeshi newspaper, however, posits that up to five million people are directly or indirectly dependent upon the garment industry. Many of the women who work in Bangladesh's garment factories are under age 15 years. In some countries, such as the US, the employment of such young individuals constitutes a violation of child labor laws. Therefore, under the Harkin Bill, the US will no longer import garments produced by children younger than age 15 years. Many garment workers under age 15 years have already been put out of work or will soon be terminated. The authors explain that while the intent of the Harkin Bill may be to protect children, it is difficult to adopt the moral high ground in a poor country like Bangladesh. Regardless of one's age in Bangladesh, having a job may be the only way to survive. No job often means no food or shelter. The authors discuss women in the garment industry, one girl's case, alternative employment opportunities, and the future.

  4. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  5. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility study of automatic control of crew comfort in the shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit. [liquid cooled garment regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulation is used to demonstrate that crewman comfort can be assured by using automatic control of the inlet temperature of the coolant into the liquid cooled garment when input to the controller consists of measurements of the garment inlet temperature and the garment outlet temperature difference. Subsequent tests using a facsimile of the control logic developed in the computer program confirmed the feasibility of such a design scheme.

  7. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  8. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  9. Application of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to protective garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, Alexander S.; Jones, A. Kyle; Wagner, Louis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previously, the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP) was proposed as a metric for quantifying the protective value of radioprotective garments. The DRIP is a weighted sum of the percent transmissions of different radiation beams through a garment. Ideally, the beams would represent the anticipated stray radiation encountered during clinical use. However, it is impractical to expect a medical physicist to possess the equipment necessary to accurately measure transmission of scattered radiation. Therefore, as a proof of concept, the authors tested a method that applied the DRIP to clinical practice. Methods: Primary beam qualities used in interventional cardiology and radiology were observed and catalogued. Based on the observed range of beam qualities, five representative clinical primary beam qualities, specified by kV and added filtration, were selected for this evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using these primary beams as source definitions to generate scattered spectra from the clinical primary beams. Using numerical optimization, ideal scatter mimicking primary beams, specified by kV and added aluminum filtration, were matched to the scattered spectra according to half- and quarter-value layers and spectral shape. To within reasonable approximation, these theoretical scatter-mimicking primary beams were reproduced experimentally in laboratory x ray beams and used to measure transmission through pure lead and protective garments. For this proof of concept, the DRIP for pure lead and the garments was calculated by assigning equal weighting to percent transmission measurements for each of the five beams. Finally, the areal density of lead and garments was measured for consideration alongside the DRIP to assess the protective value of each material for a given weight. Results: The authors identified ideal scatter mimicking primary beams that matched scattered spectra to within 0.01 mm for half- and quarter-value layers in

  10. Application of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to protective garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciak, Alexander S; Jones, A Kyle; Wagner, Louis K

    2015-02-01

    Previously, the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP) was proposed as a metric for quantifying the protective value of radioprotective garments. The DRIP is a weighted sum of the percent transmissions of different radiation beams through a garment. Ideally, the beams would represent the anticipated stray radiation encountered during clinical use. However, it is impractical to expect a medical physicist to possess the equipment necessary to accurately measure transmission of scattered radiation. Therefore, as a proof of concept, the authors tested a method that applied the DRIP to clinical practice. Primary beam qualities used in interventional cardiology and radiology were observed and catalogued. Based on the observed range of beam qualities, five representative clinical primary beam qualities, specified by kV and added filtration, were selected for this evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using these primary beams as source definitions to generate scattered spectra from the clinical primary beams. Using numerical optimization, ideal scatter mimicking primary beams, specified by kV and added aluminum filtration, were matched to the scattered spectra according to half- and quarter-value layers and spectral shape. To within reasonable approximation, these theoretical scatter-mimicking primary beams were reproduced experimentally in laboratory x ray beams and used to measure transmission through pure lead and protective garments. For this proof of concept, the DRIP for pure lead and the garments was calculated by assigning equal weighting to percent transmission measurements for each of the five beams. Finally, the areal density of lead and garments was measured for consideration alongside the DRIP to assess the protective value of each material for a given weight. The authors identified ideal scatter mimicking primary beams that matched scattered spectra to within 0.01 mm for half- and quarter-value layers in copper and within 5% for the

  11. The effects of compression garments on intermittent exercise performance and recovery on consecutive days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Merrells, Robert; Hawke, Emma; Barnes, Matt; Simcock, David; Gill, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether compression garments improve intermittent-sprint performance and aid performance or self-reported recovery from high-intensity efforts on consecutive days. Following familiarization, 14 male rugby players performed two randomized testing conditions (with or without garments) involving consecutive days of a simulated team sport exercise protocol, separated by 24 h of recovery within each condition and 2 weeks between conditions. Each day involved an 80-min high-intensity exercise circuit, with exercise performance determined by repeated 20-m sprints and peak power on a cart dynamometer (single-man scrum machine). Measures of nude mass, heart rate, skin and tympanic temperature, and blood lactate (La-) were recorded throughout each day; also, creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness were recorded each day and 48 h following exercise. No differences (P=.20 to 0.40) were present between conditions on either day of the exercise protocol for repeated 20-m sprint efforts or peak power on a cart dynamometer. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and body mass did not significantly differ between conditions; however, skin temperature was higher under the compression garments. Although no differences (P=.50) in La- or CK were present, participants felt reduced levels of perceived muscle soreness in the ensuing 48 h postexercise when wearing the garments (2.5+/-1.7 vs 3.5+/-2.1 for garment and control; P=.01). The use of compression garments did not improve or hamper simulated team-sport activity on consecutive days. Despite benefits of reduced self-reported muscle soreness when wearing garments during and following exercise each day, no improvements in performance or recovery were apparent.

  12. Implementation Learning and Forgetting Curve to Scheduling in Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Badri, Huda; Deros, Baba Md; Syahri, M.; Saleh, Chairul; Fitria, Aninda

    2016-02-01

    The learning curve shows the relationship between time and the cumulative number of units produced which using the mathematical description on the performance of workers in performing repetitive works. The problems of this study is level differences in the labors performance before and after the break which affects the company's production scheduling. The study was conducted in the garment industry, which the aims is to predict the company production scheduling using the learning curve and forgetting curve. By implementing the learning curve and forgetting curve, this paper contributes in improving the labors performance that is in line with the increase in maximum output 3 hours productive before the break are 15 unit product with learning curve percentage in the company is 93.24%. Meanwhile, the forgetting curve improving maximum output 3 hours productive after the break are 11 unit product with the percentage of forgetting curve in the company is 92.96%. Then, the obtained 26 units product on the productive hours one working day is used as the basic for production scheduling.

  13. Motor Control Training for the Shoulder with Smart Garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; De Baets, Liesbet; Timmermans, Annick; Chen, Wei; Giacolini, Luca; Matheve, Thomas; Markopoulos, Panos

    2017-07-22

    Wearable technologies for posture monitoring and posture correction are emerging as a way to support and enhance physical therapy treatment, e.g., for motor control training in neurological disorders or for treating musculoskeletal disorders, such as shoulder, neck, or lower back pain. Among the various technological options for posture monitoring, wearable systems offer potential advantages regarding mobility, use in different contexts and sustained tracking in daily life. We describe the design of a smart garment named Zishi to monitor compensatory movements and evaluate its applicability for shoulder motor control training in a clinical setting. Five physiotherapists and eight patients with musculoskeletal shoulder pain participated in the study. The attitudes of patients and therapists towards the system were measured using standardized survey instruments. The results indicate that patients and their therapists consider Zishi a credible aid for rehabilitation and patients expect it will help towards their recovery. The system was perceived as highly usable and patients were motivated to train with the system. Future research efforts on the improvement of the customization of feedback location and modality, and on the evaluation of Zishi as support for motor learning in shoulder patients, should be made.

  14. Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  15. A STEP TO A PERFECT GARMENTS FACTORY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was exposed the tendences of the most important designers and producers of integrated transportation sistems. The transportation system is one of the most important problem in the garments fabrication economy. Beginning from unprocessed goods,cutting area,process management,finishing area,quality check to the warehouse, distribution and dispatch zone the basic idea was the same: unlimited railing from centrally-suspended rail servicing all kinds of work stations with application specific trolleys. Ergonomic work station design, linking work stations and areas, manual, semi-automatic and automatic, modular set ups lead to intralogistic systems for the entire factory.The articles are transported from a post to another post by a suspended trolley. The system for apparel industries is a flexible material handling system designed to eliminate manual transportation and minimize handling. It increases productivity radically, ensures an optimal working flow and provides time for adding value to your products. Technically the system consists of overhead conveyors with individually addressable product carriers, automatically finding its way to the correct operation. It is monitored by a computer providing all necessary data for measuring and managing the process optimally. Furthermore, the system is highly flexible and can rapidly be modified to changes in the production line or the need for expansion.In the same time introduce foreign technology, research and develop independently from hardware to software,. customize the special need of the customers and upgrade and expand the function easily.

  16. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  17. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andreoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user’s age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors—also influencing user comfort—are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents’ effects for preserving the sensors’ efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability.

  18. Degradation of fluorescent high-visibility colors used in safety garments for the Australian railway industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Arun; Islam, Saniyat; Jones, Michael; Padhye, Rajiv; Arnold, Lyndon

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the compliance of four fluorescent orange high-visibility garment substrates that are predominantly used in the Australian railway industry. While Special Purpose Orange (SPO), a shade of the Fluorescent orange (Fl-orange) is recommended by most Australian states as the high-visibility background color of a safety garment, there appear to be variations in the background color of clothing used by line-workers and rail contractors. The color of the garment was assessed for compliance with the Australian Standard AS/NZS 1906.2.2010 for high-visibility materials for safety garments. The results were also compared with ANSI Z535.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. Photometric and colorimetric assessments of the background color of the garment substrates were performed using a spectrophotometer and were evaluated for compliance with the Standards after washing and exposure to UV. The spectrophotometry measurements showed that Fl-orange background color for all samples except one complied with the AS/NZS 1906.2 Standard for daytime high-visibility garments after 20 washes but failed to comply after exposure to UV. It was also found that the chromaticity coordinates of the corners of the Fl-orange color space, specified in the AS/NZS 1906.4.2010 Standard are much wider and yellower when compared with the ANSI Z535.1.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. The sample that failed to comply with the Australian and American Standards however complied with the ISO Standard. Irrespective of the Standard used, the research has shown the degrading effect of washing and light exposure and raises the questions as to how regularly, and under what conditions high-visibility garments need to be replaced. These findings will provide information for safety garment manufacturers about the characteristics and performance of high-visibility safety garments which make them conspicuous during daytime use. This research recommends that colors for railway workers

  19. Competitiveness of the Garment Industry on the Basis of the Industrial Cluster Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dmitrievna Sinyavets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the development prospects of the Russian economy and the economy of its individual branches in the regions is highly relevant in terms of the increasing crises and economic development challenges. The scope of the study is a garment industry of the Siberian Federal District, which includes 12 subjects, and only six of them develop the garment industry actively. There are the regions of Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia. The subject matter of the research is the state and prospects of the garment industry of the Siberian Federal District. It also includes the assessment of the garment industry as one of the sub-sectors of the light industry in terms of its competitiveness in the domestic market. The purpose of the comprehensive study is to determine the conditions and factors affecting the development of the industry, as well as to identify its development reserves and competitiveness on the basis of industrial cluster’s generation. The hypothesis of this study is that in the Siberian Federal District, there are a need and reserves to create a cluster of the garment industry. The main methods of the study are the comparative analysis, the expert assessment of the sector in certain regions of the Siberian Federal District, as well as the assessment of possible formation of the industrial cluster in the region. The results of the study are the evaluation of the competitiveness and prospects of the garment industry in Russia and the Siberian Federal District (a low level of development and competitiveness; the evaluation of the development level of the garment industry in the Federal District, which have showed the demand for apparel products from the population and enterprises, as well as the conditions for the provision of clothing manufacture with natural fabrics and synthetic materials, labor resources and research and development achievements; also the justification of the existing

  20. Health Status of the Female Workers in the Garment Sector of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen AHMED

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Readymade Garment (RMG Sector in Bangladesh has been playing a vital role in creating employment opportunity for the rural marginal people for the last two decades. At present 5,100 garment factories are operating in this country and 3.6 million workers are working there in which more than 80 percent of them are female. From the beginning it is largely apparent that the health status of the female garment workers is not well enough to do their work properly. Keeping this in mind, the study was conducted to find out the health status of the female workers. In this study, 200 female workers of Bangladesh were interviewed to identify the major diseases they experienced. The study reveals that the majority of the female workers in the garment sector suffer from the diseases like problems in bones, abortion complexity, dermatitis, back pain, eye stain, pruritus, malnutrition, respiratory problems, hepatitis (Jandice, gastric pain, fatigue, fever, abdomen pain, common cold, and helminthiasis. The policy makers and other concern bodies should take necessary measures to ensure good health of the garment workers. It will help female workers to be more productive and their contribution to the country will be enhanced.

  1. Compression garments do not alter cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress after mild passive heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S A; Ainslie, P N; Lucas, R A I; Cheung, S S; Cotter, J D

    2014-04-01

    Whole-body heating increases the likelihood of syncope, whereas utilizing lower-body compression garments may reduce syncope risk. We hypothesized that graded compression garments would reduce the typically observed large postural reductions in arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery velocity, in normothermia and especially once passively heat stressed. Fifteen men (age: 27 ± 4 years, aerobic fitness range: 30-75 mL/kg(/) min) completed a supine-to-stand orthostatic challenge for 3 min at normothermia and after passive heating (esophageal temperature, +0.5 °C from baseline) on two occasions (> 7 days): once wearing commercially available compression trousers and once wearing low-compression placebo trousers (randomized order). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), mean arterial blood pressure (mean BP: Finometer) and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure were measured continuously. During normothermia, compression, garments did not alter the magnitude of the postural changes in mean BP or middle cerebral artery velocity. After passive heating, although the magnitudes of these changes were exaggerated, they were not significantly affected by compression garments. Compression garments did not attenuate the initial or sustained orthostatic hypotension associated with posture change, either during normothermia or following passive heat stress. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Homeworking: Home Office or Home Sweatshop? Report on Current Conditions of Homeworkers in Toronto's Garment Industry. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Roxana; Wong, Renita Yuk-Lin; Choi, Angela

    The current conditions of home workers in the garment industry in Toronto, Canada, were examined through in-depth telephone interviews with 30 Chinese-speaking immigrant women who were employed as home workers in 1999. The paper dicusses the formal training and informal learning experiences of immigrant woman who are garment workers. A comparison…

  3. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies

  4. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  5. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  6. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  7. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  8. Design of a smart ECG garment based on conductive textile electrode and flexible printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Jianqing

    2017-08-09

    A smart electrocardiogram (ECG) garment system was designed for continuous, non-invasive and comfortable ECG monitoring, which mainly consists of four components: Conductive textile electrode, garment, flexible printed circuit board (FPCB)-based ECG processing module and android application program. Conductive textile electrode and FPCB-based ECG processing module (6.8 g, 55 mm × 53 mm × 5 mm) are identified as two key techniques to improve the system's comfort and flexibility. Preliminary experimental results verified that the textile electrodes with circle shape, 40 mm size in diameter, and 5 mm thickness sponge are best suited for the long-term ECG monitoring application. The tests on the whole system confirmed that the designed smart garment can obtain long-term ECG recordings with high signal quality.

  9. Importance Of Fashion Cad Computer Aided Design Study For Garment Industry In Bangladesh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tabraz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The garment industry is rapidly growing with new concepts for keeping fashion business alive. To survive in the fashion industry new innovations are necessary for a while. In order to meet the demands for the market a computer-aided design CAD system gives opportunity for mass customization in fashion. The system enables to create more styles random changes make new design dimension of collection pattern generation graded size pattern marker creation and fabric cutting. By integrating the system with the processes of garment sewing test of fit and final adjustment mass customization can be realized in the apparel industry. For the manufacturers the efficiency of the supply chain can be improved by reducing human efforts costs and production time. For the customers better fittings with faster delivery stimulate the desire of purchase and enhance their satisfaction. This paper illustrates that why Fashion CAD study is important for garment industry in Bangladesh.

  10. A Resource Sharing Mechanism for Sustainable Production in the Garment Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mass customization, the traditional garment production model needs to be optimized to have a more sustainable structure. To meet demand for flexibility, low-cost, and high-efficiency, an innovative resource sharing mechanism was proposed in this paper to form a new sustainable type of garment production. Different from the individual production in traditional models, the new mechanism involves resources being shared among various manufacturers. The tradeoff between positive and negative effects of the proposed mechanism is a key issue for sustainable production. In the present study, an overall sustainable index, integrating four production performance indicators, was defined on the basis of an Analytical Network Process to assess various production scenarios. According to the discrete-event simulation results of the different scenarios, we found that garment manufacturers could obtain comprehensive improvements in sustainable production by implementing the proposed resource sharing mechanism under the threshold of an increasing production failure rate.

  11. Alternatives to perchloroethylene-based garment care: Assessing the viability of professional wet cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, R.; Sinsheimer, P.; Goodheart, J.; Tranby, C.; Bechtel, L.

    1997-12-01

    The report analyzes the viability of Cleaner by Nature, a 100% professional wet cleaner, and whether professional wet cleaning represents a viable pollution prevention approach in eliminating perchloroethylene (PCE), a chemical solvent used in dry cleaning. The analysis includes a comprehensive plant level case study, and comparative performance, financial, and environmental assessments of wet cleaning and PCE-based dry cleaning. The major issues associated with the viability analyses were identified and specific information was collected in relation to how the clothes were cleaned (a customer garment profile, a problem garment analysis, a technical evaluation or repeat clean test, a wearer survey, and customer satisfaction surveys); how wet cleaning did financially (a start-up cost analysis and a profit/loss analysis); what environmental impacts were identified (water, energy, and chemical inputs and outputs); and what contributing factors (technology changes, garment manufacturing and labeling, and regulator or legislative actions) influence the viability of professional wet cleaning.

  12. Varying fabric drape by 3D-imprinted patterns for garment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahiu, T.; Fafenrot, S.; Grimmelsmann, N.; Piperi, E.; Shehi, E.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-10-01

    Drape is one of the most important properties of fabric, which significantly influences the appearance of a garment or technical textile. Being closely related to stiffness and other mechanical parameters, drape is also influenced by seams and other modifications of the pure textile fabric. In most investigations, the drape coefficient according to Cusick is used to measure drape, using a special drape meter, which allows to quantitatively describing the textile’s behaviour in terms of drape coefficient, number of nodes, etc. This article gives an overview of possibilities to modify fabric drape by printing different geometrical patterns on textile fabric. Their geometry and distance also influence on fabric drape. The resulting differences in a real garment using a skirt as an example will show the impact of 3D printing on garment drape.

  13. The horizontal working mobility of employees with garment technique educational background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraptono, Eko; Sudana, I. Made; Rini, Sri Hastuti Eko

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this report are: 1) to know how is the working mobility for garment employees, 2) to analyze the factors that caused working mobility, and new working orientation who searched by garment employees. This research is using qualitative and quantitative approach. The Informant in this research is gotten by purposive action. The data collecting techniques are observations, interviews, and documentations. The data analysis is using descriptive qualitative analysis by observing every aspect. The result of research shows that the criteria of the labor migration was high. It can be seen from Ungaran Sari Garment Company. The length of the migration is high, between 1 until 6 months. and the types of new job that searched by the employees is appropriate job vacancy with their competence. Some factors that influence the working mobility are mental of the workers and company management system. The orientation of the new job is feeling comfortable while working.

  14. Compression garments to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; Til, Lluís; Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio; Montoro, José Bruno; Valero, Oliver; Artells, Rosa

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a compression garment as DOMS prevention. This was accomplished by provoking a DOMS in 15 athletes, running on a treadmill at 73% of their maximal aerobic velocity, during 40 minutes with a 10% negative slope; wearing the compression garments on one thigh, protected thigh (PT), and not in the contralateral thigh, control thigh (CT). A clinical and MRI diagnosis of DOMS was performed. Biopsies in both vastus lateralis were done, and the amount and severity of the DOMS was estimated by measuring intracellular albumin, and lymphocytes CD3+ and neutrophils intra/interfibrilar infiltrates, 48h after the induced damaging exercise. There was less total injury in the PT than in the CT, a 26.7% average. These data indicate that this compression garment is an effective method to reduce the histological injury in DOMS.

  15. Validation and application of the personnel factor for the garment used in cleanrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Cheng Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cleanroom environment has many potential sources of contamination, including: operators, equipment, structures, and any surface that can create particles via friction, heat, exhaust, outgassing, and static electricity charge. Operatives working in the cleanroom are the major source of particles. While cleanroom operators work, they emit millions of particles from every activity. Particles migrate up the cleanroom garment to the head and drop to the legs during cleanroom movements. Specialized textile fabrics have been used in cleanroom garments for many years. The need for this type of fabric has increased mainly due to the need to protect critical operations in cleanrooms as well as creating comfort for operators and other personnel. This study covers the general static wind-driven method, the Helmke Drum method and the dispersal chamber to measure particle penetration, shedding, and generation, in regards to the filtration efficiency of cleanroom fabrics and garments. Firstly, particle penetration is shown to increase with increasing face velocity and decreasing particle size below 1 μm. Secondly, that a recommended upper particle-size limit should be 5 µm. Using the Helmke drum test, the size distribution of particles released from the garment is shown to follow a power law distribution, with a slope of less than 1. Furthermore, the study introduces dynamic body box for testing fabrics as well as cleanroom garments. It is more practical and sensitive when compared to traditional methods and is based on a more concise technical approach. The life-time cycle performance of a typical cleanroom garment coverall is examined, particularly looking at the implications of pre-use steralization.

  16. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  17. Vietnamese Garment Enterprises After the Termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik

    This paper looks at the export developments of Vietnamese garment producers after the Multi-Fibre Arrangement was removed by the beginning of 2005. It uses a Global Value Chain approach and analyses what happens when there is a major change in the institutional context, in this case shift...... in the basic institutional international trade arrangements. The focus is on Vietnam and the Vietnamese garment suppliers looking at how they have performed after the removal of the quota systems and what kind of strategies they have pursued. The results show that Vietnamese suppliers have been able to compete...

  18. Preventing Factory Fires through Contracts: Case study of Garment Factories in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Hideki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a multi-decade history of lethal fires in the Bangladeshi garment industry, Sato (2012 proposed a contract framework that encourages manufacturers to adopt measures that reduce loss of life. Apart from the humanitarian imperative, the manufacturer has an incentive to sign the contract and adopt its preventative measures because an industrial disaster will cancel its relationship with its global retailer and end the related profits. This theoretical study specifies the optimal contract that incentivizes manufacturers and reduces the occurrence of garment industry fires.

  19. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  20. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  1. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  2. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  3. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  4. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  5. Workers’ agency and re-working power relations in Cambodia’s garment industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Cambodian garment factory workers’ collective voice and ability to negotiate a living wage. Workers’ agency is examined through a case study of a large-scale strike in September 2010 over national minimum wage negotiations, led by two Cambodian trade union federations. Analysis

  6. [Student Magazine of the ESL Classes of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Manuel, Ed.; Zetino, Alfredo, Ed.

    This student magazine created by the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) is a collection of personal opinions, reports, and creative writing with illustrations. Each item was written as a voluntary collaboration, homework, or classwork. Items include poems, letters, accounts of…

  7. A strategic-interaction analysis of an urgent appeal system and its outcomes for garment workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hond, F.; Stolwijk, Sjoerd; Merk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Within the global garment industry the term "urgent appeal" is used to describe a request for action to Western activist groups for support in a specific case of labor rights violations. The urgent appeal system has become an important strategy for the transnational antisweatshop movement. It is

  8. From Theory to Practice: A Set of Garment-Related ESL Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ha Yin

    This document describes how a set of workplace literacy curricula was developed for Chinese garment workers in New York City. First, it discusses the goal of the workplace literacy program and the nature of the population served. Then, it proceeds to discuss rationale and research procedures of how the curriculum was being developed. A set of…

  9. Musculoskeletal problems among workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreesupria Purushothaman Ravichandran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every occupation has its own ill effects on health. Garment workers are denied of their basic rights and less importance is given to their health. Their health status also depends on their access to treatment and availability of healthcare facilities. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence, health seeking pattern and associated factors for musculoskeletal problems among garment workers and to assess the level of exposure of individual workers to upper limb musculoskeletal loads. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 380 workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur over a period of two months. Interview was conducted using a structured pretested questionnaire including Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Level of exposure to musculoskeletal load was assessed using RULA tool. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19 version. Results: 77.6% of the workers had musculoskeletal problems. The most common sites affected were neck (32.1%, knee (28.7% and low back (26.6%. More than half of the workers experienced moderate pain in all body parts. 54.2% sought health care and 40% among them preferred government hospital. Only 8.7% workers had acceptable posture. Conclusion: Health problems among garment workers are one of the areas of public health concern in our country. Reducing the work strain and providing a supportive workplace environment will have a favorable impact on work productivity

  10. "No One Ever Showed Me Nothing": Skill and Self-Making among Trinidadian Garment Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between skill acquisition and the constitution of economic selfhood in Trinidad. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among garment workers in a context of industrial decline, I show how their formal, informal, and illicit means of acquiring sewing skills are inextricably linked to the fragmented and unstable…

  11. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42 %. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  12. Cost of Health Education to Increase STD Awareness in Female Garment Workers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, Nahid; Selwyn, Beatrice; Shahidullah, S. M.; Swint, J. Michael; Franzini, Luisa; Rasu, Rafia

    2009-01-01

    Risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the need for health education in the female garment workers in Bangladesh have been emphasized in the past. Interventions were more acceptable when considered cost-effective. This preliminary study reported on the cost-effectiveness of a health education program that successfully improved knowledge…

  13. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... chiefly woolen fibers with the balance of undetermined mixtures of cotton, rayon or other non-woolen...

  14. Cooling garment treatment in MS : Clinical improvement and decrease in leukocyte NO production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; Oparina, TI; Hartgring, A; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, AV; De Keyser, J

    2001-01-01

    Ten heat-sensitive patients with MS were randomly allocated in a cross-over study to wear a cooling garment for 60 minutes at 7 degreesC (active cooling) and 26 degreesC (sham cooling). In contrast to sham cooling, active cooling improved fatigue and postural stability with eyes closed and muscle

  15. English-in-the-Workplace for Garment Workers: A Feminist Project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the connection between an English-in-the-workplace (EWP) class and the linguistic behavior of immigrant women garment factory employees. Results suggest that newly acquired English skills may be reinforcing linguistic behavior that reconstitutes traditional relations between workers and management. However, EWP does not appear to empower…

  16. Local outcomes of globalization: manufacturing decline and labor response in the Philippine garment and shoe industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, globalisation has led to major international shifts in labour intensive manufacturing generating ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ among countries, industries and workers. This paper uses case studies of the shoe industry in Marikina City and the garments sector in Metro Manila in

  17. Forced convection mass deposition and heat transfer onto a cylinder sheathed by protective garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambesi, D.; Kleijn, C.R.; Hartog, E.A. den; Bouma, R.H.B.; Brasser, P.

    2014-01-01

    In chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protective clothing, a layer of activated carbon material in between two textile layers provides protection against hazardous gases. A cylinder in cross flow, sheathed by such material, is generally used to experimentally test the garment

  18. Forced convection mass deposition and heat transfer onto a cylinder sheathed by protective garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambesi, D.; Kleijn, C.R.; Den Hartog, E.A.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Brasser, P.

    2013-01-01

    In chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protective clothing, a layer of activated carbon material in between two textile layers provides protection against hazardous gases. A cylinder in cross flow, sheathed by such material, is generally used to experimentally test the garment

  19. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  20. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  1. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  2. The effects of wearing lower body compression garments during a cycling performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew W; Halson, Shona L

    2013-05-01

    Compression garments have been commonly used in a medical setting as a method to promote blood flow. Increases in blood flow during exercise may aid in the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscles and, subsequently, enhance performance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of wearing lower body compression garments during a cycling test. Twelve highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD age 30 ± 6 y, mass 75.6 ± 5.8 kg, VO2peak 66.6 ± 3.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) performed two 30-min cycling bouts on a cycle ergometer in a randomized, crossover design. During exercise, either full-length lower body compression garments (COMP) or above-knee cycling shorts (CON) were worn. Cycling bouts involved 15 min at a fixed workload (70% of VO2max power) followed by a 15-min time trial. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BL) were measured during the fixed-intensity component of the cycling bout to determine the physiological effect of the garments. Calf girth (CG), thigh girth (TG) and perceived soreness (PS) were measured preexercise and postexercise. COMP produced a trivial effect on mean power output (ES = .14) compared with CON (mean ± 95% CI 1.3 ±1.0). COMP was also associated with a lower HR during the fixed-workload section of the test (-2.6% ± 2.3%, ES = -.38). There were no differences between groups for BL, CG, TG, and PS. Wearing compression garments during cycling may result in trivial performance improvements of ~1% and may enhance oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles.

  3. A poor country clothing the rich countries: case of garment trade in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ready-made garment industry of Bangladesh is one of the largest formal manufacturing sectors. It has played a key role in the country’s process of industrialisation, empowerment of women, export oriented development and growth. Workers from poor socio-economic backgrounds are working in the garment industry. Their health, safety and working conditions are very poor and not protected. There is a lack of regular inspection and compliance with local law in buildings and factories. This led to the collapse of the eight story Rana Plaza building in the capital Dhaka on the 24th of April 2013, “killing 1,100 workers and 2,500 injured”2 . The main aim of the study is to assess the impact of Rana Plaza Tragedy, where RMG workers make garments for multinational brands of Australia, Europe and USA, and the advantage which took these companies of the absence of labour laws, workplace health and safety standards, building standards, long working hours and low wages in Bangladesh. The study used both primary and secondary data including related case studies. The practical application of the study is to develop formal ethical, labour-law, health and safety standards for a factory worker; construction; institutions and courts for monitoring the supplier’s behaviour onshore and large multinational firms offshore. The study recommends to protect the rights of women workers who are sowing garments for the fashion conscious consumers from the developed countries. Future research will explore inclusive growth for workers and how to stimulate inclusive sustainable business for export led garment industry.

  4. The effects of compression garments and electrostimulation on athletes' muscle soreness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Yunus Turgay; Sahinkaya, Turker; Dinc, Engin; Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Bayraktar, Bulent; Kurtoglu, Mehmet

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we explained the effects of compression garment and electrostimulation on athletes' recovery period by evaluating blood lactate and isokinetic peak torque parameters. Twenty volunteers (15.55± 0.51 yr) were included to study. At recovery period, blood samples was taken for lactate values at 0th, 3rd, 5th, 15th, 30th min. The isokinetic strength test was performed on right ankle at 15th min and on the left ankle at 30th min. The same protocol was performed for compression garment on 2 weeks and for electrostimulation on third weeks and results were compared. There wasn't any significant difference on blood lactate levels within groups. At women; there was not any significant difference on isokinetic peak torques within two groups. but at electro-stimulation usage we found significant increases on right plantar flexion (P<0.1), right dorsal flexion (RDF) (P<0.1) and left plantar flexion (LPF) (P<0.1) values compared to control measurements. At men; with compression garment usage, there was significant increase on LPF values compared to control measurements. At electrostimulation usage, we found significant increases on RDF (P<0.1) and left dorsal flexion (P<0.1) values compared to control measurements. During recovery, there is not any beneficial effect seen on blood lactate level within two groups. When compared to passive rest, compression garments and electrostimulation interventions effects on force generation capacity at recovery are statically significant. Also in terms of force generation capacity; usage of electrostimulation during 15 min and compression garments during 30 min were statically more significant.

  5. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  6. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  7. 75 FR 75676 - Smart Garments v. Worldlink Logix Services, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... partnership firm duly under Indian Law'' and a manufacturer and exporter of garments. Complainant alleges that... the shipment without consent of the shipper and to its detriment and failed to observe and enforce...

  8. Evaluation of Commercial Compression Garments as a Countermeasure to Post-Spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance (OIG DSO641)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Results from this study indicate that the gradient compression garments prevented the tachycardia and stroke volume reduction normally associated with a 3.5 min...

  9. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  10. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  11. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  12. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  13. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  14. WOMEN IN THE GARMENT INDUSTRY OF BANGLADESH; A PARADOX OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND TRANSFORMATION OF STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Md. Ahsun

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines whether the presence of women in the garment industry of Bangladesh is a means of empowerment or just a continuation of structural violence. Due to the patriarchal system in Bangladesh, structural violence against women has been an ongoing problem throughout the country’s history. The focus of this research is that structural violence is still present in the society and in the garment sector, which halt the social and economic empowerment of women. Using a gender lens alo...

  15. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  16. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  17. Sustainable and Resilient Garment Supply Chain Network Design with Fuzzy Multi-Objectives under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are taking more interest in developing sustainable garment supply chains in recent times. On the other hand, the supply chain manager drops sustainability objectives while coping with unexpected natural and man-made disruption risks. Hence, supply chain managers are now trying to develop sustainable supply chains that are simultaneously resilient enough to cope with disruption risks. Owing to the importance of the considered issue, this study proposed a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by considering sustainability via embodied carbon footprints and carbon emissions and resilience by considering resilience index. In this paper, initially, a possibilistic fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and resilient supply chain network model is developed for the garment industry considering economic, sustainable, and resilience objectives. Secondly, a possibilistic fuzzy linguistic weight-based interactive solution method is proposed. Finally, a numerical case example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed model and solution methodology.

  18. System of error detection in the manufacture of garments using artificial vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J. J.; Aguila, A.; Partida, E.; Martinez, C. L.; Morales, O.; Tejeida, R.

    2017-12-01

    A computer vision system is implemented to detect errors in the cutting stage within the manufacturing process of garments in the textile industry. It provides solution to errors within the process that cannot be easily detected by any employee, in addition to significantly increase the speed of quality review. In the textile industry as in many others, quality control is required in manufactured products and this has been carried out manually by means of visual inspection by employees over the years. For this reason, the objective of this project is to design a quality control system using computer vision to identify errors in the cutting stage within the garment manufacturing process to increase the productivity of textile processes by reducing costs.

  19. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurat, Jan; Pillai, Aarati; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2017-07-21

    The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC), iron, vitamin A (VitA), folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12). On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA). The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA), VitA (66% RDA), and folate (44% RDA), but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA) and iron (20% RDA). Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  1. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2016-11-02

    Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  2. DEVELOPING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CONTROL STRUCTURE BY MONITORING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE TEXTILE GARMENT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan Pavel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve quality, any activity performed in garment production enterprises, must adhere to the following principles: the technical documentation must be observed first, and also all resources necessary for the proper functioning of the production process; conformity check must be carried out to fulfill production goals in advance; the technical specifications and documentation must be implemented and for proper execution there must exist a control method, consisting in discovering defects and correct them. In the garment industry, the situation is more difficult because of the large number of features present in its complex products, and the problems that may arise must be estimated. Thus, for different activities in quality assurance, experiments have been carried out which show that even the measurement results can be affected by human error. The training of inspectors is important inspection requires a high level of judgment in specific cases, which can be acquired only by experience. In many inspection situations, judgment is essential. Therefore, garment manufacturers must boost inspections, in order to keep the technological process under control. This paper focuses on meeting certain objectives in establishing certain control structures for compliance of processes, by presenting a few criteria. After analyzing quality problems along the process flow, both in terms of the manufacturing process and product quality, we propose customized solutions by product type, to prevent and solve quality issues. This analysis of the control plan for the conformity of the technological processes will improve the production of garment manufacturers, from a technical as well as economical standpoint.

  3. Preventing Factory Fires through Contracts: Case study of Garment Factories in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Following a multi-decade history of lethal fires in the Bangladeshi garment industry, Sato (2012) proposed a contract framework that encourages manufacturers to adopt measures that reduce loss of life. Apart from the humanitarian imperative, the manufacturer has an incentive to sign the contract and adopt its preventative measures because an industrial disaster will cancel its relationship with its global retailer and end the related profits. This theoretical study specifies the optimal contr...

  4. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined. Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative and serum retinol-binding protein (positive concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  5. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC, iron, vitamin A (VitA, folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12. Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA. The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA, VitA (66% RDA, and folate (44% RDA, but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA and iron (20% RDA. Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  6. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Oleg; Pleshko, Mikhail; Ponomareva, Irina; Merenyashev, Vitaliy

    2018-03-01

    New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum), blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading).

  8. Smart Garment Fabrics to Enable Non-Contact Opto-Physiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, Dmitry; Hu, Sijung; Hassan, Harnani; Dwyer, Vincent; Ashayer-Soltani, Roya; Hunt, Chris; Shen, Jinsong

    2018-03-29

    Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is an emerging technology used to assess microcirculation and cardiovascular signs by collecting backscattered light from illuminated tissue using optical imaging sensors. The aim of this study was to study how effective smart garment fabrics could be capturing physiological signs in a non-contact mode. The present work demonstrates a feasible approach of, instead of using conventional high-power illumination sources, integrating a grid of surface-mounted light emitting diodes (LEDs) into cotton fabric to spotlight the region of interest (ROI). The green and the red LEDs (525 and 660 nm) placed on a small cotton substrate were used to locally illuminate palm skin in a dual-wavelength iPPG setup, where the backscattered light is transmitted to a remote image sensor through the garment fabric. The results show that the illuminations from both wavelength LEDs can be used to extract heart rate (HR) reaching an accuracy of 90% compared to a contact PPG probe. Stretching the fabric over the skin surface alters the morphology of iPPG signals, demonstrating a significantly higher pulsatile amplitude in both channels of green and red illuminations. The skin compression by the fabric could be potentially utilised to enhance the penetration of illumination into cutaneous microvascular beds. The outcome could lead a new avenue of non-contact opto-physiological monitoring and assessment with functional garment fabrics.

  9. Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Oleg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum, blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading.

  10. The influence of below-knee compression garments on knee-joint proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Shashank; Driller, Matthew W; Masters, Rich S W

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of below-knee compression garments on proprioception accuracy under, information processing constraints designed to cause high or low conscious attention to the task. In a counterbalanced, single-blinded, crossover trial, 44 healthy participants (26 male/18 female) with a mean age of 22.7±6.9 years performed an active joint repositioning task using their nondominant and their dominant leg, with and without below-knee compression and with and without conducting a secondary task. Analysis of variance revealed no main effect of leg dominance and no interactions (p's>0.05). However, a main effect was evident for both compression (F 1, 43 =84.23, pknee proprioception under differential information processing constraints. We conclude that proprioception accuracy of the knee joint is significantly enhanced post application of below-knee compression garments and when a secondary task is conducted concurrently with active joint repositioning. The findings suggest that below-knee compression garments may improve proprioception of the knee, regardless of leg dominance, and that secondary tasks that direct attention away from proprioceptive judgments may also improve proprioception, regardless of the presence of compression. Clinical implications are discussed with respect to proprioception in modern.sports and rehabilitation settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal buffering performance of composite phase change materials applied in low-temperature protective garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xueying; Liu, Rangtong; Cao, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is increasingly being applied in the manufacturing of functional thermo-regulated textiles and garments. This paper investigated the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCMs which are suitable for the application in functional low-temperature protective garments. First, according to the criteria selecting PCM for functional textiles/garments, three kinds of pure PCM were selected as samples, which were n-hexadecane, n-octadecane and n-eicosane. To get the adjustable phase change temperature range and higher phase change enthalpy, three kinds of composite PCM were prepared using the above pure PCM. To evaluate the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCM samples, the simulated low-temperature experiments were performed in the climate chamber, and the skin temperature variation curves in three different low temperature conditions were obtained. Finally composite PCM samples’ thermal buffering time, thermal buffering capacity and thermal buffering efficiency were calculated. Results show that the comprehensive thermal buffering performance of n-octadecane and n-eicosane composite PCM is the best.

  12. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  13. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  14. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  15. The Preparedness of the Indonesian Garment Exporters in the Post-MFA Scenario: An Analysis from the Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchsin Shihab

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clothing or garments industry has developed rapidly during the past some decades and has contributed to the economic growth of many nations, both developed and developing countries. This industry has been very much regulated by many bilateral agreements such as Multi Fiber Arrangement (MFA, a quota arrangement made by the importing countries. As MFA (quota regime comes to an end by 2005 and integrates into the WTO regime, it will bring opportunities to highly competitive and proactive garment exporting countries whereas the challenges will be faced more by the less competitive countries. Issues related to environment and social compliance, technology requirements etc. have been brought into surface by the importing countries, which may worsen the condition. Under the above scenario, it is imperative that certain proactive measures be taken. Thus, the broad objective of this study is to analyze the response of the garment exporters from Indonesia towards the emerging issues related to environmental and social compliance, technology requirements etc. The present study is a questionnaire-based study. The samples have been selected from the Directories of largest exporters in the country. With reminders and persuasion, the final number of useable responses has been 115 Indonesian garment exporters. Seven factors of the emerging issues were identified by using factor analysis. In addition, factors of competitiveness, and the strategies adopted by the exporters have also been analyzed. The findings show that the overall perceptions of the Indonesia garment exporters indicate that Indonesia is less competitive as compared to other competing countries.

  16. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Murray R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world’s enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as ‘marine debris’) has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as ‘hangers-on and hitch-hikers’ as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats. PMID:19528053

  18. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  19. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  20. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  1. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  2. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  3. One step forward or more window-dressing? A legal analysis of the recent CSR Initiatives in the Garment Industry in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, B.; Keune, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh ready-made garment industry has recently been affected by a number of terrible accidents, with the collapse of the Rana Plaza on 24 April 2013 as the deadliest garment-factory accident ever known. Under the pressure of renewed attention to the role and responsibilities of

  4. The Garment Industry Development Corporation: A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Maureen

    The Garment Industry Development Corporation (GIDC) was founded in 1984 by a 3-member partnership that included the local union, industry associations, and local government. GIDC's goal was to support New York City's garment industry, which had been steadily losing jobs. GIDC exhibits the following characteristics of sectoral initiatives: it…

  5. Compression garments: no enhancement of high-intensity exercise in hot radiant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Martin J; Corbett, Jo; Feeney, John; Hannaford, Paul; Henderson, Dan; Jones, Ian; Kirke, Jade

    2013-09-01

    To establish the thermal and performance effects of wearing a lower-body graduated compression garment (GCG) in a hot environment (35.2°C ± 0.1°C) with a representative radiant heat load (~800 W/m²) in contrast to a control (running shorts) and sham condition (a compression garment 1 size larger than that recommended by the manufacturer), with the latter included to establish any placebo effect. Eight participants (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 2 y, height 1.77 ± 0.06 m, mass 72.8 ± 7.1 kg, surface area, 1.89 ± 0.10 m²) completed 3 treadmill tests at a fixed speed for 15 min followed by a self-paced 5-km time trial. Performance (completion time) and pacing (split time), thermal responses (aural, skin, and mean body temperature, cardiac frequency), and perceptual responses (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], thermal sensation, thermal comfort) were measured. Performance in the compression group was not different than in either sham or control at any stage (P > .05); completion time 26.08 ± 4.08, 26.05 ± 3.27, and 25.18 ± 3.15 min, respectively. At the end of the 5-km time trial, RPE was not different; it was 19 ± 1 across conditions. In general, thermal and perceptual responses were not different, although the radiant heat load increased site-specific skin temperature (quadriceps) in the garment conditions. GCG did not enhance performance in a hot environment with a representative radiant heat load. The sham treatment did not benefit perception. GCG provided no evidence of performance enhancement.

  6. The effects of ionized and nonionized compression garments on sprint and endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Richard J; Glaister, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ionized and nonionized compression tights on sprint and endurance cycling performance. Using a randomized, blind, crossover design, 10 well-trained male athletes (age: 34.6 ± 6.8 years, height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 82.2 ± 10.4 kg, VO2max: 50.86 ± 6.81 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 3 sprint trials (30-second sprint at 150% of the power output required to elicit VO2max [pVO2max] + 3 minutes recovery at 40% pVO2max + 30-second Wingate test + 3 minutes recovery at 40% pVO2max) and 3 endurance trials (30 minutes at 60% pVO2max + 5 minutes stationary recovery + 10-km time trial) wearing nonionized compression tights, ionized compression tights, or standard running tights (control). There was no significant effect of garment type on key Wingate measures of peak power (grand mean: 1,164 ± 219 W, p = 0.812), mean power (grand mean: 716 ± 68 W, p = 0.800), or fatigue (grand mean: 66.5 ± 6.9%, p = 0.106). There was an effect of garment type on blood lactate in the sprint and the endurance trials (p minutes, p = 0.790) were unaffected by either type of compression garment during endurance cycling. Despite widespread use in sport, neither ionized nor nonionized compression tights had any significant effect on sprint or endurance cycling performance.

  7. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-01-01

    Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to t...

  8. A New Invention Method to Determine the Reduction Factor for Low Fabric Tension Properties for Head Garment Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman A.F

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to determine the reduction factor for producing a head garment with specified targeted pressure output. Pressure garment fabric mostly supplied to the local hospitals with no information of the material properties and the fabrication method generally used a single reduction factor at various body segments. Reduction factor defined as the percentage of reducing the garment size from the original circumference of the body part which contributes to the compression. The objective of this study is to compare the fabrication method of head garment using reduction factor equation from previous research with the new proposed method. The equation to predict the reduction factor requires the parameter of the fabric tension which is obtained from tensile test and radius of curvature of the human body parts. In the new proposed method, a 3D scanning was used for data acquisition to obtain the geometry of the head area. The pressure outputs are measured by a pressure measurement system developed from Flexiforce sensor and Arduino circuit board. By using the equation, the result shows the calculated reduction factor produced an extremely tight head garment compared to the conducted experiments which manage to produce an adequate reduction factor with a targeted pressure output of 20mmHg. The result of the experiment indicates that the reduction factor ranging from 17% to 23% compared to the equation which produces 20% to 47% of reduction factor. As an additional, the proposed experimental method can be used for different type of pressure garment fabrics in order to obtain the relationship between the reduction factor and the circumference of the body parts.

  9. Evaluation of the health risks to garment workers in the city of Xambrê-PR, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Marco Antônio; Kovalechen, Fabrício

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the risks for cardiovascular disease and the life habits of garment industry workers in northwestern Paraná state, Brazil. The following parameters were assessed: body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, eating habits and physical activities by garment industry workers. Cardiovascular risk was observed in some of the studied subjects, in the form of high BMI and reduced maximal oxygen uptake. The development of a workplace quality-of-life program is suggested, aiming to stimulate the development of physical activities to improve the cardiovascular conditioning of workers.

  10. Female garment workers' experiences of violence in their homes and workplaces in Bangladesh: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira; Rahman, Tabassum; Willan, Samantha; Jewkes, Rachel; Gibbs, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The ways in which women's engagement in paid work shapes their experiences of violence in the home and workplace is widely debated, particularly in Bangladesh, but rarely considered together. We undertook 23 in-depth interviews with female garment workers living in slums in Bangladesh, and nine interviews with key informants (factory managers and supervisors, male workers, and employees from non-governmental organisations). Data came from two studies conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh - the first between August and September 2011 and the second between June and August 2015 - and were analysed using thematic analysis. In both settings, women experienced similar forms of violence, including emotional, physical, sexual, and economic, although from different perpetrators. Despite violence in the home and violence in the workplace typically being considered separately, we identify four overlaps between them. First, violence in both settings is shaped by how patriarchal norms and structures of institutions intersect with institutions economic structures. Second, dominant representations of female garment workers as sex workers or sexually promiscuous enables violence against them. Third, economic violence is used as a way to control and limit women's autonomy. Fourth, women develop strategies to continue working and maximize the benefits of work for themselves. Finally, we suggest how interventions could work to prevent violence in the home and workplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sweat or no sweat: foreign workers in the garment industry in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade factory owners, in response to brand-name Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) parameters, have joined associations that verify (through a monitoring and audit system) that management does not exploit labour. There have been no reports of violations of codes of conduct concerning Malaysian workers but for foreign workers on contract there are certain areas that have been reported. These areas, including trade union membership, the withholding of workers' passports and unsuitable accommodation, generally escape notice because auditors who monitor factory compliance do not question the terms of contracts as long as they comply with national labour standards. This paper is based on research with foreign workers in Malaysia and argues that despite the success of the anti-sweatshop movement in a global context, the neo-liberal state in Malaysia continues to place certain restrictions on transnational labour migrants which breach garment industry codes of conduct. Available evidence does not support the assumption that CSR practices provide sufficient protection for both citizen and foreign workers on contract in the garment industry.

  12. Body mass index as predictor of carpal tunnel syndrome among garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Of the nerve entrapment syndromes the most well-known is the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS involving the median nerve. In the field of occupational medicine this condition is categorized as an occupational disease, for which industrial workers may claim compensation if the CTS occurs as a consequence of their job. However, although several occupational risk factors have been suggested as causing the development of CTS, a definitive role of work activities as the central cause of CTS is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both non-occupational and occupational factors associated with CTS in garment home-industry workers. A cross-sectional study was performed from April to June 2008 in the garment home industry in North Jakarta. A total of 99 workers, consisting of 45 males and 54 females were included in this study. Historical data were obtained from a self-administered detailed questionnaire, while anthropometric and provocative median nerve test variables were measured directly. The results showed that body mass index (BMI was a significant predictor of CTS in male workers (p=0.031, while the risk of CTS was three-fold higher in female workers using hormonal contraceptives (Prevalence Ratio/PR = 3.3 ; 95% Confidence of Interval/CI = 1.0 – 10.5. In conclusion it appears that BMI and hormonal contraceptive use were CTS predictors.

  13. Body mass index as predictor of carpal tunnel syndrome among garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T Merijanti S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the nerve entrapment syndromes the most well-known is the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS involving the median nerve. In the field of occupational medicine this condition is categorized as an occupational disease, for which industrial workers may claim compensation if the CTS occurs as a consequence of their job. However, although several occupational risk factors have been suggested as causing the development of CTS, a definitive role of work activities as the central cause of CTS is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both non-occupational and occupational factors associated with CTS in garment home-industry workers. A cross-sectional study was performed from April to June 2008 in the garment home industry in North Jakarta. A total of 99 workers, consisting of 45 males and 54 females were included in this study. Historical data were obtained from a self-administered detailed questionnaire, while anthropometric and provocative median nerve test variables were measured directly. The results showed that body mass index (BMI was a significant predictor of CTS in male workers (p=0.031, while the risk of CTS was three-fold higher in female workers using hormonal contraceptives (Prevalence Ratio/PR = 3.3 ; 95% Confidence of Interval/CI = 1.0 – 10.5. In conclusion it appears that BMI and hormonal contraceptive use were CTS predictors.

  14. Ergonomic Analysis of Garment Industry using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI in Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Muslim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research tried to study, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of four divisions in garment industry: cutting division, sewing division, button division, and finishing division. Variables that influence the working conditions in each division are different; depend on the real situations that happened. The purpose is to assess the real working conditions based on ergonomics  study  using Posture Evaluation Index (PEI. PEI integrates  the scores of  low back analysis (LBA, ovako working  posture  (OWAS,  and  rapid  upper  limb assessment  (RULA.  Analysis  phase  was  done  using  digital  human model  in  virtual  environment  that  available  on  Jack  6.0.  The  results show  that  the  working  conditions  in  garment industry had enough amount of risk that can injured the musculoskeletal system of the workers. This research enriches the  body  of  ergonomics  knowledge  in Indonesia  because  it  is  the  first  research  in  Indonesia that  applied  virtual environment approach to ergonomics analysis in industry.

  15. Effect of Lower Body Compression Garments on Hemodynamics in Response to Running Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Venckūnas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Compression garments are often worn during exercise and allegedly have ergogenic and/or physiological effects. In this study, we compared hemodynamics and running performance while wearing compression and loose-fit breeches. We hypothesized that in neutral-warm environment compression breeches impair performance by diminishing body cooling via evaporative sweat loss and redistributing blood from active musculature to skin leading to a larger rise in body temperature and prolonging recovery of hemodynamics after exercise. Methods. Changes in hemodynamics (leg blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure during orthoclinostatic test, calf muscle tissue oxygenation, and skin and core temperatures were measured in response to 30 min running (simulation of aerobic training session followed by maximal 400 m sprint (evaluation of running performance in recreationally active females (25.1±4.2 yrs; 63.0±8.6 kg wearing compression or loose-fit breeches in randomized fashion. Results. Wearing compression breeches resulted in larger skin temperature rise under the garment during exercise and recovery (by about 1°C, P 85%, while core temperature dynamics and other measured parameters including circulation, running performance, and sensations were similar compared to wearing loose-fit breeches (P>0.05. Conclusion. Compared with loose-fit breeches, compression breeches have neither positive nor negative physiological and performance effects for females running in thermoneutral environment.

  16. Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaya, Kasumi

    2002-01-01

    Female garment factory workers in Cambodia are more exposed to HIV/AIDS than previously thought. Although HIV/AIDS epidemics are fast spreading in Cambodia, relatively little is known about the sexual health of women other than those perceived as commercial sex workers or married women of reproductive age. In-depth interviews with 20 unmarried female garment factory workers, who reported to have engaged in multi-partnered sex through direct or discretionary commercial sex occupations, demonstrate that they are exposed to HIV-risk created along the gradients of power. Low socioeconomic status (low education, meager factory wage and high dependency rate at their rural households) and obligations as daughters to provide for the family mainly determine their entry into sex work. At the location of sex work, they are subjected to physical violence, alcohol and drug use, both self-taken and forced, and receive meager wages. In a society where women are expected to be virtuous and obedient to parents and husbands, these workers are motivated to identify male sex partners in paid sex as "sweethearts" rather than "guests." These factors contribute to low consistency of condom use. This paper demonstrates the complex interrelationships between power, cultural definitions of intimacy and economic dependency, which structure sexual relationships and the risk of HIV/AIDS.

  17. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  18. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  19. Study regarding the physical-mechanical properties of knits for garments – pilling performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea Alina Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pilling degradation results is an important decreasing in garment quality and a negative influence on the user’s comfort to wear. There are a lot factors, such as the yarn spinning system, fabric geometry and finishing operation, which affect the pilling performance. This research paper presents the investigation of fabric surface concerning pilling formation, especially knits, influenced by the fibrous composition. As samples were used knitted fabric panels, obtained from carded yarns, with fibers composition like cotton, wool or mixed one. Regarding fabric geometry 3 types were used – single jersey, 2x2 rib and moss stitch. In order to establish which of the yarns are most appropriate for knitting garments from the point of view of pilling resistance were realized tests using the standard SR EN ISO 12945-2.The tests were performed with the Nu-Martindale – Abrasion and Pilling Tester, Model 864.For assessment were used two methods – the first one is a comparison with visual standards, tested fabrics or photographs of fabrics, to find the degree of pilling on a scale from 5 (no pilling to 1 (very severe pilling and the second one by determination of mass loss percent.

  20. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  1. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  2. Simulation modelling of central order processing system under resource sharing strategy in demand-driven garment supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K.; Thomassey, S.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proposed a central order processing system under resource sharing strategy for demand-driven garment supply chains to increase supply chain performances. We examined this system by using simulation technology. Simulation results showed that significant improvement in various performance indicators was obtained in new collaborative model with proposed system.

  3. Percutaneous penetration of silver from a silver containing garment in healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluut, Olivier A.; Bianco, Carlotta; Jakasa, Ivone; Visser, Maaike J.; Krystek, Petra; Larese-Filon, Francesca; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Human data on dermal absorption of silver under "in use" scenario are scarce which hampers health risk assessment. The main objective of the present study was to determine percutaneous penetration of silver after dermal exposure to silver containing garment in healthy individuals and atopic

  4. National Workplace Literacy Program. Garment-Related Bilingual (English and Chinese) Broadcast Lessons. Book 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ha Yin

    A compilation of transcripts of 100 bilingual English/Chinese broadcast lessons for workers in the garment industry is presented. The lessons are part of the New York Chinatown Manpower Project's Workplace Literacy Program. With the support of the Sino Radio Broadcast Corporation, the lessons are broadcast daily in the morning and again after the…

  5. Comparison of three types of full-body compression garments on throwing and repeat-sprint performance in cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-07-01

    To compare the effects of three types of full-body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat-sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat-sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre-exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O(2) saturation and O(2) partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat-sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat-sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness.

  6. Method of and apparatus for cleaning garments and soft goods contaminated with nuclear, chemical and/or biological contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for decontaminating garments, soft good or mixtures thereof contaminated with radioactive particulates, toxin, chemical, and biological contaminants comprising the steps of: (a) depositing contaminated garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof in a cleaning drum; (b) charging the drum with a cleaning solvent in which the chemical contaminants are soluble; (c) agitating the drum during a wash cycle to separate radioactive, toxin, biological particulate matter of mixtures thereof from the garments; (d) draining the drum of the dry cleaning solvent which contains suspended particulate contaminants and dissolved chemical contaminants; (e) contacting the drained solvent with both a neutralizing agent and an oxidizing agent, the neutralizing agent being selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and mixtures thereof and having a concentration greater than one (1.0) normal; (f) rinsing the garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof by circulating clean solvent from a solvent tank through the drum thereby effecting additional removal and flushing of particulate and chemical contaminants; (g) filtering the circulated solvent to remove the particulate material suspended in the solvent prior to addition to the drum; and (h) preferentially adsorbing the chemical contaminants dissolved in the circulated solvent prior to addition to the drum

  7. Impact of using scatter-mimicking beams instead of standard beams to measure penetration when assessing the protective value of radiation-protective garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Pasciak, Alexander S; Wagner, Louis K

    2018-03-01

    Use standardized methods to determine how assessment of protective value of radiation-protective garments changes under conditions employing standard beam qualities, scatter-mimicking primary beams, and a modified H p (10) measurement. The shielding properties of radiation-protective garments depend on the spectrum of beam energies striking the garment and the attenuation properties of materials used to construct the garment, including x-ray fluorescence produced by these materials. In this study the primary beam spectra employed during clinical interventional radiology and cardiology procedures (clinical primary beams, CPB) were identified using radiation dose structured reports (RDSR) and fluoroscope log data. Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the scattered radiation spectra produced by these CPB during typical clinical application. For these scattered spectra, scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) were determined using numerical optimization-based spectral reconstruction that adjusted kV and filtration to produce the SMPB that optimally matched the scattered spectrum for each CPB. The penetration of a subset of SMPB through four radiation-protective garments of varying compositions and nominal thicknesses was measured using a geometry specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), which increases with increasing penetration through a garment, was calculated using these measurements. Penetration through the same garments was measured for standard beams specified by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Finally, 10 mm of PMMA was affixed to the inside of each garment and the DRIP remeasured in this configuration to simulate H p (10). The SMPB based on actual CPB were in general characterized by lower kV (range 60-76) and higher half-value layer (HVL, range 3.44-4.89 mm Al) than standard beam qualities specified by ASTM (kV range 70-85; HVL range 3.4-4.0 mm Al

  8. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  9. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  10. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  11. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  12. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  13. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  14. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  15. Health care's 100 most wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  16. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  17. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  18. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  20. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the United...

  1. Influence of socio-demographic factors on awareness of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi garment workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Atm Hasibul; Hassan, Rashedul; Khan, Zillur Rahman; Nuzhat, Elham; Arefin, Uditi

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to assess the level of awareness on HIV/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and the Influence of different socio-demographic factors among the garment workers in Bangladesh. This cross sectional study was carried out among 303 workers in three selected garment factories in Dhaka city from July 2010 to June 1011. Data were collected by face to face interview through a predesigned questionnaire containing desired information. The majority of workers (76.6%) were within the 17-19 years age group. The female respondents predominated (55.1%). A considerable number of the sample population (39.3%) completed the primary education. But majority belonged to low income group (68.4%), followed by the very low income group (22.4%). Almost everyone (98.3%) except five of the respondents heard the word HIV/AIDS and most of them (90.6%) knew that the disease is transmissible from person to person and mainly by sexual intercourse (78.9%). Only 28.2% had some idea about the sign symptoms of HIV. About (64.4%) thought that persons having heterosexual partners (including prostitutes) are high-risk groups. Though many (74.2%) of the respondents thought that HIV/AIDS is preventable, only 45% said HIV/AIDS is not curable. But 70.5% answered that death is the ultimate fate. The main source of information was radio/TV, newspaper. Unfortunately, 76.9% of the respondents had poor awareness while only 10.6% had good awareness. The level of awareness increased with age (p = aware than the female, the relationship is not statistically significant (p= > 0.05). Awareness among S.S.C. passed and above is quite more than the awareness of illiterate (p = 0.05) of level of family income and living pattern with level of awareness. Even being a risk group the garment workers not much aware of HIV/AIDS. The level of awareness increased with age and literacy, which shows the window of opportunity for the policymakers that educational intervention program, may be effective

  2. Thermoregulatory and Perceptual Effects of a Percooling Garment Worn Underneath an American Football Uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Megan L; Miller, Kevin C; Zuhl, Micah N

    2017-11-01

    Keen, ML, Miller, KC, and Zuhl, MN. Thermoregulatory and perceptual effects of a percooling garment worn underneath an American football uniform. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2983-2991, 2017-American football athletes are at the highest risk of developing exertional heat illness (EHI). We investigated whether percooling (i.e., cooling during exercise) garments affected perceptual or physiological variables in individuals exercising in the heat while wearing football uniforms. Twelve male participants (age = 24 ± 4 year, mass = 80.1 ± 8.5 kg, height = 182.5 ± 10.4 cm) completed this cross-over, counterbalanced study. On day 1, we measured peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2). On days 2 and 3, participants wore percooling garments with (ICE) or without (CON) ice packs over the femoral and brachial arteries. They donned a football uniform and completed 3, 20-minute bouts of treadmill exercise at ∼50% of peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (∼33° C, ∼42% relative humidity) followed by a 10-minute rest period. Ice packs were replaced every 20 minutes. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, and thirst sensation were measured before and after each exercise bout. Environmental symptoms questionnaire (ESQ) responses and urine specific gravity (Usg) were measured pretesting and after the last exercise bout. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, change in heart rate (ΔHR), and change in rectal temperature (ΔTrec) were measured every 5 minutes. Sweat rate, sweat volume, and percent hypohydration were calculated. No interactions (F17,187 ≤ 1.6, p ≥ 0.1) or main effect of cooling condition (F1,11 ≤ 1.4, p ≥ 0.26) occurred for ΔTrec, ΔHR, thermal sensation, thirst, RPE, ESQ, or Usg. No differences between conditions occurred for sweat volume, sweat rate, or percent hypohydration (t11 ≤ 0.7, p ≥ 0.25). V[Combining Dot Above]O2 differed between conditions over time (F15,165 = 3.3, p football athletes.

  3. Intelligent Medical Garments with Graphene-Functionalized Smart-Cloth ECG Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Murat Kaya; Alkhidir, Tamador Elboshra

    2017-01-01

    Biopotential signals are recorded mostly by using sticky, pre-gelled electrodes, which are not ideal for wearable, point-of-care monitoring where the usability of the personalized medical device depends critically on the level of comfort and wearability of the electrodes. We report a fully-wearable medical garment for mobile monitoring of cardiac biopotentials from the wrists or the neck with minimum restriction to regular clothing habits. The wearable prototype is based on elastic bands with graphene functionalized, textile electrodes and battery-powered, low-cost electronics for signal acquisition and wireless transmission. Comparison of the electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings obtained from the wearable prototype against conventional wet electrodes indicate excellent conformity and spectral coherence among the two signals. PMID:28420158

  4. Leather for motorcyclist garments: Multi-test based material model fitting in terms of Ogden parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bońkowski T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on experimental testing and modeling of genuine leather used for a motorcycle personal protective equipment. Simulations of powered two wheelers (PTW accidents are usually performed using human body models (HBM for the injury assessment equipped only with the helmet model. However, the kinematics of the PTW rider during a real accident is disturbed by the stiffness of his suit, which is normally not taken into account during the reconstruction or simulation of the accident scenario. The material model proposed in this paper can be used in numerical simulations of crash scenarios that include the effect of motorcyclist rider garment. The fitting procedure was conducted on 2 sets of samples: 5 uniaxial samples and 5 biaxial samples. The experimental characteristics were used to obtain the set of 25 constitutive material models in terms of Ogden parameters.

  5. Cohort mortality study of garment industry workers exposed to formaldehyde: update and internal comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alysha R; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Hein, Misty J

    2013-09-01

    To further evaluate the association between formaldehyde and leukemia, we extended follow-up through 2008 for a cohort mortality study of 11,043 US formaldehyde-exposed garment workers. We computed standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios stratified by year of first exposure, exposure duration, and time since first exposure. Associations between exposure duration and rates of leukemia and myeloid leukemia were further examined using Poisson regression models. Compared to the US population, myeloid leukemia mortality was elevated but overall leukemia mortality was not. In internal analyses, overall leukemia mortality increased with increasing exposure duration and this trend was statistically significant. We continue to see limited evidence of an association between formaldehyde and leukemia. However, the extended follow-up did not strengthen previously observed associations. In addition to continued epidemiologic research, we recommend further research to evaluate the biological plausibility of a causal relation between formaldehyde and leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Uttama; Ansary, Mehedi Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Workplace safety is one of the most important issues in industries worldwide, and is endangered by industrial accidents. Different industrial disasters have resulted in several initiatives worldwide to protect human life and reduce material damage, both nationally and internationally. In Bangladesh, the ready-made garment (RMG) industry is one of the most important export-oriented business sectors, which is facing challenges to ensure workplace safety. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh is the consequence of such non-compliance. The accident resulted in different local and global initiatives to address the challenges. This article reviews progress and achievement of the initiatives to reduce vulnerability in the Bangladesh RMG industry within 3 years after the deadly accident. In the long run, the challenge is to maintain momentum already created for achieving sustainability in the RMG sector in Bangladesh and maintaining compliance even after the end of support from external partners.

  7. A novel study on UV protection and antibacterial properties of washed denim garment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Md. Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On this planet, many investigations are applied to switch conventional chemical cloth techniques via eco-pleasant and economically attractive bioprocesses using enzymes. The present study offers an enzymatic washing system using enzyme (Cellzyme SPL H/C for boosting the ultraviolet and antimicrobial undertaking of denim garments. Experimental results showed that the 4.0% o.w.f enzyme awareness furnished a greater UPF than the other concentrations and before washed. Results divulge that enzyme (Cellzyme SPL H/C not handiest preserve the fabric surface from UV degradation but also performed extended degree of antibacterial endeavour in opposition to some species of bacteria that leading to act as a nice antibacterial agent on the denim materials. The enzyme washing healing diminished the skin hairiness and accelerated the skin evenness of the denim fibres as shown by means of SEM measurements.

  8. THE SEARCHING OF DIMENSIONAL CHANGES ON THE KNITTED FABRICS AND GARMENTS AFTER WASHING AND DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha DEMİRHAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the dimensional changes of the fabrics of the textile materials such as fabrics remain in limits after washing. Especially at the export markets the dimensional stability is the most important factor of quality. Therefore; some standarts regarding the dimensional changes which can occur during washing for the knitted and woven fabrics had been agreed in the world and also in our country. When mentioning about "the dimensional changes after washing" we usually think of the length shrinkages or shortening which the fabric is mostly stretched on the length dırectıon. This explaines us where the most problems come from. In this study the dimensional changes of the various fabrics which occurs during line-dry and tumble dry process after washing has been examined and evaluated. Beside this, the shrinkages of the garments made from this fabrics after washing and ironing has been searched.

  9. 3D Product Development for Loose-Fitting Garments Based on Parametric Human Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, S.; Siegmund, J.

    2017-10-01

    Researchers and commercial suppliers worldwide pursue the objective of achieving a more transparent garment construction process that is computationally linked to a virtual body, in order to save development costs over the long term. The current aim is not to transfer the complete pattern making step to a 3D design environment but to work out basic constructions in 3D that provide excellent fit due to their accurate construction and morphological pattern grading (automatic change of sizes in 3D) in respect of sizes and body types. After a computer-aided derivation of 2D pattern parts, these can be made available to the industry as a basis on which to create more fashionable variations.

  10. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  11. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency and low bone status in adult female garment factory workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kemi, Virpi; Nevanlinna, Antti; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Laaksonen, Marika; Jehan, Atia H; Jahan, Khurshid; Khan, Habib Ullah; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2008-06-01

    The manufacture of garments is the main industry in Bangladesh and employs 1.6 million female workers. Due to the indoor lifestyle and low dietary intake of calcium, we hypothesised that they are at risk of low vitamin D and bone mineral status. Two hundred female garment workers (aged 18-36 years) were randomly selected. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), serum calcium (S-Ca), serum phosphate (S-P) concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity (S-ALP) were measured from fasting samples. Bone indexes of hip and spine were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean S-25OHD (36.7 nmol/l) was low compared to that recommended for vitamin D sufficiency. About 16% of the subjects were found to be vitamin D-deficient (S-25OHD 21 ng/l) was associated with progressive reduction in bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. According to the WHO criteria, the mean T-score of the femoral neck and lumbar spine of the subjects were within osteopenic range. We observed that subjects with a bone mineral density T-score < -2.5 had a trend of lower values of BMI, waist-hip circumference, mid-upper-arm circumference, S-25OHD and higher S-iPTH and S-ALP. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and low bone mineral density among these subjects are indicative of higher risk for osteomalacia or osteoporosis and fracture.

  13. Radiation attenuation by lead and nonlead materials used in radiation shielding garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Shen, H.; Downton, B.; Mainegra-Hing, E.

    2007-01-01

    The attenuating properties of several types of lead (Pb)-based and non-Pb radiation shielding materials were studied and a correlation was made of radiation attenuation, materials properties, calculated spectra and ambient dose equivalent. Utilizing the well-characterized x-ray and gamma ray beams at the National Research Council of Canada, air kerma measurements were used to compare a variety of commercial and pre-commercial radiation shielding materials over mean energy ranges from 39 to 205 keV. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user code cavity.cpp was extended to provide computed spectra for a variety of elements that have been used as a replacement for Pb in radiation shielding garments. Computed air kerma values were compared with experimental values and with the SRS-30 catalogue of diagnostic spectra available through the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine Report 78. In addition to garment materials, measurements also included pure Pb sheets, allowing direct comparisons to the common industry standards of 0.25 and 0.5 mm 'lead equivalent'. The parameter 'lead equivalent' is misleading, since photon attenuation properties for all materials (including Pb) vary significantly over the energy spectrum, with the largest variations occurring in the diagnostic imaging range. Furthermore, air kerma measurements are typically made to determine attenuation properties without reference to the measures of biological damage such as ambient dose equivalent, which also vary significantly with air kerma over the diagnostic imaging energy range. A single material or combination cannot provide optimum shielding for all energy ranges. However, appropriate choice of materials for a particular energy range can offer significantly improved shielding per unit mass over traditional Pb-based materials

  14. Pilot Field Test: Use of a Compression Garment During a Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Cerisano, J.; Kofman, I.; Reschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a concern for astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. One countermeasure that has been used to protect against OI after short-duration bed rest and space flight is the use of lower body and abdominal compression garments. However, since the end of the Space Shuttle era we have not been able to test crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing on Earth. NASA's Pilot Field Test provided us the opportunity to test cardiovascular responses of crewmembers wearing the Russian Kentavr compression garment during a stand test at multiple time points throughout the first 24 hours after landing. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that the Kentavr compression garment would prevent an increase in heart rate (HR) >15 bpm during a 3.5-min stand test. METHODS: The Pilot Field Test was conducted up to 3 times during the first 24 hours after crewmembers returned to Earth: (1) either in a tent adjacent to the Soyuz landing site in Kazakhstan (approx.1 hr) or after transportation to the Karaganda airport (approx. 4 hr); (2) during a refueling stop in Scotland (approx.12 hr); and (3) upon return to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) (approx.24 hr). We measured HR and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) for 2 min while the crewmember was prone and throughout 3.5 min of quiet standing. Eleven crewmembers consented to participate; however, 2 felt too ill to start the test and 1 stopped 30 sec into the stand portion of the test. Of the remaining 8 crewmembers, 2 did not wear the Russian Kentavr compression garment. Because of inclement weather at the landing site, 5 crewmembers were flown by helicopter to the Karaganda airport before initial testing and received intravenous saline before completing the stand test. One of these crewmembers wore only the portion of the Russian Kentavr compression garment that covered the lower leg and thus lacked thigh and abdominal compression. All crewmembers continued wearing the Russian Kentavr

  15. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  16. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  17. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  18. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  19. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  20. Muscle Performance Investigated With a Novel Smart Compression Garment Based on Pressure Sensor Force Myography and Its Validation Against EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Belbasis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscle activity and fatigue performance parameters were obtained and compared between both a smart compression garment and the gold-standard, a surface electromyography (EMG system during high-speed cycling in seven participants. The smart compression garment, based on force myography (FMG, comprised of integrated pressure sensors that were sandwiched between skin and garment, located on five thigh muscles. The muscle activity was assessed by means of crank cycle diagrams (polar plots that displayed the muscle activity relative to the crank cycle. The fatigue was assessed by means of the median frequency of the power spectrum of the EMG signal; the fractal dimension (FD of the EMG signal; and the FD of the pressure signal. The smart compression garment returned performance parameters (muscle activity and fatigue comparable to the surface EMG. The major differences were that the EMG measured the electrical activity, whereas the pressure sensor measured the mechanical activity. As such, there was a phase shift between electrical and mechanical signals, with the electrical signals preceding the mechanical counterparts in most cases. This is specifically pronounced in high-speed cycling. The fatigue trend over the duration of the cycling exercise was clearly reflected in the fatigue parameters (FDs and median frequency obtained from pressure and EMG signals. The fatigue parameter of the pressure signal (FD showed a higher time dependency (R2 = 0.84 compared to the EMG signal. This reflects that the pressure signal puts more emphasis on the fatigue as a function of time rather than on the origin of fatigue (e.g., peripheral or central fatigue. In light of the high-speed activity results, caution should be exerted when using data obtained from EMG for biomechanical models. In contrast to EMG data, activity data obtained from FMG are considered more appropriate and accurate as an input for biomechanical modeling as they truly reflect the mechanical

  1. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams

    Full Text Available Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.

  3. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus surface antigen among the workers in a garment factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out the prevalence of seropositivity and risk factors associated with hepatitis B virus infection. A total of 2,737 readymade garment workers were initially screened after getting departmental as well as the individuals consent and simultaneously a questionnaire was filled up by the field research assistants to assess the risk factors. Initially 59 cases were found positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg by immunochromato-graphic test. Enzyme linked immunosorbant technique was then applied to the screened positive HBsAg individuals and four cases turned out as negative and therefore a total of 55  HBsAg positive cases were detected in this factory. Statistically significant risk factors associated with HBsAg positivity were jaundice, history of previous surgery and accident, needle stick injuries and unsafe injections. This study concludes that the seropositivity found garment workers is similar to the general population of Bangladesh.

  5. The Social Shaping of Environmental Mangement based on ISO 14001 in Danish and Thai Textile and Garment Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Chandrachai, A.; Bunbongkarn, C.

    2003-01-01

    The social shaping of ISO 14001 in Danish and Thai textile and garment sectors is discussed based on Danish case studies and evaluations and a Thai focus group interview. The precentage of ISO 14001 certified companies in the sectors are five times higher in Denmark, but covers only around 5...... about the interpretation of the regulation. In Denmark problems with the balance between consultant support and company-internal competence development are seen. The focus of ISO 14001 is more life cycle oriented in Denmark due to international policy and the manufacturing of textile and garment outside...... Denmark. A combined focus on ISO 14001 covering the interests of the companies in industrialised, developing and newly industrialised countries might be found through negotiations....

  6. A Case Study of Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC Methodology in Garment Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the empirical application of Six Sigma and Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC methodology to reduce product defects within a garments manufacturing organization in Bangladesh which follows the DMAIC methodology to investigate defects, root causes and provide a solution to eliminate these defects. The analysis from employing Six Sigma and DMAIC indicated that the broken stitch and open seam influenced the number of defective products. Design of experiments (DOE and the analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques were combined to statistically determine the correlation of the broken stitch and open seam with defects as well as to define their optimum values needed to eliminate the defects. Thus, a reduction of about 35% in the garments defect was achieved, which helped the organization studied to reduce its defects and thus improve its Sigma level from 1.7 to 3.4.

  7. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  8. A new method for determining extra time by considering ergonomic loads in the garment and metal working industries

    OpenAIRE

    Verhovnik, Vekoslav; Polajnar, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    The changing labour conditions in the garment and metal-working industries have led to the necessity of determining new extra times to establish the time standard. In this paper, a method of measuring stress and strain imposed upon the operator in new working conditions by determining the additional production coefficient is presented. The method gives criteria and grades to assess stress at the workplace. Physical stress (dynamic and static), thermal and visual stress, discomfort caused by n...

  9. Political crisis and suspension of duty-free access in Madagascar : assessment of impacts on the garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunishi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The export-oriented garment industry in Madagascar has displayed robust growth, thus both contributing to the economy and creating formal employment opportunities. However, it experienced a critical situation after the political turmoil that occurred in 2009. Our investigation using the trade data demonstrates that suspension of duty-free access to the US market (AGOA) resulting from the turmoil had a greater impact on exports, 64%–78% reduction, than the turmoil itself. Our original factory-...

  10. Comparison of three types of full‐body compression garments on throwing and repeat‐sprint performance in cricket players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of three types of full‐body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat‐sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Methods Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat‐sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre‐exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O2 saturation and O2 partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. Results No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat‐sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). Conclusions No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat‐sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness. PMID:17341589

  11. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  12. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  13. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  14. Decent Work in the Chinese Apparel Industry: Comparative Analysis of Blue-Collar and White-Collar Garment Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Addressing labor issues in the apparel industry is significantly important due to customers’ increasing awareness of poor working conditions and growing labor crises in apparel production locations worldwide. Decent work is a key element to achieving fair and harmonious employment, but is not always evident in global apparel production networks. This study examines the working conditions in China’s garment manufacturing industry, which employs more than 10 million workers. A survey was administered to 313 blue-collar workers and 228 white-collar workers on issues related to decent work, including workers’ concerns, satisfaction levels and attitudes towards decent work. Regression analysis showed that workers’ attitudes are significantly related to age, education level, service length and monthly wage. Gap analysis revealed poor understanding of decent work and low satisfaction with primary indicators of decent work. However, results suggest that workers increasingly value soft factors and the overall work experience, not only financial benefits. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of workers. This study contributes to understanding garment worker perceptions of decent work and provides implications for the operationalization of decent work in China’s garment manufacturing industry.

  15. AXIOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING (THE EXAMPLE OF BACHELOR PROGRAMS IN THE FIELD OF THE GARMENT INDUSTRY PRODUCTS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Rosnovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to review and study the significance of an axiological component and its mechanisms implementation for bachelor vocational training in the field of designing garment industry products.Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature, as well as modeling and classification methods.Scientific novelty and results. An independent axiological component based on structural and content analysis of a clothes designer’s professional work is identified; the content of this component is justified and determined. The substantive characteristics of clothes designer professional competencies are determined in terms of the axiological component. The education objectives aimed at forming the axiological component of Bachelors’ of garment design competencies are classified in correlation with the functions of training. Activity-related information and specifications necessary for values related to actual practice are identified, including channels and mechanisms of translation values in the vocational education process. A model of the educational situation is elaborated, which is proposed to be used as an orientation basis for designing specific educational situations, adequate to this or that kind of value experience. The dialogue activity is shown as the most favorable environment and a form of student activities organization in the development of emotionally-valuable experience.Practical significance. The article is supposed to be used while the training process for the garment industry and the fashion industry staff.

  16. Influence of different types of compression garments on exercise-induced muscle damage markers after a soccer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués-Jiménez, Diego; Calleja-González, Julio; Arratibel-Imaz, Iñaki; Delextrat, Anne; Uriarte, Fernando; Terrados, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    There is not enough evidence of positive effects of compression therapy on the recovery of soccer players after matches. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the influence of different types of compression garments in reducing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) during recovery after a friendly soccer match. Eighteen semi-professional soccer players (24 ± 4.07 years, 177 ± 5 cm; 71.8 ± 6.28 kg and 22.73 ± 1.81 BMI) participated in this study. A two-stage crossover design was chosen. Participants acted as controls in one match and were assigned to an experimental group (compression stockings group, full-leg compression group, shorts group) in the other match. Participants in experimental groups played the match wearing the assigned compression garments, which were also worn in the 3 days post-match, for 7 h each day. Results showed a positive, but not significant, effect of compression garments on attenuating EIMD biomarkers response, and inflammatory and perceptual responses suggest that compression may improve physiological and psychological recovery.

  17. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  18. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  19. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  20. Pengendalian Kualitas Produk Di Industri Garment Dengan Menggunakan Statistical Procces Control (SPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Rachman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Perusahaan memandang bahwa kualitas sebagai faktor kunci yang membawa keberhasilan dan standar mutu yang telah ditetapkan oleh buyer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerusakan produk dalam batas pengendalian kualitas pada proses produksi pakaian jadi pada PT. Asia Penta Garment. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode statistical procces control. Data yang diambil dalam penelitian ini mengunakan data sekunder berupa laporan jumlah produksi dan kerusakan pakaian jadi di bagian finishing pada Januari 2017. Berdasarkan hasil menunjukkan kerusakan diluar batas pengendalian yaitu ada yang diluar batas kendali (out of control dengan batas pengendalian atas (UCL dan batas pengendalian bawah (LCL dan rata-rata kerusakan diluar batas kendali.Untuk meningkatkan kualitas produk khususnya pakaian yang dihasilkan perusahaan, kebijakan mutu yang telah ditetapkan harus dijalankan dengan benar, antara lain dalam pemilihan negoisasi bahan baku dengan buyer sesuai standar, perekrutan tenaga kerja yang berpengalaman, kedisiplinan kerja yang tinggi, pembinaan para karyawan, pemberian bonus pada karyawan yang sesuai target dan disiplin tinggi, perbaikan mesin secara terus menerus dan memperbaiki lingkungan kerja yang bersih, nyaman, serta aman.   Kata Kunci : Pengendalian kualitas, Kualitas produk, SPC. Abstract The Company considers that quality as a key factor that brings success and quality standards set by the buyer. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of damage to the product within the limits of quality control in the production process apparel in PT. Asia Penta Garment. This study uses a statistical procces control methode. Data taken in this study using secondary data from reports on the number of production and damage to clothing in the finishing section in January 2017. Based on the results show the damage outside the control limits is nothing beyond the control limit (out of control with the upper control limit

  1. Experimental study on the performance of a liquid cooling garment with the application of MEPCMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Liang; Bai, Lizhan; Lin, Guiping; Bu, Xueqin; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MEPCMS was applied in a liquid cooling garment for space applications. • Extensive experimental study on the performance of the LCG was conducted. • LCG was assessed by heat dissipation, temperature control and thermal comfort. • Proper match of relevant parameters was crucial in enhancing LCG performance. • 26% enhancement in heat dissipation was achieved by MEPCMS compared to water. - Abstract: As a novel working fluid, microencapsulated phase change material suspension (MEPCMS) exhibits obvious superiority in both heat transfer and temperature control compared with traditional ones. In this paper, extensive experimental study on the performance of a liquid cooling garment (LCG) with the application of this novel working fluid was conducted for future space applications. The main task for a LCG is to efficiently collect, transport and dissipate the metabolic heat produced from the human body. In the experiment, a thermal manikin was employed to simulate the human body, and the performance of the LCG with MEPCMS as the working fluid was evaluated by a variety of aspects such as heat dissipation, temperature control, pump power consumption and thermal comfort under both steady state and transient conditions. Experimental results show that the inlet temperature, mass flowrate and volume concentration of the MEPCMS are three key parameters affecting the performance of the LCG, which can be enhanced significantly by a proper combination of these parameters. Otherwise, the performance of the LCG will deteriorate or even be worse than that using water as the working fluid. When the inlet temperature, mass flowrate and volume concentration of the MEPCMS were selected as 11 °C, 200 g/min and 20% respectively, the heat dissipation of the LCG was enhanced by up to 26% with no obvious increase of the pump power compared with that using water as the working fluid, the temperature distribution in the human body became more uniform, and the capability

  2. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  3. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  4. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  5. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  6. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  7. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  8. Nanocomposite electrodes for smartphone enabled healthcare garments: e-bra and smart vest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    The financial burden of hospital readmissions and treatment of chronic cardiac diseases are global concerns. Point of Care (POC) has been presented as an elegant solution for healthcare cost reduction. However, large scale adoption of POC systems requires an intuitive, unobtrusive and easy to use health monitoring system from patient's perspective. Healthcare textiles are sensor systems mounted on textile platform that function as wearable unobtrusive health monitoring systems. Although much work has been done in the development and demonstration of textile mounted monitoring systems, material and production costs are still high. Nanomaterials based devices and technology can be employed in these healthcare textiles for improved electrical characteristics of the sensors, lowered cost due to less material consumption and compatibility to varied manufacturing techniques. Carbon nanotube composite ink based printable conductive electrodes is such a textile adaptable nanomaterial technology. Screen printed Nanocomposite electrodes made of carbon nanotubes and an acrylic polymer can be used in undergarments like vests and brassieres, for cardiac biopotential (Electrocardiography, ECG) sensing. A Bluetooth module and a smartphone can then be used to provide cyber-infrastructure connectivity for the healthcare data from these healthcare garments. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. In this study, we evaluate screen printed CNT-acrylic Nanocomposite electrodes for ECG signal quality and any CNT leaching hazard that might lead to skin toxicity.

  9. Tuberculosis in the workplace: developing partnerships with the garment industries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar Ullah, A N; Huque, R; Husain, A; Akter, S; Akter, H; Newell, J N

    2012-12-01

    To implement and evaluate a public-private partnership model involving garment factories to reduce the tuberculosis (TB) burden in this workforce. We used operational research to develop and evaluate a mechanism for effective and sustainable TB control in workplaces in three areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Strategies, protocols, guides and tools were developed with stakeholders. We assessed the impact of the project using quantitative and qualitative measures: changes in TB outcomes were calculated using standard indicators based on factory and DOTS centre records; changes in TB care-seeking behaviour were assessed using qualitative in-depth interviews with factory managers and medical personnel, and focus group discussions with factory workers, including TB patients. The project brought positive changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices of managers, workers and health care providers on TB care and control. During 2008-2010, a total of 3372 workers from a workforce of 69,000 were referred for sputum microscopy and 598 were diagnosed with smear-positive TB, 145 of whom received care at their workplace. The overall treatment success rate was 100%. It is feasible to engage factories in TB control activities in Bangladesh, and thereby increase case notifications and improve treatment outcomes.

  10. Application of Lean Manufacturing Tools in a Garment Industry as a Strategy for Productivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Nunesca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use and apply lean tools as ways of improving manufacturing systems that lead to reduction of wastes and standardization of cycle time. Model A in Line 1 at sewing section was the focus of the study. The researcher used questionnaires, 5S Audit checklists, and Time Study forms in information-gathering and cycle time-computation. Based on the observation done, the company does not have a standard operation time. Similarly, the researcher observed non-value activities such as unnecessary transportation and manual counting, and there were also product defects due to poor 5S and WIP inventories. After considering lean tools, using process flow and cycle time analysis, the standard time was determined. Likewise, the non-value added activities were reduced, thus productivity was improved. After lean implementation, 100% efficiency was achieved, the rejection rate was reduced to 0.08% and zero WIP inventories in Line 1 became a practice. Lean tools brought significant changes in providing smooth process flow and productive operations, which in turn, give a remarkable contribution in achieving company’s goals, focus on the customers, giving quality products at the right time and at the right place. Therefore, the full implementation of BY Garments would contribute in gaining more profits.

  11. DETERMINING THE NEED FOR ZERO SERIES EXECUTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN THE TEXTILE GARMENT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan Pave

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the industrial production requires the application of some transformation procedures on the material resources, so that a clothing product comes out with optimal use value in terms of maximum economic efficiency, one of the main influencial factors is the quality of the products. To make manufacturing processes more efficient, it is necessary to carry out the zero series in order to ensure the quality of the technological processes, as well as to prevent some design deficiencies. Among the main operations undertaken to ensure the quality of the zero series, we mention: creating the conditions for launch, tracking and finalizing the accompanying production documents under similar series production conditions; zero-series producers are usually the same workers who make up the series production line; equipping with the appropriate equipment and providing with necessary devices in order to create the technical conditions for the execution of the zero series; providing technical assistance in relation to manufacturing and control documentation for eliminating the design deficiencies. This paper presents the architecture of the zero series execution in manufacturing processes in the textile garment industry. The information obtained from the zero-series analysis is directed to the technical support, for possible corrections of the patterns according to which the products were manufactured.

  12. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  13. Experimentally Determined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt; Vonaue, Walt; Conger, Bruce; Stein, James

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flow rate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  14. SIMPLE METHODS FOR INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY IN A WORKSHOP OF TEXTILE GARMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based mainly on experience and is the result of optimization analysis of work operations in departments that make clothing products, with maximum 200 workers and financially unable to invest in expensive technical equipment. The analysis takes the problem of increasing productivity for some work operations, such as the operation of the realization of loops, cutting them to the required size, forming packages, for their application to the top of the pants. The analysis performed was concerned not only with increasing productivity but also to create better working conditions for workers. Of course, through a thorough analysis can be improved and other working methods. Ergonomic workplace organization, centralization of operations or handling study due to their repetitiveness, can result in significant savings of time working. Equally it may affect the operations times for making garments and methods of employment with cut marks and accessories needed, or how to discharge processed workpiece. This paper outlines some options for improving the performance of companies producing textiles, in idea of increasing labor productivity and product quality. Even if a firm producing textiles, has sufficient financial resources for modern equipment, the studies conducted by experts, can brings improvements in working time and this without high costs.

  15. Upper Body Compression Garment: Physiological Effects While Cycling in a Hot Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoz-Abaurrea, Iker; Aguado-Jiménez, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of an upper body compression garment (UBCG) on physiologic and perceptual responses while cycling in a hot environment. Twenty recreational road cyclists were pair-matched for age, anthropometric data, and fitness level (V̇O 2max ) and randomly assigned to a control (CON) group (n=10) of cyclists who wore a conventional t-shirt or to a group (n=10) of cyclists who wore UBCG. Test session consisted of cycling at a fixed load (~50% V̇O 2max ) for 30 minutes at an ambient temperature of ~40ºC (39.9±0.4ºC), followed by 10 minutes of recovery. Significantly greater (P = .002) rectal temperature (T rec ) was observed at the end of exercise in the UBCG group (38.3±0.2ºC) versus CON group (37.9±0.3ºC). Significantly greater heart rate (HR) was observed in the UBCG group at minute 15 (P = .01) and at the end of exercise (187±9 vs 173±10 beats/min; P = .004) for UBCG and CON, respectively. Furthermore, participants who wore UBCG perceived a significantly greater (P = .03) thermal sensation at the end of exercise. During recovery HR and T rec remained significantly greater (P cycling in a hot environment and did not aid during recovery. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of wearing compression garments on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity in temperate environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K

    2009-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (pteam sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.

  17. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  18. THE CHALLENGES IN THE ESTIMATION OF THE EFFECTIVE DOSE WHEN WEARING RADIOPROTECTIVE GARMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga Vargas, C; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a single or double dosimetry (SD or DD) algorithm on estimating effective dose wearing radioprotective garments (ERPG) depends on the specific irradiation conditions. This study investigates the photon energies and angles of incidence for which the estimation of ERPG with the personal dose equivalents measured over and under the RPG (Ho and Hu) becomes more challenging. The energy and angular dependences of ERPG, Ho and Hu were Monte Carlo calculated for photon exposures. The personal dosimeter of SCK · CEN was modeled and used to determine Ho and Hu. Different SD and DD algorithms were tested and critical exposure conditions were identified. Moreover, the influence of calibration methods was investigated for the SCK · CEN dosimeter when worn over RPG. We found that the accuracy with which ERPG is calculated using SD and DD is strongly dependent on the energy and angle of incidence of photons. Also, the energy of the photon beam used to calibrate the Ho dosimeter can bias the estimation of ERPG. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulate Contaminant In and On Clean Room Garments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of detachable particulate contaminant 5 m or larger, in and on the fabric of clean room garments. 1.2 This test method does not apply to nonporous fabrics such as Tyvek or Gortex. It only applies to fabrics that are porous such as cotton or polyester. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This test method provides not only the traditional optical microscopic analysis but also a size distribution and surface obscuration analysis for particles on a fine-textured membrane filter or in a tape lift sample. It utilizes transmitted illumination to render all particles darker than the background for gray level detection. Particles collected on opaque plates must be transferred to a suitable membrane filter. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associat...

  20. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  1. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements. In...

  2. Automatic inspection of railway overhead wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, C.; Valkenburg, A.L.G. van

    1988-01-01

    For the Netherlands railway company a system for inspection of the degree of wear of the contact wires is being developed. With an active sensor the reflective under-surface of the overhead wire is illuminated with a laserbeam and reflected radiation is detected by fast CCD detectors. With the

  3. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  4. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  5. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  6. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  7. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of silk therapeutic garments for the management of atopic eczema in children: the CLOTHES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kim S; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Sach, Tracey H; Cowdell, Fiona; Batchelor, Jonathan M; Lawton, Sandra; Harrison, Eleanor F; Haines, Rachel H; Ahmed, Amina; Dean, Taraneh; Burrows, Nigel P; Pollock, Ian; Buckley, Hannah K; Williams, Hywel C; Llewellyn, Joanne; Crang, Clare; Grundy, Jane D; Guiness, Juliet; Gribbin, Andrew; Wake, Eileen V; Mitchell, Eleanor J; Brown, Sara J; Montgomery, Alan A

    2017-04-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic, itchy, inflammatory skin condition that affects the quality of life of children and their families. The role of specialist clothing in the management of AE is poorly understood. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of silk garments for the management of AE in children with moderate to severe disease. Parallel-group, observer-blind, randomised controlled trial of 6 months' duration, followed by a 2-month observational period. A nested qualitative study evaluated the beliefs of trial participants, health-care professionals and health-care commissioners about the use of silk garments for AE. Secondary care and the community in five UK centres. Children aged 1-15 years with moderate or severe AE. Participants were randomised (1 : 1 using online randomisation) to standard care or standard care plus 100% silk garments made from antimicrobially protected knitted sericin-free silk [DermaSilk TM (AlPreTec Srl, San Donà di Piave, Italy) or DreamSkin TM (DreamSkin Health Ltd, Hatfield, UK)]. Three sets of garments were supplied per participant, to be worn for up to 6 months (day and night). At 6 months the standard care group received the garments to use for the remaining 2-month observational period. Primary outcome - AE severity using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) assessed at 2, 4 and 6 months, by nurses blinded to treatment allocation. EASI scores were log-transformed for analysis. Secondary outcomes - patient-reported eczema symptoms (Patient Oriented Eczema Measure); global assessment of severity (Investigator Global Assessment); quality of life of the child (Atopic Dermatitis Quality of Life, Child Health Utility - 9 Dimensions), family (Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaire) and main carer (EuroQoL-5 Dimensions-3 Levels); use of standard eczema treatments (e.g. emollients, topical corticosteroids); and cost-effectiveness. The acceptability and durability of the clothing, and adherence to wearing the

  9. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  10. Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Pradhan, C K; Nag, A; Ashtekar, S P; Desai, H

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket for auxiliary body cooling was examined under a simulated hot environment. The personal garment comprised of a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2 mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Four subjects wearing the water-cooled jacket were tested in the environment chamber (30, 35 and 40 degrees C DB, 50-60% RH, air velocity 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s, with corresponding average effective temperature of 26 +/- 2.3, 33 +/- 1.1 and 36 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The inlet water temperature was maintained at 10-12 degrees C, with flow rates of 2.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.3 and 5.1 +/- 0.3 l/h). At 30 degrees C DB, variation in water flow had marginal effect on microclimate, while at higher temperatures (35 and 40 degrees C DB), the re-circulating cooled water had noticeable effects in lowering microclimate, trunk and other skin temperatures, and maintaining the body core within 36.7 +/- 0.2 to 37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C, over 2 h exposure at 35 and 40 degrees C DB. The observation indicates that the water-cooled jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2 h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain.

  11. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  12. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  13. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  14. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  16. Work, gender roles, and health: neglected mental health issues among female workers in the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sadika; Rutherford, Shannon; Akhter Kumkum, Feroza; Bromwich, David; Anwar, Iqbal; Rahman, Aminur; Chu, Cordia

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, women in Bangladesh stayed at home in their role as daughter, wife, or mother. In the 1980s, economic reforms created a job market for poor, uneducated rural women in the ready-made garment industry, mostly located in urban areas. This increased participation in paid work has changed the gender roles of these women. Women's earnings support their family, but they are also separated from their children, with impacts on their mental health and well-being. This study explores the lived experience of women in Bangladesh working in the ready-made garment industry as they strive to be mothers and family providers, often in high-stress conditions. The study was conducted in two industrial areas of Dhaka over 8 months. Data collection included a literature review, 20 in-depth interviews with married female garment workers, and 14 key-informant interviews with officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment, health-service providers within the garment factories, factory managers, and representatives of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. The data collected were analyzed thematically. Poverty was a key motivating factor for female migrant workers to move from rural areas. Their children stay in their village with their grandparents, because of their mothers' work conditions and the lack of childcare. The women reported stress, anxiety, restlessness, and thoughts of suicide, due to the double burden of work and separation from their children and family support. Further, they cannot easily access government hospital services due to their long work hours, and the limited medical services provided in the workplace do not meet their needs. In order to improve the health and well-being of female garment workers, steps should be taken to develop health interventions to meet the needs of this important group of workers who are contributing significantly to the economic development of the country.

  17. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring... cable operator shall not remove the cable home wiring unless it gives the subscriber the opportunity to...

  18. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  19. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  20. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  1. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  2. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  3. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  4. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  5. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  6. Tensosensitivity of the Hot-Wire Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pak, A

    2002-01-01

    ...., on the anemometer type. In a constant current anemometer, it is possible to measure and separate out the noise moving to the electric circuit of the anemometer, it is not the case with hot-wire anemometers of other types...

  7. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  8. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  9. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  10. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  11. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  12. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  13. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  14. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  15. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le controle...be identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  16. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  17. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  18. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  19. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm 2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h −1 and 1.40 g h −1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning. (paper)

  20. Predictive Models of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs Among Sewing Machine Operators in the Garments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ignacio P. Lugay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine garments industry has been a driving force in the country’s economy, with apparel manufacturing firms catering to the local and global markets and providing employment opportunities for skilled Filipinos. Tight competition from neighboring Asian countries however, has made the industry’s situation difficult to flourish, especially in the wake of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN 2015 Integration. To assist the industry, this research examined one of the more common problems among sewing machine operators, termed as Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. These disorders are reflective in the frequency and severity of the pain experienced by the sewers while accomplishing their tasks. The causes of these disorders were identified and were correlated with the frequency and severity of pain in various body areas of the operator. To forecast pain from WMSDs among the operators, mathematical models were developed to predict the combined frequency and severity of the pain from WMSDs. Loss time or “unofficial breaktimes” due to pain from WMSDs was likewise forecasted to determine its effects on the firm’s production capacity. Both these predictive models were developed in order to assist garment companies in anticipating better the effects of WMSDs and loss time in their operations. Moreover, ergonomic interventions were suggested to minimize pain from WMSDs, with the expectation of increased productivity of the operators and improved quality of their outputs.

  1. Design and development of the first exoskeletal garment to enhance arm mobility for children with movement impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martha L; Lobo, Michele A

    2017-05-25

    Children with a variety of diagnoses have impairments that limit their arm function. Despite the fact that arm function is important for early learning and activities of daily living, there are few tools to assist movement for these children, and existing devices have challenges related to cost, accessibility, comfort, and aesthetics. In this article, we describe the design process and development of the first garment-based exoskeleton to assist arm movement in young children with movement impairments: the Playskin Lift TM . We outline our design process, which contrasts with the traditional medical model in that it is interdisciplinary, user-centered, and addresses the broad needs of users, rather than device function alone. Then we report the results of field-testing with the initial prototype with respect to our design metrics on a toddler with significant bilateral arm movement impairments. Finally, we summarize our ongoing development aimed at increasing comfort, aesthetics, and accessibility of the garment. The interdisciplinary, user-centered approach to assistive technology design presented here can result in innovative and impactful design solutions that translate to the real world.

  2. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  3. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  4. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  5. Mixed and dynamic response of hot wires and cold wires and measurements of turbulence statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen; Fairall, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Hot wires respond to temperature as well as to velocity, whereas cold wires respond to velocity as well as to temperature. The static and dynamic response characteristics are summarized and it is shown that the frequency transfer functions for the four different responses in general are different...

  6. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  7. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  8. National Workplace Literacy Program. Garment-Related Bilingual (English & Chinese) T.V. Broadcast Lessons. Book I: Episodes 1-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication contains a series of 15 garment-related bilingual (English and Chinese) television broadcast lessons produced by the National Workplace Literacy Program of Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc. (Other partners were the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees and the Greater Blouse, Skirt and Undergarment Association in…

  9. Work, gender roles, and health: neglected mental health issues among female workers in the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sadika Akhter,1,2 Shannon Rutherford,1 Feroza Akhter Kumkum,2 David Bromwich,1 Iqbal Anwar,2 Aminur Rahman,2 Cordia Chu1 1Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Traditionally, women in Bangladesh stayed at home in their role as daughter, wife, or mother. In the 1980s, economic reforms created a job market for poor, uneducated rural women in the ready-made garment industry, mostly located in urban areas. This increased participation in paid work has changed the gender roles of these women. Women’s earnings support their family, but they are also separated from their children, with impacts on their mental health and well-being. This study explores the lived experience of women in Bangladesh working in the ready-made garment industry as they strive to be mothers and family providers, often in high-stress conditions.Methods: The study was conducted in two industrial areas of Dhaka over 8 months. Data collection included a literature review, 20 in-depth interviews with married female garment workers, and 14 key-informant interviews with officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment, health-service providers within the garment factories, factory managers, and representatives of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. The data collected were analyzed thematically.Results: Poverty was a key motivating factor for female migrant workers to move from rural areas. Their children stay in their village with their grandparents, because of their mothers’ work conditions and the lack of childcare. The women reported stress, anxiety, restlessness, and thoughts of suicide, due to the double burden of work and separation from their children and family support. Further, they cannot easily access government hospital services due to their long work hours, and the limited medical

  10. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  11. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  12. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  13. Percutaneous tension band wiring for patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Akhilesh; Swamy, M K S; Prasantha, I; Consul, Ashu; Bansal, Abhishek; Bahl, Vibhu

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate outcome of percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella. 16 men and 7 women aged 27 to 65 (mean, 40) years underwent percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella with a displacement of >3 mm. Pain, operating time, mobility, functional score, and complications were evaluated. 20 patients underwent successful percutaneous tension band wiring. The remaining 3 patients in whom closed reduction failed underwent open reduction and tension band wiring. The mean operating time was 46 (range, 28-62) minutes. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range, 15-30) months. At the latest follow-up, all patients had regained full extension. The objective score was excellent in 20 patients and good in 3, whereas the subjective score was excellent in 17, good in 5, and fair in one. All patients had radiological union at week 8. One patient had patellofemoral arthritis (secondary to a postoperative articular step). Two patients developed superficial infections, which resolved after antibiotic therapy. Mean thigh muscle wasting was 0.7 (range, 0.4-1) cm. Three patients encountered hardware problems (impingement/irritation of the skin over the knee) necessitating implant removal. Percutaneous tension band wiring is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella.

  14. A Study on the Optimal Positions of ECG Electrodes in a Garment for the Design of ECG-Monitoring Clothing for Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hakyung; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2015-09-01

    Smart clothing is a sort of wearable device used for ubiquitous health monitoring. It provides comfort and efficiency in vital sign measurements and has been studied and developed in various types of monitoring platforms such as T-shirt and sports bra. However, despite these previous approaches, smart clothing for electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has encountered a serious shortcoming relevant to motion artifacts caused by wearer movement. In effect, motion artifacts are one of the major problems in practical implementation of most wearable health-monitoring devices. In the ECG measurements collected by a garment, motion artifacts are usually caused by improper location of the electrode, leading to lack of contact between the electrode and skin with body motion. The aim of this study was to suggest a design for ECG-monitoring clothing contributing to reduction of motion artifacts. Based on the clothing science theory, it was assumed in this study that the stability of the electrode in a dynamic state differed depending on the electrode location in an ECG-monitoring garment. Founded on this assumption, effects of 56 electrode positions were determined by sectioning the surface of the garment into grids with 6 cm intervals in the front and back of the bodice. In order to determine the optimal locations of the ECG electrodes from the 56 positions, ECG measurements were collected from 10 participants at every electrode position in the garment while the wearer was in motion. The electrode locations indicating both an ECG measurement rate higher than 80.0 % and a large amplitude during motion were selected as the optimal electrode locations. The results of this analysis show four electrode locations with consistently higher ECG measurement rates and larger amplitudes amongst the 56 locations. These four locations were abstracted to be least affected by wearer movement in this research. Based on this result, a design of the garment-formed ECG monitoring platform

  15. Effect of Size on Tensile Strength of Fine Polycrystalline Nickel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, Lester

    1966-01-01

    .... The tensile strength of recrystallized wires was diameter independent. The proportional limit stress of recrystallized wires was inversely related to power functions of wire diameter and grain size...

  16. Magnetic wires in MEMS and bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbic, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic wires of appropriate design have special features making them useful to micro-electromechanical systems and bio-medical applications. Several applications that exploit the properties of magnetic wires are reviewed including: (a) a magnetic micro-manipulation technique that utilizes integrated micro-coils and magnetic micro-wires for localized positioning of micron-sized magnetic objects, (b) integrated micro-coil/micro-wire system operating as a micro-fluidic micro-motor, (c) mechanical tweezers using magneto-static interaction between two magnetic micro-wires, and (d) ultra-high gradient magnetic separation system based on porous membranes partially filled with magnetic wires

  17. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  18. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  19. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  20. Use of Kirschner wires with eyelets for tension band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Sang Lim; Lee, Sang Ki; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of tension band wiring of displaced olecranon fractures treated using Kirschner wires with eyelets to assess their clinical performance with respect to complications such as backing out of the K-wires, restriction of forearm rotation, and neurovascular injury. The authors retrospectively reviewed 44 patients treated for an isolated, displaced olecranon fracture and checked range of motion, postoperative pain, complications, and incidence of hardware removal. The mean follow-up period was 41 months (range, 26-73 mo). All fractures united, and anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases at final follow-up. Mean elbow flexion was 135° (range, 115° to 140°), and mean elbow extension was 4° (range, 0° to 15°). No pin migration, restriction of forearm rotation, or neurovascular injury occurred. Hardware removal was performed in 8 cases (18%). Compared to previous results with conventional Kirschner wires, no meaningful improvement in postoperative pain level or in the rate of hardware removal was observed. Tension band wiring using the pin studied produced excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes for the treatment of isolated, displaced Mayo type IIA and some type IIB olecranon fractures. The pin was effective in preventing the backing out of Kirschner wires and avoiding the complications associated with anterior cortical engagement of Kirschner wires, such as neurovascular injury or restriction of forearm rotation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  2. Modeling of Service-Drop Wires and Interior-Wiring Cables for Lightning Overvoltage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Susumu; Noda, Taku; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    As the information society progresses, a variety of electronic appliances have come into wide use in common houses. If a lightning stroke causes faults or incorrect operations of these electronic appliances, a social economic loss is considered to be large. For this reason, the focus of lightning protection measures for distribution lines in Japan has expanded to include the low-voltage side of the distribution line in addition to the high-voltage side. In order to calculate lightning overvoltages at the low-voltage side, the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables have to be modeled accurately. First, this paper describes test results of the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables. The modal surge impedances and the propagation velocities of various service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables are obtained by the test. Based on the test results obtained, this paper proposes a modeling methodology of these wires and cables for accurate EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) lightning overvoltage simulations. The proposed model is validated by comparing EMTP simulation results with field test results.

  3. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  4. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...... is made with the results of a simulation that models the heat conduction in the metal head by means of a Biot boundary condition. The influence of the wire velocity, inlet temperature and power-law index will be examined....

  5. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  6. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  7. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  8. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  10. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  11. RESEARCH OF THE TYPES OF POSTURES OF THE WOMAN FIGURE FOR THE PURPOSE OF DEVELOPING HIGH QUALITY GARMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALCAZ Olga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The high interchangeability of produced garments and the increased requirements towards the quality of production is conditioned by the growing individualization of orders, this is why it is important to perform systematically anthropometric researches of the modern female population for the purpose of revealing the peculiarities of constitution of the figures of this consumer group. During the researches, the existing classifications and data on the postures and types of body constitution of women were studied. The point of departure was the healthy human vertebral column and the position of human body in normal posture. The aspects of possible deviations from the normal body posture were studied. Taking into consideration the fact that various age groups were examined in the paper, various age-related modifications of the vertebral column and, thus, of the human posture were studied. To attain the established goal, anthropometric researches were performed on women of various age groups. The studied women were taken photos; using the photos, the figure contours were obtained, and the types of body constitutions and postures were studied according to the methods described in the special literature. The obtained data were analyzed and presented in graphic form for a more precise visualization of the results and for a more exact interpretation of those results. The result of the performed researches was the classification of postural defects, revealed in the frontal and sagittal planes, taking into consideration the eventual peculiarities of the individual figure of any age. This classification is meant to facilitate the work of the designers at the stage of projecting or when making corrections in the design of garments.

  12. Benefits of Compression Garments Worn During Handball-Specific Circuit on Short-Term Fatigue in Professional Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravier, Gilles; Bouzigon, Romain; Beliard, Samuel; Tordi, Nicolas; Grappe, Frederic

    2018-04-04

    Ravier, G, Bouzigon, R, Beliard, S, Tordi, N, and Grappe, F. Benefits of compression garments worn during handball-specific circuit on short-term fatigue in professional players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of full-leg length compression garments (CGs) worn during a handball-specific circuit exercises on athletic performance and acute fatigue-induced changes in strength and muscle soreness in professional handball players. Eighteen men (mean ± SD: age 23.22 ± 4.97 years; body mass: 82.06 ± 9.69 kg; height: 184.61 ± 4.78 cm) completed 2 identical sessions either wearing regular gym short or CGs in a randomized crossover design. Exercise circuits of explosive activities included 3 periods of 12 minutes of sprints, jumps, and agility drills every 25 seconds. Before, immediately after and 24 hours postexercise, maximal voluntary knee extension (maximal voluntary contraction, MVC), rate of force development (RFD), and muscle soreness were assessed. During the handball-specific circuit sprint and jump performances were unchanged in both conditions. Immediately after performing the circuit exercises MVC, RFD, and PPT decreased significantly compared with preexercise with CGs and noncompression clothes. Decrement was similar in both conditions for RFD (effect size, ES = 0.40) and PPT for the soleus (ES = 0.86). However, wearing CGs attenuated decrement in MVC (p shorts condition (-5.4 vs. -18.7%, respectively). Full recovery was observed 24 hours postexercise in both conditions for muscle soreness, MVC, and RFD. These findings suggest that wearing CGs during a handball-specific circuit provides benefits on the impairment of the maximal muscle force characteristics and is likely to be worthwhile for handball players involved in activities such as tackles.

  13. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...

  14. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 ? 0.022 in2 and 0.019 ? 0.025 in2 (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bendin...

  15. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  17. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  18. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  19. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  20. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  1. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  2. Building Trades. Carpentry, Electrical Wiring, Plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide contains 21 units of self-paced, self-contained instructional materials in the complete building trades curriculum. It is divided into vocational areas of carpentry, electrical wiring, and plumbing. The purpose of the curriculum is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering mainstream…

  3. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  4. Selective deposition by hot wire ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A method for selectively depositing a metal nlm onto a substrate is disclosed. In particular, the method comprising nowing a metal precursor onto the substrate and nowing a non-metal precursor onto the substrate,while contacting the non-metal precursor with a hot wire. Specincally, a reaction

  5. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  6. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  7. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  8. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  9. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  10. Structured Wiring Systems: Bringing Sanity to Network Cabling!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    While most organizations, including libraries, can benefit from a structured wiring system, few likely have the expertise and resources to place, specify, and install network cabling by themselves. This article reviews common wiring plans, addresses basic concepts of structured wiring systems, and discusses the importance and benefits of such a…

  11. Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, quadratic mathematical models have been derived to represent the process behavior of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operation. Experiments have been conducted with six process parameters: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire speed, wire tension and dielectric flow ...

  12. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  13. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  14. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  15. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of... 60092-302 (clause 7) (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Wiring. Instrumentation and...

  16. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  17. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404... Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design and protection. (a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding... construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in...

  18. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than...

  19. 46 CFR 28.370 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.370 Section 28.370... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.370 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable and... not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in a high risk fire area such as...

  20. 46 CFR 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.865 Section 28.865... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.865 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable... terminals is not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas...

  1. Interpolation Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of EM Coupling between Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasini, C.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and accurate evaluation of the EM field radiated by a current flowing along a wire is essential to solve the electromagnetic coupling between arbitrary oriented wires. In this paper, a numerically efficient algorithm for the evaluation of coupling is presented. The currents along the wires

  2. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  3. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  4. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser. Abstract. A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to ...

  5. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires. Keywords. Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser.

  6. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  7. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium wires.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Senn, C.; Wichelhaus, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanical properties of commercially available thermodynamic wires and to classify these wires mathematically into different groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples examined were 48 nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy orthodontic wires commercially available from five

  8. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall be...

  9. An X-ray scanner for wire chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, T.; Arik, E.; Assamagan, K.; Baker, K.; Benjamin, D.; Bertelsen, H.; Bytchkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeans-Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, A.; Cwetanski, P.; Danielsson, H.; Dittus, F.; Dolgoshein, B.; Dressnandt, N.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Farthouat, P.; Froidevaux, D.; Grichkevitch, Y.; Hajduk, Z.; Hansen, J. R.; Keener, P. K.; Kekelidze, G.; Konovalov, S.; Kowalski, T.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kruger, K.; Lundberg, B.; Luehring, F.; Manara, A.; McFarlane, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Morozov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Newcomer, F. M.; Olszowska, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Peshekhonov, V.; Price, M.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rust, D. R.; Schegelsky, V.; Sapinski, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnova, L. N.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Soutchkov, S.; Spiridenkov, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; VanBerg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V.; Wang, C.; Williams, H. H.

    2003-07-01

    The techniques to measure the position of sense wires and field wires, the gas gain and the gas flow rate inside wire chambers using a collimated and filtered X-ray beam are reported. Specific examples are given using barrel modules of the Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment.

  10. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  11. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Julian M L; Kisvárday, Zoltán F

    2012-01-01

    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimize communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction) and temporal (routing) costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fiber tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for cortical wiring patterns.

  12. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  13. U.S. Navy Wire-Rope Handbook. Volume 1. Design and Engineering of Wire-Rope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    percent nickel and are designated "Type 304 " and "Type 302" by the American Iron and Steel Institute ( AISI ). Type 304 stainless steel rope may be...from AISI Specifica- tion XYZ14 on Alloy Steel Wire) .... ............ ... 3-2 3-2. Typical Load-Elongation Behavior of Wire Rope .... ...... 3-9 3...Cosecants .......... ................... ... 10-S 10-11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wire ............ . .. 10-10 10-12. Wire Gauges

  14. Do code of conduct audits improve chemical safety in garment factories? Lessons on corporate social responsibility in the supply chain from Fair Wear Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Henrik; Egels-Zandén, Niklas; Rudén, Christina

    2016-10-01

    In managing chemical risks to the environment and human health in supply chains, voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) measures, such as auditing code of conduct compliance, play an important role. To examine how well suppliers' chemical health and safety performance complies with buyers' CSR policies and whether audited factories improve their performance. CSR audits (n = 288) of garment factories conducted by Fair Wear Foundation (FWF), an independent non-profit organization, were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical modeling. Forty-three per cent of factories did not comply with the FWF code of conduct, i.e. received remarks on chemical safety. Only among factories audited 10 or more times was there a significant increase in the number of factories receiving no remarks. Compliance with chemical safety requirements in garment supply chains is low and auditing is statistically correlated with improvements only at factories that have undergone numerous audits.

  15. Near-field optical spectroscopy of single quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Gershoni, D.; Grober, R. D.; Pfeiffer, L.; West, K.; Chand, N.

    1996-02-01

    Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy is used for spectroscopic studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. A direct experimental comparison between a two dimensional system and a single genuinely one dimensional quantum wire system, inaccessible to conventional far field optical spectroscopy, is enabled by the enhanced spatial resolution. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of 3 absorption enhancement for these wires compared to the wells is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  16. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  17. Environmental and Organizational Factors Associated with Elbow/Forearm and Hand/Wrist Disorder among Sewing Machine Operators of Garment Industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakjira Kebede Deyyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health problems related to upper limp musculoskeletal disorders were the major issue among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Galan City, Oromia Regional State. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2012. A total of 422 study subjects were included in this study. Standard Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on musculoskeletal symptom, sociodemographic data, and factors associated with the problems through face to face interview. From a total of 422 sewing machine operators included in the study 370 (87.7% were females and 306 (72.5% were in the age group of 16 years of service were about five times more likely to develop elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders than those who had short (1–5 years year of services [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.55–13.02], physical activities [AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 1.57–16.00], and methods of payment [AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.23–3.28], factors significantly associated with this disorders. Work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders were high among sewing machine operators in selected garment industries. Moreover, personal and environmental factors were identified as the potential risk factors related to elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among the study group. Therefore, government and the owner of the garment industries should give special attention to prevent and control the problems through proper occupational health and safety policy implementation in the country.

  18. Environmental and organizational factors associated with elbow/forearm and hand/wrist disorder among sewing machine operators of garment industry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede Deyyas, Wakjira; Tafese, Ararso

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health problems related to upper limp musculoskeletal disorders were the major issue among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Galan City, Oromia Regional State. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2012. A total of 422 study subjects were included in this study. Standard Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on musculoskeletal symptom, sociodemographic data, and factors associated with the problems through face to face interview. From a total of 422 sewing machine operators included in the study 370 (87.7%) were females and 306 (72.5%) were in the age group of 16 years of service were about five times more likely to develop elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders than those who had short (1-5 years) year of services [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.55-13.02], physical activities [AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 1.57-16.00], and methods of payment [AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.23-3.28], factors significantly associated with this disorders. Work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders were high among sewing machine operators in selected garment industries. Moreover, personal and environmental factors were identified as the potential risk factors related to elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among the study group. Therefore, government and the owner of the garment industries should give special attention to prevent and control the problems through proper occupational health and safety policy implementation in the country.

  19. Analysis of Garment Production Methods. Part 1: Comparison of Cost and Production Between a Traditional Bundle System and a Unit Production System Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    labor was both plentiful and cheap. As a result, garment production plants degenerated to the now infamous " sweatshops ". This period also witnessed the...expected, it increased when the company moved to its new facility and purchased the UPS. The percentage of that increase and its causes will be explained...process buffers between the subassembly and assembly departments. The company had some other problems which were not caused by the UPS but which impacted

  20. Enhanced THz guiding properties of curved two-wire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jingshu; Kim, Geun Ju; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-03-21

    We present experimental and simulation studies of enhanced terahertz (THz) guiding properties of curved two-wire lines for several surface conditions. When a THz-wave propagates through curved two-wire lines, a rough wire surface with dielectric coating contributes to a lower bending loss compared to a smooth or rough wire surface without coating. Dielectric coating and rough surface confine the THz field to the wire surface making the bending loss low. The guiding property at a curve depth of 30 mm of a rough wire surface with 25-μm-thick coating is improved by 34% compared to that of a smooth wire without coating. Furthermore, computer simulation technology (CST) software visually shows the bending loss as same as the experimental studies.

  1. Effect of compression garments on delayed-onset muscle soreness and blood inflammatory markers after eccentric exercise: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how compression garments, applied after eccentric exercise, can affect delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and inflammatory markers. Sixteen healthy male university students enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to either the compression garment group (CG, n=8) or control group (CON, n=8). All participants performed two sets of eccentric exercise using elbow flexor with 25 repetitions per set on a modified preacher curl machine. Maximal isometric strength was measured before exercise and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Muscle soreness was measured before exercise and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also measured before exercise and 3, 6, 24, and 48 hr after exercise. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The CG group reported faster recovery of maximal isometric strength following exercise ( P soreness during the recovery period than the control group ( P 0.05). In conclusion, wearing compression garments during the postexercise period can be an effective way to reduce DOMS and accelerate the recovery of muscle function.

  2. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  3. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  4. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P

    2003-01-01

    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  5. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plomp, J.; Barker, J.G.; Haan, V.O. de; Bouwman, W.G.; Well, A.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Undesired Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) from interior features of an object can be minimised by reducing the sample thickness. However, refraction effects produced by the exterior shape of the object depend upon the scattering cross-section and not on the thickness of the object. In the field of polarised neutrons a wire coil is often used to manipulate the polarisation vector of the neutron. In this paper, we show that the cylindrical shape of the wire together with the refractive index introduces an angular distribution in the neutron beam. This can be observed in instrumentation sensitive to SANS. We show results measured on three different SANS instruments: Ultra Small-Angle Neutrons Scattering (USANS), Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) SESANS. These results are all in good agreement with the theory of refraction

  6. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, J. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.plomp@tudelft.nl; Barker, J.G. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Haan, V.O. de [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Bouwman, W.G. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Well, A.A. van [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-05-01

    Undesired Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) from interior features of an object can be minimised by reducing the sample thickness. However, refraction effects produced by the exterior shape of the object depend upon the scattering cross-section and not on the thickness of the object. In the field of polarised neutrons a wire coil is often used to manipulate the polarisation vector of the neutron. In this paper, we show that the cylindrical shape of the wire together with the refractive index introduces an angular distribution in the neutron beam. This can be observed in instrumentation sensitive to SANS. We show results measured on three different SANS instruments: Ultra Small-Angle Neutrons Scattering (USANS), Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) SESANS. These results are all in good agreement with the theory of refraction.

  7. From barbed wire to radar traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Several million DM are required already to protect the building sites of power plants. From the very beginning concrete, wood, and barbed wire are used to make a protective wall against intruders, or in official German, 'unauthorized persons'. This expensive provisional set-up is later supplanted by electronic alarm and safety systems. A review of available systems helps to give a picture of power plant protection. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  8. Visible emission from exploding wire in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2007), s. 53-53 ISSN 0003-0503. [The 61st Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference. Dallas, Texas , 13.10.2008-17.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Exploding wire * emission Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  10. Inverter design for four-wire microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Pagès Giménez, Marc; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a PQ four quadrant four-wire three-phase inverter for microgrids integration. The inverter is based in two full-bridge IGBT modules connected in a three-phase configuration plus a threephase parallelized neutral branch. This topology is galvanically isolated through a single-phase transformer bank. The converter operates as a non-ideal voltage-controlled voltage source inverter under AC droop strategy with hot-swap capability based on a dynamic virtual impedance.

  11. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  13. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  14. Results of the Fermilab wire production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.P.; Remsbottom, R.H.; Reardon, P.J.; Curtis, C.W.; McDonald, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    In examining the various schedules of wire drawing and heat treating, the Critchlow type of schedule provided the highest and most uniform data from billet to billet. It consists of a long anneal at 400 +- 20 0 C at a cold work point giving about 99 percent reduction in area from the extrusion size. Several quick copper anneals at 300 0 C may be interspersed to aid in fabrication. A final anneal at finished size both peaks up the resistivity ratio of the copper as well as the critical current of the alloy by moving dislocations to subcell walls. Using this method, critical currents of 1.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 could be maintained in all billets. The copper cladding and sinking method looks promising and should save production costs. In spite of this, it was important to attain good packing density in the billets to assure uniform filament pattern and reduce breakage in wire drawing. Overall, a procedure was found for fabricating wire in large production lots that would be acceptable for constructing dipole magnets. It is felt that this method could be peaked up with time

  15. Reliability of the wire drawing dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Khany, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A wear based model is proposed for the dies used in wire drawing process. Using this wear model, it is possible to predict life of the die corresponding to a wear limit criterion. Since various quantities in the model are random in nature the resulting die life will also be random quantity characterized by an appropriate distribution. Using a probabilistic characterization of the parameters of the predictive model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to establish the die life distribution. To asses the sensitivity of life distribution with respect to various contributing variables (parameters), the simulation runs were conducted at different levels of these variables (parameters). It is shown that wire drawing die life is Weibull distributed. To compare the simulated results with actual time to failure, data of dies was obtained from a large wire drawing company and was compared with corresponding scenario generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations were very close to the actual time to failure data. (author)

  16. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  17. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Aoh, Jong-Hing; Wang, Chang-Ming

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were investigated by using a thermosonic bonding machine and a shear tester. This work shows that under proper preheat temperatures, the bonding force of thermosonic wire bonding can be explained based on interfacial microcontact phenomena such as energy intensity, interfacial temperature and real contact area. It is clearly shown that as the energy intensity is increased, the shear force increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. After saturation, i.e. the establishment of maximum atomic bonding, any type of additional energy input will damage the bonding, decreasing the shear force. If the preheat temperature is not within the proper range, the interfacial saturation phenomenon does not exist. For a preload of 0.5 N and a welding time of 15 ms in thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads, a maximum shear force of about 0.33 N is found where the interfacial energy intensity equals 1.8×106 J m-2 for preheat temperatures of 150°C and 170°C. Moreover, the corresponding optimal ultrasonic power is about 110 units.

  18. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  19. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  20. A new design of wire locators for drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    Every position-sensitive wire detector needs to solve the problem of wire positioning with a defined accuracy all over its sensitive volume. In particular, thin-walled drift tubes ("straws"), which are currently being attached to large detector units of several tens of square meters of surface, need to be equipped with wire locators along their signal wires. A wire locator has been developed together with an insertion device, especially for medium-sized drift tube systems, which significantly reduces the production time and avoids the danger of applying epoxy glue to the signal wire. The wire locator is being inserted in one single time-saving production step together with the signal wire itself. The proposed design is being compared to the rigid wire locators in use in the COMPASS straw tracking system at CERN. The investigation comprises both wire- centering capability and influence on the efficiency of adjacent detector regions, demonstrating the competitive performance of the proposed new system. Its suff...

  1. WIRELESS TENSION BAND WIRING FOR OLECRANON FRACTURES. Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukoz, Sami; Bayoud, Wael

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the results of wireless tension band wire (WTBW) which is a modified technique of tension band wires (TBW) for Mayo type II A and III A olecranon fractures. In this technique the K-wires of the TBW are replaced by a cerclage wire while keeping the figure of eight wiring. We reviewed retrospectively our WTBW cases done between 2000 and 2015 where we replaced the K-wires by a cerclage wire. In this technique no hardware migration is possible. Patients were evaluated clinically, radiographicaly and a DASH score was measured. Seventeen patients were reviewed with a mean age of 58.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 58.5 months. The mean DASH score was 12 with 7 patients having a DASH score of zero. Joint mobility was near normal compared to the other side with loss of a mean of 4º in elbow extension and a mean of 3º in elbow flexion. In comparison with other series, in addition to good results, hardware removal for medical reasons was the lowest in our technique. It was needed in three patients for pain on elbow contact and in one with ulnar nerve irritation. This represents a rate of 23.5%. Undesirable events related to the use of K-wires in standard tension band wiring, such as wire migration, wire protrusion through the skin and wire impingement, are absent in the wireless tension band wiring. The high rate of patient satisfaction, good clinical results as well as low rate of needed hardware removal make this technique preferable for fixing Mayo Type II A olecranon fractures.

  2. Aesthetic nickel titanium wires--how much do they deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphoor, Anil Abdul; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the force levels of aesthetic Ni-Ti wires to regular Ni-Ti wires of the same dimension and evaluate their mechanical properties. Aesthetic and regular maxillary superelastic Ni-Ti wires (0.016 × 0.022) from four different manufacturers (G&H Wire Company, TP Orthodontics, GAC International, and Ortho Organizers) were selected and grouped I-IV. The loading and unloading values were compared using a three-point bending test. The unloading end values were also recorded to evaluate the recovery of archwires after each deflection. The unloading values were recorded at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm after loading deflections of 1, 2, and 3 mm, respectively. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the coating thickness of aesthetic wires. The results, statistically analysed, showed a significant decrease in force values for the aesthetic wires in groups I, III, and IV (P wires of the same dimension from the same manufacturer. There was no significant difference in force values for group II wires. A statistically significant decrease in force values of epoxy-coated wires was observed in groups I, III, and IV only. This is of obvious clinical significance during wire selection. The group II coated wires, however, exhibited forces comparable to their regular Ni-ti wires with a difference that was statistically insignificant. The end values of aesthetic wires showed almost complete recovery for groups I, II, and III after 2 and 3 mm deflections.

  3. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  4. A manufactu(RED) ethics: labor, HIV, and the body in Lesotho's "sweat-free" garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Nora J

    2014-12-01

    Employing mostly women and producing for major U.S. labels, Lesotho's primarily foreign-owned garment industry undertook efforts to become "sweat-free" in 2006; simultaneously, it also began producing for the Product(RED) campaign. This article explores the parameters and ethical challenges of an industry-wide, public-private partnership providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this industry. Here, HIV services are intimately bound up in emerging patterns of humanitarian consumption and the production of an ethical industry. Within this ethical production zone, all is not what it seems: Labor violations persist, workers confront occupational hazards, and an elaborate theatrics of ethical practice plays out on the factory floor during routine inspections. This article explores the place and purpose of HIV treatment in the context of such humanitarian fetishism, highlighting the uses to which worker bodies are put and the conceptions of bodily well-being that prevail in these new "moral" economies. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  5. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  6. The Role of the Nonpneumatic Antishock Garment in Reducing Blood Loss and Mortality Associated with Post-Abortion Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Shila; El Ayadi, Alison M; Butrick, Elizabeth; Hosang, Robert; Miller, Suellen

    2015-09-01

    Maternal mortality attributable to post-abortion hemorrhage is often associated with delays in reaching or receiving definitive care. The nonpneumatic antishock garment (NASG), a low-technology first-aid device, has been shown to decrease blood loss and mortality among women experiencing hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage etiologies. Women experiencing post-abortion hemorrhage face longer delays in receiving definitive treatment as a result of abortion-related stigma and lack of access to quality abortion care; thus the NASG has the potential to make an even greater impact within this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in Egypt, Nigeria, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in NASG trials, limiting our analytic sample to women who experienced post-abortion hemorrhage (n = 953). Blood loss significantly decreased when the NASG was added to standard hemorrhage management during the intervention phase, and there was a large, although not statistically significant, 52 percent decrease in mortality during the NASG phase. The results indicate that adding the NASG to post-abortion care among women experiencing severe hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock would decrease blood loss and mortality. © 2015 The Population Council, Inc.

  7. FiberWire is superior in strength to stainless steel wire for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P B; Kosmopoulos, V; Coté, R E; Tayag, T J; Nana, A D

    2009-11-01

    The metal implants used to achieve fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures are associated with implant failure, postoperative pain and a significant re-operation rate. Recent studies have examined braided suture as a possible alternative to stainless steel wire to increase patient satisfaction and decrease re-operation rates, but suture has not demonstrated clearly superior fixation strength. FiberWire is a reinforced braided polyblend suture that has demonstrated superior characteristics to the previous sutures studied and has not to our knowledge been examined as a material for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures. Materials testing was performed on repeated samples of No. 5 FiberWire suture and 18-gauge stainless steel wire. The strength and stiffness of each material was measured. The two materials were then used for tension band fixation on a novel transverse patellar fracture model and tested to failure by three-point bending. The constructs included a single stainless steel wire, a single-strand FiberWire tied with a sliding knot, double-strand FiberWire tied with sliding knots and double-strand FiberWire tied with a Wagoner's Hitch. The fixation strength and stiffness of the constructs were measured. Unlike stainless steel, FiberWire maintained its initial stiffness until failure. Furthermore, during three-point-bend testing, double-strand FiberWire was found to have a significantly higher failure load than stainless steel wire when the suture was tied and locked under the tension produced by a modified Wagoner's Hitch. FiberWire is a potentially superior alternative to stainless steel wire in tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

  8. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  9. Successful removal of an intravesical electrical wire cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Son, Hwancheol

    2014-08-01

    A few previous reports have described cases wherein electrical wire cables were inserted into the male urethra and bladder. Electrical wire cables are available at home and are easy to insert. However, after they coil in the patient's bladder, they are difficult to remove. In February 2013, a 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room of SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center with a urethral foreign body. He had inserted an electrical wire cable into his urethra for the purpose of masturbation, despite having a regular sex partner and no underlying disease. A kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed a tangled wire in his bladder and urethra. On the next day, we tried to remove the wire cystoscopically, but this proved to be impossible because of complex coiling and the slippery surface of the wire. A Pfannenstiel incision was made to remove the foreign body. No postoperative complications were noted.

  10. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  11. Flexible, polymer-supported, Si wire array photoelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-08-10

    Arrays of oriented, crystalline Si wires are transferred into flexible, transparent polymer films. The polymer-supported Si wire arrays in liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells yield current-potential behavior similar to the Si wires attached to the brittle growth substrate. These systems offer the potential for attaining high solar energy-conversion efficiencies using modest diffusion length, readily grown, crystalline Si in a flexible, processable form. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The wire array Z pinch programme at Imperial College

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Lebedev, S.V.; Chittenden, J.P.; Bland, S.N.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma formation and implosion dynamics of wire array z-pinches have been studied experimentally using the MAGPIE generator (1.4MA, 240ns) at Imperial College. Simulations and theory verify much of the data. Both laser probing and x-ray radiography show after an initial volumetric heating of the wires the presence of dense wire cores surrounded by low density coronal plasma. Radiography shows development of perturbations on the dense core of each wire, while laser probing shows inward jetting of the coronal plasma caused by the global JxB force, and these plasma streams are axially non-uniform on the same spatial scale as later seen in the wire cores. The spatial scale of these perturbations (∼0.5mm for Al, ∼0.25mm for W) increases with the size of the wire cores (∼0.25mm for Al, ∼0.1mm for W). The inward flow of the coronal plasma is usually field free and leads to formation on the array axis of a straight plasma column, the dynamics of which is strongly affected by radiation cooling. Images obtained by optical streak camera show that the wire cores start their inward motion late and the implosion trajectory deviates significantly from the expected from 0-D analysis. An increase of the number of wires (decrease of inter-wire gap) resulted in a transition to 0-D trajectory for aluminium wire arrays, but not for tungsten. In experiments with nested wire arrays two modes of behaviour are observed; in the first the inner array is transparent to the imploding outer array, but the current transfers to it, leading to a fast implosion. The second mode occurs when a significant fraction of current is flowing in the inner array and the two arrays apparently implode simultaneously. In both modes the x-ray pulse is significantly sharpened in comparison with that generated in implosion of a single wire array. (author)

  13. The sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered wire media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered thin wire media is undertaken, in order to understand how its performance may be affected by manufacturing errors. The structure is found to be extremely robust to disorder which keeps the wires parallel. Variation in the orientation of the wires and their longitudinal position causes more significant degradation in the image quality, which is quantified numerically

  14. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  15. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-05-01

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  17. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  18. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima JABER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control. CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3 and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3, respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  19. Reduction of friction during wire drawing by electrode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-Y.; Marek, M.

    1995-04-01

    In wire drawing, the wire is drawn through a series of dies sprayed with or immersed in an emulsion lubricant. The surface conditions of the wire play a vital part in the mechanism of lubrication, and the conditions can be affected by electrochemical parameters. The electrochemical behavior of copper in selected emulsions was studied, and laboratory friction as well as pilot plant tests were performed. Reduction of friction was detected at various potentials depending on the lubricant composition. Surface quality of the wire was improved by the electrode control.

  20. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.