WorldWideScience

Sample records for wire fabrication method

  1. A New Method to Fabricate Bulk PCMs from Continuous Wires and the Mechanical Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hyun; Choi, Ji Eun; Jeon, In Su; Kang, Ki Ju

    2007-01-01

    Since the new millennium, truss PCMs(Periodic Cellular Metals) have drawn attention because of their superior specific stiffness, strength and multi-functionality. Prior studies have focused on the structural design and optimization. Kagome truss PCM has been proved to have the higher resistance to plastic buckling, more plastic deformation energy and lower anisotropy than other truss PCMs. In this study, we introduce a new idea to fabricate multi-layered Kagome truss PCM from continuous wires which can gain high strength as in piano wires and can be controlled to be defect free owing to drawing process. The relative density, the stiffness and the strength under bending and compressive load are estimated through elementary mechanics and compared with the results from experiments and FEA. The failure mechanisms are analyzed, and also mechanical performance and production are discussed

  2. Fabrication and application of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film coated on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Linkang; Lu, Jianjun, E-mail: lujianjunktz@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Successfully fabricated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin film on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA. • Ni supported on this film and exhibits good methanation performance. • Investigate the decomposition temperature of template agent F127 in TiO{sub 2} precursor system. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire was fabricated by sol-gel method with evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) process using F127 as templating agent in the mixed solution of ethanol and Tetra-n-butyl Titanate. The Ni/TiO{sub 2} film catalyst supported on Al wire was prepared by impregnation and the catalytic performance on methanation was carried out in a titanium alloy micro-reactor tube. It was shown that anatase mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film was prepared in this conditions (1 g F127,calcined at 400 °C and aged for 24 h), which has specific surface area of 127 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and narrow pore size distribution of 5.3 nm. Low calcined temperature (300 °C) cannot transfer film to anatase and decompose F127 completely. Ni/TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire catalyst was proved to be active in CO methanation reaction. And the CO conversion reaches 99% and CH{sub 4} selectivity close is to 80% when the reaction temperature is higher 360 °C.

  3. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  4. Comparison of three different orthodontic wires for bonded lingual retainer fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Gul, Nisa; Alan, Melike Busra; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the detachment force, amount of deformation, fracture mode, and pull-out force of 3 different wires used for bonded lingual retainer fabrication. Methods We tested 0.0215-inch five-stranded wire (PentaOne, Masel; group I), 0.016 × 0.022-inch dead-soft eight-braided wire (Bond-A-Braid, Reliance; group II), and 0.0195-inch dead-soft coaxial wire (Respond, Ormco; group III). To test detachment force, deformation, and fracture mode, we embedded 94 lower incisor teeth in acrylic blocks in pairs. Retainer wires were bonded to the teeth and vertically directed force was applied to the wire. To test pull-out force, wires were embedded in composite that was placed in a hole at the center of an acrylic block. Tensile force was applied along the long axis of the wire. Results Detachment force and mode of fracture were not different between groups. Deformation was significantly higher in groups II and III than in group I (p wires, but greater deformations were seen in dead-soft wires. Wire pull-out force was significantly higher for five-stranded coaxial wire than for the other wires tested. Five-stranded coaxial wires are suggested for use in bonded lingual retainers. PMID:23112930

  5. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  6. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  7. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  8. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  9. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryosuke; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS) in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL). We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc) for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  10. Recent progress in BPSCCO wire fabrication and applications prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.; Hikata, T.

    1997-01-01

    A J c (77 K) of a 1,200 m long silver-sheathed bismuth-based wire has reached 10,000 A/cm 2 , as evaluated with a strict Ic criterion of 10 -14Ω circ m for overall wire cross-sectional area. One of the most important issues for J c enhancement is grain connectability. Differential technique of ZFC (zero field cooling) curves proved to be a simple and effective evaluation method for grain connection. The performance of application prototypes progressed greatly. Three typical examples were as follows; (1) Current leads of 2,000 A carrying capability have been implemented to NbTi bending magnets of superconducting synchrotron radiation facility of Sumitomo Electric, and have been stably operated for over one year from December 1993. (2) Two flexible cable conductors of 1 m-length, having I c (77 K) of 5,800 A (J c =12,000 A/cm 2 ) and 12,000 A (J c =11,000 A/cm 2 ), were fabricated with multilayer wound technique. (3) A 60 mm bore magnet, cooled with GM refrigerator down to 21 K, has stably generated 3 T without any cryogen. The size of this magnet was large enough for actual applications

  11. Fabrication details for wire wrapped fuel assembly components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosy, B.J.

    1978-09-01

    Extensive hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR blanket and fuel assemblies is being carried out under this MIT program. The fabrication of these test assemblies has involved development of manufacturing procedures involving the wire wrapped pins and the flow housing. The procedures are described in detail in the report

  12. Vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire inter-weaved fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yang, Qiuhong; Dong, Li

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti wire inter-weaved glass fabric/epoxy composites. The Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires were used as warp yarns and embedded in the fabric preforms with various weaving methods. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and vibration test technique were used to reveal the dynamical behaviors of specimens in different frequencies of vibration. The storage modulus E', the loss tanδ, the natural frequency f and damping ratio η were examined. The energy dissipation behaviors of the Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire, the geometry of textile fabric was also studied. The effect of weaving method on the vibration behavior in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based textile composites was considered. The results showed that: (I) the energy dissipation capacity of the wire could be significantly improved by increasing the tensile strain and speed, but slightly affected by loading frequency; (II) the woven of few Ni-Ti warps caused the increase of the storage modulus and the change of the loss tanδ. In the buckling vibration, the damping effects of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires vary with the woven structures. The compact woven structure with proper Ni-Ti warp architectures would receive a small amplitude and good damping.

  13. Fabrication of superconducting wire using organometallic precursors and infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Organometallic precursors from naphthenic acid and metal nitrates were used for the synthesis of YBCO oxide superconducting compounds. The characteristics of metal naphthenates as organometallic precursors were investigated by IR spectra, viscosity measurements, and infiltration. 123 superconducting compound obtained from 123 naphthenate showed a Tc of 90 degree K and a rather dense and elongated microstructure. Also, the melting behavior of Ba-cuprates which were used for 123 making was studied. A low-temperature melting process was developed to fabricate silver-sheathed superconducting wire with the powder-in-tube method; flowing argon gas is introduced to the system at 930-945 degree C to reduce the melting temperature of the 123 compound without silver sheath melting. It resulted in a 90 degree K Tc superconducting core with dense and locally aligned microstructure. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, 4-probe resistance and Jc measurements, and carbon-content determinations were carried out to characterize the microstructure, grain alignment, and superconducting properties of the samples

  14. Method of fabricating self-powered nuclear radiation detector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.; Bauer, R.F.; Sekella, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a method of fabricating a self-powered nuclear radiation detector assembly an emitter electrode wire and signal cable center wire are connected and disposed within the collector electrode tubular sheath with compressible insulating means disposed between the wires and the tubular sheath. The above assembly is reduced in diameter while elongating the tubular sheath and the emitter wire and signal cable wire. The emitter wire is reduced to a predetermined desired diameter, and is trimmed to a predetermined length. An end cap is hermetically sealed to the tubular sheath at the extending end of the emitter with insulating means between the emitter end and the end cap. (author)

  15. Laser fabrication nanocrystalline coatings using simultaneous powders/wire feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Zhai, Tongguang; Zhang, Yuanbin; Shan, Feihu; Liu, Peng; Ren, Guocheng

    2016-07-01

    Laser melting deposition (LMD) fabrication is used to investigate feasibilty of simultaneously feeding TC17 wire and the Stellite 20-Si3N4-TiC-Sb mixed powders in order to increase the utilization ratio of materials and also quality of LMD composite coatings on the TA1 substrate. SEM images indicated that such LMD coating with metallurgical joint to substrate was formed free of the obvious defects. Lots of the ultrafine nanocrystals (UNs) were produced, which distributed uniformly in some coating matrix location, retarding growth of the ceramics in a certain extent; UNs were intertwined with amorphous, leading the yarn-shape materials to be produced. Compared with substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was achieved for such LMD coating.

  16. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  17. High-speed micro electrode tool fabrication by a twin-wire EDM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Dong-Yea

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new machining process which combines twin-electro-wire together with two electro discharge circuits to rapidly fabricate micro electrode tools. The results show that transistor electro discharge and RC electro discharge circuits coexist to fabricate micro tools with rough and finish machining both on the same machine. Compared to conventional wire electro discharge grinding (WEDG) technology, a twin-wire EDM system that combines rough and finish machining into one process allows the efficient fabrication of micro tools. This high-speed micro tool fabrication process can be applied not only to micro electrode machining but also to micro punching tool and micro probing tips machining

  18. Wire-grid polarizer sheet in the terahertz region fabricated by nanoimprint technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Ichii, Akira; Morimoto, Isao; Hangyo, Masanori

    2011-07-15

    Wire-grid polarizer sheets in the terahertz region have been fabricated on flexible substrates by nanoimprint technology. They show an ideal polarization property in the terahertz frequency region, whereas the cost is very low. Since the wire pitch is far smaller than the wavelength, the effective medium theory agrees well with experimental results. The effective medium theory shows the possibility of further improvement of polarization properties by selecting appropriate materials for wire grids. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Fabrication of flexible Ir and Ir-Rh wires and application for thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Rikito; Kamada, Kei; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshino, Masao; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Ohashi, Yuji; Yamaji, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication and thermal electromotive force characteristics of Ir/Ir-Rh thermocouples capable of repeated bending deformation are described. Ir and Ir-Rh wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm were fabricated using the alloy-micro-pulling-down method. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction of the radial cross section of the grown wires were performed to investigate the microstructure and orientation of the crystal grains. At the start of growth, the microstructure was polycrystalline with diameters of several hundred micrometers, while at the 8-m growth point it was found to be monocrystalline. The observed single crystals of pure Ir and Ir-Rh alloy were oriented in the 〈1 1 3〉 and 〈1 1 2〉 directions, respectively, whereas the polycrystalline Ir-Rh samples showed preferential growth in the 〈1 0 0〉 direction. The thermal electromotive force of the fabricated Ir/Ir-Rh thermocouple was measured by the comparison technique and the fixed-point technique, and the thermoelectric power was estimated to be 5.9 μV/°C in the range from 600°C to 1100°C.

  20. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  1. Using Powder Cored Tubular Wire Technology to Enhance Electron Beam Freeform Fabricated Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Devon; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia; Hafley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) is an additive manufacturing technique, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, capable of fabricating large scale aerospace parts. Advantages of using EBF3 as opposed to conventional manufacturing methods include, decreased design-to-product time, decreased wasted material, and the ability to adapt controls to produce geometrically complex parts with properties comparable to wrought products. However, to fully exploit the potential of the EBF3 process development of materials tailored for the process is required. Powder cored tubular wire (PCTW) technology was used to modify Ti-6Al-4V and Al 6061 feedstock to enhance alloy content, refine grain size, and create a metal matrix composite in the as-solidified structures, respectively.

  2. 46 CFR 28.370 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.370 Section 28.370... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.370 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable and... not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in a high risk fire area such as...

  3. 46 CFR 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.865 Section 28.865... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.865 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable... terminals is not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas...

  4. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  5. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  6. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics.

  7. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  8. Simple and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic metal wire mesh for efficiently gravity-driven oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Botao

    2016-12-15

    Superhydrophobic metal wire mesh (SMWM) has frequently been applied for the selective and efficient separation of oil/water mixture due to its porous structure and special wettability. However, current methods for the modification of metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic suffered from problems with respect to complex experimental procedures or time-consuming process. In this study, a very simple, time-saving and single-step electrospray method was proposed to fabricate SMWM and the whole procedure required about only 2min. The morphology, surface composition and wettability of the SMWM were all evaluated, and the oil/water separation ability was further investigated. In addition, a commercial available sponge covered with SMWM was fabricated as an oil adsorbent for the purpose of oil recovery. This study demonstrated a convenient and fast method to modify the metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic and such simple method might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-assembled peptide nanotubes as an etching material for the rapid fabrication of silicon wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    This study has evaluated self-assembled peptide nanotubes (PNTS) and nanowires (PNWS) as etching mask materials for the rapid and low-cost fabrication of silicon wires using reactive ion etching (RIE). The self-assembled peptide structures were fabricated under mild conditions and positioned on c...... characterization by SEM and I-V measurements. Additionally, the fabricated silicon structures were functionalized with fluorescent molecules via a biotin-streptavidin interaction in order to probe their potential in the development of biosensing devices....

  10. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Li, Jianhua; Li, Yiyuan; Chen, Yulong; Xu, Lixin

    2018-03-01

    A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance) magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm³. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device.

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device.

  13. Surface Modification and Nanojunction Fabrication with Molecular Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    synthesis, inorganic chemistry , molecular electronics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES   6    19a...contact between molecules and the electrode. For the previous AOARD project (FA2386-12-1-4006), the Taiwan and US PI/co-PIs studied both metal string...measurements for single-molecule studies were developed by the Taiwan team. The highlight of the current project period is the fabrication of high-performance

  14. Optimal Modes for the Fabrication of Aluminum Nanopowders by the Electrical Explosion of Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Pustovalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at studying the impact of initial conditions of electrical explosion of wires on energy characteristics of the explosion and some other properties of the obtained aluminum powders. Explosion modes where the energy input into the wire has the maximal level were found. These modes are optimal for fabrication of powders with the best properties. The powders have the highest value of the specific surface of 14.5 m2/g, a narrow histogram of the particle size distribution, and a narrow distribution histogram with a high polydispersity coefficient of 0.7.

  15. The importance of carbon nanotube wire density, structural uniformity, and purity for fabricating homogeneous carbon nanotube–copper wire composites by copper electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Rajyashree; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Atsuko

    2018-04-01

    We present the influence of density, structural regularity, and purity of carbon nanotube wires (CNTWs) used as Cu electrodeposition templates on fabricating homogeneous high-electrical performance CNT–Cu wires lighter than Cu. We show that low-density CNTWs (wires) with regular macro- and microstructures and high CNT content (>90 wt %) are essential for making homogeneous CNT–Cu wires. These homogeneous CNT–Cu wires show a continuous Cu matrix with evenly mixed nanotubes of high volume fractions (∼45 vol %) throughout the wire-length. Consequently, the composite wires show densities ∼5.1 g/cm3 (33% lower than Cu) and electrical conductivities ∼6.1 × 104 S/cm (>100 × CNTW conductivity). However, composite wires from templates with higher densities or structural inconsistencies are non-uniform with discontinuous Cu matrices and poor CNT/Cu mixing. These non-uniform CNT–Cu wires show conductivities 2–6 times lower than the homogeneous composite wires.

  16. Fabrication and superconducting properties of a simple-structured jelly-roll Nb{sub 3}Al wire with low-temperature heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.J. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Yan, G., E-mail: gyan@c-wst.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Pan, X.F. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Zhang, P.X. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN), Xi’an 710016 (China); Qi, M. [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN), Xi’an 710016 (China); Liu, X.H.; Feng, Y. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (NELSM), Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University (SWJTU), Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires with Cu-matrix and different filament numbers were prepared by the jelly-roll method. • The length of 18-cores Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire reaches 100 m without any breakage and intermediate anneal. • This wire has the uniform filament-shapes and fine long-wire homogeneity. • This Nb{sub 3}Al long wire has the T{sub c} of 13.4 K and J{sub c} of 4.7 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 12 T. - Abstract: With extremely high critical current density (J{sub c}) and excellent strain tolerance, Nb{sub 3}Al superconductor is considered as an alternative to Nb{sub 3}Sn for application of high-field magnets. However, owing to their complex structure, Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires can hardly meet the requirement of engineering application at present. In this work, a novel simple-structured Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires with Cu-matrix and different filament numbers were prepared by the conventional jelly-roll method, as well as a heat-treatment of 800–850 °C for 20–50 h. The results show that a 18-filament superconducting wire with length longer than 100 m can be successfully prepared by this method, and also this Nb{sub 3}Al long wire has the T{sub c} of 13.4 K and J{sub c} of 4.7 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 12 T. These suggest that with further optimization, the simple-structured Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires are very promising to fabricate the km-grade long wires to meet the requirement of engineering application.

  17. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  18. The fabrication and characterisation of quantum dots, wires and wire net works

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q

    1996-01-01

    luminescent materials probably involves pi bonded carbon. The size distributions of both kinds of the nanoclusters obtained by TEM suggest that a quantum-confined size effect can also apply to the blue PL. The strong blue emission is related with the crystallisation of the nanodots by annealing. The PL excitation dependence is explained by an increase in the conduction band density of states deep in the band, and the formation of a band tail. The work in this thesis includes two aspects as described below: 1. Freshly produced red, yellow and green emitting porous Si have been fabricated and studied by NEXAFS and EXAFS. The emission peaks are at 690, 580 and 520 nm, which almost covers the fall visible range that direct anodization can achieve. The correlation between the co-ordination numbers of the first, second and third Si neighbour shells from Fourier transform fitting of EXAFS and both emission peak energies and optical bandgaps estimated by PLE (photoluminescence excitation dependence) suggests that the...

  19. Fabrication of high Tc superconducting tape by solid reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, H.; Shibuta, N.; Hikata, T.; Sato, K.; Nagata, M.; Hitotsuyanagi, H.

    1988-01-01

    Ag sheathed high T c superconducting tapes (wires) of YBA 2 Cu 3 O y and Bi 1.6 Pb 0.4 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y were fabricated by the powder-in-tube method. Improvements of the powder core density and the crystal orientation were achieved by the pressing and rolling. The critical current density Jc of 4,140 A./cm 2 in Y-systems and of 6,930 A/cm 2 in Bi-systems were obtained at 77.3 K in a zero magnetic field. Using these samples, the authors clarify that magnetic dependence of the Jc was largely improved by increasing the Jc at a zero magnetic field. The critical current Jc was uniform within 3% of distribution in a 15 m long wires. A coil made of the rolled wires could generate 64 gauss of the maximum magnetic fields

  20. Thermal analysis methods for LMFBR wire wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1976-11-01

    A note is presented which was written to stimulate an awareness and discussion of the fundamental differences in the formulation of certain existing analysis codes for LMFBR wire wrap bundles. The contention of the note is that for those array types where data exists (one wire per pin, equal start angles), the ENERGY method results for coolant temperature under forced convection conditions provide benchmarks of reliability equal to the results of codes COBRA and TH1-3D

  1. Synthesise of Zn O nano wires by direct oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Ahangarpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zn O is a semiconductor which has a direct and wide energy band which is about 3.37 eV at room temperature. It has various applications from UV lasers, sensitive sensors, solar cells to photo catalysis applications. Zn O has different nano structures such as nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes and nano belts. The one dimensional Zn O nano structures such as nano wires are very important because of their applications in nano electronics and nano photonics so different methods have been proposed to synthesize them. In this work large scale of Zn O nano wires are produced by direct oxidation a Zn substrate (which was cleaned by chemical methods) in air or oxygen atmosphere at 400 d eg C . Nano wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray measurements. Their diameter is about 30-150 nanometer and their length is about several micrometer. This method which acts without any catalyst is a convenient method to synthesis semiconductor nano wires.

  2. Developing a reliable signal wire attachment method for rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a better attachment method for rail signal wires to improve the reliability of signaling : systems. EWI conducted basic research into the failure mode of current attachment methods and developed and tested a ne...

  3. Fabrication of Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by utilizing the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution with low-temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, X.F. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Yan, G., E-mail: gyan@c-nin.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Qi, M. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Cui, L.J. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, C.S. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Liu, X.H. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Feng, Y.; Zhang, P.X. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu, H.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This paper reported superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Al wires. • The Nb{sub 3}Al wires were made by using Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution powders. • The Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires have been successfully fabricated. • The transport J{sub c} of Nb{sub 3}Al wires at 4.2 K, 10 T is up to 12,700 A/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: High-performance Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire is a promising candidate to the application of high-field magnets. However, due to the production problem of km-grade wires that are free from low magnetic field instability, the Nb{sub 3}Al wires made by rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) are still not available to the large-scale engineering application. In this paper, we reported the properties of the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires, which were made by using the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution, as well as the low temperature heat-treatment at 800 °C for 10 h. The results show that Nb{sub 3}Al superconductors in this method possess very fine grains and well superconducting properties, though a little of Nb{sub 2}Al and Nb impurities still keep being existence at present work. At the Nb{sub 3}Al with a nominal 26 at.% Al content, the onset T{sub c} reaches 15.8 K. Furthermore, a series of Nb{sub 3}Al wires and tapes with various sizes have been fabricated; for the 1.0 mm-diameter wire, the J{sub c} at 4.2 K, 10 T and 14 T have achieved 12,700 and 6900 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. This work suggests it is possible to develop high-performance Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by directly using the Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution without the complex RHQT heat-treatment process.

  4. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of this technique by finding out the analytic solution of the differential equation for the forced vibration of the wire taking dispersion due to stiffness into account. Method of images is used to extend these solutions to include reflections at the ends. For long undulators, the effect of ...

  5. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the acoustic wave in the wire could be significant and our analysis provides a method for the evaluation of the magnetic field profile even in such cases taking the effect due to dispersion into account in an exact way. Keywords. Undulator; free-electron laser; synchrotron radiation source; magnetic char- acterization.

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  7. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D'Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  8. High-performance dense MgB2 superconducting wire fabricated from mechanically milled powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Motomune; Suzuki, Takaaki; Tanaka, Hideki; Okishiro, Kenji; Okamoto, Kazutaka; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the relatively high critical temperature and the low manufacturing cost, MgB2 superconducting wires are promising for liquid helium-free superconducting applications. Today, commercially available MgB2 wires are manufactured by either an in situ or ex situ powder-in-tube process, the in situ process being more effective to obtain high critical current density. In in situ-processed wires, however, the critical current density is seriously suppressed by the high porosity of MgB2 filaments. To resolve this problem, we propose an innovative method of using precursor powder prepared by mechanical milling of magnesium, boron, and coronene powders. This precursor powder has a metal-matrix-composite structure, in which boron particles are dispersed in a magnesium matrix. The plastic deformation of the precursor powder through wire processing leads to compact packing, and a dense MgB2 filament is generated after heat treatment. As a result, the limitation of critical current density that occurs for the typical in situ process is overcome, and the practical critical current density of 103 A mm-2 is obtained at 10 K and 6.1 T, at 15 K and 4.8 T, and at 20 K and 3.3 T.

  9. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  10. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V, E-mail: maxmarche@gmail.co, E-mail: yxie@superpower-inc.co [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  11. Stress-strain effects in alumina-Cu reinforced Nb3Sn wires fabricated by the tube process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Satoru; Nakayama, Shigeo; Masegi, Tamaki; Koyanagi, Kei; Nomura, Shunji; Shiga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Norio; Watanabe, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In order to fabricate a large-bore, high-field magnet which achieves a low coil weight and volume, a high strength compound superconducting wire is required. For those demands we have developed the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire using alumina dispersion strengthened copper (alumina-Cu) as a reinforcement material and the tube process of the Nb 3 Sn wire fabrication. The ductility study of the composites which consisted of the reinforcement, Nb tube, Cu, and Cu clad Sn brought a 1 km long alumina-Cu reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire successfully. Using fabricated wires measurements and evaluations of critical current density as parameters of magnetic field, tensile stress, tensile strain, and transverse compressive stress, and those of stress-strain curves at 4.2 K were performed. They showed superior performance such as high 0.3% proof stress (240 MPa at 0.3% strain) and high maximum tolerance stress (320 MPa) which were two times as large as those of conventional Cu matrix Nb 3 Sn wire. The strain sensitivity parameters were obtained for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one using the scaling law. Residual stress of the component materials caused by cooling down to 4.2 K from heat-treatment temperature was calculated using equivalent Young's modulus, equivalent yield strength, thermal expansion coefficient and other mechanical parameters. Calculated stress-strain curves at 4.2 K for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one based on calculation of residual stress, had good agreement with the experimental values. (author)

  12. A progressively reduced pretension method to fabricate Bradbury-Nielsen gates with uniform tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Kai; Guo, Jingran; Yu, Zhou; Cao, Like; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-01-01

    A Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) is often used to modulate ion beams. It consists of two interleaved and electrically isolated sets of wires with uniform tension, which ideally keep parallel, equidistant, and coplanar over a wide temperature range, making the BNG reliable and robust. We have previously analyzed the non-uniformity problem of wire tensions with sequentially winding method and developed a template-based transfer method to solve this problem. In this paper, we introduced a progressively reduced pretension method, which allows directly and sequentially fixing wires onto the substrate without using a template. Theoretical analysis shows that by applying proper pretension to each wire when fixing it, the final wire tensions of all wires can be uniform. The algorithm and flowchart to calculate the pretension sequence are given, and the fabrication process is introduced in detail. Pretensions are generated by weight combination with a weaving device. A BNG with stainless steel wire and a printed circuit board substrate is constructed with this method. The non-uniformity of the final wire tensions is less than 2.5% in theory. The BNG is successfully employed in our ion mobility spectrometer, and the measured resolution is 33.5 at a gate opening time of 350 μs. Compared to the template-based method, this method is simpler, faster, and more flexible with comparable production quality when manufacturing BNGs with different configurations

  13. Preparation methods and parameters for the optimization of superconducting and mechanical properties of Chevrel phase wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimikis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chevrel phase compounds based on SnMo 6 S 8 , PbMo 6 S 8 and Pb 1,2-x Sn x Mo 6 S 8 were prepared using HIP-prereacted, partly HIP-prereacted starting materials or unreacted powder mixtures. The application of various powder metallurgical methods for fabricating improved superconducting monofilamentary wires supplied an enhancement of the critical current densities up to the highest presently known values of J c (4,2 K)=2.10 8 Am -2 and J c (1,8 K)=3,5.10 8 Am -2 . This is mainly due to an improved flux pinning behavior which correlates with the average grain diameter of the Chevrel phase material. A considerable reduction of the necessary reaction time and a correlated reduction of the grain growth were observed as a consequence of the significant diminuation of the impurity content (O 2 , C) in the samples. Using microstructural investigations by means of Auger electron spectroscopy, inhomogeneities in the Chevrel phase compounds could be specified. The results of these analysis indicate future possibilities for improving the performance of Chevrel phase wires. The wire configuration developed in this work is oriented towards technical application. The Chevrel phase is enclosed in a Ta or Nb barrier material separating it from a stabilizing Cu section which is in turn enclosed by a stainless steel jacket for mechanical stabilization, thus yielding a fully stable superconducting wire. (orig.) [de

  14. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Noh, Bum-Young; Park, Il-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it.

  15. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  16. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  17. Joining characteristics of titanium-based orthodontic wires connected by laser and electrical welding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Junko; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nakao, Noriko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Elshahawy, Waleed; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of electrical and laser welding to connect titanium-based alloy (beta-titanium and nickel-titanium) wires and stainless-steel or cobalt-chromium alloy wires for fabrication of combination arch-wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (S-S), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (15 mm long each) were made by electrical welding and laser welding. Non-welded wires (30 mm long) were also used as a control. Maximum loads at fracture (N) and elongation (%) were measured by conducting tensile test. The data (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P < 0.05).The S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly higher values of the maximum load (ML) at fracture and elongation (EL) than those of the Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and β-Ti/β-Ti specimens for electrical welding and those of the S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens welded by laser. On the other hand, the laser-welded Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and β-Ti/β-Ti specimens exhibited higher values of the ML and EL compared to those of the corresponding specimens welded by electrical method. In the heterogeneously welded combinations, the electrically welded Ni-Ti/S-S, β-Ti/S-S and β-Ti/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher ML and EL than those of the corresponding specimens welded by laser. Electrical welding exhibited the higher values of maximum load at fracture and elongation for heterogeneously welded combinations than laser-welding.

  18. Method for fabricating semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Bell, Lloyd D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating gold/gallium arsenide structures, in situ, on molecular beam epitaxially grown gallium arsenide. The resulting interface proves to be Ohmic, an unexpected result which is interpreted in terms of increased electrode interdiffusion. More importantly, the present invention surprisingly permits the fabrication of Ohmic contacts in a III-V semiconductor material at room temperature. Although it may be desireable to heat the Ohmic contact to a temperature of, for example, 200 degrees Centigrade if one wishes to further decrease the resistance of the contact, such low temperature annealing is much less likely to have any deleterious affect on the underlying substrate. The use of the term in situ herein, contemplates continuously maintaining an ultra-high vacuum, that is a vacuum which is at least 10.sup.-8 Torr, until after the metallization has been completed. An alternative embodiment of the present invention comprising an additional step, namely the termination of the gallium arsenide by a two monolayer thickness of epitaxial aluminum arsenide as a diffusion barrier, enables the recovery of Schottky barrier behavior, namely a rectified I-V characteristic. The present invention provides a significant breakthrough in the fabrication of III-V semiconductor devices wherein excellent Ohmic contact and Schottky barrier interfaces to such devices can be achieved simply and inexpensively and without requiring the high temperature processing of the prior art and also without requiring the use of exotic high temperature refractory materials as substitutes for those preferred contact metals such as gold, aluminum and the like.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a deep ultraviolet wire grid polarizer with a chromium-oxide subwavelength grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Kemmochi, Atsushi; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2014-05-01

    A wire grid polarizer comprised of chromium oxide is designed for a micro-lithography system using an ArF excimer laser. Optical properties for some material candidates are calculated using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The chromium oxide wire grid polarizer with a 90 nm period is fabricated by a double-patterning technique using KrF lithography and dry etching. The extinction ratio of the grating is greater than 20 dB (100:1) at a wavelength of 193 nm. Differences between the calculated and experimental results are discussed.

  20. Fabrication of Copper-Rich Cu-Al Alloy Using the Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bosheng; Pan, Zengxi; Shen, Chen; Ma, Yan; Li, Huijun

    2017-12-01

    An innovative wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is used to fabricate Cu-9 at. pct Al on pure copper plates in situ, through separate feeding of pure Cu and Al wires into a molten pool, which is generated by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. After overcoming several processing problems, such as opening the deposition molten pool on the extremely high-thermal conductive copper plate and conducting the Al wire into the molten pool with low feed speed, the copper-rich Cu-Al alloy was successfully produced with constant predesigned Al content above the dilution-affected area. Also, in order to homogenize the as-fabricated material and improve the mechanical properties, two further homogenization heat treatments at 1073 K (800 °C) and 1173 K (900 °C) were applied. The material and mechanical properties of as-fabricated and heat-treated samples were compared and analyzed in detail. With increased annealing temperatures, the content of precipitate phases decreased and the samples showed gradual improvements in both strength and ductility with little variation in microstructures. The present research opened a gate for in-situ fabrication of Cu-Al alloy with target chemical composition and full density using the additive manufacturing process.

  1. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  2. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzik, James V.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  3. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzik, James, V.

    2005-10-13

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  4. Direct write fabrication of waveguides and interconnects for optical printed wiring boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingeldein, Joseph C.

    Current copper based circuit technology is becoming a limiting factor in high speed data transfer applications as processors are improving at a faster rate than are developments to increase on board data transfer. One solution is to utilize optical waveguide technology to overcome these bandwidth and loss restrictions. The use of this technology virtually eliminates the heat and cross-talk loss seen in copper circuitry, while also operating at a higher bandwidth. Transitioning current fabrication techniques from small scale laboratory environments to large scale manufacturing presents significant challenges. Optical-to-electrical connections and out-of-plane coupling are significant hurdles in the advancement of optical interconnects. The main goals of this research are the development of direct write material deposition and patterning tools for the fabrication of waveguide systems on large substrates, and the development of out-of-plane coupler components compatible with standard fiber optic cabling. Combining these elements with standard printed circuit boards allows for the fabrication of fully functional optical-electrical-printed-wiring-boards (OEPWBs). A direct dispense tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for the repeatable dispensing of blanket waveguide layers over a range of thicknesses (25-225 μm), eliminating waste material and affording the ability to utilize large substrates. This tool was used to directly dispense multimode waveguide cores which required no UV definition or development. These cores had circular cross sections and were comparable in optical performance to lithographically fabricated square waveguides. Laser direct writing is a non-contact process that allows for the dynamic UV patterning of waveguide material on large substrates, eliminating the need for high resolution masks. A laser direct write tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for direct write patterning waveguides that were comparable in quality to those

  5. Method of fabricating composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Y.; Shiraki, H.; Suzuki, E.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method of making stabilized superconductors of a composition such as Nb 3 Sn is disclosed. The method includes forming a stock product comprising a tin base alloy as a core with a copper jacket and having a niobium tube clad thereon. The stock product is then embedded in a good thermally and electrically conducting matrix which is then coreduced until the desired size is obtained. This cold worked product is then submitted to a heat treatment to form superconductors of Nb 3 Sn

  6. Design and fabrication of a 30 T superconducting solenoid using overpressure processed Bi2212 round wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-18

    High field superconducting magnets are used in particle colliders, fusion energy devices, and spectrometers for medical imaging and advanced materials research. Magnets capable of generating fields of 20-30 T are needed by future accelerator facilities. A 20-30 T magnet will require the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and therefore the challenges of high field HTS magnet development need to be addressed. Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) conductors fabricated by the oxide-powder-in-tube (OPIT) technique have demonstrated the capability to carry large critical current density of 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 45 T. Available in round wire multi-filamentary form, Bi2212 may allow fabrication of 20-50 T superconducting magnets. Until recently the performance of Bi2212 has been limited by challenges in realizing high current densities (Jc ) in long lengths. This problem now is solved by the National High Magnetic Field Lab using an overpressure (OP) processing technique, which uses external pressure to process the conductor. OP processing also helps remove the ceramic leakage that results when Bi-2212 liquid leaks out from the sheath material and reacts with insulation, coil forms, and flanges. Significant advances have also been achieved in developing novel insulation materials (TiO2 coating) and Ag-Al sheath materials that have higher mechanical strengths than Ag-0.2wt.% Mg, developing heat treatment approaches to broadening the maximum process temperature window, and developing high-strength, mechanical reinforced Bi-2212 cables. In the Phase I work, we leveraged these new opportunities to prototype overpressure processed solenoids and test them in background fields of up to 14 T. Additionally a design of a fully superconducting 30 T solenoid was produced. This work in conjunction with the future path outlined in the Phase II proposal would

  7. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  8. Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process Combining Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Milling for the Fabrication of Stiffened Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing and milling process (HWMP, and highlights its application in the fabrication of stiffened panels that have wide applications in aviation, aerospace, and automotive industries, etc. due to their light weight and strong load-bearing capability. In contrast to existing joining or machining methods, HWMP only deposits stiffeners layer-by-layer onto an existing thin plate, followed by minor milling of the irregular surfaces, which provides the possibility to significantly improve material utilization and efficiency without any loss of surface quality. In this paper, the key performances of HWMP in terms of surface quality, material utilization and efficiency are evaluated systematically, which are the results of the comprehensive effects of the deposition parameters (e.g., travel speed, wire-feed rate and the milling parameters (e.g., spindle speed, tool-feed rate. In order to maximize its performances, the optimization is also performed to find the best combination of the deposition and the milling parameters. The case study shows that HWMP with the optimal process parameters improves the material utilization by 57% and the efficiency by 32% compared against the traditional machining method. Thus, HWMP is believed to be a more environmental friendly and sustainable method for the fabrication of stiffened panels or other similar structures.

  9. Method for producing superconducting wire and products of the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marancik, W.G.; Ormand, F.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for producing a composite superconducting wire including one or more strands of high-field Type II superconductor embedded in a conductive matrix of normal material. A composite body is prepared which includes a matrix in which are embedded one or more rods of a metal which is capable of forming a high-field Type II superconductor upon high temperature extruded to an intermediate diameter, and then is hot-drawn to a final diameter at temperatures exceeding about 100 0 C, by multiple passes through drawing dies, the composite being reduced in cross-sectional area approximately 15 to 20 percent per draw. In a preferred mode of practicing the invention, the rods comprise vanadium or niobium, with the matrix being respectively gallium--bronze or tin--bronze, and the superconductive strands being formed by high temperature diffusion of the gallium or tin into the rods subsequent to drawing

  10. Compact, lower-power-consumption wavelength tunable laser fabricated with silicon photonic-wire waveguide micro-ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tao; Fujioka, Nobuhide; Ishizaka, Masashige

    2009-08-03

    A wavelength tunable laser with an SOA and external double micro-ring resonator, which is fabricated with silicon photonic-wire waveguides, is demonstrated. To date, it is the first wavelength tunable laser fabricated with silicon photonic technology. The device is ultra compact, and its external resonator footprint is 700 x 450 microm, which is about 1/25 that of conventional tunable lasers fabricated with SiON waveguides. The silicon resonator shows a wide tuning range covering the C or L bands for DWDM optical communication. We obtained a maximum tuning span of 38 nm at a tuning power consumption of 26 mW, which is about 1/8 that of SiON-type resonators.

  11. Exploration of new superconductors and functional materials, and fabrication of superconducting tapes and wires of iron pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Tanabe, Keiichi; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Nohara, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Fujitsu, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    This review shows the highlights of a 4-year-long research project supported by the Japanese Government to explore new superconducting materials and relevant functional materials. The project found several tens of new superconductors by examining ∼1000 materials, each of which was chosen by Japanese experts with a background in solid state chemistry. This review summarizes the major achievements of the project in newly found superconducting materials, and the fabrication wires and tapes of iron-based superconductors; it incorporates a list of ∼700 unsuccessful materials examined for superconductivity in the project. In addition, described are new functional materials and functionalities discovered during the project. PMID:27877784

  12. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-17 - Wiring methods for hazardous locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods for hazardous locations. 111.105-17 Section 111.105-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-17 Wiring methods for...

  14. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  15. Efficient electrochemical etching method to fabricate sharp metallic tips for scanning probe microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Pilkyu; Kim, Jun Ho; Jeong, Mun Seok; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin; Jeong, Sungho

    2006-01-01

    A new technique based on electrochemical etching for the fabrication of sharp metallic tips for scanning probe microscopes is introduced. In the proposed method, a small Teflon mass is attached to the end of an immersed tungsten wire using an aluminum tape, which leads to a significant enhancement of yield rate of sharp tungsten tips with an apex size below 100 nm to over 60%. The functionality of the tungsten tips fabricated by the proposed method is verified by measuring the topography of a standard sample using a shear-force scanning probe microscope

  16. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar,; Arun, [Orinda, CA; Shakouri, Ali [Santa Cruz, CA; Sands, Timothy D [Moraga, CA; Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; Mao, Samuel S [Berkeley, CA; Russo, Richard E [Walnut Creek, CA; Feick, Henning [Kensington, CA; Weber, Eicke R [Oakland, CA; Kind, Hannes [Schaffhausen, CH; Huang, Michael [Los Angeles, CA; Yan, Haoquan [Albany, CA; Wu, Yiying [Albany, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  17. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-30

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  18. Methods Of Fabricating Nanosturctures And Nanowires And Devices Fabricated Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2006-02-07

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  19. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liuyang; Zhou, Zhaoyao; Yao, Bibo

    2018-01-17

    There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs) with a thickness of 0.5 mm-3 mm and a porosity of 10-35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures). The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm-50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The coarser wires led to a bigger

  20. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs with a thickness of 0.5 mm–3 mm and a porosity of 10–35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures. The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm–50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The

  1. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  2. The influence of the manufacturing method on the microstructure and drawing properties of copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Jeglitsch, F.

    1982-01-01

    Copper is the third most important common metal from production figures after iron and aluminium and is largely used as pure metal in the electroindustry mainly here in the form of wires of different sizes due to its excellent electrical properties. Therefore all factors influencing the drawing ability are very important. The following work deals with the influence of impurity measurements as well as of the microstructure on the deformation or recrystallization behaviour in manufacturing continuous casting and rolling wire and dip-forming wire, and gives a rupture cause specific to each manufacturing method in the wire drawing process. (orig.) [de

  3. Microwave Wire Interrogation Method Mapping Pressure under High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that wireless reading for in-situ mapping of pressure under high-temperature environments is the most feasible method, because it is not subject to frequent heterogeneous jointing failures and electrical conduction deteriorating, or even disappearing, under heat load. However, in this article, we successfully demonstrate an in-situ pressure sensor with wire interrogation for high-temperature applications. In this proof-of-concept study of the pressure sensor, we used a microwave resonator as a pressure-sensing component and a microwave transmission line as a pressure characteristic interrogation tunnel. In the sensor, the line and resonator are processed into a monolith, avoiding a heterogeneous jointing failure; further, microwave signal transmission does not depend on electrical conduction, and consequently, the sensor does not suffer from the heat load. We achieve pressure monitoring under 400 °C when employing the sensor simultaneously. Our sensor avoids restrictions that exist in wireless pressure interrogations, such as environmental noise and interference, signal leakage and security, low transfer efficiency, and so on.

  4. A study on the development of high-Tc superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Chang, In Soon; Lee, Jong Min; Um, Tae Yoon; Hong, Kyae Won; Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Hee Kwun; Kim, Chan Joong; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Ki Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil

    1992-10-01

    On this study Y-Ba-Cu-O was prepared by partial melt process and superconducting wire was fabricated by powder-in-tube method. First, mechancial properties, electrical properties, microstructure and oxygen diffusion behavior were observed. Second, through fabricated superconducting wire, conceptual design, composition and plasticity of filament superconducting wire were investigated. (Author)

  5. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Stanley H [Placitas, NM; Ingersoll, David [Albuquerque, NM; Schmidt, Carrie [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  6. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonathan W [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  7. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  8. Methods for fabrication of flexible hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mei, Ping; Krusor, Brent; Ready, Steve E.; Zhang, Yong; Schwartz, David E.; Pierre, Adrien; Doris, Sean E.; Russo, Beverly; Kor, Siv; Veres, Janos

    2017-08-01

    Printed and flexible hybrid electronics is an emerging technology with potential applications in smart labels, wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics. Printed solution-based materials are compatible with plastic film substrates that are flexible, soft, and stretchable, thus enabling conformal integration with non-planar objects. In addition, manufacturing by printing is scalable to large areas and is amenable to low-cost sheet-fed and roll-to-roll processes. FHE includes display and sensory components to interface with users and environments. On the system level, devices also require electronic circuits for power, memory, signal conditioning, and communications. Those electronic components can be integrated onto a flexible substrate by either assembly or printing. PARC has developed systems and processes for realizing both approaches. This talk presents fabrication methods with an emphasis on techniques recently developed for the assembly of off-the-shelf chips. A few examples of systems fabricated with this approach are also described.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Vertical Wire Feeding with Axisymmetric Multi-Laser Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical wire feeding with an axisymmetric multi-laser source (feeding the wire vertically into the molten pool has exhibited great advantages over LAM (laser additive manufacturing with paraxial wire feeding, which has an anisotropic forming problem in different scanning directions. This paper investigates the forming ability of vertical wire feeding with an axisymmetric multi-laser source, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the fabricated components. It has been found that vertical wire feeding with an axisymmetric multi-laser source has a strong forming ability with no anisotropic forming problem when fabricating the complex parts in a three-axis machine tool. Most of the grains in the samples are equiaxed grains, and a small amount of short columnar grains exist which are parallel to each other. The microstructure of the fabricated samples exhibits a fine basket-weave structure and martensite due to the fast cooling rate which was caused by the small size of the molten pool and the additional heat dissipation from the feeding wire. The static tensile test shows that the average ultimate tensile strength is 1140 MPa in the scanning direction and 1115 MPa in the building direction, and the average elongation is about 6% in both directions.

  10. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  11. Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films Prepared by Hot-Wire Method with Varied Process Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Waman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films were prepared by hot-wire method at low substrate temperature (200∘C without hydrogen dilution of silane (SiH4. A variety of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, were used to characterize these films for structural and optical properties. Films are grown at reasonably high deposition rates (>15 Å/s, which are very much appreciated for the fabrication of cost effective devices. Different crystalline fractions (from 2.5% to 63% and crystallite size (3.6–6.0 nm can be achieved by controlling the process pressure. It is observed that with increase in process pressure, the hydrogen bonding in the films shifts from Si–H to Si–H2 and (Si–H2n complexes. The band gaps of the films are found in the range 1.83–2.11 eV, whereas the hydrogen content remains <9 at.% over the entire range of process pressure studied. The ease of depositing films with tunable band gap is useful for fabrication of tandem solar cells. A correlation between structural and optical properties has been found and discussed in detail.

  12. Application of Hot-wire Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fine Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangxi WANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic substrate is preferred in high density packaging due to its high electrical resistivity and moderate expansion coefficient. The thermal conductivity is a key parameter for packaging substrates. There are two common methods to measure the thermal conductivity, which are the hot-wire method and the laser-flash method. Usually, the thermal conductivities of porcelain is low and meet the measurement range of hot-wire method, and the measured value by hot-wire method has little difference with that by laser-flash method. In recent years, with the requirement of high-powered LED lighting, some kinds of ceramic substrates with good thermal conductivity have been developed and their thermal conductivity always measured by the means of laser flash method, which needs expensive instrument. In this paper, in order to detect the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic with convenience and low cost, the feasibility of replacing the laser flash method with hot wire method to measure thermal conductivity of ceramic composites was studied. The experiment results showed that the thermal conductivity value of fine ceramics measured by the hot-wire method is severely lower than that by the laser-flash method. However, there is a positive relationship between them. It is possible to measure the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic workpiece instantly by hot-wire method via a correction formula.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12543

  13. Method of making Nb3Sn composite wires and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Fietz, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    By providing a nickel or copper overcoat to a tin coating on a niobium-copper multifilamentary composite wire, one can avoid the necessity for choosing between poor superconducting properties due to tin droplet formation and substantially increasing production costs by adding a number of special processing steps. 9 claims, 1 figure

  14. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  15. Method for fabricating a microscale anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Method for fabricating a microscale anemometer on a substrate. A sacrificial layer is formed on the substrate, and a metal thin film is patterned to form a sensing element. At least one support for the sensing element is patterned. The sacrificial layer is removed, and the sensing element is lifted away from the substrate by raising the supports, thus creating a clearance between the sensing element and the substrate to allow fluid flow between the sensing element and the substrate. The supports are raised preferably by use of a magnetic field applied to magnetic material patterned on the supports.

  16. Transient Analysis of Lumped Circuit Networks Loaded Thin Wires By DGTD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-03-31

    With the purpose of avoiding very fine mesh cells in the proximity of a thin wire, the modified telegrapher’s equations (MTEs) are employed to describe the thin wire voltage and current distributions, which consequently results in reduced number of unknowns and augmented Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. As hyperbolic systems, both the MTEs and the Maxwell’s equations are solved by the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method. In realistic situations, the thin wires could be either driven or loaded by circuit networks. The thin wire-circuit interface performs as a boundary condition for the thin wire solver, where the thin wire voltage and current used for the incoming flux evaluation involved in the DGTD analyzed MTEs are not available. To obtain this voltage and current, an auxiliary current flowing through the thin wire-circuit interface is introduced at each interface. Corresponding auxiliary equations derived from the invariable property of characteristic variable for hyperbolic systems are developed and solved together with the circuit equations established by the modified nodal analysis (MNA) modality. Furthermore, in order to characterize the field and thin wire interactions, a weighted electric field and a volume current density are added into the MTEs and Maxwell-Ampere’s law equation, respectively. To validate the proposed algorithm, three representative examples are presented.

  17. Novel fabrication method of conductive polymer nanowires for sensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Castillo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new, quiek and low cost fabrication of PEDOT:TsO nanowires using self-assembled peptide nanotubes as a masking material. The peptide nanotubes show a remarkably stability during reactive ion etching and can be dissolved in water afterwards. We have shown that the imp...... that the impedance of the nanowire is changing with backgating the wire, this gives promising possibility for application as a sensor....

  18. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridor, Yariv [Zichron Ya'akov, IL; Domany, Tamar [Kiryat Tivon, IL; Frachtenberg, Eitan [Jerusalem, IL; Gal, Yoav [Haifa, IL; Shmueli, Edi [Haifa, IL; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph [San Jose, CA

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  19. Method of Fabricating a Piezoelectric Composite Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, W. Keats (Inventor); Bryant, Robert (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); High, James W. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Little, Bruce D. (Inventor); Mirick, Paul H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for fabricating a piezoelectric macro-fiber composite actuator comprises providing a piezoelectric material that has two sides and attaching one side upon an adhesive backing sheet. The method further comprises slicing the piezoelectric material to provide a plurality of piezoelectric fibers in juxtaposition. A conductive film is then adhesively bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material, and the adhesive backing sheet is removed. The conductive film has first and second conductive patterns formed thereon which are electrically isolated from one another and in electrical contact with the piezoelectric material. The first and second conductive patterns of the conductive film each have a plurality of electrodes to form a pattern of interdigitated electrodes. A second film is then bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material. The second film may have a pair of conductive patterns similar to the conductive patterns of the first film.

  20. Method of Fabricating a Composite Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, W. Keats (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); High, James W. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for fabricating a piezoelectric macro-fiber composite actuator comprises making a piezoelectric fiber sheet by providing a plurality of wafers of piezoelectric material, bonding the wafers together with an adhesive material to from a stack of alternating layers of piezoelectric material and adhesive material, and cutting through the stack in a direction substantially parallel to the thickness of the stack and across the alternating layers of piezoelectric material and adhesive material to provide at least one piezoelectric fiber sheet having two sides comprising a plurality of piezoelectric fibers in juxtaposition to the adhesive material. The method further comprises bonding two electrically conductive films to the two sides of the piezoelectric fiber sheet. At least one conductive film has first and second conductive patterns formed thereon which are electrically isolated from one another and in electrical contact with the piezoelectric fiber sheet.

  1. Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-02-11

    A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  2. Fabricating Superior NiAl Bronze Components through Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast NAB components. Although heat treatment, friction stir processing, and fusion welding were implemented to eliminate porosity, improve mechanical properties, and refine the microstructure of as-cast metal, their applications are limited to either surface modification or component repair. Instead of traditional casting techniques, this study focuses on developing NAB components using recently expanded wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM. Consumable welding wire is melted and deposited layer-by-layer on substrates producing near-net shaped NAB components. Additively-manufactured NAB components without post-processing are fully dense, and exhibit fine microstructure, as well as comparable mechanical properties, to as-cast NAB alloy. The effects of heat input from the welding process and post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT are shown to give uniform NAB alloys with superior mechanical properties revealing potential marine applications of the WAAM technique in NAB production.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Ni-CNT Composites by Electrical Explosion of Wire in Different Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuyet-Nguyen M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ni-CNT powders and colloids were synthesized via the Electrical explosion of wire (EEW in different liquid conditions. The influence of ambient solvents (D.I. Water, ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethylene-glycol on characteristics of the as-synthesized Ni-CNT was investigated. The morphology and size were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. The Ni particles were spherical or near spherical shape. The phase of the composite powders analyzed via X-ray diffraction demonstrate the presence of CNTs in composite powders is not affect the structure of Ni. However, the phase of the composites was changed based on the changing of liquid conditions. Stability of colloids was investigated by Turbiscan technique. Magnetic properties were also investigated by Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM at room temperature. The as-synthesized composite powders revealed a ferromagnetic characteristic material.

  4. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of Thermoelectric Generators with Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposited Polysilicon as Thermoelement Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria Theresa; Tarazona, Antulio; Chong, Harold; Kraft, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, fabrication, and evaluation of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with p-type polysilicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) as thermoelement material. A thermal model is developed based on energy balance and heat transfer equations using lumped thermal conductances. Several test structures were fabricated to allow characterization of the boron-doped polysilicon material deposited by HWCVD. The film was found to be electrically active without any post-deposition annealing. Based on the tests performed on the test structures, it is determined that the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity of the HWCVD polysilicon are 113 μV/K, 126 W/mK, and 3.58 × 10-5 Ω m, respectively. Results from laser tests performed on the fabricated TEG are in good agreement with the thermal model. The temperature values derived from the thermal model are within 2.8% of the measured temperature values. For a 1-W laser input, an open-circuit voltage and output power of 247 mV and 347 nW, respectively, were generated. This translates to a temperature difference of 63°C across the thermoelements. This paper demonstrates that HWCVD, which is a cost-effective way of producing solar cells, can also be applied in the production of TEGs. By establishing that HWCVD polysilicon can be an effective thermoelectric material, further work on developing photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid microsystems that are cost-effective and better performing can be explored.

  5. Comparison of Quantitative Antifungal Testing Methods for Textile Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yasuo; Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takao A

    2017-01-01

     Quantitative antifungal testing methods for textile fabrics under growth-supportive conditions were studied. Fungal growth activities on unfinished textile fabrics and textile fabrics modified with Ag nanoparticles were investigated using the colony counting method and the luminescence method. Morphological changes of the fungi during incubation were investigated by microscopic observation. Comparison of the results indicated that the fungal growth activity values obtained with the colony counting method depended on the morphological state of the fungi on textile fabrics, whereas those obtained with the luminescence method did not. Our findings indicated that unique characteristics of each testing method must be taken into account for the proper evaluation of antifungal activity.

  6. UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

    2006-10-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

  7. Electrochemical properties of Sn-based nanopowders synthesized by a pulsed wire evaporation method and effect of binder coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Keun [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Seok; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwon-Koo, E-mail: kkcho66@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Sn-based nanoparticles are fabricated by using the pulsed wire evaporation method. • The electrodes are prepared by mixing the graphene and coating the surface. • Coating the surface of electrode is used with brushing of simple and facile method. • The electrochemical measurements are performed with galvanostatic experiments. • The coating electrode maintains capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} up to 100 cycles. - Abstract: Sn-based nanoparticles are prepared with the O{sub 2} concentrations in chamber of Ar atmosphere (by v/v) by using the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method. The prepared electrodes are only Sn-based powder electrode, its binder coating electrode and Sn-based powder/graphene nanocomposite electrode. Morphology and structure of the synthesized powders and electrodes are investigated with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The electrochemical measurements were performed with galvanostatic cycling experiments using a coin type cell of CR2032 (Ø20, T3.2 mm). The binder coating electrode is superior to others and maintains delithiation capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} as 58.3% of first delithiation capacity at 0.2 C-rate up to 100 cycles.

  8. A method for building low loss multi-layer wiring for superconducting microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsworth, A.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Fowler, A.; Foxen, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Klimov, P. V.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.

    2018-02-01

    Complex integrated circuits require multiple wiring layers. In complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing, these layers are robustly separated by amorphous dielectrics. These dielectrics would dominate energy loss in superconducting integrated circuits. Here, we describe a procedure that capitalizes on the structural benefits of inter-layer dielectrics during fabrication and mitigates the added loss. We use a deposited inter-layer dielectric throughout fabrication and then etch it away post-fabrication. This technique is compatible with foundry level processing and can be generalized to make many different forms of low-loss wiring. We use this technique to create freestanding aluminum vacuum gap crossovers (airbridges). We characterize the added capacitive loss of these airbridges by connecting ground planes over microwave frequency λ/4 coplanar waveguide resonators and measuring resonator loss. We measure a low power resonator loss of ˜3.9 × 10-8 per bridge, which is 100 times lower than that of dielectric supported bridges. We further characterize these airbridges as crossovers, control line jumpers, and as part of a coupling network in gmon and fluxmon qubits. We measure qubit characteristic lifetimes (T1s) in excess of 30 μs in gmon devices.

  9. Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires based on Timoshenko beam theory using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Janghorban

    Full Text Available Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires with rectangular cross section based on Timoshenko beam theory is studied in this research. Differential quadrature method (DQM is employed to solve the governing equations. From the knowledge of author, it is the first time that free vibration of nano wires is investigated. It is also the first time that differential quadrature method is used for bending analysis of nano wires.

  10. A study on direct alloying with molybdenum oxides by feed wire method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct alloying with molybdenum oxides has been regarded in years; the main addition methods are adding to the bottom of electric arc furnace (EAF with scrap, adding to the ladle during the converter tapping and mixing molybdenum oxide, lime and reductant to prepare pellet added to basic oxygen furnace (BOF. In this paper, a new method for direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide is proposed, adding molybdenum trioxide molten steel by feeding wire method in ladle furnace (LF refining process. The feasibility of molybdenum oxide reduction, the influence rules of bottom-blown on liquid steel fluidity and the yield of molybdenum by feeding wire method were analyzed. Results show that molybdenum oxide can be reduced by [Al], [Si], [C], and even [Fe] in molten steel. Bottom blowing position has a significant influence on the flow of molten steel when the permeable brick is located in 1/2 radius. The yields of Mo are higher than 97% for the experiments with feed wire method, the implementation of direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide by feed wire method works even better than that uses of ferromolybdenum in the traditional process.

  11. Analytical methods to characterize heterogeneous raw material for thermal spray process: cored wire Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, T.; Bonebeau, S.; Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In wire arc spraying, the raw material needs to exhibit sufficient formability and ductility in order to be processed. By using an electrically conductive, metallic sheath, it is also possible to handle non-conductive and/or brittle materials such as ceramics. In comparison to massive wire, a cored wire has a heterogeneous material distribution. Due to this fact and the complex thermodynamic processes during wire arc spraying, it is very difficult to predict the resulting chemical composition in the coating with sufficient accuracy. An Inconel 625 cored wire was used to investigate this issue. In a comparative study, the analytical results of the raw material were compared to arc sprayed coatings and droplets, which were remelted in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were used to determine the chemical composition. The phase determination was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results were related to the manufacturer specifications and evaluated in respect to differences in the chemical composition. The comparison between the feedstock powder, the remelted droplets and the thermally sprayed coatings allows to evaluate the influence of the processing methods on the resulting chemical and phase composition.

  12. Inductive method to measure very small joint resistances of superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, R

    1998-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is currently being developed at CERN, about 50,000 connections of superconducting wire will be necessary to implement all circuits for powering 6000 corrector magnets with a maximum current of 600 A. To minimise the generation of ohmic heat in the cryogenic system, it is necessary to reduce the contact resistance of these connections as much as possible. This paper describes a method to measure contact resistances of splices of superconducting wires, which has been used to optimise such connections. Additionally we present results of a number of measurements on different types of connections. (2 refs).

  13. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [2] P V Bousine, S V Tolmachev and A A Varfolomeev, Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. A393, 414 (1997). [3] T C Fan et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1430 (2002). [4] O Shahal and R Rohtagi, Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. A285, 299 (1989). [5] O Shahal, B V Elkonin and J S Sokolowski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. A296,.

  14. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 5. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI with LCL filter. Anirban Ghoshal Vinod ... Asymptotic frequency response plot and gain bandwidth requirements of the system have been used for current control and voltage controller design. A simplified lower ...

  15. High-performance MgB2 superconducting wires for use under liquid-helium-free conditions fabricated using an internal Mg diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, ShuJun; Song, Minghui; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Togano, Kazumasa; Takeguchi, Masaki; Ohmura, Takahito; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    MgB2 has a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 39 K, which is much higher than that for practical metallic superconductors. Thus, it is hoped that MgB2 can not only replace metallic superconductors, but can be used under liquid-helium-free conditions, for example, at temperatures of 10-20 K that can easily be achieved using cryocooling systems. However, to date, the reported critical current density (Jc) for MgB2 wires is not high enough for large-scale applications in liquid-helium-free conditions. In the present study, successful fabrication of high-performance MgB2 superconducting wires was carried out using an internal Mg diffusion (IMD) process, involving a p-dimethylbenzene (C8H10) pre-treatment of carbon-coated B powder with nanometer-sized particles. The resulting wires exhibited the highest ever Jc of 1.2 × 105 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T, and an engineering critical current density (Je) of about 1 × 104 A cm-2. Not only in 4.2 K, but also in 10 K, the Jc values for the wires fabricated in the present study are in fact higher than that for Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K for the magnetic fields at which the measurements were carried out. At 20 K and 5 T, the Jc and Je were about 7.6 × 105 A cm-2 and 5.3 × 103 A cm-2, respectively, which are the highest values reported for MgB2 wires to date. The results of a detailed microstructural analysis suggested that the main reason for the superior electrical performance was the high density of the MgB2 layer rather than just the small grain size, and that the critical current could be further increased by suitable control of the microstructure. These high-performance IMD-processed MgB2 wires are thus promising superconductors for applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and maglev trains that can operate under liquid-helium-free conditions.

  16. Application of statistical methods at copper wire manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hajduová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a method of management that strives for near perfection. The Six Sigma methodology uses data and rigorous statistical analysis to identify defects in a process or product, reduce variability and achieve as close to zero defects as possible. The paper presents the basic information on this methodology.

  17. METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A SINGLE CRYSTAL NANO-WIRE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Albert; Bomer, Johan; Carlen Edwin, Thomas; Chen, Songyue; Kraaijenhagen Roderik, Adriaan; Pinedo Herbert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a single crystal nano-structure is provided comprising the steps of providing a device layer with a 100 structure on a substrate; providing a stress layer onto the device layer; patterning the stress layer along the 110 direction of the device layer; selectively removing

  18. METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A SINGLE CRYSTAL NANO-WIRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Albert; Bomer, Johan; Carlen Edwin, Thomas; Chen, Songyue; Kraaijenhagen Roderik, Adriaan; Pinedo Herbert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a single crystal nano-structure includes providing a device layer with a 100 structure on a substrate; providing a stress layer onto the device layer; patterning the stress layer along the 110 direction of the device layer; selectively removing parts of the stress layer to

  19. A new method for cerclage wire fixation to maximal pre-tension with minimal elongation to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dominik C; Ramseier, Leo E; Lajtai, Georg; Nötzli, Hubert

    2003-12-01

    To develop and test a new cerclage wire tightening technique, yielding reproducibly maximal pre-tension, load to failure and minimal elongation to failure of the wire junction. Laboratory bench study. Cerclage wire fixation is difficult to perform by hand with reproducible quality and tightening tension, which are required for optimal performance. With the new technique, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 mm steel wires were passed through a 9 x 18 mm steel tube, grasped using a modified ASIF wire-tightener and tightened by twisting until spontaneous failure of the wires in the tube. These fixations were compared to wires pre-tightened by hand to controlled high or low pre-tension using the simple twist, the knot twist and twist secured against untwisting, loaded to failure on a testing machine. The tests assessed pre-tension, ultimate failure load and elongation to failure. Wire twists performed with the new technique were always perfectly symmetrical and may be tightened to maximal pre-tension without weakening of the wire. The twist secured against untwisting combined high stiffness with high failure load. The knot twist elongates to an unacceptable degree, unlike the secured twist. The simple twist untwists under little tension. The new technique allows to obtain maximal pre-tension and thus minimal elongation to failure of simple wire twists, without having to worry about breaking the wire at the base of the twist due to over-tightening. Cerclage wire fixation is an effective and cheap method to perform osteosynthesis. For adequate performance, maximal pre-tension, symmetrical twisting and high load to failure are necessary. The here presented technique combines all of these pre-requisites in a simple fashion.

  20. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  1. An automated method for the layup of fiberglass fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Siqi

    This dissertation presents an automated composite fabric layup solution based on a new method to deform fiberglass fabric referred to as shifting. A layup system was designed and implemented using a large robotic gantry and custom end-effector for shifting. Layup tests proved that the system can deposit fabric onto two-dimensional and three-dimensional tooling surfaces accurately and repeatedly while avoiding out-of-plane deformation. A process planning method was developed to generate tool paths for the layup system based on a geometric model of the tooling surface. The approach is analogous to Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, where Numerical Control (NC) code from a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model is generated to drive the milling machine. Layup experiments utilizing the proposed method were conducted to validate the performance. The results show that the process planning software requires minimal time or human intervention and can generate tool paths leading to accurate composite fabric layups. Fiberglass fabric samples processed with shifting deformation were observed for meso-scale deformation. Tow thinning, bending and spacing was observed and measured. Overall, shifting did not create flaws in amounts that would disqualify the method from use in industry. This suggests that shifting is a viable method for use in automated manufacturing. The work of this dissertation provides a new method for the automated layup of broad width composite fabric that is not possible with any available composite automation systems to date.

  2. Fabrication Methods for Adaptive Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Risaku; White, Victor E.; Manohara, Harish; Patterson, Keith D.; Yamamoto, Namiko; Gdoutos, Eleftherios; Steeves, John B.; Daraio, Chiara; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it was difficult to fabricate deformable mirrors made by piezoelectric actuators. This is because numerous actuators need to be precisely assembled to control the surface shape of the mirror. Two approaches have been developed. Both approaches begin by depositing a stack of piezoelectric films and electrodes over a silicon wafer substrate. In the first approach, the silicon wafer is removed initially by plasmabased reactive ion etching (RIE), and non-plasma dry etching with xenon difluoride (XeF2). In the second approach, the actuator film stack is immersed in a liquid such as deionized water. The adhesion between the actuator film stack and the substrate is relatively weak. Simply by seeping liquid between the film and the substrate, the actuator film stack is gently released from the substrate. The deformable mirror contains multiple piezoelectric membrane layers as well as multiple electrode layers (some are patterned and some are unpatterned). At the piezolectric layer, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), or its co-polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) is used. The surface of the mirror is coated with a reflective coating. The actuator film stack is fabricated on silicon, or silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate, by repeatedly spin-coating the PVDF or P(VDFTrFE) solution and patterned metal (electrode) deposition. In the first approach, the actuator film stack is prepared on SOI substrate. Then, the thick silicon (typically 500-micron thick and called handle silicon) of the SOI wafer is etched by a deep reactive ion etching process tool (SF6-based plasma etching). This deep RIE stops at the middle SiO2 layer. The middle SiO2 layer is etched by either HF-based wet etching or dry plasma etch. The thin silicon layer (generally called a device layer) of SOI is removed by XeF2 dry etch. This XeF2 etch is very gentle and extremely selective, so the released mirror membrane is not damaged. It is possible to replace SOI with silicon

  3. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  4. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2018-01-23

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method of fabricating a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) having an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, includes fabricating each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode, and the membrane separately by electrospinning; and placing the membrane between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, and pressing then together to form the fuel cell MEA.

  5. Method for fabricating apatite crystals and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Tassano, Jr., John B.; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a method of crystallizing Yb:C-FAP [Yb.sup.3+:Ca.sub.5(PO.sub.4).sub.3F], by dissolving the Yb:C-FAP in an acidic solution, following by neutralizing the solution. The present invention also provides a method of forming crystalline Yb:C-FAP by dissolving the component ingredients in an acidic solution, followed by forming a supersaturated solution.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO nano wires/Cd Se/CuSCN eta-solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tena-Zaera, R.; Ryan, M.A.; Abou, Katty; Hodes, G.; Bastide, St.; Levy-Clement, C. [LCMTR, Institut des sciences chimiques Seine-Amont, CNRS, 94 - Thiais (France); Tena-Zaera, R. [Valancia Univ., Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme (Spain); Ryan, M.A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Hodes, G. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Dept. of Materials and Interfaces, Rehovot (Israel)

    2006-05-15

    ZnO/CdSe/CuSCN extremely thin absorber (eta)-solar cells based on ZnO nano-wires have been successfully realized using easily accessible electrochemical and solution deposition techniques. An n-type ZnO film consisting of free-standing single crystal nano-wires several microns high and 100-200 nm in diameter was-deposited on a conducting glass (SnO{sub 2}:F) substrate covered by a thin spray pyrolysis ZnO electronic blocking layer. A 30-40-nm-thin layer of CdSe absorber was electrodeposited, coating the ZnO nano-wires. The voids between the ZnO/CdSe nano-wires were filled with p-type CuSCN; the entire assembly formed a p-i-n junction. The ZnO/CdSe nano-wire layer exhibited a high light-trapping effect, with an effective absorbance of {approx}89% and effective reflectance of {approx}8% in the 400-800 nm region of the solar spectrum (AM1.5). The effects of an annealing process on the CdSe grain size and on the energy conversion efficiency of the eta-solar cell have been analyzed. The obtained efficiencies, for cells with annealed CdSe (1.5-2.3%) show that the ZnO/CdSe/CuSCN nano-heterostructure is an interesting option for developing new solar cell devices. (authors)

  7. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO nano wires/Cd Se/CuSCN eta-solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tena-Zaera, R.; Ryan, M.A.; Abou, Katty; Hodes, G.; Bastide, St.; Levy-Clement, C.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Ryan, M.A.; Hodes, G.

    2006-01-01

    ZnO/CdSe/CuSCN extremely thin absorber (eta)-solar cells based on ZnO nano-wires have been successfully realized using easily accessible electrochemical and solution deposition techniques. An n-type ZnO film consisting of free-standing single crystal nano-wires several microns high and 100-200 nm in diameter was-deposited on a conducting glass (SnO 2 :F) substrate covered by a thin spray pyrolysis ZnO electronic blocking layer. A 30-40-nm-thin layer of CdSe absorber was electrodeposited, coating the ZnO nano-wires. The voids between the ZnO/CdSe nano-wires were filled with p-type CuSCN; the entire assembly formed a p-i-n junction. The ZnO/CdSe nano-wire layer exhibited a high light-trapping effect, with an effective absorbance of ∼89% and effective reflectance of ∼8% in the 400-800 nm region of the solar spectrum (AM1.5). The effects of an annealing process on the CdSe grain size and on the energy conversion efficiency of the eta-solar cell have been analyzed. The obtained efficiencies, for cells with annealed CdSe (1.5-2.3%) show that the ZnO/CdSe/CuSCN nano-heterostructure is an interesting option for developing new solar cell devices. (authors)

  8. Fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance by a simple lamination templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2011-09-01

    Fabricating robust superhydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications is challenging as the fine-scale surface features, necessary to achieve superhydrophobicity, are susceptible to mechanical damage. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive lamination templating method to create superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance and water pressure stability. To fabricate the surfaces, polyethylene films were laminated against woven wire mesh templates. After cooling, the mesh was peeled from the polymer creating a 3D array of ordered polymer microposts on the polymer surface. The resulting texture is monolithic with the polymer film and requires no chemical modification to exhibit superhydrophobicity. By controlling lamination parameters and mesh dimensions, polyethylene surfaces were fabricated that exhibit static contact angles of 160° and slip angles of 5°. Chemical and mechanical stability was evaluated using an array of manual tests as well as a standard reciprocating abraser test. Surfaces remained superhydrophobic after more than 5500 abrasion cycles at a pressure of 32.0 kPa. In addition, the surface remains dry after immersing into water for 5 h at 55 kPa. This method is environmental friendly, as it employs no solvents or harsh chemicals and may provide an economically viable path to manufacture large areas of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces from inexpensive polymers and reusable templates.

  9. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by using the exploding wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rashmita; Das, Basanta Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years, the synthesis of copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of their huge potential for replacing the expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. This opens a new possibility in printed electronics. Copper-based inkjet inks can be used to form various devices such as solar cells, RF identification tags and electroluminescence devices. This paper describes controlled synthesis of pure copper nanoparticles, mainly by using the exploding wire method. A wire of 0.26 mm in diameter was exploded in a nitrogen environment. The sample was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD revealed the presence of pure copper and AFM revealed the presence of nanoparticles with an average size of 55 nm.

  11. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2018-02-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  12. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  13. Elementary development for beryllide pebble fabrication by rotating electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Kawamura, H.; Uda, M.; Ito, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Beryllides (Be 12 Ti, Be 12 V, etc.) are expected to be promising candidates for advanced neutron multipliers for the DEMO blanket. However, it has been difficult to fabricate beryllide pebbles by rotating electrode method (REM) that is the standard fabrication process for the beryllium (Be) pebbles, because of the brittleness of beryllide electrode rod. In this study, the chemical composition of the materials and the fabrication process of the electrode were surveyed. Then the small-scale electrode was fabricated and preliminary trials of pebbles production were conducted by REM. The electrode of the improved material withstood the thermal stress under arc heating and a certain amount of pebbles were obtained. These pebbles by REM were dense and had fine structure. The feasibility of the production of beryllide pebbles by REM was confirmed

  14. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  15. A Method for Avoiding Numerical Instability in FDTD-based Surge Simulations and its Application to Representation of Thin Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Akiyoshi; Noda, Taku

    The FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method, which is used for the computation of electromagnetic fields, is a useful tool for surge problems in three-dimensional arrangements, which cannot be rigorously treated by simulation methods such as EMTP (Electromagnetic Transients Programs) based on circuit theory. In the FDTD method, thin wires such as power lines are often represented by forcing the electric fields along the wires to zero. If a thin wire is represented in this way, its radius is determined by the size of the cells surrounding the wire. Although the technique for simulating an arbitrary radius has already been proposed, numerical instability often occurs in simulations when the wire radius is much smaller than the size of the cells surrounding the wire. As a conventional countermeasure against such numerical instability, the time discretization is often set to a smaller value than that based on Courant's condition. However, the smaller time discretization results in an increase in the calculation time. We propose a new technique for avoiding the numerical instability. Using this technique, in only a part of an analysis space where the numerical instability may occur, the time discretization is set to a value smaller than that based on Courant's condition, while the time discretization is set to a value close to that based on Courant's condition in the other part of the analysis space. We performed an FDTD-based simulation of a thin wire using the proposed numerical stabilization technique for validation.

  16. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  17. Method of fabricating patterned crystal structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Liyang

    2016-12-15

    A method of manufacturing a patterned crystal structure for includes depositing an amorphous material. The amorphous material is modified such that a first portion of the amorphous thin-film layer has a first height/volume and a second portion of the amorphous thin-film layer has a second height/volume greater than the first portion. The amorphous material is annealed to induce crystallization, wherein crystallization is induced in the second portion first due to the greater height/volume of the second portion relative to the first portion to form patterned crystal structures.

  18. METHOD FOR FABRICATING NANOSCALE PATTERNS ON A SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to fabricate nanoscale pits on Au(111) surfaces in contact with aqueous solution is claimed. The method uses in situ electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy with independent electrochemical substrate and tip potential control and very small bias voltages. This is significantly...

  19. A Novel Two-Step Method for Fabricating Silver Plating Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel two-step method was presented for fabricating silver plating cotton fabrics (SPCFs with high electrical conductivity and excellent washing fastness. First, polydopamine (PDA film was coated on the surface of cotton fabrics by in situ polymerization of dopamine, the silver ions in silver nitrate solution were reduced by the catechol groups of polydopamine, and silver nanoparticles were combined with polydopamine by covalent bond on the surface of cotton fabrics. Second, silver ions were reduced by glucose, and silver plating was coated on the surface. Subsequently, the properties of SPCFs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and so forth. With the increasing of silver-ammonia solution concentration or dopamine concentration, the surface resistivity of SPCFs decreases and gradually stabilized. The surface resistivity of the SPCFs can reach 0.12±0.02 Ω, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (ESE of the SPCFs can reach 58.5±4.5 dB. Conductive fabrics have wide application prospect in many of fields, such as antibacterial, intelligent textiles, smart garments, electromagnetic shielding, and flexible sensors.

  20. Study of corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film using the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zaijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Peng, Xin; Wang, Yanhua; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Haijie; Gao, Congjie

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film with various thickness was investigated by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. It was found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased significantly under thin seawater film than it was immersed in seawater. The current variation under seawater film indicated that the thickness of diffusion layer of oxygen was about 500 μm, and the maximal current appeared around 40 μm, at which corrosion rate transited from cathodic control to anodic control. The results suggest that WBE method is helpful to study the corrosion process under thin electrolyte film

  1. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  2. Measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals using a short hot wire method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Seiji; Maki, Syou; Tanaka, Seiichi; Maekawa, Ryunosuke; Masuda, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals were examined by using the transient short hot wire method. This method is based on the conventional hot wire method, but improved by using a wire that is much shorter than conventional ones. The magneto-Archimedes levitation technique was utilized to attach the HEWL crystals onto the wire. Owing to the upward magnetic force, the HEWL crystals were deposited at the air-liquid interface of the protein buffer solution where the short hot wire was preliminarily fixed. In situ observation clarified that the wire was completely buried into the HEWL crystals. By means of these techniques, the measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of HEWL crystals was realized for the first time. Gadolinium chloride (a paramagnetic subject) was used as a precipitant agent of crystallization. Crystal growth was carried out over 20 h at 17.2 °C. The applied magnetic field was 4 T. Measurements were conducted during the crystal growth at two different times. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the HEWL crystals were determined to be 0.410 W/(m.K) and 3.77×10-8 m2/s at 14 h after, and 0.438 W/(m.K) and 5.18×10-8 m2/s at 20 h after, respectively. We emphasize that this method is versatile and applicable for other protein crystals.

  3. Modern Cored Wire Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.

  4. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  5. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to optimize the fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the nanoparticle bioproducts. BSA nanoparticles have been extensively studied in our previous works as suitable carrier for drug delivery, since they are ...

  6. Method to fabricate block fuel elements for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1977-01-01

    The fabrication of block fuel elements for gas-cooled high temperature reactors can be improved upon by adding 0.2 to 2 wt.% of a hydrocarbon compound to the lubricating mixture prior to pressing. Hexanol or octanol are named as substances. The dimensional accuracy of the block is thus improved. 2 examples illustrate the method. (RW) [de

  7. Method for producing bonded nonwoven fabrics using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drelich, A.H.; Oney, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing a resin-bonded nonwoven fabric. The preparation involves forming a fibrous web annealing it and compressing it to provide fiber to fiber contact. A polymerizable binder is applied to the fibrous web which is then treated by ionizing radiation to produce the material. 9 figures, 3 drawing

  8. Method for reuse of wafers for growth of vertically-aligned wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua M; Plass, Katherine E; Lewis, Nathan S; Atwater, Harry A

    2013-06-04

    Reusing a Si wafer for the formation of wire arrays by transferring the wire arrays to a polymer matrix, reusing a patterned oxide for several array growths, and finally polishing and reoxidizing the wafer surface and reapplying the patterned oxide.

  9. Method for measuring the wire tensions in proportional and drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupland, M. (University Coll., London (UK))

    1983-06-15

    A device to measure the resonant frequency of a proportional chamber wire is described. From this frequency the wire tension can be calculated. The device is self-tuning, and in some instances may be used without opening the chamber.

  10. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    1975-01-01

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 hours of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 hours of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use

  11. Method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matkso, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) is provided. The WGMR can be fabricated from a particular material, annealed, and then polished. The WGMR can be repeatedly annealed and then polished. The repeated polishing of the WGMR can be carried out using an abrasive slurry. The abrasive slurry can have a predetermined, constant grain size. Each subsequent polishing of the WGMR can use an abrasive slurry having a grain size that is smaller than the grain size of the abrasive slurry of the previous polishing iteration.

  12. Simple method to generate and fabricate stochastic porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nan, E-mail: y79nzw@163.com; Gao, Lilan; Zhou, Kuntao

    2015-11-01

    Considerable effort has been made to generate regular porous structures (RPSs) using function-based methods, although little effort has been made for constructing stochastic porous structures (SPSs) using the same methods. In this short communication, we propose a straightforward method for SPS construction that is simple in terms of methodology and the operations used. Using our method, we can obtain a SPS with functionally graded, heterogeneous and interconnected pores, target pore size and porosity distributions, which are useful for applications in tissue engineering. The resulting SPS models can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. - Highlights: • Random porous structures are constructed based on their regular counterparts. • Functionally graded random pores can be constructed easily. • The scaffolds can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques.

  13. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marín, E.; Juárez, A. G.; Calderón, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-07-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties.

  14. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S; Marín, E; Juárez, A G; Calderón, A; Ivanov, R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties. (paper)

  15. Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi wires in passive (Damon Q and active (Bioquick self-ligating brackets (SLB and in conventional brackets (CB tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL and metal ligature (ML. Methods Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in. and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N. For the testing procedures, the acrylic block representative of the right maxillary central incisor was palatally moved, with readings of the force at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm, at a constant speed of 2 mm/min and temperature of 36.5 °C. Results The conventional NiTi released higher forces than the thermally activated NiTi archwires in large deflections. In general, the SLB showed lower forces, while the ML had higher forces, with both showing a similar force release behavior, constantly decreasing as the deflection decreased. The EL showed an irregular behavior. The active SLB showed smaller forces than passive, in large deflections. Conclusions The SLB and the ML exhibit standard force patterns during unloading, while the elastomeric ligatures exhibit a randomly distributed force release behavior.

  16. Developing Light Collection Enhancements and Wire Tensioning Methods for LArTPC Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagliardi, Fabio [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    Liquid argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are becoming widely used as neutrino detectors because of their image-like event reconstruction which enables precision neutrino measurements. They primarily use ionisation charge to reconstruct neutrino events. It has been shown, however, that the scintillation light emitted by liquid argon could be exploited to improve their performance. As the neutrino measurements planned in the near future require large-scale experiments, their construction presents challenges in terms of both charge and light collection. In this dissertation we present solutions developed to improve the performance in both aspects of these detectors. We present a new wire tensioning measurement method that allows a remote measurement of the tension of the large number wires that constitute the TPC anode. We also discuss the development and installation of WLS-compound covered foils for the SBND neutrino detector at Fermilab, which is a technique proposed t o augment light collection in LArTPCs. This included preparing a SBND-like mesh cathode and testing it in the Run III of LArIAT, a test beam detector also located at Fermilab. Finally, we present a study aimed at understanding late scintillation light emitted by recombining positive argon ions using LArIAT data, which could affect large scale surface detectors.

  17. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  18. Superhydrophobic transparent films from silica powder: Comparison of fabrication methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Li-Der

    2011-07-01

    The lotus leaf is known for its self-clean, superhydrophobic surface, which displays a hierarchical structure covered with a thin wax-like material. In this study, three fabrication techniques, using silicon dioxide particles to create surface roughness followed by a surface modification with a film of polydimethylsiloxane, were applied on a transparent glass substrate. The fabrication techniques differed mainly on the deposition of silicon dioxide particles, which included organic, inorganic, and physical methods. Each technique was used to coat three samples of varying particle load. The surface of each sample was evaluated with contact angle goniometer and optical spectrometer. Results confirmed the inverse relationships between contact angle and optical transmissivity independent of fabrication techniques. Microstructural morphologies also suggested the advantage of physical deposition over chemical methods. In summary, the direct sintering method proved outstanding for its contact angle vs transmissivity efficiency, and capable of generating a contact angle as high as 174°. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  20. RETRACTED: Modeling and imprint fabrication of an infrared wire-grid polarizer with an antireflection grating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Itsunari; Yamashita, Naoto; Einishi, Toshihiko; Saito, Mitsunori; Fukumi, Kouhei; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor and the authors as they/the authors acknowledged extensive overlap between an earlier published article of Applied Physics Express1 and the current article. The authors would like to apologize to the Editors and readers for this situation. 1Itsunari Yamada, Naoto Yamashita, Kunihiko Tani, Toshihiko Einishi, Mitsunori Saito, Kouhei Fukumi and Junji Nishii, Infrared Wire-Grid Polarizer with Antireflection Structure by Imprinting on Both Sides. Appl. Phys. Express (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/APEX.5.082502

  1. Investigation of defects on PAMS microspheres fabricated with microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sufen; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Zhanwen; Qi Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Poly-(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) microspheres were fabricated with W1/O/W2 double emulsion microencapsulation method, and the effects of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and CaCl 2 weight concentrations and the O/W2 phase ratio on the percentages of defected PAMS microspheres were studied. The weight concentrations of PVA and CaCl 2 and the O/W2 phase ratio in the fabrication process of PAMS microspheres were optimized. The results show that, for the three parameters being 1.0%, 1.5%, and 0.01, respectively, the percentage of the defect-free PAMS microspheres without vacuoles in the shell wall can be up to 60%. (authors)

  2. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that approximately 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 h of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 h of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use. (U.S.)

  3. Separation Test Method for Investigation of Current Density Effects on Bond Wires of SiC Power MOSFET Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a separation test method for eliminating the effects of different current densities on the bond wires is proposed. The separation test method makes it possible to study the effect of different current density on the fatigue damage of bond wires without changing the temperature swing...... and average temperature during the test. By analyzing the output characteristics of the linear region of MOSFET, the constraint relations among the gate voltage, on-state voltage drop and junction temperature are revealed in this paper. The one-to-one correspondence between gate voltage and conduction power...

  4. Significance of stainless steel wire reinforcement on the mechanical properties of GFRP composites

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pazhanivel; G.B. Bhaskar; A.Elayaperumal

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on flexural and tensile properties of GFRP laminates influenced by stainless steel wire reinforcement were carried out as a novel approach. Plain GFRP laminates and GFRP laminates reinforced with stainless steel wires at different depth with various pitch distances were fabricated by hand layup method. The composite specimens reinforced with steel wires were exposed to low frequency high amplitude cyclic load by using a cam arrangement. Three point bend test was carried out on ...

  5. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jackie G [Seymour, TN; DeMint, Amy L [Kingston, TN

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  6. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on) and pulse off time (T off) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  7. A method for measuring the wire tensions in proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, M.

    1983-01-01

    A device to measure the resonant frequency of a proportional chamber wire is described. From this frequency the wire tension can be calculated. The device is self-tuning, and in some instances may be used without opening the chamber. (orig.)

  8. ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

  9. A comparative study in fixation methods of medial malleolus fractures between tension bands wiring and screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ayyoub A; Abbas, Khalid Ahmed; Mawlood, Ammar Salah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two methods of internal fixations of fractured medial malleolus which are simple screw fixation and tension band wiring. Over 5 years we grouped 20 patients with fractured medial malleolus into two groups of operative treatments, group1 treated by malleolar screw fixation and group2 by tension band wiring. The patients were with same age group, gender, fracture type, and etiology. We use statistical analysis for make a comparative study between the two ways of surgical treatment. The mean time for radiologic bone union was 11.8 weeks in group1 patients and 9.4 weeks in group2 patients (P = 0.03). No patients had any sign of fixation failure or Kirschner wires migration. According to the modified ankle scoring system of Olerud and Molander, excellent and good results were achieved in 80 % in group1 patients and 90 % in group2 patients (P = 0.049). Tension-band wiring may be better treatment option for internal fixation of medial malleolar fractures than screw fixation. From these findings we recommend a further randomized clinical trial of larger number of cases and longer follow-up duration in order to regard tension-band wiring a better operative option for fixation of medial malleolar fractures.

  10. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming

    2018-01-02

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  11. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming

    2016-11-15

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  12. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional carbon structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method for fabricating a three-dimensional carbon structure (4) is disclosed. A mould (1) defining a three-dimensional shape is provided, and natural protein containing fibres are packed in the mould (1) at a predetermined packing density. The packed natural protein containing fibre structure (3......) undergoes pyrolysis, either while still in the mould (1) or after having been removed from the mould (1). Thereby a three-dimensional porous and electrically conducting carbon structure (4) having a three-dimensional shape defined by the three-dimensional shape of the mould (1) and a porosity defined...

  13. A Fabrication Method for Highly Stretchable Conductors with Silver Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shih-Pin; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics are identified as a key technology for electronic applications in the next generation. One of the challenges in fabrication of stretchable electronic devices is the preparation of stretchable conductors with great mechanical stability. In this study, we developed a simple fabrication method to chemically solder the contact points between silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. AgNW nanomesh was first deposited on a glass slide via spray coating method. A reactive ink composed of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) precursors was applied over the spray coated AgNW thin films. After heating for 40 min, AgNPs were preferentially generated over the nanowire junctions to solder the AgNW nanomesh, and reinforced the conducting network. The chemically modified AgNW thin film was then transferred to polyurethane (PU) substrates by casting method. The soldered AgNW thin films on PU exhibited no obvious change in electrical conductivity under stretching or rolling process with elongation strains up to 120%. PMID:26862843

  14. THE METHODS OF CALCULATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE BREAKDOWN FIELD IN THE LINE OF THE MODEM HIGH-SPEED WIRE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Zhuchkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation methods of the temperature field of the breakdown, being rolled in lines of the modern high-speed wire mill, is developed on the basis of solving of problem of the contact exchange of hot metal with cold rollers.

  15. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean; Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  16. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  17. Advanced methods for fabrication of PHWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    1988-01-01

    For self-reliance in nuclear power, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India is pursuing two specific reactor systems, namely the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) and the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). The reference fuel for PHWR is zircaloy-4 clad high density (≤ 96 per cent T.D.) natural UO 2 pellet-pins. The advanced PHWR fuels are UO 2 -PuO 2 (≤ 2 per cent), ThO 2 -PuO 2 (≤ 4 per cent) and ThO 2 -U 233 O 2 (≤ 2 per cent). Similarly, low density (≤ 85 per cent T.D.) (UPu)O 2 pellets clad in SS 316 or D9 is the reference fuel for the first generation of prototype and commercial LMFBRs all over the world. However, (UPu)C and (UPu)N are considered as advanced fuels for LMFBRs mainly because of their shorter doubling time. The conventional method of fabrication of both high and low density oxide, carbide and nitride fuel pellets starting from UO 2 , PuO 2 and ThO 2 powders is 'powder metallurgy (P/M)'. The P/M route has, however, the disadvantage of generation and handling of fine powder particles of the fuel and the associated problem of 'radiotoxic dust hazard'. The present paper summarises the state-of-the-art of advanced methods of fabrication of oxide, carbide and nitride fuels and highlights the author's experience on sol-gel-microsphere-pelletisation (SGMP) route for preparation of these materials. The SGMP process uses sol gel derived, dust-free and free-flowing microspheres of oxides, carbide or nitride for direct pelletisation and sintering. Fuel pellets of both low and high density, excellent microhomogeneity and controlled 'open' or 'closed' porosity could be fabricated via the SGMP route. (author). 5 tables, 14 figs., 15 refs

  18. Low auto-fluorescence fabrication methods for plastic nanoslits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shenbo

    2016-04-01

    Plastic nanofluidic devices are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical applications. However, they suffer from high auto-fluorescence when used for on-chip optical detection. In this study, the auto-fluorescence problem of plastic nanofluidic devices was remedied by newly developed fabrication methods that minimise their auto-fluorescence: one by depositing a gold (Au) layer on them, the other by making them ultra-thin. In the first method, the Au layer [minimum thickness is 40 nm on 150 μm SU-8, 50 nm on 1 mm polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and 40 on 2 nm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] blocks the auto-fluorescence of the polymer; in the second method, auto-fluorescence is minimised by making the chips ultra-thin, selected operating thickness of SU-8 is 20 μm, for PET it is 150 μm, and for PMMA it is 0.8 mm.

  19. Fabrication and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Ni/Cu nanowires using the double bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleak, N.; Potpattanapol, P.; Bao, N.N.; Ding, J.; Wongkokuo, W.; Tang, I.M.; Thongmee, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ordered Ni/Cu multilayered nanowires (NW's) were fabricated using the two bath method in which the AAO template was switched back and forth between the two baths each containing solutions of dissolved Ni and Cu sulfates repeatedly. Different combinations of periods in which templates spent in each bath were used. The SEM and TEM images of the NW's showed that the NW's were smooth and uniform. The VSM results showed that in the presence of a field applied parallel to the NW, the coercivity and squareness increased when the deposition times of the Ni and Cu increased. To account for the behavior when both the thicknesses of the Ni and Cu layers were increasing, the effects of the increase in the Cu layer partially offset the effects of the increase in the Ni layer. The highest coercivity and squareness achieved was 822 Oe and 0.949, respectively, when the deposition times were 8 min for the Ni deposition and 2.5 min for the Cu deposition. - Highlights: • The double bath method produced nanowires having alternating layers of Ni and Cu. • The coercivities and squareness were higher for magnetic fields applied parallel to the wire's axis. • Coercivities of the nanowires increased from 365 Oe to 822 Oe as the Ni deposition time increased. • Squareness increased from 0.800 to 0.949 as the Ni deposition times increased

  20. BioWires: Conductive DNA Nanowires in a Computationally-Optimized, Synthetic Biological Platform for Nanoelectronic Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioni, Simon; Toomey, Emily; Capece, Mark C.; Rothschild, Lynn; Wind, Shalom

    2017-01-01

    DNA is an ideal template for a biological nanowire-it has a linear structure several atoms thick; it possesses addressable nucleobase geometry that can be precisely defined; and it is massively scalable into branched networks. Until now, the drawback of DNA as a conducting nanowire been, simply put, its low conductance. To address this deficiency, we extensively characterize a chemical variant of canonical DNA that exploits the affinity of natural cytosine bases for silver ions. We successfully construct chains of single silver ions inside double-stranded DNA, confirm the basic dC-Ag+-dC bond geometry and kinetics, and show length-tunability dependent on mismatch distribution, ion availability and enzyme activity. An analysis of the absorbance spectra of natural DNA and silver-binding, poly-cytosine DNA demonstrates the heightened thermostability of the ion chain and its resistance to aqueous stresses such as precipitation, dialysis and forced reduction. These chemically critical traits lend themselves to an increase in electrical conductivity of over an order of magnitude for 11-base silver-paired duplexes over natural strands when assayed by STM break junction. We further construct and implement a genetic pathway in the E. coli bacterium for the biosynthesis of highly ionizable DNA sequences. Toward future circuits, we construct a model of transcription network architectures to determine the most efficient and robust connectivity for cell-based fabrication, and we perform sequence optimization with a genetic algorithm to identify oligonucleotides robust to changes in the base-pairing energy landscape. We propose that this system will serve as a synthetic biological fabrication platform for more complex DNA nanotechnology and nanoelectronics with applications to deep space and low resource environments.

  1. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  2. Method of Obtaining High Resolution Intrinsic Wire Boom Damping Parameters for Multi-Body Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Chai, Dean J.; Olney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is to understand magnetic reconnection with sensor measurements from four spinning satellites flown in a tight tetrahedron formation. Four of the six electric field sensors on each satellite are located at the end of 60- meter wire booms to increase measurement sensitivity in the spin plane and to minimize motion coupling from perturbations on the main body. A propulsion burn however, might induce boom oscillations that could impact science measurements if oscillations do not damp to values on the order of 0.1 degree in a timely fashion. Large damping time constants could also adversely affect flight dynamics and attitude control performance. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of a high resolution method for calculating the boom's intrinsic damping, which was used in multi-body dynamics simulations. In summary, experimental data was obtained with a scaled-down boom, which was suspended as a pendulum in vacuum. Optical techniques were designed to accurately measure the natural decay of angular position and subsequently, data processing algorithms resulted in excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. This method was repeated in a parametric study for various lengths, root tensions and vacuum levels. For all data sets, regression models for damping were applied, including: nonlinear viscous, frequency-independent hysteretic, coulomb and some combination of them. Our data analysis and dynamics models have shown that the intrinsic damping for the baseline boom is insufficient, thereby forcing project management to explore mitigation strategies.

  3. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  4. Method of producing catalytic material for fabricating nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-30

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  5. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  6. Cu-Nb3Sn superconducting wires prepared by ''Copper Liquid Phase Sintering method'' using the Nb-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, A.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-30% Nb in weighting were prepared by the method of Copper sintering liquid phase the method was improved by substitution of Nb power by Nb-H powder, obtaining a high density material with good mechanical properties, which was reduced to fine. Wire, Without heat treatment. The Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were obtained by external diffusion process depositing tin in the Cu-30%Nb wires, and by internal diffusion process using the Sn-8.5% Cu in weighting, which was reduced to rods of 3.5 mm. These Cu-30%Nb rods were enclosed in copper tubes and deformed mechanically by rotary swaging and drawing. During the drawing step some wires were fractured, that were analysed and correlated with the microstructure of the Sn-8.5 Wt% Cu alloy. External and internal diffusion samples; after a fast thermal treatment for Sn diffusion, were submited to the temperature of 700 0 C to provide the reaction between Sn and Nb, leading to the Nb 3 Sn phase. Samples with several reaction times, and its influence on T c and J c critical parameters and normal resistivity were prepared and analysed. (author) [pt

  7. Lens array fabrication method with volume expansion property of PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, WonJae; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Muyoung; Lee, Jooho; Bang, Yousung; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, poly (dimethylsiloxane) lens array is fabricated by replica molding. In this paper, we describe simple method for fabricating lens array with expanding property of PDMS. The PDMS substrate is prepared by spin coating on cleaned glass. After spin coating PDMS, substrate is treated with O2 plasma to promote adhesion between PDMS substrate and photoresist pattern on it. Positive photoresist az-4330 and AZ 430K developer is used for patterning on PDMS. General photolithography process is used to patterning. Then patterned PDMS substrate is dipped to 1- Bromododecane bath. During this process, patterned photoresist work as a barrier and prevent blocked PDMS substrate from reaction with 1-Bromododecane. Unblocked part of PDMS directly react with 1-Bromododecane and results in expanded PDMS volume. The expansion of PDMS is depends on absorbed 1-Bromododecane volume, dipping time and ratio of block to open area. The focal length of lens array is controlled by those PDMS expansion factors. Scale of patterned photoresist determine a diameter of each lens. The expansion occurs symmetrically at center of unblocked PDMS and 1-Bromododecane interface. As a result, the PDMS lens array is achieved by this process.

  8. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  9. Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Huang, Jacky Kuan-Chih; Lu, James J. Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2015-10-06

    Neutron-detecting structures and methods of fabrication are provided which include: a substrate with a plurality of cavities extending into the substrate from a surface; a p-n junction within the substrate and extending, at least in part, in spaced opposing relation to inner cavity walls of the substrate defining the plurality of cavities; and a neutron-responsive material disposed within the plurality of cavities. The neutron-responsive material is responsive to neutrons absorbed for releasing ionization radiation products, and the p-n junction within the substrate spaced in opposing relation to and extending, at least in part, along the inner cavity walls of the substrate reduces leakage current of the neutron-detecting structure.

  10. Compact cladding-pumped planar waveguide amplifier and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andy J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric; Murray, James E.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2003-10-28

    A low-cost, high performance cladding-pumped planar waveguide amplifier and fabrication method, for deployment in metro and access networks. The waveguide amplifier has a compact monolithic slab architecture preferably formed by first sandwich bonding an erbium-doped core glass slab between two cladding glass slabs to form a multi-layer planar construction, and then slicing the construction into multiple unit constructions. Using lithographic techniques, a silver stripe is deposited and formed at a top or bottom surface of each unit construction and over a cross section of the bonds. By heating the unit construction in an oven and applying an electric field, the silver stripe is then ion diffused to increase the refractive indices of the core and cladding regions, with the diffusion region of the core forming a single mode waveguide, and the silver diffusion cladding region forming a second larger waveguide amenable to cladding pumping with broad area diodes.

  11. Robust Polypropylene Fabrics Super-Repelling Various Liquids: A Simple, Rapid and Scalable Fabrication Method by Solvent Swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tang; Cai, Chao; Duan, Chunting; Zhai, Shuai; Liang, Songmiao; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    A simple, rapid (10 s) and scalable method to fabricate superhydrophobic polypropylene (PP) fabrics is developed by swelling the fabrics in cyclohexane/heptane mixture at 80 °C. The recrystallization of the swollen macromolecules on the fiber surface contributes to the formation of submicron protuberances, which increase the surface roughness dramatically and result in superhydrophobic behavior. The superhydrophobic PP fabrics possess excellent repellency to blood, urine, milk, coffee, and other common liquids, and show good durability and robustness, such as remarkable resistances to water penetration, abrasion, acidic/alkaline solution, and boiling water. The excellent comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic PP fabrics indicates their potential applications as oil/water separation materials, protective garments, diaper pads, or other medical and health supplies. This simple, fast and low cost method operating at a relatively low temperature is superior to other reported techniques for fabricating superhydrophobic PP materials as far as large scale manufacturing is considered. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable for preparing superhydrophobic PP films and sheets as well.

  12. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2015-06-29

    We exploited the combination of dry deposition of monolayer of 2D (two dimensional) templates, lift-up transfer of 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography [1] to fabricate gold micro- and submicron size wire networks. The approach relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D latex crystal on glass substrate. Subsequently, a small amount of AuNP-suspension is doped on top of the transferred crystal; the suspension is allowed to spread instantaneously and dried at low temperature. The liquid evaporates uniformly to the direction perpendicular to glass substrate. During evaporation, AuNPs are de-wetted along with the movement of liquid to self-assemble in-between the inter-particle spaces and therefore, giving rise to liquid-bridge networks which upon delayed evaporation, transforms into wire networks. The approach is used to fabricate both micro- and submicron wire-networks by simply changing the template dimensions. One of the prime motives behind this study is to down-scale the existing particle array template-based evaporation lithography process to fabricate connected gold wire networks at both micro- and submicron scale. Secondly, the idea of combining the patterned silicon wafer with lifted latex particle template creates an opportunity to clean and res-use the patterned wafer more often and thereby, saving fabrication time and resources. Finally, we illustrated the validity of this approach by creating an easy and high-speed approach to develop gold wire networks on a flexible substrate with a thin deposited adhesive. These advances will not only serve as a platform to scale up the production, but also demonstrated that the fabrication method can produce metallic wire networks of different scale and onto a variety of substrates.

  13. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  14. Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P., E-mail: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.

  15. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  16. Using Cored Wires Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ferritic Si-Mo Ductile Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters were calculated as well.

  17. Using Cored Wires Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ferritic Si-Mo Ductile Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standardsample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters werecalculated as well.

  18. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed Zahedani, Sm; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, Smm

    2013-09-01

    One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (ptechnique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

  19. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed Zahedani, SM; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, SMM

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. Materials ...

  20. A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed Zahedani SM.; Oshagh M.; Momeni Danaei Sh.; Roeinpeikar SMM.

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials a...

  1. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  2. Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2013-06-11

    Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

  3. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite from fish bones waste using reflux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanto, A.; Kosasih, E.; Aripin, D.; Hasratiningsih, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the fabrication of hydroxyapatites, which were synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method. The fish bone wastes collected from the restaurant were brushed and boiled at 100°C for 10 minutes to remove debris and fat. After drying, the fish bones were crushed, and ball milled into a fine powder. The fish bone wastes were then processed by refluxing using KOH and H3PO4 solutions. The samples were calcined at 900°C and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The XRD pattern of samples after treatment revealed that the peak of hydroxyapatite was observed and the bands of OH- and PO4 3- were observed by FT-IR. The scanning electron microscope evaluation of sample showed the entangled crystal and porous structure of hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method.

  4. Influence of Hierarchic Structure on the Moisture Permeability of Biomimic Woven Fabric Using Fractal Derivative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the unique internal structure of biomimic woven fabric and its moisture management property is investigated using fractal derivative method. The biomimic fabric exhibits a fractal hierarchic inner structure, and its fractal hierarchy can be further extended by fleece finishing treatment on both surfaces of the fabric. Fractal derivative analysis indicates that the fuzzy biomimic fabric with a higher hierarchic construction after fleece finishing performs better in moisture permeability, and the result was proved by experimental tests.

  5. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  6. The control of stainless steel tubes and wires of small diameter by the Eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, A.; Gallet, G.

    1978-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes and wires with an outer diameter greater than 1 mm were studied by Eddy currents. The sensor characteristics and the detection of defects in function of frequency are presented together with the results obtained in the detection of dimensional and metallurgical defects [fr

  7. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  8. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  9. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  10. Next Generation Nanotechnology Assembly Fabrication Methods: A Trend Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Strategy and Technology, Air War College, 325 Chennault Circle, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112, or on the CSAT website at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc...latched onto quantum dots. Her work focuses on custom -evolved viruses that synthesize nano-scale wires and arrays. Viral Self Assembly Viruses...59 Warrick, Joby. “ Custom -Built Pathogens Raise Bioterror Fears,” Washington Post, July 31, 2006. Available at: http

  11. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hong Q.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  12. Method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    A method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel wherein double wall cast iron body segments each have an arcuate inner wall and a spaced apart substantially parallel outer wall with a plurality of radially extending webs interconnecting the inner wall and the outer wall, the bottom surface and the two exposed radial side surfaces of each body segment are machined and eight body segments are formed into a ring. The top surfaces and outer surfaces of the outer walls are machined and keyways are provided across the juncture of adjacent end walls of the body segments. A liner segment complementary in shape to a selected inner wall of one of the body segments is mounted to each of the body segments and again formed into a ring. The liner segments of each ring are welded to form unitary liner rings and thereafter the cast iron body segments are prestressed to complete the ring assembly. Ring assemblies are stacked to form the vessel and adjacent unitary liner rings are welded. A top head covers the top ring assembly to close the vessel and axially extending tendons retain the top and bottom heads in place under pressure.

  13. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Determining Effective Thermal Conductivity of Fabrics by Using Fractal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Li, Kejing

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a fractal effective thermal conductivity model for woven fabrics with multiple layers is developed. Structural models of yarn and plain woven fabric are derived based on the fractal characteristics of macro-pores (gap or channel) between the yarns and micro-pores inside the yarns. The fractal effective thermal conductivity model can be expressed as a function of the pore structure (fractal dimension) and architectural parameters of the woven fabric. Good agreement is found between the fractal model and the thermal conductivity measurements in the general porosity ranges. It is expected that the model will be helpful in the evaluation of thermal comfort for woven fabric in the whole range of porosity.

  16. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  18. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B.; Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2012-01-01

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  19. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  20. Prediction of multi performance characteristics of wire EDM process using grey ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanan, Somasundaram; Nair, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Super alloys are used to fabricate components in ultra-supercritical power plants. These hard to machine materials are processed using non-traditional machining methods like Wire cut electrical discharge machining and needs attention. This paper details about multi performance optimization of wire EDM process using Grey ANFIS. Experiments are designed to establish the performance characteristics of wire EDM such as surface roughness, material removal rate, wire wear rate and geometric tolerances. The control parameters are pulse on time, pulse off time, current, voltage, flushing pressure, wire tension, table feed and wire speed. Grey relational analysis is employed to optimise the multi objectives. Analysis of variance of the grey grades is used to identify the critical parameters. A regression model is developed and used to generate datasets for the training of proposed adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The developed prediction model is tested for its prediction ability.

  1. An assumed mode method and finite element method investigation of the coupled vibration in a flexible-disk rotor system with lacing wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shui-Ting; Huang, Hong-Wu [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Chiu, Yi-Jui; Yu, Guo-Fei [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Yang, Chia-Hao [Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2017-02-15

    The Assumed mode method (AMM) and Finite element method (FEM) were used. Their results were compared to investigate the coupled shaft-torsion, disk-transverse, and blade-bending vibrations in a flexible-disk rotor system. The blades were grouped with a spring. The flexible-disk rotor system was divided into three modes of coupled vibrations: Shaft-disk-blade, disk-blade, and blade-blade. Two new modes of coupled vibrations were introduced, namely, lacing wires-blade and lacing wires-disk-blade. The patterns of change of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system were discussed. The results showed the following: first, mode shapes and natural frequencies varied, and the results of the AMM and FEM differed; second, numerical calculation results showed three influencing factors on natural frequencies, namely, the lacing wire constant, the lacing wire location, and the flexible disk; lastly, the flexible disk could affect the stability of the system as reflected in the effect of the rotational speed.

  2. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  3. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. A New Invention Method to Determine the Reduction Factor for Low Fabric Tension Properties for Head Garment Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman A.F

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to determine the reduction factor for producing a head garment with specified targeted pressure output. Pressure garment fabric mostly supplied to the local hospitals with no information of the material properties and the fabrication method generally used a single reduction factor at various body segments. Reduction factor defined as the percentage of reducing the garment size from the original circumference of the body part which contributes to the compression. The objective of this study is to compare the fabrication method of head garment using reduction factor equation from previous research with the new proposed method. The equation to predict the reduction factor requires the parameter of the fabric tension which is obtained from tensile test and radius of curvature of the human body parts. In the new proposed method, a 3D scanning was used for data acquisition to obtain the geometry of the head area. The pressure outputs are measured by a pressure measurement system developed from Flexiforce sensor and Arduino circuit board. By using the equation, the result shows the calculated reduction factor produced an extremely tight head garment compared to the conducted experiments which manage to produce an adequate reduction factor with a targeted pressure output of 20mmHg. The result of the experiment indicates that the reduction factor ranging from 17% to 23% compared to the equation which produces 20% to 47% of reduction factor. As an additional, the proposed experimental method can be used for different type of pressure garment fabrics in order to obtain the relationship between the reduction factor and the circumference of the body parts.

  5. A novel method for shape analysis: deformation of bubbles during wire drawing in doped tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmat, P.; Bartha, L.; Grosz, T.; Rosta, L.

    2001-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed for monitoring shape and size of microscopic pores, bubbles, second phase particles in deformed PM materials. The anisotropic small angle neutron scattering (ASANS) measurement provides direct visualization of the shape of second phase objects after rolling, swaging, wire drawing. Also in case of mixture of different objects e. g. uniformly elongated bubbles and spherical ones they can be separated and their morphological parameters like relative number density, diameter, aspect ratio can be obtained from the quantitative analysis of ASANS data. Rods and wires from K-AI-Si doped tungsten containing residual porosity and K filled bubbles were studied from 6 mm to 0.2 mm in diameter. The increase of the average aspect ratio (∼1/d) was found to be much slower than expected from the usual theory (∼1/d 3 ). Instead of 'constant volume' assumption, the 'constant length' seems to be reliable. The ASANS investigation revealed also the occurrence of a small amount of spherical bubbles after several steps of wire drawing. (author)

  6. A Review on the Fabrication of Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akmal Kamarudin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity, by converting heat energy directly into useable electricity, offers a promising technology to convert heat from solar energy and to recover waste heat from industrial sectors and automobile exhausts. In recent years, most of the efforts have been done on improving the thermoelectric efficiency using different approaches, that is, nanostructuring, doping, molecular rattling, and nanocomposite formation. The applications of thermoelectric polymers at low temperatures, especially conducting polymers, have shown various advantages such as easy and low cost of fabrication, light weight, and flexibility. In this review, we will focus on exploring new types of polymers and the effects of different structures, concentrations, and molecular weight on thermoelectric properties. Various strategies to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials will be discussed. In addition, a discussion on the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, especially suited to polymers, will also be given. Finally, we provide the challenge and the future of thermoelectric polymers, especially thermoelectric hybrid model.

  7. Application of ZnO single-crystal wire grown by the thermal evaporation method as a chemical gas sensor for hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N K; Lee, S Y; Lee, T J

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide single-crystal wire was synthesized for application as a gas-sensing material for hydrogen sulfide, and its gas-sensing properties were investigated in this study. The gas sensor consisted of a ZnO thin film as the buffer layer and a ZnO single-crystal wire. The ZnO thin film was deposited over a patterning silicon substrate with a gold electrode by the CFR method. The ZnO single-crystal wire was synthesized over the ZnO thin film using zinc and activated carbon as the precursor for the thermal evaporation method at 800 degrees C. The electrical properties of the gas sensors that were prepared for the growth of ZnO single-crystal wire varied with the amount of zinc contained in the precursor. The charged current on the gas sensors increased with the increasing amount of zinc in the precursor. It was concluded that the charged current on the gas sensors was related to ZnO single-crystal wire growth on the silicon substrate area between the two electrodes. The charged current on the gas sensor was enhanced when the ZnO single-crystal wire was exposed to a H2S stream. The experimental results obtained in this study confirmed that a ZnO single-crystal wire can be used as a gas sensor for H2S.

  8. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejman, Alicja, E-mail: anejman@iw.lodz.pl [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Cieślak, Małgorzata [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Gajdzicki, Bogumił [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Textile Chemistry and Products Modification, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric.

  9. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, Alicja; Cieślak, Małgorzata; Gajdzicki, Bogumił; Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric

  10. Three-dimensional stacked structured ASIC devices and methods of fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Subhash L.; Teifel, John; Flores, Richard S.; Jarecki Jr., Robert L.; Bauer, Todd

    2015-11-19

    A 3D stacked sASIC is provided that includes a plurality of 2D reconfigurable structured structured ASIC (sASIC) levels interconnected through hard-wired arrays of 3D vias. The 2D sASIC levels may contain logic, memory, analog functions, and device input/output pad circuitry. During fabrication, these 2D sASIC levels are stacked on top of each other and fused together with 3D metal vias. Such 3D vias may be fabricated as through-silicon vias (TSVs). They may connect to the back-side of the 2D sASIC level, or they may be connected to top metal pads on the front-side of the 2D sASIC level.

  11. A Novel Fabrication Method for Functionally Graded Materials under Centrifugal Force: The Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Miura-Fujiwara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fabrication methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs is a centrifugal solid-particle method, which is an application of the centrifugal casting technique. However, it is the difficult to fabricate FGMs containing nano-particles by the centrifugal solid-particle method. Recently, we proposed a novel fabrication method, which we have named the centrifugal mixed-powder method, by which we can obtain FGMs containing nano-particles. Using this processing method, Cu-based FGMs containing SiC particles and Al-based FGMs containing TiO2 nano-particles on their surfaces have been fabricated. In this article, the microstructure and mechanical property of Cu/SiC and Al/TiO2 FGMs, fabricated by the centrifugal mixed-powder method are reviewed.

  12. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  13. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  14. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  15. Alkali semi-metal films and method and apparatus for fabricating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Harish B.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Ovechkina, Olena E.; Frisch, Henry J.; Attenkofer, Klaus; Smedley, John M.

    2018-03-13

    Methods and systems for fabricating a film, such as, for example, a photocathode, having a tailored band structure and thin-film components that can be tailored for specific applications, such as, for example photocathode having a high quantum efficiency, and simple components fabricated by those methods.

  16. Study on the Filament Yarns Spreading Techniques and Assessment Methods of the Electronic Fiberglass Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Shouhui; Zheng, Tianyong; Ning, Xiangchun; Dai, Yifei

    2018-03-01

    The filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric were developed in the past few years in order to meet the requirements of the development of electronic industry. Copper clad laminate (CCL) requires that the warp and weft yarns of the fabric could be spread out of apart and formed flat. The penetration performance of resin could be improved due to the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric, the same as peeling strength of CCL and drilling performance of printed circuit board (PCB). This paper shows the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric from several aspects, such as methods and functions, also with the assessment methods of their effects.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. A simple and inexpensive method to fabricate a cannula system for intracranial injections in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Nakhate, Kartik T; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2011-01-01

    Stereotaxic administration of neuroactive agents, either in ventricles, or targeted at specific intracranial sites, is a widely employed strategy for neurological studies in rodents. Surgical implantation of cannula on the skull is particularly useful in chronic treatments. We describe a simple, inexpensive and reliable method to fabricate a cannula system for delivery of drugs at the targeted sites in the brain of rat or mouse. The system consists of a guide cannula made from a hypodermic needle (24 gauge), a stainless steel wire (30 gauge) that serves as a dummy cannula, and an internal cannula made of stainless steel needle (30 gauge) taken from a hypodermic syringe. The cannula can be implanted by routine stereotaxic procedure and used for acute or chronic drug administration to conscious, free moving animals. With a view to test the system for accuracy, the guide cannula was stereotaxically implanted, and neuropeptide Y was directly delivered into the lateral ventricle. These rats showed a significant increase in food intake. Another set of rats were cannulated for chronic protocol, wherein ethanol was delivered directly into the ventral tegmental area. In operant chamber, these rats showed increased ethanol self-administration. The proposed cannula takes around 5 min to fabricate and costs less than a dollar. We feel that it may serve as an economical and reliable tool in neuropharmacological and neurobehavioral studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Damage detection methods on wind turbine blade testing with wired and wireless accelerometer sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollineaux, Mark; Balafas, Konstantinos; Branner, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Testing   was   performed   on   a   34   meter   blade   at   a   facility   in   DTU   Risø   Campus, featuring   both   wired   accelerometers   and   low­power   MEMs­based   wireless accelerometers. Testing was focused on an induced delamination area on the trailing edge of the blade, which ...

  3. Fabrication Method for LOBSTER-Eye Optics in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Collier, Michael; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Soft x-ray optics can use narrow slots to direct x-rays into a desirable pattern on a focal plane. While square-pack, square-pore, slumped optics exist for this purpose, they are costly. Silicon (Si) is being examined as a possible low-cost replacement. A fabrication method was developed for narrow slots in Si demonstrating the feasibility of stacked slot optics to replace micropores. Current micropore optics exist that have 20-micron-square pores on 26-micron pitch in glass with a depth of 1 mm and an extent of several square centimeters. Among several proposals to emulate the square pore optics are stacked slot chips with etched vertical slots. When the slots in the stack are positioned orthogonally to each other, the component will approach the soft x-ray focusing observed in the micropore optics. A specific improvement Si provides is that it can have narrower sidewalls between slots to permit greater throughput of x-rays through the optics. In general, Si can have more variation in slot geometry (width, length). Further, the sidewalls can be coated with high-Z materials to enhance reflection and potentially reduce the surface roughness of the reflecting surface. Narrow, close-packed deep slots in Si have been produced using potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching and a patterned silicon nitride (SiN) mask. The achieved slot geometries have sufficient wall smoothness, as observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, to enable evaluation of these slot plates as an optical element for soft x-rays. Etches of different angles to the crystal plane of Si were evaluated to identify a specific range of etch angles that will enable low undercut slots in the Si material. These slots with the narrow sidewalls are demonstrated to several hundred microns in depth, and a technical path to 500-micron deep slots in a precision geometry of narrow, closepacked slots is feasible. Although intrinsic stress in ultrathin wall Si is observed, slots with walls approaching 1

  4. Adjustable reed for weaving net-shaped tailored fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-06-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for forming woven fabrics through the use of an adjustable reed. The adjustable reed has multiple groups of reed wires that guide the warp yarns. The groups of reed wires move on reed rails parallel to the warp direction. In addition, rail expanders permit the space between the reed wires to be modified and telescoping rods attached to the rail sliders can be turned to permit the reed wires to be skewed to alter the fill yarn angle. These adjustments to the reed permit simultaneous variation of fill yarn angles and fabric widths and allow these variations to be made during fabrication, without the need to halt production.

  5. A Review on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Methods for Fabrication of Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2018-01-01

    , low fabrication cost and easy control over its nano-scale morphology, make AAO patterning methods an intriguing candidate for nanopatterning. Hence, in this work, we present a review on the fabrication techniques and on nanostructures from Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) for OSC applications....... The versatility of such patterning technique is shown by pointing out the possibility of using an AAO template for the fabrication of nanowires by wetting, nanodots by evaporation, nanostructures by imprinting resists, organic layers and much more....

  6. Results of the Fermilab wire production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.P.; Remsbottom, R.H.; Reardon, P.J.; Curtis, C.W.; McDonald, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    In examining the various schedules of wire drawing and heat treating, the Critchlow type of schedule provided the highest and most uniform data from billet to billet. It consists of a long anneal at 400 +- 20 0 C at a cold work point giving about 99 percent reduction in area from the extrusion size. Several quick copper anneals at 300 0 C may be interspersed to aid in fabrication. A final anneal at finished size both peaks up the resistivity ratio of the copper as well as the critical current of the alloy by moving dislocations to subcell walls. Using this method, critical currents of 1.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 could be maintained in all billets. The copper cladding and sinking method looks promising and should save production costs. In spite of this, it was important to attain good packing density in the billets to assure uniform filament pattern and reduce breakage in wire drawing. Overall, a procedure was found for fabricating wire in large production lots that would be acceptable for constructing dipole magnets. It is felt that this method could be peaked up with time

  7. Wide band gap gallium arsenide nanoparticles fabricated using plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, D., E-mail: dvjainnov@gmail.com [Physics Department, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Mangla, O. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Physics Department, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Roy, S. [Physics Department, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have reported the fabrication of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanoparticles on quartz placed at distance of 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively from top of anode. The fabrication has been carried out by highly energetic and high fluence ions of GaAs produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma in a modified dense plasma focus device. GaAs nanoparticles have mean size of about 23 nm, 16 nm and 14 nm for deposition at a distance of 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively. The nanoparticles are crystalline in nature as evident from X-ray diffraction patterns. The band gap of nanoparticles is found to increase from 1.425 eV to 5.37 eV at 4.0 cm distance, which further increases as distance increases. The wide band gap observed for fabricated GaAs nanoparticles suggest the possible applications of nanoparticles in laser systems.

  8. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  9. Magnetic field measurements of the CEBAF (NIST) wiggler using the pulsed wire method. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) has proven to be a versatile photon source for many applications in science, industry and defense. It is capable of providing wide tunability and high efficiency, but has yet to yield high average power required as a weapon system. The proposed infrared and ultraviolet FELs at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have been projected to provide high average power. The first section of this thesis will study the necessity of a FEL for shipboard defense, and state the advantages over other defense systems. The remainder will focus on use of the pulsed wire method for measuring the magnetic field errors of the CEBAF/National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) wiggler. Data analysis indicates the wiggler will have a net electron beam deflection of x=5.2mm, which is much greater than the electron beam radius of re=0.4mm and the optical mode waist of wo=1mm... Free Electron Laser (FEL), Pulsed Wire Method, High Energy Laser (HEL), Shipboard High Energy Laser, Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD).

  10. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method.

  11. Pilling evaluation of patterned fabrics based on a gradient field method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2016), s. 97-101 ISSN 0971-0426 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D surface reconstruction * fabric pilling * gradient field method * patterned fabric * pills detection Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2016

  12. The double wire technique: an improved method for treating challenging ureteroileal anastomotic strictures and occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchelvam, N; Harrison, M; Page, A C

    2007-02-01

    Up to 10% of patients who undergo ileal conduit urinary diversion may go on to develop ureteroileal anastomotic stenosis (UIAS); this can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections and deterioration in renal function. Classical management has been open revision of the anastomosis. We describe a novel technique that allows balloon dilatation and ureteral stent placement in a retrograde fashion. All patients in this study had undergone radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation with Wallace type end-to-end refluxing uretero-intestinal anastomosis. After initial retrograde loopogram, a 6F MPA-1 catheter and an 0.035 inch extra stiff guide was passed to the distal ostium. Subsequently, a customised 8F bright tip MPA-1 guiding catheter was advanced over the guide wire which allowed effective splinting of the equipment to facilitate greater control of a second catheter and guide wire combination to access the stenotic or occluded anastomosis. Results show that a total of ten anastomoses were treated; nine anastomoses were successfully treated with a primary retrograde approach with no intra or post-procedural complications. After a mean follow-up of 19 months (5-33 months), as assessed by ascending loopograms, all anastomoses remained open. In conclusion, morbidity of open surgery has resulted in the popularization of endourological techniques in treating anastomotic stenoses. However, key to these endourological techniques is access to the anastomosis; typically, this has been via a percutaneously placed nephrostomy. The ideal route to the anastomosis is via a retrograde approach; we have illustrated a safe and successful novel technique that utilized two guidewires and a guiding catheter, allowing retrograde ureteral access.

  13. Evaluation of shear bond strength of veneering ceramics and zirconia fabricated by the digital veneering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ji-Young; Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of veneering ceramic and zirconia fabricated by the digital veneering method. A total of 50 specimens were fabricated, i.e., 10 specimens each for the metal-ceramic (control) group and the four zirconia groups. The zirconia groups comprised specimens fabricated by the digital veneering method, the heat pressing method, and hand layering method for two groups, respectively. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine (Model 3345, Instron, Canton, MA, USA) and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA set at a significance level of Pzirconia samples (Pzirconia core that was fabricated via the digital veneering method is believed to be effective in clinical use since, its shear bond strength is significantly higher than that resulting from the conventional method. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gas laser tube and method of fabricating same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garman, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved gas laser tube is fabricated by counter boring the ends of a tubular aluminum extrusion having an inner tubular portion supported from an outer tubular portion via the intermediary of a plurality of radially directed support vanes or legs. Metallic transverse walls are sealed across the ends of the tubular extrusion to define the ends of a gas tight metallic envelope. An electrically insulative glow discharge tube is axially disposed within and supported by the inner tubular portion of the extrusion in axial alignment with an optical resonator of the laser tube. (U.S.)

  15. New fabrication method of UO2-Gd2O3 pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M. J.; Yang, C. M.; Kim, Y. R.; Na, S. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, Y. W.

    2003-01-01

    UO 2 -8wt%Gd 2 O 3 pellets were fabricated by a new method. Two processes - milling by a continous-type attrition mill and spherodizing- were introduced in the fabrication method. The microstructure of sintered pellet appeared homogenous and showed larger grain size than that of conventional method which generally involves a mechanical mxing. And it appears that both precompacting process and granulating process can be avoided owing to good flow ability of the milled powder with the spherodizing treatment

  16. Fabrication of CIGS Films by Electrodeposition Method for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Yoon, Hyukjoo; Ji, Changwook; Lee, Dongyun; Lee, Jae-Ho; Yun, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yangdo

    2012-12-01

    Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) thin films were fabricated by electrochemical deposition in a single bath containing Cu, In, Ga, and Se ions. The electrolyte was prepared by dissolving CuCl2, InCl3, GaCl3, H2SeO3, and LiCl in deionized water. The potentiostatic deposition process was achieved by applying a voltage ranging from -0.5 V to -0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl. The effects of different chemical bath concentrations on the film composition and morphology were investigated. Stoichiometric CIGS film composition could be achieved by controlling the chemical compositions of the bath and the voltage. Gelatin was added to the solution to improve the surface and microstructures of the CIGS film. The as-deposited films were annealed at 500°C in Ar atmosphere for crystallization. The structural, morphological, and compositional properties of the CIGS thin films before and after annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This study showed that the composition of the CIGS films is dependent on the bath concentration, whereas the applied potential had relatively less effect on the CIGS film composition. In addition, the use of gelatin helped in the fabrication of crack-free CIGS thin films with greatly improved surface morphology.

  17. Modified Fabrication Method of Metal Fuel Slug for Preventing Evaporation of Volatile Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel slugs for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, U-10wt.%Zr-Mn fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. Alternative casting such as modified casting has been applied to develop fabrication method of fuel slugs for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am. U-10wt.%Zr-Mn containing a volatile surrogate Mn fuel slug was soundly fabricated under inert atmosphere with dimensions of L250mm. Mass fraction of fuel loss was so low, upto 0.2%. Mn element was most recovered with prevention in evaporation of Mn. It was seen that the losses of volatile Am can be effectively controlled to below detectable levels using modest pressure

  18. The Terminal Responses of the Two-Wire Line in Multiaperture Cavities Based on Electromagnetic Topology and Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation technique based on electromagnetic topology (EMT theory is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic interference (EMI coupling through apertures onto the two-transmission line enclosed within metallic structures. The electromagnetic interactions between apertures and the external-internal interactions were treated through the topological decomposition and the multistep iterative method. Then, the load responses of the two-wire transmission line are resolved by the the Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT equation. The simulation results both without and with the electromagnetic interaction are presented for the frequency range from 100 MHz to 3 GHz. These numerical results obtained by two methods imply that the electromagnetic interaction cannot be simply ignored, especially for the frequency range up to 1 GHz.

  19. Immobilization of nanoparticle titanium dioxide membrane on polyamide fabric by low temperature hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Yang Lu

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer of nanoparticle titanium dioxide was immobilized on polyamide 6 (PA6) fiber using titanium sulfate and urea at low temperature hydrothermal condition. The titanium dioxide loaded fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetry techniques. The optical and mechanical properties, water absorption and degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the PA6 fabric before and after treatments were also examined. It was found that when PA6 fabric was treated in titanium sulfate and urea aqueous solution, anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was synthesized and simultaneously adhered onto the fiber surface. The average crystal size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was about 13.2 nm. The thermal behavior of PA6 fiber distinctly changed and the onset decomposition temperature decreased. As compared with the untreated fabric, the protection against UV radiation was improved. The water absorbency increased slightly. As the fabric dimensions were reduced in warp and weft directions, the breaking load and tensile strain increased to some extent. The titanium dioxide coated fabric could degradate methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► We employed a method to immobilize TiO 2 nanoparticle on polyamide fiber. ► We fabricated the TiO 2 -coated polyamide fabric with the photocatalytic activity. ► The modification method may be suitable for the potential applications.

  20. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-12-20

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  1. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2017-12-05

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  2. High-step-coverage Cu-lateral interconnections over 100 µm thick chips on a polymer substrate—an alternative method to wire bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, M; Fukushima, T; Kiyoyama, K; Bea, J C; Tanaka, T; Koyanagi, M

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel chip in the polymer board interconnect method for packaging different kinds of chips on a wafer level, where conventional wire bonding may not be possible due to either space or mechanical constraints. High-step-coverage copper (Cu)-lateral interconnects formed over 100 µm thick Si chips by the electroplating method have been investigated for their microstructure and electrical characteristics, using the field emission scanning electron microscope and semiconductor parameter analyzer (Agilent, 4156C). The obtained coverage ratios (i.e. the layer thickness on the chip surface to the sidewall of the chip) for each formed layer, i.e. the tantalum barrier layer, Cu seed layer, SiO 2 dielectric layer and electroplated Cu layer, were 3:1, 3:1, 1.5:1 and 1:1, respectively. The measured mean electrical resistances for 36 µm × 2000 µm and 58 µm × 2000 µm interconnect lines were respectively 31.1 and 24 mΩ, and the difference between measured and calculated resistance values was less than 5%. The good quality of as-fabricated Cu-lateral interconnects was evidenced from the observed low resistance values for isolated interconnects and the linear change in daisy chain resistance with the number of interconnects. More importantly, even at a high operating temperature of 150 °C, the resistance value of the Cu-lateral interconnect over the integrated chip was very close to that of the resistance value of interconnect on the plain wafer. The suitability of this technique in integrating various chips heterogeneously was validated from the no observed change in transistor behavior due to this technique. Since this is a CMOS compatible interconnection method between the polymer substrate and chip, it can readily be scaled up to the wafer level. (paper)

  3. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  4. A new physical method to assess handle properties of fabrics made from wood-based fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rous, M.; Liftinger, E.; Innerlohinger, J.; Malengier, B.; Vasile, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the handfeel of fabrics made of wood-based fibers such as viscose, modal and Lyocell was investigated in relation to cotton fabrics applying the Tissue Softness Analyzer (TSA) method in comparison to other classical methods. Two different construction groups of textile were investigated. The validity of TSA in assessing textile softness of these constructions was tested. TSA results were compared to human hand evaluation as well as to classical physical measurements like drape coefficient, ring pull-through and Handle-o-meter, as well as a newer device, the Fabric Touch Tester (FTT). Physical methods as well as human hand assessments mostly agreed on the softest and smoothest range, but showed different rankings in the harder/rougher side fabrics. TSA ranking of softness and smoothness corresponded to the rankings by other physical methods as well as with human hand feel for the basic textile constructions.

  5. Safe and consistent method of spot-welding platinum thermocouple wires and foils for high temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, G.; Roth, M.

    2012-08-01

    A low-voltage (mV) electronically triggered spot welding system for fabricating fine thermocouples and thin sheets used in high-temperature characterization of materials' properties is suggested. The system is based on the capacitance discharge method with a timed trigger for obtaining reliable and consistent welds. In contrast to existing techniques based on employing high voltage DC supplies for charging the capacitor or supplies with positive and negative rails, this method uses a simple, standard dual power supply available at most of the physical laboratories or can be acquired at a low cost. In addition, an efficient and simple method of fabricating non-sticking electrodes that do not contaminate the weld area is suggested and implemented.

  6. O método de fio quente: técnica em paralelo e técnica de superfície The hot wire method: the hot wire parallel technique and the hot wire surface technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. dos Santos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A condutividade térmica é uma das propriedades físicas mais importantes de um material. A sua determinação experimental apresenta algumas dificuldades e requer alta precisão na determinação dos fatores necessários para o seu cálculo. O método de medida de condutividade térmica para materiais refratários mais usado hoje em todo o mundo, tanto nos centros de pesquisa, quanto nos laboratórios industriais, é o Método do Fio Quente, onde a condutividade térmica é calculada a partir do transiente de temperatura gerado por uma fonte de calor ideal, infinitamente longa e fina num meio material infinito. Neste trabalho são comparados os resultados obtidos utilizando-se duas técnicas diferentes para a detecção do transiente térmico: numa delas, a temperatura é medida na superfície do fio quente, (técnica de fio quente de superfície, e na outra, a temperatura é medida a uma certa distância do fio quente (técnica de fio quente paralelo. Os resultados experimentais mostram uma grande vantagem da técnica de fio quente de superfície em relação a técnica de fio quente paralelo para materiais com condutividade térmica superior a 10 W/mK. O intervalo de tempo considerado no cálculo é bem maior que aquele que seria utilizado na técnica de fio quente paralelo, obtendo-se assim resultados mais precisos e confiáveis.Thermal conductivity is one of the most important physical properties of a material. However, its experimental evaluation may presents some specific troubles, and high precision in the determination of the factors involved in its calculation is required. Specifically for refractory materials, the experimental technique employed worldwide for thermal conductivity calculations is the hot wire technique, in which the thermal conductivity is calculated starting from the temperature transient generated by an ideal, infinitely thin and long heat source embedded in an infinite surrounding material. In this work comparisons

  7. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  8. A new and simple method of fabrication of tracheostomal prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vidya Sankari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a tracheostomy stoma experience compromised speech and function due to the associated changes in airflow patterns. Rehabilitation of a patient with tracheal stoma is a highly challenging task. The main objective is to design an inexpensive, easily fabricated stomal prosthesis for postlaryngectomy patients who require prolonged tracheotomy. This clinical case report describes a 29-year-old male patient who underwent for tracheotomy 3 months before for respiratory distress following a suicidal attempt. Hence tracheotomy was done, and the patient has been with the tracheostomal tube since surgery for the past 3 months. Laryngoscopy examination reported as restricted bilateral vocal cord movements, and the cords were in the adducted position with minimal glottic chink. No history of difficulty in swallowing. On examination, no scar or ulceration is seen around the stoma. The skin around the stoma is healthy. The patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial Prosthodontics Department from the Department of ENT. The patient′s old tracheostomal tube was used as the dimensions of the custom made tracheal prosthesis without making a functional impression of the mature stoma. A tracheal button was made with 2 mm polyethylene urethane sheet to maintain the airway patency of the mature stoma. Width and length of the old tracheostomal tube were measured and customized with polyurethane sheet by directly flaming over heat. The finished product was thin, flexible, maintains enhanced tear strength, require no tapes or adhesives and less technique sensitive. These properties of the prosthesis make more advantageous than the commercially available tracheal buttons. The result in this patient was excellent with no postoperative complications. An innovative approach for fabrication of tracheostomal prosthesis was discussed to increase its successful use in tracheostomal patients. The patient′s old tracheostomal tube was used as the dimensions

  9. Microneedle fabrication using the plane pattern to cross-section transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumpuang, Sommawan; Horade, Mitsuhiro; Fujioka, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, microneedle fabrication using the PCT (plane pattern to cross-section transfer) method is summarized. Three types of microneedle array have been developed: the single-tip, quadruplet, and hollow microneedle arrays. A brief introduction to the fabrication process using PCT and detailed design concepts for optimizing the fabrication steps for shape improvement of the three types of microneedle are provided. The microneedle structures have controllable angled sidewalls, exhibiting an extraordinarily geometrical level of accuracy compared to what is achieved using other existing fabrication methods based on deep x-ray lithography by synchrotron radiation. Furthermore, the improvements reported in this work as compared to the results from the existing methods are: sharper tips for the single-tip microneedles, strength improvement for the quadruplet microneedles, and cost reduction for the hollow microneedles. Each type of microneedle was designed to serve a different biomedical need.

  10. A new method for measuring the thermal regulatory properties of phase change material (PCM) fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Fan, J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods already exist for the measurement of the thermal regulatory properties of fabrics containing phase change materials (PCMs). However, they do not adequately simulate the actual use condition; consequently the measurements may not have relevance to the performance of PCM fabrics in actual use. Here we report on the development of a new method, which better simulates the real use situation. In this method, a hot plate, simulating the human body, generates a constant amount of heat depending on the type of human activity to be simulated. The hot plate covered by the PCM fabric is then exposed to a thermal transient simulating a wearer moving from one thermal environment to another; the changes of surface temperature and heat loss of the hot plate are then recorded and used to characterize the thermal regulatory properties of the PCM fabrics

  11. From Nano Structure to Systems: Fabrication and Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the interest in nano technology research has been grown rapidly. With the latest technology, it is possible to arrange atoms into structures that are only a few nanometers in size. Dimension for nano structure is between 0.1 and 100nm where the actual size of 1nm is equal to 10-9 m or just about a few atoms thick. In other word, a nano structure is an object which it size is about four atom diameters or 1/50000 of a human hair. Due to the connecting of a patterned silicon substrate with biomolecules and the small size and large surface-to-volume ratio, it opens much new possibility for assembling nano structures.The ultimate goal is to fabricate devices that have every atom in the right place. Such technology would give the opportunity to minimize the size of a device and to reduce the material, energy and time necessary to perform its task. Potential applications include electrical circuits, mechanical devices and medical instruments. There are two most important nano structures that are extensively studied and researched in various organizations which are nano wire and nano gap. Nano wires is a new class of nano structure that have attracted attention and great research interest in the last few years because of their potential applications in nano technology such as nano electronic, nano mechanical and biomedical engineering. Fabrication of Nano wires is one of the great challenges today. Conventional lithography methods are not capable to produce Nano wires and even with advance nano lithography sizes below 100 nm may not easily be achieved. Nano wire can be produced in two approaches, which are top down and bottom-up method. Very small nano wires which can be produced by using top-down nano fabrication methods are Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) based Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) method, and Spacer Patterning Lithography (SPL) method. The top-down nano fabrication method based on EBL was the design of the Nano wires Pattern Design (NPD). The

  12. Appropriate fabrication method for vacuum-formed mouthguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to examine the influence of the heating temperature on the fabrication of vacuum-formed mouthguards. Mouthguard sheets of 3.8 mm ethylene vinyl acetate were vacuum-formed on working models at three heating temperatures: 80, 100, and 120°C. The thickness of the mouthguard was measured at the labial surface of the central incisor, and the buccal and occlusal surfaces of the first molar. Differences in the thickness of the mouthguards were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. The fit of the mouthguard was examined at the central incisor and the first molar by measuring the distance between the mouthguard and the cervical margin of the working model. Differences in the distance between the mouthguard and the cervical margin according to the heating temperatures were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Mouthguard thickness varied among the measured regions of the central incisors and first molars (P vacuum-formed mouthguards. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A novel TMR-based MFL sensor for steel wire rope inspection using the orthogonal test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Wang, Y. J.; Liu, X. C.; He, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) sensors, with their compact configuration and high sensitivity to small defects, have attracted much attention in recent years for the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic structures. Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) devices have superior performances in sensitivity and linear operation range over conventional magneto-resistive devices. In this paper, a commercial TMR device is employed for developing an electromagnet-based MFL sensor. The electromagnet magnetizer includes Helmholtz-like coils together with a custom-made magnetic shield. The orthogonal test method is applied to aid the structural parameter optimization to the magnetizer based on the finite element analysis results of magnetic field distribution. In this study a prototype of a TMR-based MFL sensor is developed, and its performances on detecting various types of defects are tested on a scanning apparatus. The experimental results show that the MFL signal induced by a blind hole with dimensions of 0.3 mm in both depth and diameter is detectable. In addition, two adjacent notches located more than 2.0 mm from each other can be clearly distinguished from the received MFL signal. The detectable angular detection range for a single TMR device is estimated as 52° in the tested linear shaft rod. The consistency between the simulated and received MFL signal induced by a row of notches inspires confidence in the proposed sensor design method, which in the future can be transplanted for TMR-based sensor array design. Finally, the TMR-based MFL sensor is used for detecting a flaw of a single broken wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and the induced MFL signal can be clearly recognized from the oscillation signal that is generated by the twisted rope surface. Therefore, the presented TMR-based MFL sensor has great potential for steel wire rope inspection with enhanced sensitivity to small defects, and it is capable of being integrated into production lines due to its compact

  14. Towards the practical PLD-IBAD coated conductor fabrication - Long wire, high production rate and J c enhancement in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Miyata, Seiki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC) have succeeded in fabricating stably long coated conductor using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. Reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD) resulted in a long coated conductor with a high critical current, I c , of 245 A and length of 212.6 m. I c x L (length) reached the record of 52,087 A m. At the same time, the effort to enhance I c and J c in a magnetic filed are also carried out using artificial pinning center and RE element: YSZ mixed Y123 target brought about a high J c especially in the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. This was attributed to a columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO 3 /Y123 layer-stacked structure) in Y123 + YSZ sample. Gd123 was also found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties, which was considered to be due to the native stacking faults in the 123 structure. The combination of Gd element and YSZ introduction were also studied and clearly demonstrated the improvement of the anisotropy of J c for a magnetic field angle

  15. Comparison of 3 methods on fabricating micro- /nano- structured surface on 3D mold cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    limited to flat or simple shaped geometries. In this paper, 3 approaches for fabricating micro and nano- structured surfaces on a mold cavity for injection moulding are investigated and compared. The first approach is to use pre-fabricated plate with micro-structured surface as an insert for the mold......The methods to manufacture micro- or nano- structures on surfaces have been an area of intense investigation. Demands are shown for technologies for surface structuring on real 3D parts in many fields. However, most technologies for the fabrication of micro-structured functional surfaces are still...

  16. Complete Dentures Fabricated with CAD/CAM Technology and a Traditional Clinical Recording Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Janeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology into complete denture (CD fabrication ushered in a new era in removable prosthodontics. Commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems are expected to improve upon the disadvantages associated with conventional fabrication. The purpose of this report is to present the workflow involved in fabricating a CD with a traditional clinical recording method and CAD/CAM technology and to summarize the advantages to the dental practitioner and the patient.

  17. Fabrication of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Using a Boron Etch-Stop Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Sandborg-Olsen, Filip; Engholm, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    etch-stop scheme for fabricating the flexible plate of a CMUT. The proposed fabrication method enables precise control of the plate thickness variation and is a low cost alternative to the SOI-based process. N-type silicon wafers are doped with boron to a surface concentration of > 1020 cm−3 using...... array is measured to 12MHz±2.5%. Furthermore, hydrophone measurements show that the fabricated devices can be used to emit sound pressure in the ultrasonic frequency domain....

  18. Complete Dentures Fabricated with CAD/CAM Technology and a Traditional Clinical Recording Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeva, Nadica; Kovacevska, Gordana; Janev, Edvard

    2017-10-15

    The introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture (CD) fabrication ushered in a new era in removable prosthodontics. Commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems are expected to improve upon the disadvantages associated with conventional fabrication. The purpose of this report is to present the workflow involved in fabricating a CD with a traditional clinical recording method and CAD/CAM technology and to summarize the advantages to the dental practitioner and the patient.

  19. Computer-Aided Design Method of Warp-Knitted Jacquard Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a further study on knitting and jacquard principles, this paper presents a mathematical design model to make computer-aided design of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics more efficient. The mathematical model with matrix method employs three essential elements of chain notation, threading and Jacquard designing. With this model, the processing to design warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics with CAD software is also introduced. In this study, the sports shoes which have separated functional areas according to the feet structure and characteristics of movement are analysed. The results show the different patterns on Jacquard spacer fabrics that are seamlessly stitched with jacquard technics. The computer-aided design method of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics is efficient and simple.

  20. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  1. Method for fabricating a substrate having spaced apart microcapillaries thereon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Eric E.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for manufacturing a self-supporting substrate having a plurality of spaced-apart needles (spikes or microcapillaries) projecting upwardly from a major surface of the substrate. In a preferred method, metal is deposited onto a porous membrane such that the metal extends into the pores, after which the membrane is dissolved.

  2. Trial examination of direct pebble fabrication for advanced tritium breeders by the emulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The integration of raw material preparation and granulation is proposed as a new direct pebble fabrication process. • The emulsion method granulates gel spheres of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2}. • The gel spheres are calcined and sintered in air. • The crush load of the sintered Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles obtained is 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. - Abstract: Demonstration power plant reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. For the mass production of advanced tritium breeder pebbles, pebble fabrication by the emulsion method is a promising technique. To develop the most efficient pebble fabrication method, a new direct pebble fabrication process utilizing the emulsion method was implemented. A prior pebble fabrication process consisted of the preparation of raw materials followed by granulation. The new process integrates the preparation and granulation of raw materials. The slurry for the emulsion granulation of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} as a tritium breeder consists of mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} at specific ratios. Subsequently, gel spheres of tritium breeders are fabricated by controlling the relative flow speeds of slurry and oil. The average diameter and crush load of the obtained sintered Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles were 1.0 or 1.5 mm and 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. The trial fabrication results suggest that the new process has the potential to increase the fabrication efficiency of advanced tritium breeder pebbles.

  3. Minimization and Mitigation of Wire EDM Cutting Errors in the Application of the Contour Method of Residual Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bilal; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    The contour method of residual stress measurement relies on the careful application of wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) for the cutting stage. Changes in material removal rates during the cut lead to errors in the final calculated values of residual stress. In this study, WEDM cutting parameters have been explored to identify the optimum conditions for contour method residual stress measurements. The influence of machine parameters on the surface roughness and cutting artifacts in the contour cut is discussed. It has been identified that the critical parameter in improving the surface finish is the spark pulse duration. A typical cutting artifact and its impact on measured stress values have been identified and demonstrated for a contour cut in a welded marine steel. A procedure is presented to correct contour displacement data from the influence of WEDM cutting artifacts, and is demonstrated on the correction of a measured weld residual stress. The corrected contour method improved the residual stress magnitude up to 150 MPa. The corrected contour method results were validated by X-ray diffraction, incremental center hole drilling, and neutron diffraction.

  4. Development of Nb3Sn multi-filamentary wires superior in mass productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Ohata, Katsumi; Miyashita, Katsumi; Nakada, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    We have developed superconducting wire about bronze route Nb 3 Sn and internal tin processed Nb 3 Sn. SH Copper Products Ltd. manufactures bronze route Nb 3 Sn superconducting strands for ITER-TF coils under a contract with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The Nb 3 Sn strands which are composed of Nb-1 wt%Ta filaments and Cu-15.5 wt%-0.3 wt%Ti bronze have good workability and high performance. More than 850 A/mm 2 of non Cu J c at 12 T can be stably obtained using two-stage heat treatment technique. The internal-tin technique is an excellent method for fabricating Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire with a high critical current density. We have developed a new type of internal-tin Nb 3 Sn wire in which the multi-filamentary wire is fabricated by combining mono-filamentary Nb elements and mono-filamentary Sn elements. The simple fabrication process will enable the fabrication cost of the wires to be reduced. (author)

  5. Fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingsheng; Chen Hongda; Xiong Zhigang; Jin Aizi; Gu Changzhi; Cheng Bingying; Zhang Daozhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam machine, it shows that the method of focused-ion beam can fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic crystal device efficiently, and the quality of the fabricated photonic crystal is high. Using the focused-ion beam method, we fabricate photonic crystal wavelength division multiplexer, and its characteristics are analyzed

  6. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  7. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  8. 3D scan line method for identifying void fabric of granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Alexandros I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other processes measuring the void phase of porous or fractured media, scan line approach is a simplified “graphical” method, mainly used in image processing related procedures. In soil mechanics, the application of scan line method is related to the soil fabric, which is important in characterizing the anisotropic mechanical response of soils. Void fabric is of particular interest, since graphical approaches are well defined experimentally and most of them can also be easily used in numerical experiments, like the scan line method. This is in contrast to the definition of fabric based on contact normal vectors that are extremely difficult to determine, especially considering physical experiments. The scan line method has been proposed by Oda et al [1] and implemented again by Ghedia and O’Sullivan [2]. A modified method based on DEM analysis instead of image measurements of fabric has been previously proposed and implemented by the authors in a 2D scheme [3-4]. In this work, a 3D extension of the modified scan line definition is presented using PFC 3D®. The results show clearly similar trends with the 2D case and the same behaviour of fabric anisotropy is presented.

  9. Characterization of Three-Dimensional Printed Composite Scaffolds Prepared with Different Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlązak K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimal method for composites preparation as an input to rapid prototyping fabrication of scaffolds with potential application in osteochondral tissue engineering is still needed. Scaffolds in tissue engineering applications play a role of constructs providing appropriate mechanical support with defined porosity to assist regeneration of tissue. The aim of the presented study was to analyze the influence of composite fabrication methods on scaffolds mechanical properties. The evaluation was performed on polycaprolactone (PCL with 5 wt% beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP scaffolds fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM. Three different methods of PCL-TCP composite preparation: solution casting, particles milling, extrusion and injection were used to provide material for scaffold fabrication. The obtained scaffolds were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, x-ray micro computed tomography, thermal gravimetric analysis and static material testing machine. All of the scaffolds had the same geometry (cylinder, 4×6 mm and fiber orientation (0/60/120°. There were some differences in the TCP distribution and formation of the ceramic agglomerates in the scaffolds. They depended on fabrication method. The use of composites prepared by solution casting method resulted in scaffolds with the best combination of compressive strength (5.7±0.2 MPa and porosity (48.5±2.7 %, both within the range of trabecular bone.

  10. Photonic devices on planar and curved substrates and methods for fabrication thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Barhoum, Moussa; Riassetto, David

    2016-08-02

    A versatile and rapid sol-gel technique for the fabrication of high quality one-dimensional photonic bandgap materials. For example, silica/titania multi-layer materials may be fabricated by a sol-gel chemistry route combined with dip-coating onto planar or curved substrate. A shock-cooling step immediately following the thin film heat-treatment process is introduced. This step was found important in the prevention of film crack formation--especially in silica/titania alternating stack materials with a high number of layers. The versatility of this sol-gel method is demonstrated by the fabrication of various Bragg stack-type materials with fine-tuned optical properties by tailoring the number and sequence of alternating layers, the film thickness and the effective refractive index of the deposited thin films. Measured optical properties show good agreement with theoretical simulations confirming the high quality of these sol-gel fabricated optical materials.

  11. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  12. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L.; Rye, Michael J.

    2017-04-11

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  13. Effect of the Ignition Method on the Extinction Limit for a Flame Spreading over Electric Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsui, Fumiya; Nagachi, Masashi; Citerne, Jean-Marie

    Flame spread experiments with wire insulation were conducted in microgravity (parabolic flights) and in normal gravity to understand the effect of the ignition condition on the Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) for an opposed air flow condition of 100 mm/s (typical flow velocity on ISS). Both...... values for electric wire combustion, especially in microgravity. In Cu core wire cases, the LOC monotonically decreases as the heating time increases because of preheating by the igniter. This preheating helps to sustain spreading during microgravity period. Future study is required to find the proper...

  14. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design method for LCL filter with passive damping by split capacitor configuration has been followed from (Channegowda & John 2010). In the absence of a damping resistor active damping method can also be employed to damp LCL filter resonance (Gabe et al. 2009). The parameters of the power converter and LCL ...

  15. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  16. Solid freeform fabrication of piezoelectric actuators by a micro-casting method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, B.; Gorter, H.; Dortmans, L.J.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the manufacturing of piezoceramic actuators by Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) methods, following developments in polymer and metal shaping. With these methods, actuator shapes can be realized that are impossible or very difficult to obtain by

  17. Co-deposition methods for the fabrication of organic optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Chao

    2016-09-06

    A method for fabricating an OLED by preparing phosphorescent metal complexes in situ is provided. In particular, the method simultaneously synthesizes and deposits copper (I) complexes in an organic light emitting device. Devices comprising such complexes may provide improved photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties.

  18. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three

  19. Flexible method for fabricating protein patterns on superhydrophobic platforms controlled by magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Zou, Haoyang; Wang, Chenmiao; Zhang, Hao; Mano, João F; Song, Wenlong

    2017-02-28

    Inspired by the rolling of water droplets on lotus leaves, we developed a novel, magnetic field-controlled patterning method for water-soluble proteins and other functional materials on superhydrophobic platforms. This simple method can be used to fabricate biochips and open micro-fluidic devices in a simple way.

  20. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires

  1. METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE INCLUDING A TEXTILE FABRIC ASSEMBLY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of manufacturing a composite structure (10). The method may comprise providing a form (8) that has a shape corresponding to a desired shape of an internal cavity in the composite structure (10) to be manufactured. The textile fabric assembly (1) is arranged around the form (8), and a curable material (9) is filled......The invention relates to a textile fabric assembly (1) comprising at least two textile layers (2). The textile layers (2) are joined at a plurality of points (3) and/or along a plurality of lines (6) so that they form inner and outer walls, respectively. The invention also relates to a method...... into the at least one inner space (4) between the textile layers (2). The form (8) may be inflatable. Alternatively, the method may comprise arranging the textile fabric assembly (1) around an initial structure and/or mechanically fastened to a surface of an initial structure to be reinforced and then filling...

  2. Method of fabrication of fibers, textiles and composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James L.

    2013-01-29

    A method of growing a plurality of free-standing structures comprises providing a plurality of free-standing structures, each free-standing structure having a first end coupled to a substrate, and a terminal end; providing at least one laser beam, the laser beam having a beam waste at a point proximate to the terminal end of the free-standing structure; and moving one of the plurality of freestanding structures or the beam waste to provide a growth zone proximate to the terminal end of each of the free-standing structures such that the free-standing structures grow into the growth zones by addition of decomposing precursor components. The growth rates of each of the free-standing structures are substantially the same.

  3. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  4. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  5. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Abtahi, Mostafa; Heravi, Farzin; Hoseini, Mohsen; Shafaee, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading) showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  6. Design and Development of Embedded System for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids by Transient Hot Wire Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani GOSALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of polymers is an important property for both polymer applications and processing industry. The successful application of thermal insulating fluids in the last several years has demonstrated that such fluids can effectively control the heat loss. Understanding and controlling the thermal environment for oilfield operations has been a concern and research topic. As a consequence of this trend, there is huge demand for new methods of instrumentation to evaluate the performance of material properties and characterization. The main aim of the present study is the development of hardware and software for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using transient hot wire method. Because of the relatively short experimental times and large amounts of parametric data involved in the measurement process, embedded control of the measurement is essential. The experimental implementation requires a suitable temperature sensing, automatic control, data acquisition, and data analysis systems accomplished using an embedded system that has been built around the ARM LPC 2103 mixed signal controller.

  7. Photosensitive-polyimide based method for fabricating various neural electrode architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro X Kato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An extensive photosensitive polyimide (PSPI-based method for designing and fabricating various neural electrode architectures was developed. The method aims to broaden the design flexibility and expand the fabrication capability for neural electrodes to improve the quality of recorded signals and integrate other functions. After characterizing PSPI’s properties for micromachining processes, we successfully designed and fabricated various neural electrodes even on a non-flat substrate using only one PSPI as an insulation material and without the time-consuming dry etching processes. The fabricated neural electrodes were an electrocorticogram electrode, a mesh intracortical electrode with a unique lattice-like mesh structure to fixate neural tissue, and a guide cannula electrode with recording microelectrodes placed on the curved surface of a guide cannula as a microdialysis probe. In vivo neural recordings using anesthetized rats demonstrated that these electrodes can be used to record neural activities repeatedly without any breakage and mechanical failures, which potentially promises stable recordings for long periods of time. These successes make us believe that this PSPI-based fabrication is a powerful method, permitting flexible design and easy optimization of electrode architectures for a variety of electrophysiological experimental research with improved neural recording performance.

  8. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  9. Use of quality planning methods in optimizing welding wire quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of a product is given by the extent, to which the product meets customer requirements. It is generally accepted that the extent, to which the product meets such customer requirements, and, consequently, the resulting quality of the product itself, substantially depend on the early stages of the product lifecycle, i.e. on the design and development stages. Appropriate means for effective product quality planning can be found among quality management methods and tools. These methods are typically employed in engineering production and automotive industry. This paper focuses on exploring the potential of Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA methods for use in metallurgical production, an industrial branch where they have not been commonly employed as yet.

  10. Review of Re-fabrication Methods for ATW Fuels and Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Toth, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of the minor actinides into a fuel and fabrication of the long-lived fission products into a target are key steps in the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) fuel cycle. Fabrication is typically preceded by conversion of a purified liquid stream into a form suitable for fuel fabrication. For many fuel recycle flowsheets, these two steps are combined (conversion + fabrication), and the joint operation identified as re-fabrication. The requirements for ATW re-fabrication activities are somewhat similar to those of the U/Th fuel recycle. Because of the high radiation fields, fully remote operations and heavily shielded facilities are required. The high specific activity of the materials will place extreme demands on the chemical and radiation stability of processing media. Many different types of transmutation fuels have been proposed by various researchers from around the world: molten salts, coated particles, metal alloys, ceramic-metal composites (Cermets), and conventional pellet fuels. These forms are largely defined on the basis of fuel performance criteria. However, re-fabrication must also be a safe, practical, and efficient operation that can accept feed materials from the separations complex. Some balancing of priorities and integration is necessary. The Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program of the Department of Energy has been charged with the responsibility to screen potential re-fabrication technologies for ATW. The present baseline fuel form is a Zr-based metal alloy fuel, and Tc metal and NaI are the reference fission product target forms. In this paper we present an initial review of ATW re-fabrication methods. ORNL has prepared minor actinide transmutation targets (Pu, Am, and Cm) for production of heavy elements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for over 30 years. These targets are made by a resin-loading process followed by a blending with metallic aluminum powder to form a Cermet, then pellet fabrication, and target

  11. Is non-woven fabric a useful method of packaging instruments for operation theatres in resource constrained settings?

    OpenAIRE

    G S Devadiga; VMP Thomas; S Shetty; M S Setia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of woven and non-woven fabrics. The present study assessed the change in resterilisation proportion after introduction of non-woven fabric for packaging of instruments and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of non-woven fabrics compared with woven fabrics. Materials and Methods: The present study is a secondary data analysis of resterilisation data collected from November 2009 to August 2013. We calculated the proportions...

  12. Laser and Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Methods of Fabricating Titanium Bone Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wysocki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM methods are generally used to produce an early sample or near net-shape elements based on three-dimensional geometrical modules. To date, publications on AM of metal implants have mainly focused on knee and hip replacements or bone scaffolds for tissue engineering. The direct fabrication of metallic implants can be achieved by methods, such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM or Electron Beam Melting (EBM. This work compares the SLM and EBM methods used in the fabrication of titanium bone implants by analyzing the microstructure, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity. The SLM process was conducted in an environmental chamber using 0.4–0.6 vol % of oxygen to enhance the mechanical properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. SLM processed material had high anisotropy of mechanical properties and superior UTS (1246–1421 MPa when compared to the EBM (972–976 MPa and the wrought material (933–942 MPa. The microstructure and phase composition depended on the used fabrication method. The AM methods caused the formation of long epitaxial grains of the prior β phase. The equilibrium phases (α + β and non-equilibrium α’ martensite was obtained after EBM and SLM, respectively. Although it was found that the heat transfer that occurs during the layer by layer generation of the component caused aluminum content deviations, neither methods generated any cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, in contrast to SLM, the EBM fabricated material met the ASTMF136 standard for surgical implant applications.

  13. Improvements in or relating to methods of and apparatus for coating wire, rod or strip material by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for coating wire, rod or strip material comprising first subjecting the material to electron bombardment in a glow discharge to heat and activate the surface and then subjecting it to sputtering by use of a soft cathode discharge. The apparatus comprises a low pressure gas chamber through which the material is passed, and containing a glow discharge electron gun having a tubular cathode shaped so that the material can be passed axially through it, and an anode surrounding the cathode. The cathode is formed in two parts, the first part at one end, being made of material of low sputtering yield, and the second part being formed at least partially of the required coating material. The first part of the cathode may be of stainless steel or Al. The two parts of the cathode are electrically isolated with means provided for applying a lower negative potential, with respect to the anode, to the second part compared with the first part. The voltage applied to the second part may be controlled so as to control the sputtering rate. The gas pressure in the chamber is also controllable. The coating material may be arranged as inserts in the fixed cathode structure or as segments around the surface to be coated, and may be composed of Pb, Zn or Cu. (U.K.)

  14. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  15. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2009-11-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an adhesion promoter for the AZ 9260 photoresist and as an undercutting material to produce mushroom-shaped fibers. The benefits to this process are ease of fabrication, wide range of potential layer thicknesses, no special surface treatment requirements to demold silicone adhesives and easy stripping of the full mold if process failure does occur. Sylgard® 184 silicone is used to cast full sheets of biomimetic dry adhesives off 4" diameter wafers, and different fiber geometries are tested for normal adhesion properties. Additionally, failure modes of the adhesive during fabrication are noted and strategies for avoiding these failures are discussed. We use this fabrication method to produce different fiber geometries with varying cap diameters and test them for normal adhesion strengths. The results indicate that the cap diameters relative to post diameters for mushroom-shaped fibers dominate the adhesion properties.

  16. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  17. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameoto, D; Menon, C

    2009-01-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an adhesion promoter for the AZ 9260 photoresist and as an undercutting material to produce mushroom-shaped fibers. The benefits to this process are ease of fabrication, wide range of potential layer thicknesses, no special surface treatment requirements to demold silicone adhesives and easy stripping of the full mold if process failure does occur. Sylgard® 184 silicone is used to cast full sheets of biomimetic dry adhesives off 4'' diameter wafers, and different fiber geometries are tested for normal adhesion properties. Additionally, failure modes of the adhesive during fabrication are noted and strategies for avoiding these failures are discussed. We use this fabrication method to produce different fiber geometries with varying cap diameters and test them for normal adhesion strengths. The results indicate that the cap diameters relative to post diameters for mushroom-shaped fibers dominate the adhesion properties

  18. A Twice Electrochemical-Etching Method to Fabricate Superhydrophobic-Superhydrophilic Patterns for Biomimetic Fog Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Song, Jinlong; Liu, Junkai; Liu, Xin; Jin, Zhuji

    2017-08-18

    Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surfaces have attracted more and more attention due to their great potential applications in the fog harvest process. In this work, we developed a simple and universal electrochemical-etching method to fabricate the superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surface on metal superhydrophobic substrates. The anti-electrochemical corrosion property of superhydrophobic substrates and the dependence of electrochemical etching potential on the wettability of the fabricated dimples were investigated on Al samples. Results showed that high etching potential was beneficial for efficiently producing a uniform superhydrophilic dimple. Fabrication of long-term superhydrophilic dimples on the Al superhydrophobic substrate was achieved by combining the masked electrochemical etching and boiling-water immersion methods. A long-term wedge-shaped superhydrophilic dimple array was fabricated on a superhydrophobic surface. The fog harvest test showed that the surface with a wedge-shaped pattern array had high water collection efficiency. Condensing water on the pattern was easy to converge and depart due to the internal Laplace pressure gradient of the liquid and the contact angle hysteresis contrast on the surface. The Furmidge equation was applied to explain the droplet departing mechanism and to control the departing volume. The fabrication technique and research of the fog harvest process may guide the design of new water collection devices.

  19. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  20. The fabrication of nanocomposite thin films with TiO2 nanoparticles by the layer-by-layer deposition method for multifunctional cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Şule S.; Sariişik, Merih; Hakan Aktaş, A.

    2010-08-01

    A multilayer nanocomposite film composed of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles was fabricated on cationically modified woven cotton fabrics by the layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pre-treated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by a pad-batch method. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to verify the presence of deposited nanolayers. Photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposite films were evaluated through the degradation of red wine pollutant. Nano-TiO2 deposition enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics against UV radiation in comparison with the untreated cotton fabrics. Air permeability and whiteness value analysis was performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with TiO2 nanoparticles by the layer-by-layer deposition method. Tensile strength tests of the warp and weft yarns were performed to evaluate the effect of solution pH value changes during the alternate dipping procedures. For the first time the durability of the effect of the self-assembled multilayer films on the cotton fabric functional properties was analyzed after 10 and 20 washing cycles at 40 °C for 30 min.

  1. Economic methods used in fabrication of tissue microarray: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, Sahana; Kendole, Rohit Kumar; Gopinath, Pavana; Krishnappa, Srinath; Vishwanath, S K

    2016-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) is a method of harvesting small disks of tissue from a range of standard paraffin tissue blocks and placing them in an array on a recipient paraffin block such that hundreds of cases can be analyzed simultaneously by using only a few microliters of antibody in immunohistochemistry as a single experiment. The TMA construction done with the help of automated tissue arrayer or commercially available rubber molds are expensive. This study involved the fabrication of TMA using rubber-based additional silicone mold constructed in the department and comparison of this method with two other methods of fabricating TMA. The TMA mold was fabricated using silicone material in the department. The recipient blocks were prepared. The tissue core prepared from donor blocks were inserted into the recipient blocks. The sections taken from this were compared with the TMA using double-sided adhesive tape technique and TMA by punching out holes in prefabricated dummy paraffin recipient block for insertion of tissue core. The TMA using a mold made of silicone showed more advantages than other two methods. Fabricating TMA mold using silicone in the department is inexpensive and yet efficient.

  2. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  3. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  4. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. NiTi SMA Wires Coupled with Kevlar Fabric: a Real Application of an Innovative Aircraft LE Slat System in SMAHC Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Russo, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the response of a smart hybrid thermoplastic aircraft slat system subjected to a short-duration and high-frequency event like a birdstrike. The focus of the paper is to exploit the ability that superelastic shape memory alloys have to absorb and dissipate energy compared to conventional composite structures. The final objective of the work is to develop an innovative thermoplastic wing leading edge slat able to resist to an impact of 4-lb (1.8 kg) bird at speed of 350 kts (132 m/s), as requested by the aeronautical requirements. Aircraft leading edges must be certified for a proven level of bird impact resistance. In particular, the main structural requirement is to protect the torsion box and control devices from any significant damage caused by birdstrike in order to allow the aircraft to land safely. A clear increase of the composites toughness and higher absorbed energy levels before failure were also observed. This is due to the fact that SMA wires can absorb kinetic energy during the impact due to their remarkably large failure and recoverable strain and to their superelastic and hysteretic behaviour. The activities have been performed within the European Project COALESCE "Cost Efficient Advanced Leading Edge Structure", funded by the Seventh Framework Program Theme 7 Transport (incl. Aeronautics).

  6. NiTi SMA Wires Coupled with Kevlar Fabric: a Real Application of an Innovative Aircraft LE Slat System in SMAHC Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Russo, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the response of a smart hybrid thermoplastic aircraft slat system subjected to a short-duration and high-frequency event like a birdstrike. The focus of the paper is to exploit the ability that superelastic shape memory alloys have to absorb and dissipate energy compared to conventional composite structures. The final objective of the work is to develop an innovative thermoplastic wing leading edge slat able to resist to an impact of 4-lb (1.8 kg) bird at speed of 350 kts (132 m/s), as requested by the aeronautical requirements. Aircraft leading edges must be certified for a proven level of bird impact resistance. In particular, the main structural requirement is to protect the torsion box and control devices from any significant damage caused by birdstrike in order to allow the aircraft to land safely. A clear increase of the composites toughness and higher absorbed energy levels before failure were also observed. This is due to the fact that SMA wires can absorb kinetic energy during the impact due to their remarkably large failure and recoverable strain and to their superelastic and hysteretic behaviour. The activities have been performed within the European Project COALESCE "Cost Efficient Advanced Leading Edge Structure", funded by the Seventh Framework Program Theme 7 Transport (incl. Aeronautics).

  7. Method to fabricate orthogonal crossed gratings by an interference fringe based alignment technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hengyan; Zeng, Lijiang

    2016-10-01

    In order to fabricate orthogonal crossed gratings, we propose an interference fringe based alignment technique to adjust the angle between the two Lloyd's mirrors to be 90° in the dual Lloyd's mirror interferometer. An exposed crossed grating is put back to the exposure system and rotated about 90° around its normal direction. By observing the fringe spacing of the interference fringes generated by the diffracted beams of different orders, we can adjust the angle between the two Lloyd's mirrors to be 90°. Simulation results indicate an orthogonality error smaller than 4″ can be obtained by this method. We fabricated a crossed grating with 0.30″ orthogonality error.

  8. Fluorescent Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Fabricated by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanorods with mean diameter 200 nm on different substrates were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Fluorescent properties of fabricated ZnO nanorods were researched by both linear and nonlinear excitation using femtosecond lasers. The damage threshold of productions on Si substrate irradiated under intense femtosecond pulses was found much higher than that on Zn plate. Raman spectrum was also applied to investigate relative optical properties. The A1L optical mode was found to be important to the fluorescent properties of ZnO materials.

  9. A method for the easy fabrication of all-ceramic bridges with the Cerec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A; Schnock, H A

    2009-01-01

    Both pressing technology and CAD/CAM methods have proven themselves clinically for the fabrication of all-ceramic restorations. The advantages of the Cerec technology for the economic fabrication of all-ceramic bridges can be exploited by the use of burn-out blanks of polymer material. The milling process of very hard ceramics in the milling unit, which has some disadvantages, is replaced by the pressing process and makes the IPS e.max press material accessible to CAD/CAM users, primarily for extending the range of indications to splinted crowns and small all-ceramic bridges.

  10. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  11. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  12. A Novel Method for Fabricating Additive Manufactured Lightweight, Optical Quality Metallic Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    1    A Novel Method for Fabricating Additive Manufactured  Lightweight, Optical Quality Metallic  Mirrors   Michael Stern, Joseph Bari  Distribution A...metallic  mirrors  fabricated by growing an additive manufactured blank, post  processing the faces, coating with electroless nickel, and diamond turning...low‐weight spinning  mirror , in which topology  optimization was used. The blank was then fabricated with metallic powder bed fusion and post

  13. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin

    2010-09-07

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper to form intricate patterns and differently configured channels for specific purposes. Bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin, the prepared paper sheet is sandwiched between glass slides (hydrophilic) or polymer-based plates (hydrophobic) to obtain a multilayer structure. In order to examine the chip\\'s biocompatibility and applicability, protein concentration was measured while DNA capillary electrophoresis was carried out, and both of them show positive results. With the utilization of direct laser cutting and one-step gas-sacrificing techniques, the whole fabrication processes for complicated 2D and 3D microfluidic devices are shorten into several minutes which make it a good alternative of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips used in biological analysis researches.

  14. Fabrication of Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum through Thermal Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Park, J. S.; Nakajima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminum with cylindrical pores was fabricated by unidirectional solidification through thermal decomposition of calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, or titanium hydride. The pore-forming gas decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, and titanium hydride is identified as hydrogen. The elongated pores are evolved due to the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt dissolving hydrogen is solidified unidirectionally. The porosity of lotus aluminum is as high as 20 pct despite the type of the compounds. The pore size decreases and the pore density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by an increase in the number of pore nucleation sites. The porosity and pore size in lotus aluminum fabricated using calcium hydroxide decrease with increasing argon pressure, which is explained by Boyle’s law. It is suggested that this fabrication method is simple and safe, which makes it superior to the conventional technique using high-pressure hydrogen gas.

  15. Fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene nanoribbon fibers via a 3D solution printing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Shuai; Song, Yuanjun; Dong, Jidong; Wei, Huawei; Xie, Huaquan; Fang, Xiaojiao; Shao, Lu; Huang, Yudong; Jiang, Zaixing

    2016-11-01

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) are one of the most promising carbon based materials. The integration of 2D GONR sheets into macroscopic materials, such as continuous fibers or film, leads the way in translating the good properties of individual GONR sheets into macroscopic and ordered materials for future applications. In this study, we first report the fabrication of GONR fibers utilizing GONR sheets as the raw material without any supporting surfactant or polymer. The method of fabricating fibers is referred to as ‘3D solution printing’. GONR fibers exhibit good mechanical and electrical properties, whose tensile strength and electrical conductivity could reach up to 95 MPa and 680 S cm-1, respectively. Hence, the fabricated 3D integrated circuits are lighter and smaller compared to traditional metal circuits, and with high electrical properties. The 3D integrated circuits, therefore, have a bright future prospect.

  16. Fabrication of porous aluminium with directional pores through thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H; Kim, S Y; Park, J S

    2009-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals were fabricated by unidirectional solidification in pressurized gas atmosphere. The elongated pres are evolved by insoluble gas resulted from the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt is solidified. Recently we developed a novel fabrication technique, in which gas compounds are used as a source of dissolving gas instead of the high pressure. In the present work this gas compound method was applied to fabrication of lotus aluminium. Hydrogen decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate and titanium hydride evolves cylindrical pores in aluminium. The porosity is about 20%. The pore size decreases and the pore number density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by increase in pore nucleation sites.

  17. Nanopore fabricated in pyramidal HfO2 film by dielectric breakdown method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Chen, Qi; Deng, Tao; Liu, Zewen

    2017-10-01

    The dielectric breakdown method provides an innovative solution to fabricate solid-state nanopores on insulating films. A nanopore generation event via this method is considered to be caused by random charged traps (i.e., structural defects) and high electric fields in the membrane. Thus, the position and number of nanopores on planar films prepared by the dielectric breakdown method is hard to control. In this paper, we propose to fabricate nanopores on pyramidal HfO2 films (10-nm and 15-nm-thick) to improve the ability to control the location and number during the fabrication process. Since the electric field intensity gets enhanced at the corners of the pyramid-shaped film, the probability of nanopore occurrence at vertex and edge areas increases. This priority of appearance provides us chance to control the location and number of nanopores by monitoring a sudden irreversible discrete increase in current. The experimental results showed that the probability of nanopore occurrence decreases in an order from the vertex area, the edge area to the side face area. The sizes of nanopores ranging from 30 nm to 10 nm were obtained. Nanopores fabricated on the pyramid-shaped HfO2 film also showed an obvious ion current rectification characteristic, which might improve the nanopore performance as a biomolecule sequencing platform.

  18. Superhydrophobic multi-scale ZnO nanostructures fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Feng, Chengheng; Wu, Chunxia; Ma, Weiwei; Cai, Lan

    2009-07-01

    The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on Si(100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Different Morphologies of ZnO nanostructures, such as nanoparticle film, micro-pillar and micro-nano multi-structure, were obtained with different conditions. The results of XRD and TEM showed the good quality of ZnO crystal growth. Selected area electron diffraction analysis indicates the individual nano-wire is single crystal. The wettability of ZnO was studied by contact angle admeasuring apparatus. We found that the wettability can be changed from hydrophobic to super-hydrophobic when the structure changed from smooth particle film to single micro-pillar, nano-wire and micro-nano multi-scale structure. Compared with the particle film with contact angle (CA) of 90.7 degrees, the CA of single scale microstructure and sparse micro-nano multi-scale structure is 130-140 degrees, 140-150 degrees respectively. But when the surface is dense micro-nano multi-scale structure such as nano-lawn, the CA can reach to 168.2 degrees . The results indicate that microstructure of surface is very important to the surface wettability. The wettability on the micro-nano multi-structure is better than single-scale structure, and that of dense micro-nano multi-structure is better than sparse multi-structure.

  19. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  20. A novel method for applying reduced graphene oxide directly to electronic textiles from yarns to fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong Ju; Hong, Won G; Kim, Wan-Joong; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2013-10-25

    Conductive, flexible, and durable reduced RGO textiles with a facile preparation method are presented. BSA proteins serve as universal adhesives for improving the adsorption of GO onto any textile, irrespective of the materials and the surface conditions. Using this method, we successfully prepared various RGO textiles based on nylon-6 yarns, cotton yarns, polyester yarns, and nonwoven fabrics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S

    2006-01-01

    We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process

  2. A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-dong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-01

    We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process.

  3. Rapid fabrication method of a microneedle mold with controllable needle height and width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, I-Chi; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Ching-Hong; Chang, Kai-Ping; Gao, Shao-Syuan

    2016-10-01

    The main issue of transdermal drug delivery is that macromolecular drugs cannot diffuse through the stratum corneum of skin. Many studies have pursued micro-sized needles encapsulated with drugs to overcome this problem, as these needles can pierce the stratum corneum and allow drugs to enter the circulatory system of the human body. However, most microneedle fabrication processes are time-consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid method for fabricating a microneedle mold using drawing lithography and a UV-cured resin. The mold was filled with a water-soluble material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was then demolded to produce a water-soluble microneedle array. The results of an in vitro skin insertion test using PVP microneedles and pig ear skin demonstrated the feasibility of the microneedle mold. In addition, by controlling the viscosity of the UV-cured resin through various heat treatments, microneedles with different heights and aspect ratios were produced. Compared with other methods, this technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the mold fabrication process. In addition, the required equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. Through this technology, we can rapidly fabricate microneedle molds with controllable dimensions for various applications.

  4. [Prophylactics of pyo-inflammatory complications in the wire area during treatment by the method of transosseous compressive-distractive osteosynthesis with probiotic "Sporobacterin liquid"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, D V; Solnyshkova, T G; Safronov, A A

    2008-01-01

    Prophylactics of surgical infections is one of the principal problems in using any surgical method, the method of transosseous osteosynthesis included. Preventive treatment is considered to be one of possible ways to decrease the number of pyo-inflammatory complications. However, unjustified antibiotic therapy gives a negative effect and is often followed by side reactions and complications. This experimental investigation presents grounds for using the method of prophylactics of pyo-inflammatory complications in the area of wires in treatment by the method of extrafocal compressive-distractive osteosynthesis with a new generation probiotic "Sporobacterin liquid".

  5. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2015-03-31

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  6. Manufacture and evaluation of Nb3Sn conductors fabricated by the MJR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Scanlan, R.M.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Marken, K.; Smathers, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The bronze matrix/niobium filament process has become established as a commercially viable method for producing multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors. This paper describes a new method, the Modified Jelly-Roll (MJR) approach, which can produce a structure similar to that in a conventionally fabricated multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor. This approach utilizes alternate sheets of niobium expanded metal and bronze, which are rolled into a jelly-roll configuration and then extruded. During extrusion and subsequent drawing, the junctures in the niobium are elongated and the material develops a filamentary structure. This method may offer significant advantages in terms of reduced fabrication time and cost over the conventional approach. Results of a manufacturing development program will be presented in which two lengths of conductor were made to High-Field Test Facility conductor specifications. In addition, critical current and transition temperature measurements of the sub-elements used to construct the HFTF-type lengths will be reported

  7. A novel monolithic fabrication method for a plastic microfluidic chip with liquid interconnecting ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Kee; Kwon, Tai Hun

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a novel monolithic fabrication method was developed for the manufacturing of a plastic microfluidic chip with liquid interconnecting ports. As the present method can realize both interconnecting ports and through holes, which are essential components for the delivery of working fluids, in the plastic microfluidic chip, no additional processes and external ports are required. Furthermore, the connection of external silicone tubing can be simply achieved by utilizing an elastic deformation of the used tubing. As one representative example, a microinjection molding of a prototype microfluidic chip having two types of interconnecting ports was demonstrated. After obtaining upper and lower plates by the microinjection molding process utilizing mold cores with pin structures, the thermal bonding of the molded plates was carried out, resulting in the prototype plastic microfluidic chip with interconnecting ports. From microfluidic experiments using the fabricated prototype, it was found that the present method could be quite useful in various microfluidic applications.

  8. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2017-10-25

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  9. Fabrication of Metallic Biomedical Scaffolds with the Space Holder Method: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifvianto, Budi; Zhou, Jie

    2014-05-06

    Bone tissue engineering has been increasingly studied as an alternative approach to bone defect reconstruction. In this approach, new bone cells are stimulated to grow and heal the defect with the aid of a scaffold that serves as a medium for bone cell formation and growth. Scaffolds made of metallic materials have preferably been chosen for bone tissue engineering applications where load-bearing capacities are required, considering the superior mechanical properties possessed by this type of materials to those of polymeric and ceramic materials. The space holder method has been recognized as one of the viable methods for the fabrication of metallic biomedical scaffolds. In this method, temporary powder particles, namely space holder, are devised as a pore former for scaffolds. In general, the whole scaffold fabrication process with the space holder method can be divided into four main steps: (i) mixing of metal matrix powder and space-holding particles; (ii) compaction of granular materials; (iii) removal of space-holding particles; (iv) sintering of porous scaffold preform. In this review, detailed procedures in each of these steps are presented. Technical challenges encountered during scaffold fabrication with this specific method are addressed. In conclusion, strategies are yet to be developed to address problematic issues raised, such as powder segregation, pore inhomogeneity, distortion of pore sizes and shape, uncontrolled shrinkage and contamination.

  10. Wiring assembly and method of forming a channel in a wiring assembly for receiving conductor and providing separate regions of conductor contact with the channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, Gerald; Meinke, Rainer; Senti, Mark

    2018-03-06

    A conductor assembly and method for constructing an assembly of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, induces a voltage. In one embodiment the method provides a first insulative layer tubular in shape and including a surface along which a conductor segment may be positioned. A channel formed in the surface of the insulative layer defines a first conductor path and includes a surface of first contour in cross section along a first plane transverse to the conductor path. A segment of conductor having a surface of second contour in cross section is positioned at least partly in the channel and extends along the conductor path. Along the first plane, contact between the conductor surface of second contour and the channel surface of first contour includes at least two separate regions of contact.

  11. Evaluation of methods for seismic analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.F.; Dong, R.G.; Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Smith, P.D.; Wight, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of seismic analysis for critical structures and equipment in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (NFRPs) and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants (MOFFPs) are evaluated. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide the NRC with a technical basis for assessing seismic analysis methods and for writing regulatory guides in which methods ensuring the safe design of nuclear fuel cycle facilities are recommended. The present report evaluates methods of analyzing buried pipes and wells, sloshing effects in large pools, earth dams, multiply supported equipment, pile foundations, and soil-structure interactions

  12. Ga N nano wires and nano tubes growth by chemical vapor deposition method at different NH{sub 3} flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.; Liu, Y.; Meng, X. [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro and Nanostructures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Ga N nano wires and nano tubes have been successfully synthesized via the simple chemical vapor deposition method. NH{sub 3} flow rate was found to be a crucial factor in the synthesis of different type of Ga N which affects the shape and the diameter of generated Ga N nano structures. X-ray diffraction confirms that Ga N nano wires grown on Si(111) substrate under 900 degrees Celsius and with NH{sub 3} flow rate of 50 sc cm presents the preferred orientation growth in the (002) direction. It is beneficial to the growth of nano structure through catalyst annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure the size and structures of the samples. (Author)

  13. Application of image analysis method for measurement of fabric stretch deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapunya, N.; Baheti, S.

    2017-10-01

    For design of comfortable knitted fabric garments, it is necessary to know their distribution of elastic properties under the deformation. The standard tensile testing methods are not sufficient to explain distribution of these stretch properties. However, digital image analysis technique adjusted to the standard tensile test method can perform detailed study on distribution of local elastic deformation properties. The aim of this research was to develop a new method for the measurement of the local deformations between dots of stretch knitted fabrics during tensile testing. The image analysis approach was selected to calculate the gradient deformation tensor under the extension ranging from 10 %, 20%, 30% and 40 % in respective course, wale and bias directions. Moreover, this method was applied to know the deformation distribution on cylindrical surface as well by stretching the fabric under different extension. Subsequently the analysis of the deformation distribution by image processing system in MATLAB was carried out to determine the compression between cylindrical model and specimens. The results of image analysis were compared with ASTM D4964-96 standard and the actual obtained experimental results.

  14. A novel method to fabricate parylene-based flexible microfluidic platforms with commercial adhesive tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Donghee; Lee, Jongho; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new method to fabricate parylene-based flexible microfluidic platforms using commercial adhesive tape. Most of the previous methods required the preparation of parylene channels via a parylene-to-parylene bonding, which could only be achieved at high pressure and temperature. Instead, our method exploits the adherent property of commercial tape as a substrate for the parylene peel-off process. Once the parylene thin film is deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on top of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica, prepared by conventional lithography process, an adhesive tape peels off the deposited parylene layer with the micro-scale structures from the PDMS replica. We found that the minimum size of the circle posts successfully fabricated by this process is about 10 μm in diameter and 10 μm in height; the maximum value in aspect ratio is about 2.5. In our experimental investigation, pressure in the parylene channels with different wall thicknesses, was measured to estimate the hydraulic resistance of the channel. Our results are comparable with calculated data, with a normalized deviation smaller than 5%. In addition, the hydraulic resistance of the channels on the curved surface obtained with a similar approach showed an increase when the radius of curvature was reduced. Finally, this contribution shows that our method enables a simple and relatively inexpensive fabrication of flexible microfluidic platforms.

  15. Fabrication of double-dot single-electron transistor in silicon nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Mingyu; Kaizawa, Takuya; Arita, Masashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan); Fujiwara, Akira; Ono, Yukinori [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, 243-0198 (Japan); Inokawa, Hiroshi [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka Univ., 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu, 432-8011 (Japan); Choi, Jung-Bum [Physics and Research Institute of NanoScience and Technology, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Takahashi, Yasuo, E-mail: y-taka@nano.ist.hokudai.ac.j [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple method for fabricating Si single-electron transistors (SET) with coupled dots by means of a pattern-dependent-oxidation (PADOX) method. The PADOX method is known to convert a small one-dimensional Si wire formed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate into a SET automatically. We fabricated a double-dot Si SET when we oxidized specially designed Si nanowires formed on SOI substrates. We analyzed the measured electrical characteristics by fitting the measurement and simulation results and confirmed the double-dot formation and the position of the two dots in the Si wire.

  16. A novel method of fabricating carbon nanotubes-polydimethylsiloxane composite electrodes for electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benyan; Chen, Yingmin; Luo, Zhangyuan; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan; Jin, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-based flexible electrodes are receiving much attention in medical applications due to their good wearing comfort. The current fabrication methods of such electrodes are not widely applied. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and conductive additives of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed to fabricate composite electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). A three-step dispersion process consisting of ultrasonication, stirring, and in situ polymerization was developed to yield homogenous CNTs-PDMS mixtures. The CNTs-PDMS mixtures were used to fabricate CNTs-PDMS composite electrodes by replica technology. The influence of ultrasonication time and CNT concentration on polymer electrode performance was evaluated by impedance and ECG measurements. The signal amplitude of the electrodes prepared using an ultrasonication time of 12 h and CNT content of 5 wt% was comparable to that of commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes. The polymer electrodes were easily fabricated by conventional manufacturing techniques, indicating a potential advantage of reduced cost for mass production.

  17. A Method for Direct Fabrication of a Lingual Splint for Management of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo P. Romeo, DDS, MD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pediatric mandibular fractures have successfully been managed in various ways. The use of a lingual splint is one such option. The typical indirect method for acrylic lingual splint fabrication involves obtaining dental impressions. Dental models are produced from those impressions so that model surgery may be performed. The splint is then made on those models using resin powder and liquid monomer in a wet laboratory and transferred to the patient. Obvious limitations to this technique exist for both patient and operator. We present a technique for direct, intraoperative, fabrication of a splint using commercially available light-cured material that avoids some of the shortcomings of the indirect method. Recommendations are made based on available material safety information.

  18. A facile method to fabricate close-packed concave microlens array on cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zefang; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Liu, Hewei; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hu, Yang; Si, Jinhai; Meng, Xiangwei; Hou, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a facile method to fabricate concave microlens arrays (MLAs) with controllable shape and high fill factor on cylindrical silica glass by a femtosecond laser-enhanced chemical wet etching process. The hexagonal and rectangular MLAs are flexibly fabricated on the silica glass cylinder with a diameter of 3 mm. The morphological characteristics of MLAs are measured by a scanning electron microscope and a laser scanning confocal microscope. The measurements show that the good uniformity and high packing density MLA structures are generated. It has also been demonstrated that the shape and size of the concave structures could be easily tuned by changing laser power and the arrangement of laser exposure spots. The convex MLAs replicated by the polymer casting method experience excellent image quality. (paper)

  19. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Small Pore Size by Melt Foaming Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Li, Yanxiang; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Ningzhen

    2017-04-01

    This article introduces an improvement to the fabrication of aluminum foams with small pore size by melt foaming method. Before added to the melt, the foaming agent (titanium hydride) was pretreated in two steps. It firstly went through the traditional pre-oxidation treatment, which delayed the decomposition of titanium hydride and made sure the dispersion stage was controllable. Then such pre-oxidized titanium hydride powder was mixed with copper powder in a planetary ball mill. This treatment can not only increase the number of foaming agent particles and make them easier to disperse in the melt, which helps to increase the number of pores, but also reduce the amount of hydrogen released in the foaming stage. Therefore, the pore size could be decreased. Using such a ball-milled foaming agent in melt foaming method, aluminum foams with small pore size (average size of 1.6 mm) were successfully fabricated.

  20. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  1. A new method to fabricate Fe-TiC composite using conventional sintering and steam hammer

    OpenAIRE

    LAHOUEL, Ali; BOUDEBANE, Saïd; IOST, Alain; MONTAGNE, Alex

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this research paper is to fabricate a Fe-TiC composite by a novel and simple manufacturing method. The latter is based on two cumulative processes; a conventional sintering (transient liquid phase sintering) and a hot forging with steam hammer respectively. The blinder phase of the studied simples is varied from carbon steel to high alloy steel using alloying additive powders. The obtained outcomes showed that after the sintering process, the relative densit...

  2. Method of fabricating a (1223) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, John Eric; Lay, Kenneth Wilbur; He, Qing

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for fabricating a polycrystalline thallium-containing superconductor having high critical current at elevated temperatures and in the presence of a magnetic field. A powder precursor containing compounds other than thallium is compressed on a substrate. Thallium is incorporated in the densified powder precursor at a high temperature in the presence of a partial pressure of a thallium-containing vapor.

  3. A Simplified Method to Fabricate a Pneumatic Ocular Prosthesis for Large Ocular Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal

    2014-01-01

    When an enucleation or exenteration procedure removes the entire orbital contents but not the eyelids, an abnormally large orbital socket is created that would require an equally sized volume enhancing, flush fitting ocular prosthesis. The solid acrylic prosthesis would rest on or in the lower fornix and owing to its weight, causes distortion of the lower eyelid and/or asymmetrical alignment of the entire palpebral fissure. The aim of this article was to describe a method of fabricating a pne...

  4. Method of Fabricating NASA-Standard Macro-Fiber Composite Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, James W.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Macro-Fiber Composite actuator is a flexible piezoelectric composite device designed for controlling vibrations and shape deformations in high performance aerospace structures. A complete method for fabricating the standard NASA Macro-Fiber Composite actuator is presented in this document. When followed precisely, these procedures will yield devices with electromechanical properties identical to the standard actuator manufactured by NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  6. Cliché fabrication method using precise roll printing process with 5 um pattern width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yejin; Kim, Inyoung; Oh, Dong-Ho; Lee, Taik-Min

    2016-09-01

    Among the printing processes for printed electronic devices, gravure offset and reverse offset method have drawn attention for its fine pattern printing possibility. These printing methods use cliché, which has critical effect on the final product precision and quality. In this research, a novel precise cliché replica method is proposed. It consists of copper sputtering, precise mask pattern printing with 5 um width using reverse offset printing, Ni electroplating, lift-off, etching, and DLC coating. We finally compare the fabricated replica cliché with the original one and print out precise patterns using the replica cliché.

  7. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  8. Development of likelihood estimation method for criticality accidents of mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Hamaguchi, Yoshikane

    2010-01-01

    A criticality accident in a MOX fuel fabrication facility may occur depending on several parameters, such as mass inventory and plutonium enrichment. MOX handling units in the facility are designed and operated based on the double contingency principle to prevent criticality accidents. Control failures of at least two parameters are needed for the occurrence of criticality accident. To evaluate the probability of such control failures, the criticality conditions of each parameter for a specific handling unit are necessary for accident scenario analysis to be clarified quantitatively with a criticality analysis computer code. In addition to this issue, a computer-based control system for mass inventory is planned to be installed into MOX handling equipment in a commercial MOX fuel fabrication plant. The reliability analysis is another important issue in evaluating the likelihood of control failure caused by software malfunction. A likelihood estimation method for criticality accident has been developed with these issues been taken into consideration. In this paper, an example of analysis with the proposed method and the applicability of the method are also shown through a trial application to a model MOX fabrication facility. (author)

  9. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  10. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  11. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  12. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  13. An improved extraction method for surface dosage of insecticides on treated textile fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieval, Florence; Bouyer, Jérémy; Fafet, Jean-François

    2017-01-04

    Tens of millions of people live in mosquito-infested regions and controlling mosquito-borne diseases is one of the major interventions aimed at alleviating poverty worldwide. The use of insecticide-treated textiles is one of the most widespread control measures. This includes bed nets, battle clothing or, more generally, textiles use for clothing. These textiles are generally treated with permethrin as active ingredient, which is dosed after extraction of the active molecule present throughout the fabric (measured in mg permethrin/g of fabric) and does not take the effective concentration on the textile surfaces into account. The objective of this study was to propose an improved dosage method that enables measurement of the bioavailable or effective part of active ingredients on the surface of textile treated with insecticides. The proposed method relies on mechanical extraction of active molecules on the surface of the textile in direct contact with either the skin or with the targeted arthropod. The results showed that the amount of permethrin measured using the current method is about 200 times higher than the effective surface concentration of the insecticide. In addition, the type of weave or knit influences the effective concentrations of permethrin on the surface of the textile. With the current dosage method, the variation in the concentration of permethrin depending on the type of weave is maximum 8%, whereas with the proposed method, it varies by about 50%. These results were confirmed by bioassays, in which the type of weave significantly affected (p fabrics is directly correlated with the effective concentration of insecticide on the textile surface, which can be quantified using the method proposed. This improved method could be used to redefine the limits of actual concentrations of active substance after assessment of the bioefficacy of the treatment and the risk to human health. Further, it enables assessments of the kinetics of insecticide

  14. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  15. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  16. Lithography-free centimeter-long nanochannel fabrication method using an electrospun nanofiber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Hee; Shin, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Sangyoup; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Yang, Dong-Yol; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Novel cost-effective methods for polymeric and metallic nanochannel fabrication have been demonstrated using an electrospun nanofiber array. Like other electrospun nanofiber-based nanofabrication methods, our system also showed high throughput as well as cost-effective performances. Unlike other systems, however, our fabrication scheme provides a pseudo-parallel nanofiber array a few centimeters long at a speed of several tens of fibers per second based on our unique inclined-gap fiber collecting system. Pseudo-parallel nanofiber arrays were used either directly for the PDMS molding process or for the metal lift-off process followed by the SiO 2 deposition process to produce the nanochannel array. While the PDMS molding process was a simple fabrication based on one-step casting, the metal lift-off process followed by SiO 2 deposition allowed finetuning on height and width of nanogrooves down to subhundred nanometers from a few micrometers. Nanogrooves were covered either with cover glass or with PDMS slab and nanochannel connectivity was investigated with a fluorescent dye. Also, nanochannel arrays were used to investigate mobility and conformations of λ-DNA. (paper)

  17. A novel bonding method for large scale poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanofluidic chip fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingtian; Li, Jinlai; Yin, Zhifu

    2018-04-01

    Micro- and nanofluidic chips are becoming increasing significance for biological and medical applications. Future advances in micro- and nanofluidics and its utilization in commercial applications depend on the development and fabrication of low cost and high fidelity large scale plastic micro- and nanofluidic chips. However, the majority of the present fabrication methods suffer from a low bonding rate of the chip during thermal bonding process due to air trapping between the substrate and the cover plate. In the present work, a novel bonding technique based on Ar plasma and water treatment was proposed to fully bond the large scale micro- and nanofluidic chips. The influence of Ar plasma parameters on the water contact angle and the effect of bonding conditions on the bonding rate and the bonding strength of the chip were studied. The fluorescence tests demonstrate that the 5 × 5 cm2 poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with 180 nm wide and 180 nm deep nanochannels can be fabricated without any block and leakage by our newly developed method.

  18. Advances in Fabrication Materials of Honeycomb Structure Films by the Breath-Figure Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Liping; Wang, Bin; Li, Muchen; Zhang, Yuqi; Jiang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Creatures in nature possess almost perfect structures and properties, and exhibit harmonization and unification between structure and function. Biomimetics, mimicking nature for engineering solutions, provides a model for the development of functional surfaces with special properties. Recently, honeycomb structure materials have attracted wide attention for both fundamental research and practical applications and have become an increasingly hot research topic. Though progress in the field of breath-figure formation has been reviewed, the advance in the fabrication materials of bio-inspired honeycomb structure films has not been discussed. Here we review the recent progress of honeycomb structure fabrication materials which were prepared by the breath-figure method. The application of breath figures for the generation of all kinds of honeycomb is discussed. PMID:28809319

  19. A microsphere assembly method with laser microwelding for fabrication of three-dimensional periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kenta; Omote, Masanori; Kawasaki, Akira

    2010-03-01

    The orderly build-up of monosized microspheres with sizes of hundreds of micrometres enabled us to develop three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal devices for terahertz electromagnetic waves. We designed and manufactured an original 3D particle assembly system capable of fabricating arbitrary periodic structures from these spherical particles. This method employs a pick-and-place assembling approach with robotic manipulation and interparticle laser microwelding in order to incorporate a contrivance for highly accurate arraying: an operation that compensates the size deviation of raw monosized particles. Pre-examination of particles of various materials revealed that interparticle laser welding must be achieved with local melting by suppressing heat diffusion from the welding area. By optimizing the assembly conditions, we succeeded in fabricating an accurate periodic structure with a diamond lattice from 400 µm polyethylene composite particles. This structure demonstrated a photonic bandgap in the terahertz frequency range.

  20. Rigid spine reinforced polymer microelectrode array probe and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabada, Phillipe; Pannu, Satinderpall S

    2014-05-27

    A rigid spine-reinforced microelectrode array probe and fabrication method. The probe includes a flexible elongated probe body with conductive lines enclosed within a polymeric material. The conductive lines connect microelectrodes found near an insertion end of the probe to respective leads at a connector end of the probe. The probe also includes a rigid spine, such as made from titanium, fixedly attached to the probe body to structurally reinforce the probe body and enable the typically flexible probe body to penetrate and be inserted into tissue, such as neural tissue. By attaching or otherwise fabricating the rigid spine to connect to only an insertion section of the probe body, an integrally connected cable section of the probe body may remain flexible.

  1. Fabrication of the durable low refractive index thin film with chitin-nanofiber by LBL method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Durable low refractive index thin films with anti-reflection properties were successfully fabricated using chitin nanofibers (CHINF obtained from crab shell. The low refractive index film was achieved by forming porous thin films; the porosity was produced by increasing the number of airspaces inside the membrane. The layer-by-layer (LBL method was used to achieve the effective stacking of the CHINF. The influence of surface structure and refractive index under changes in the solution pH was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. Transmittance of the fabricated film is 4.1 % higher than that of a glass substrate and refractive index film of that is 1.29. The films had abrasion resistance and antifogging properties because of the high mechanical strength and hydrophilicity of chitin. We believe this LBL film using CHINF is a promising candidate material to overcome the durability problems associated with optical thin films.

  2. A microsphere assembly method with laser microwelding for fabrication of three-dimensional periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kenta; Omote, Masanori; Kawasaki, Akira

    2010-01-01

    The orderly build-up of monosized microspheres with sizes of hundreds of micrometres enabled us to develop three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal devices for terahertz electromagnetic waves. We designed and manufactured an original 3D particle assembly system capable of fabricating arbitrary periodic structures from these spherical particles. This method employs a pick-and-place assembling approach with robotic manipulation and interparticle laser microwelding in order to incorporate a contrivance for highly accurate arraying: an operation that compensates the size deviation of raw monosized particles. Pre-examination of particles of various materials revealed that interparticle laser welding must be achieved with local melting by suppressing heat diffusion from the welding area. By optimizing the assembly conditions, we succeeded in fabricating an accurate periodic structure with a diamond lattice from 400 µm polyethylene composite particles. This structure demonstrated a photonic bandgap in the terahertz frequency range.

  3. A Review of Metallic Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell offers an exceptional potential for a clean, efficient, and reliable power source. The bipolar plate is a key component in this device, as it connects each cell electrically, supplies reactant gases to both anode and cathode, and removes reaction products from the cell. Bipolar plates have been fabricated primarily from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to developing cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. Two different classes of materials have attracted attention: metals and composites. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current research being carried out on metallic bipolar plates, covering materials and fabrication methods.

  4. Multifilamentary MgB2 wires fracture behavior during the drawing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, D.; Yan, G.; Zhou, L.; Li, J.S.; Li, C.S.; Wang, Q.Y.; Xiong, X.M.; Jiao, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    The fracture behavior of 6 + 1 filamentary MgB 2 superconductive wires is presented here. The composite wires were fabricated by in situ Powder-in-Tube method using Nb as a barrier and copper as a stabilizer. The microstructure of the material has a great influence on its fracture behavior. The microstructural aspects of crack nucleation and propagation are discussed. It shows that there are complicated correlations between fracture behavior and the main influencing parameters, which contain specific drawing conditions (drawing velocity, reduction in area per pass), materials properties (strength, yield stress, microstructure) as well as the extent of bonding between the metal sheaths at their interface.

  5. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube-Based Vacuum Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Murthy, Rakesh (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention proficiently produce carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic devices. In one embodiment a method of fabricating a carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic device includes: growing carbon nanotubes onto a substrate to form a cathode; assembling a stack that includes the cathode, an anode, and a first layer that includes an alignment slot; disposing a microsphere partially into the alignment slot during the assembling of the stack such that the microsphere protrudes from the alignment slot and can thereby separate the first layer from an adjacent layer; and encasing the stack in a vacuum sealed container.

  6. Comparison of conventional and ultrasonic method for dyeing of spunbond polyester nonwoven fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Pelin; Ӧzcan, Gülay; Tekçin, Meltem; Şahin, Gizem; Çelik, Semiha

    2018-04-01

    Nonwoven spunbonded polyester has wide applications for both household goods and home furnishings and their usage has continually been growing. Nowadays, coloration of nonwoven fabrics is performed using conventional methods. Conventional polyester dyeing is an energy-intensive process as the dyeing is carried out above 120 °C to obtain efficient diffusion of dye. Furthermore, these high temperatures may cause some harmful effects on delicate nonwoven structures. Ultrasound assisted textile dyeing is an alternative method of conventional dyeing of textile materials, providing energy saving by reduced process temperature and time, lower consumptions of auxiliaries with increased dyeing efficiency. This paper focuses on comparing the conventional (high temperature (HT) and carrier dyeing) and ultrasonic dyeing of nonwoven spunbonded polyester fabrics to investigate the effect of ultrasound energy on dyeing performance. Experimental results indicated that highest or comparable dyeing performance can be achieved with ultrasound dyeing at lower temperature (85 °C, 60 min.) without carrier as compared to carrier dyeing (100 °C, 60 min.) and HT dyeing (130 °C, 60 min.), providing an increase of dye depth depending on the dye concentration and basis weight of the fabric. It was evidently seen that highest basis weight of fabric (107 g/m 2 ) used in this study exhibited greater color yield for each dye concentrations (K/S value of 4.90 at 0.2% dye concentration) as compared to conventional ones. The effect of ultrasound energy on reductive washing and fastness properties were also evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diluted melt proton exchange slab waveguides in LiNbO3: A new fabrication and characterization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben; Skettrup, Torben

    1997-01-01

    A method of dilute-melt proton exchange employing a mixture of glycerol and KHSO4 with lithium benzoate added is used to fabricate planar waveguides in c-cut LiNbO3. With this exchange melt system the waveguide refractive index profiles can be fabricated with a high degree of reproducibility. In ...

  8. Alternative method for determining the original drop volume of bloodstains on knit fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyao; Li, Xingyu; Michielsen, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Bloodstains are often observed at violent crime scenes and on the skin and clothing of persons involved. The diameters of the blood drops that created these stains are related to the force or energy that caused these drops to become airborne. This has resulted in several attempts to determine the diameter of the original drops, beginning with the methods reported in the pioneering work of Henry Lee [6]. However, his methods destroyed the bloodstain during the measurement. Other methods described in the literature cannot be applied to bloodstains on textiles. A new, rapid, reliable, non-destructive method for determining the diameter of the original drop of blood that results in a stain has been developed for bloodstains on cotton single jersey knit (tee-shirt) fabrics, which is one of the most common fabrics analyzed for BPA both at crime scenes and in forensic laboratories. In this method, a drop of known volume of an appropriate artificial blood substitute is applied to a region similar to the stained region but in an area away from any stains/areas of interest. The areas of the original stain and the artificial blood substitute stain are determined, from which the original drop diameter can be calculated. Errors in the drop diameters, the Reynolds numbers and the Weber numbers resulting from this procedure are less than approximately 6%. This procedure has only been verified on cotton single jersey knit fabrics with 30μL≤drop volume≤80μL. It should not be applied to other materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  10. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  11. Fabrication of Si surface pattern by Ar beam irradiation and annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Momota, S.; Maeda, K.; Terauchi, H.; Furuta, M.; Kawaharamura, T.; Nitta, N.; Wang, D.

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication process of crater structures on Si crystal has been studied by an irradiation of Ar beam and a thermal annealing at 600 °C. The fabricated surface was measured by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The results have shown the controllability of specifications of crater formation such as density, diameter and depth by changing two irradiation parameters, fluence and energy of Ar ions. By changing the fluence over a range of 1 ∼ 10 × 10 16 /cm 2 , we could control a density of crater 0 ∼ 39 counts/100μm 2 . By changing the energy over a range of 90 ∼ 270 keV, we could control a diameter and a depth of crater in 0.8 ∼ 4.1μm and 99 ∼ 229nm, respectively. The present result is consistent with the previously proposed model that the crater structure would be arising from an exfoliated surface layer of silicon. The present result has indicated the possibility of the crater production phenomena as a hopeful method to fabricate the surface pattern on a micro-nano meter scale.

  12. A general method for the design and fabrication of shape memory alloy active spring actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Cianchetti, M; Arienti, A; Laschi, C

    2012-01-01

    Shape memory alloys have been widely proposed as actuators, in fields such as robotics, biomimetics and microsystems: in particular spring actuators are the most widely used, due to their simplicity of fabrication. The aim of this paper is to provide a general model and the techniques for fabricating SMA spring actuators. All the steps of the design process are described: a mechanical model to optimize the mechanical characteristic for a given requirement of force and available space, and a thermal model for the estimation of the electrical power needed for activation. The parameters of both models are obtained by experimental measurements, which are described in the paper. The models are then validated on springs manufactured manually, showing also the fabrication process. The design method is valid for the dimensioning of SMA springs, independently from the external ambient conditions. The influence on the actuator bandwidth was investigated for different working environments, providing numerical indications for the utilization in underwater applications. The spring characteristics can be calculated by the mechanical model with an accuracy of 5%. The thermal model allows one to calculate the current needed for activation under different ambient conditions, in order to guarantee activation in the specific loading conditions. Moreover, two solutions were found to reduce the power consumption by more than 40% without a dramatic reduction of bandwidth. (paper)

  13. A repeatable and scalable fabrication method for sharp, hollow silicon microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Theogarajan, L. S.; Pennathur, S.

    2018-03-01

    Scalability and manufacturability are impeding the mass commercialization of microneedles in the medical field. Specifically, microneedle geometries need to be sharp, beveled, and completely controllable, difficult to achieve with microelectromechanical fabrication techniques. In this work, we performed a parametric study using silicon etch chemistries to optimize the fabrication of scalable and manufacturable beveled silicon hollow microneedles. We theoretically verified our parametric results with diffusion reaction equations and created a design guideline for a various set of miconeedles (80-160 µm needle base width, 100-1000 µm pitch, 40-50 µm inner bore diameter, and 150-350 µm height) to show the repeatability, scalability, and manufacturability of our process. As a result, hollow silicon microneedles with any dimensions can be fabricated with less than 2% non-uniformity across a wafer and 5% deviation between different processes. The key to achieving such high uniformity and consistency is a non-agitated HF-HNO3 bath, silicon nitride masks, and surrounding silicon filler materials with well-defined dimensions. Our proposed method is non-labor intensive, well defined by theory, and straightforward for wafer scale mass production, opening doors to a plethora of potential medical and biosensing applications.

  14. A simple method for fabricating multi-layer PDMS structures for 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Mengying

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple methodology to fabricate PDMS multi-layer microfluidic chips. A PDMS slab was surface-treated by trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) silane, and acts as a reusable transferring layer. Uniformity of the thickness of the patterned PDMS layer and the well-alignment could be achieved due to the transparency and proper flexibility of this transferring layer. Surface treatment results are confirmed by XPS and contact angle testing, while bonding forces between different layers were measured for better understanding of the transferring process. We have also designed and fabricated a few simple types of 3D PDMS chip, especially one consisting of 6 thin layers (each with thickness of 50 μm), to demonstrate the potential utilization of this technique. 3D fluorescence images were taken by a confocal microscope to illustrate the spatial characters of essential parts. This fabrication method is confirmed to be fast, simple, repeatable, low cost and possible to be mechanized for mass production. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  15. 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms simulating heterogeneous biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    The performance of biomedical optical imaging devices heavily relies on appropriate calibration. However, many of existing calibration phantoms for biomedical optical devices are based on homogenous materials without considering the multi-layer heterogeneous structures observed in biological tissue. Using such a phantom for optical calibration may result in measurement bias. To overcome this problem, we propose a 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of tissue simulating phantoms with multilayer heterogeneous structure. The phantom simulates not only the morphologic characteristics of biological tissue but also absorption and scattering properties. The printing system is based on a 3D motion platform with coordinated control of the DC motors. A special jet nozzle is designed to mix base, scattering, and absorption materials at different ratios. 3D tissue structures are fabricated through layer-by-layer printing with selective deposition of phantom materials of different ingredients. Different mixed ratios of base, scattering and absorption materials have been tested in order to optimize the printing outcome. A spectrometer and a tissue spectrophotometer are used for characterizing phantom absorption and scattering properties. The goal of this project is to fabricate skin tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for the calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  16. Discovery of ionic silver in silver nanoparticle suspension fabricated by arc discharge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, D.-C.; Tseng, K.-H.; Liao, C.-Y.; Huang, J.-C.; Tsung, T.-T.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of mankind's over-reliance on antibiotics, germs are becoming more drug-resistant every year. The gradual but inexorable decline in the efficacy of traditional antibiotics is forcing scientists and doctors to search for new weapons in the fight against germs. Metallic silver nanoparticle (Ag 0 ) and ionic silver (Ag + ) are the future of the post-antibiotic era, with the latter playing perhaps the central role in this fight. Using the arc discharge method (ADM), our research has allowed us to fabricate silver nanoparticle suspension (SNPS) in deionized water with no added surfactants. Most related research in this field is confined to explore the composition of nanoparticle, ignoring ions. However, we aim to identify and measure the proportion of ionic silver in ADM-SNPS, using conductivity meters, centrifuges, titrator, and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA). The results of our experiments show that SNPS fabricated by means of ADM with no added surfactants contains metallic silver nanoparticle and ionic silver. The fabrication consumes silver rods at a rate of 100 mg/min, yielding metallic silver nanoparticle and ionic silver with concentrations of approximately 11 ppm and 19 ppm, respectively

  17. Development of probabilistic safety assessment method for mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Watanabe, Norio; Muramatsu, Ken

    2006-01-01

    A Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) procedure for Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facilities was developed. The procedure is a 'two-part five-step' approach which takes characteristics of MOX fuel fabrication facilities into consideration. In the first part, so-called preliminary PSA, the hazard analysis approach was applied, which consists of two analysis steps: Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FFMEA) and Risk Matrix Analysis. The FFMEA analyzes a variety of functions of equipment composing the facility to identify potential abnormal events exhaustively. In the Risk Matrix Analysis, these potential events are screened to select abnormal events as candidates to be analyzed in the second part, using two-dimensional matrix based on the likelihood evaluated by probabilistic index method and maximum unmitigated radioactive release calculated by the Five-Factor Formula. For the selected abnormal events, in the second part, so-called detailed PSA, accident sequences, their occurrence frequencies and consequences are analyzed. These three analysis steps correspond to PSA procedure for nuclear power plant. The applicability of the PSA procedure was demonstrated through the trial application to model plant of MOX fuel fabrication facility. (author)

  18. Statistical methods to assess and control processes and products during nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    1999-01-01

    Very good statistical tools and techniques are available today to access the quality and the reliability of fabrication process as the original sources for a good and reliable quality of the fabricated processes. Quality control charts of different types play a key role and the high capability of modern electronic data acquisition technologies proved, at least potentially, a high efficiency in the more or less online application of these methods. These techniques focus mainly on stability and the reliability of the fabrication process. In addition, relatively simple statistical tolls are available to access the capability of fabrication process, assuming they are stable, to fulfill the product specifications. All these techniques can only result in as good a product as the product design is able to describe the product requirements necessary for good performance. Therefore it is essential that product design is strictly and closely performance oriented. However, performance orientation is only successful through an open and effective cooperation with the customer who uses or applies those products. During the last one to two decades in the west, a multi-vendor strategy has been developed by the utility, sometimes leading to three different fuel vendors for one reactor core. This development resulted in better economic conditions for the user but did not necessarily increase an open attitude with the vendor toward the using utility. The responsibility of the utility increased considerably to ensure an adequate quality of the fuel they received. As a matter of fact, sometimes the utilities had to pay a high price because of unexpected performance problems. Thus the utilities are now learning that they need to increase their knowledge and experience in the area of nuclear fuel quality management and technology. This process started some time ago in the west. However, it now also reaches the utilities in the eastern countries. (author)

  19. The heterogeneous electrochemical characteristics of mild steel in the presence of local glucose oxidase-A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yonghong; Zou Yan; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2010-01-01

    The influence of glucose oxidase (GOD) activity on the heterogeneous electrochemistry at artificial biofilm/mild steel interface was first characterized by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. Potential/current distribution maps show that a cathodic zone can be formed at the GOD capsule site. The cathodic zone is gradually weakened due to the gluconic acid production in seawater. When GOD capsule is confined on rusted WBE surfaces, the formerly formed anodic zone is gradually changed into cathodic zone, in the presence of glucose. The novel device developed in our laboratory demonstrates powerful applications in heterogeneous electrochemistry measurements at the biofilm/mild steel interfaces.

  20. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  1. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2016-07-14

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2•xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2•xH2O, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Thereby paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  2. Color-tunable electrophosphorescent device fabricated by a photo-bleaching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Park, Jong Hyeok; Park, O Ok

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient color-tunable electrophosphorescent device fabricated by a photo-bleaching method. Electroluminescence studies indicate that excellent device performance can be achieved through efficient Foerster energy transfer from the conjugated polymer to the iridium complexes by improving their miscibility. The use of a very low concentration of red phosphorescent dye and the easy degradation characteristics of conjugated structure of the red dopant enable color-tuning from red to green emission by a simple UV-irradiation process without a sacrifice of luminescent properties.tp

  3. Individual SnO2 nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO 2 nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO 2 nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10 6 and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  4. A Simplified Method to Fabricate a Pneumatic Ocular Prosthesis for Large Ocular Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal

    2014-12-01

    When an enucleation or exenteration procedure removes the entire orbital contents but not the eyelids, an abnormally large orbital socket is created that would require an equally sized volume enhancing, flush fitting ocular prosthesis. The solid acrylic prosthesis would rest on or in the lower fornix and owing to its weight, causes distortion of the lower eyelid and/or asymmetrical alignment of the entire palpebral fissure. The aim of this article was to describe a method of fabricating a pneumatic light weight custom ocular prosthesis using lost wax technique to overcome the deteriorating effects of conventional solid ocular prosthesis.

  5. A method for rapid sampling and characterization of smokeless powder using sorbent-coated wire mesh and direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frederick; Tice, Joseph; Musselman, Brian D; Hall, Adam B

    2016-09-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials. Therefore, we have designed a qualitative analytical approach that utilizes novel sorbent-coated wire mesh and dynamic headspace concentration to permit the generation of information rich chemical attribute signatures (CAS) for trace energetic materials in smokeless powder with DART-MS. Sorbent-coated wire mesh improves the overall efficiency of capturing trace energetic materials in comparison to swabbing or vacuuming. Hodgdon Lil' Gun smokeless powder was used to optimize the dynamic headspace parameters. This method was compared to traditional GC-MS methods and validated using the NIST RM 8107 smokeless powder reference standard. Additives and energetic materials, notably nitroglycerin, were rapidly and efficiently captured by the Carbopack X wire mesh, followed by detection and identification using DART-MS. This approach has demonstrated the capability of generating comparable results with significantly reduced analysis time in comparison to GC-MS. All targeted components that can be detected by GC-MS were detected by DART-MS in less than a minute. Furthermore, DART-MS offers the advantage of detecting targeted analytes that are not amenable to GC-MS. The speed and efficiency associated with both the sample collection technique and DART-MS demonstrate an attractive and viable potential alternative to conventional techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  6. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  7. The potential for the fabrication of wires embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate using the solid phase segregation of gold in crystallising amorphous volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The refinement of gold in crystallising amorphous silicon volumes was tested as a means of creating a conducting element embedded in the crystalline matrix. Amorphous silicon volumes were created by self-ion-implantation through a mask. Five hundred kiloelectronvolt Au + was then implanted into the volumes. The amorphous volumes were crystallised on a hot stage in air, and the crystallisation was characterised using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the amorphous silicon volumes crystallised via solid phase epitaxy at all the lateral and vertical interfaces. The interplay of the effects of the gold and also the hydrogen that infilitrated from the surface oxide resulted in a plug of amorphous material at the surface. Further annealing at this temperature demonstrated that the gold, once it had reached a certain critical concentration nucleated poly-crystalline growth instead of solid phase epitaxy. Time resolved reflectivity and Rutherford backscattering and channeling measurements were performed on large area samples that had been subject to the same implantation regime to investigate this system further. It was discovered that the crystallisation dynamics and zone refinement of the gold were complicated functions of both gold concentration and temperature. These findings do not encourage the use of this method to obtain conducting elements embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate

  8. A fabrication method of unique Nafion® shapes by painting for ionic polymer-metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are useful actuators because of their ability to be fabricated in different shapes and move in various ways. However, producing unique or intricate shapes can be difficult based upon the current fabrication techniques. Presented here is a fabrication method of producing the Nafion® membrane or thin film through a painting method. Using an airbrush, a Nafion water dispersion is sprayed onto an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene surface with a stencil of the desired shape. To verify that this method of fabrication produces a Nafion membrane similar to that which is commercially available, a sample that was made using the painting method and Nafion 117 purchased from DuPont™ were tested for various characteristics and compared. The results show promising similarities. The painted Nafion sample was chemically plated with platinum and compared with a traditional IPMC for its displacement and blocking force capabilities. The painted IPMC sample showed comparable results.

  9. Fabricating method for photoelectric converter; Koden henkan soshi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguin, T.; Takamoto, T.

    1997-06-24

    In the conventional fabricating method for the solar cell for which CdTe is used for the light absorbing layer, transparent electric conductive film is deposited on the glass substrate, and then n-type CdS film is deposited. After the surface is subjected to acid treatment, p-type CdTe film is formed. Cadmium chloride containing methanol solution is applied to the p-type CdTe film, and Cu/An is vacuum deposited and annealed after etching the CdTe film surface. By this conventional method, cadmium chloride of the quantity larger than 0.1mg/cm{sup 2} can not be adhered, and drying unevenness is produced on the applied surface in the larger quantity adhesion method. This invention relates to the cadmium chloride adhesion process in photoelectric converter fabrication, wherein cadmium chloride containing methanol solution is applied to p-type CdTe film, photoelectric converter is placed in an internal air isolation container which is then heated. As a result, cadmium chloride can be adhered in a short period of time in large quantity and with excellent uniformity of application on the surface. 2 figs.

  10. A new method for insertion of long intestinal tube for small bowel obstruction: Nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiba, Kazuma; Ohmae, Tomoya; Odawara, Nariaki; Moriyama, Makoto; Kanai, Sachiko; Tsuboi, Mayo; Saito, Tomotaka; Uchino, Koji; Akamatsu, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    It is often difficult to insert a long intestinal tube (LT) in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO). We developed a novel technique for inserting an LT without endoscopy called nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube (NEWSt). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of NEWSt.We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent LT insertion for SBO without any indications of strangulation with either NEWSt (n = 16) or endoscopy (n = 17) between November 2011 and February 2015 at our hospital. Univariate analysis was used to assess the success rate of LT placement beyond the duodenojejunal flexure, time required for the procedure, clinical outcomes, and adverse events.The success rate was 100% in both groups. Procedure time was numerically, but not statistically, shorter in the NEWSt group compared with the endoscopy group (24 ± 13 vs 30 ± 13 min; P = 0.174). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of surgery rate (31% vs 12%; P = 0.225), fasting period (11.3 ± 6.3 vs 9.9 ± 4.5 days; P = 0.482), hospital stay (26.4 ± 22.1 vs 18.7 ± 7.0 days; P = 0.194), and recurrence rate (19% vs 24%; P = 1.0). No serious adverse event was observed in the NEWSt group, whereas serious aspiration pneumonia was observed in 2 patients after LT insertion in the endoscopy group.Without endoscopy, NEWSt enabled the high success rate and the short procedure time for the LT insertion. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed.

  11. A New Method for Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite and TCP from the Sea Snail Cerithium vulgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gunduz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic bioceramic nanopowders of hydroxyapatite (HA and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP were prepared from shells of the sea snail Cerithium vulgatum (Bruguière, 1792 using a novel chemical method. Calcination of the powders produced was carried out at varying temperatures, specifically at 400°C and 800°C, in air for 4 hours. When compared to the conventional hydrothermal transformation method, this chemical method is very simple, economic, due to the fact that it needs inexpensive and safe equipment, because the transformation of the aragonite and calcite of the shells into the calcium phosphate phases takes place at 80°C under the atmospheric pressure. The powders produced were determined using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The features of the powders produced along with the fact of their biological origin qualify these powders for further consideration and experimentation to fabricate nanoceramic biomaterials.

  12. A novel and simple fabrication method of embedded SU-8 micro channels by direct UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C; Hung, C; Huang, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we presents a novel and simple method to fabricate embedded micro channels. The method based on different light absorption properties of the SU-8 thick photoresist under different incident UV wavelengths. The channel structures are defined by the ordinary I-line, while the cover layer is patterned by the deep UV. Because the deep UV is obtained directly on the same aligner with a set of filter mirrors, the embedded channel can be easily produced without other rare facilities. Besides, the relationship between the thickness of the top layer and the exposure dose of the deep UV has been measured by an ingeniously designed experiment. The specific thickness of the top layer of the embedded micro channel can then be secured by the specific deep-UV exposure dose. Further more, many meaningful mechanical structures have been realized by this method, the material property of the top layer are also measured

  13. Systems and methods for large-scale nanotemplate and nanowire fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods for largescale nanotemplate and nanowire fabrication are provided. The system can include a sample holder and one or more chemical containers fluidly connected to the sample holder. The sample holder can be configured to contain a solution and to releasably hold a substrate material within the solution. In other aspects, the system can include a robotic arm including a head configured to releasably hold a substrate material. The methods can include initiating a treatment step by moving a chemical solution from a chemical container to the sample holder to submerge the substrate material for a period of time. The methods can include moving the robotic arm to position the substrate in a chemical container. The treatment steps can be stopped by removing the chemical solution from the sample holder or by moving the robotic arm to remove the substrate from the chemical container. The treatment steps can include degreasing, polishing, rinsing, anodization, and deposition.

  14. Micromold methods for fabricating perforated substrates and for preparing solid polymer electrolyte composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney; Argun, Avni; Laicer, Castro; Willey, Jason

    2017-08-08

    In polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolyzes, attaining and maintaining high membrane conductivity and durability is crucial for performance and efficiency. The use of low equivalent weight (EW) perfluorinated ionomers is one of the few options available to improve membrane conductivity. However, excessive dimensional changes of low EW ionomers upon application of wet/dry or freeze/thaw cycles yield catastrophic losses in membrane integrity. Incorporation of ionomers within porous, dimensionally-stable perforated polymer electrolyte membrane substrates provides improved PEM performance and longevity. The present invention provides novel methods using micromolds to fabricate the perforated polymer electrolyte membrane substrates. These novel methods using micromolds create uniform and well-defined pore structures. In addition, these novel methods using micromolds described herein may be used in batch or continuous processing.

  15. Fabrication of silica ceramic membrane via sol-gel dip-coating method at different nitric acid amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlib, N. A. Z.; Daud, F. D. M.; Mel, M.; Hairin, A. L. N.; Azhar, A. Z. A.; Hassan, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of silica ceramics via the sol-gel method has offered more advantages over other methods in the fabrication of ceramic membrane, such as simple operation, high purity homogeneous, well defined-structure and complex shapes of end products. This work presents the fabrication of silica ceramic membrane via sol-gel dip-coating methods by varying nitric acid amount. The nitric acid plays an important role as catalyst in fabrication reaction which involved hydrolysis and condensation process. The tubular ceramic support, used as the substrate, was dipped into the sol of Tetrethylorthosilicate (TEOS), distilled water and ethanol with the addition of nitric acid. The fabricated silica membrane was then characterized by (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) FESEM and (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) FTIR to determine structural and chemical properties at different amount of acids. From the XRD analysis, the fabricated silica ceramic membrane showed the existence of silicate hydrate in the final product. FESEM images indicated that the silica ceramic membrane has been deposited on the tubular ceramic support as a substrate and penetrate into the pore walls. The intensity peak of FTIR decreased with increasing of amount of acids. Hence, the 8 ml of acid has demonstrated the appropriate amount of catalyst in fabricating good physical and chemical characteristic of silica ceramic membrane.

  16. Design and fabrication of facial prostheses for cancer patient applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana

    2016-12-01

    Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.

  17. A practical fabrication method of the gecko-inspired easy-removal skin adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilan Li

    2017-06-01

    The averaged pull-off strength under a preload 10 N for 10 s can reach up to approximately five times of peel strength when the peel angle is 30 degree. Also compared with conventional Band-Aids, a slight enhancement in attachment ability and a significant decrease in peel strength between the skin and the adhesives were consistently observed. Therefore, the fabrication of the gecko-inspired structures on the micro-molding of PDMS appeared to offer a near-practical way for manufacturing an easy-removal skin adhesives, albeit in its present form with a comparable adhesion strength and a decreased peel strength. The originality of this work is the reverse de-molding approach based on the combination of the cost- and time-efficient laser cutting methods and the Teflon film as the mold material, which avoid the limitation caused by taking PDMS structure out of the molds, so that provide more variations of the tip geometry. As such, a further development of this fabrication method might be of significant interest in a number of practical applications in skin tissue industrial design.

  18. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  19. A proposed novel method for thin-film fabrication assisted by mid-infrared free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Masato; Tomimasu, Takio

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel method for thin-film fabrication using the mid-infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL) having a tunable wavelength. In the fabrication process, the MIR-FEL stimulates the molecules to be processed into an excited vibrational state, when the photon energy of the MIR-FEL corresponds to one of the energy states of the molecules. During the process, the MIR-FEL irradiates a substrate on which a thin film is being fabricated simultaneously by a conventional method. Therefore, the method can, in principle, realize the thin-film fabrication quasi-independent of the substrate temperature. Because of its tunable wavelength, the method has the advantage of permitting selective fabrication with the mixed-gas chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process on a temperature-sensitive substrate such as a plastic film. In order to realize this method, we developed two thin-film fabrication devices (an MIR-FEL assisted RF sputtering device and an MIR-FEL assisted laser ablation deposition device)

  20. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  1. Nanomembranes and soft fabrication methods for high performance, low cost energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-09-01

    The production of integrated electronic circuits provides examples of the most advanced fabrication and assembly approaches that are generally characterized by large-scale integration of high-performance compact semiconductor elements that rely on rigid and essentially planar form factors. New methods of fabricating semiconductor membranes of nanoscale thickness with intrinsic mechanical flexible features are beginning to provide a set of means to lift these constraints by engendering deformable, three-dimensional device configurations that are difficult to achieve with bulkscale materials while retaining capacities for high (or altogether new forms of) electronic and/or optoelectronic performance. Together with enabling means of deterministic assembly realized via the advancing technology of transferprinting, these light-weight nanomembrane elements can be distributed over large areas on a soft, bendable, and even biocompatible secondary substrates with high throughput and yields to realize interesting new functionalities in technology. Exemplary cases include: large-area integrated electro-optical systems laminated onto curvilinear or other 3-D surfaces for use in sensing and imaging with capacities for accommodating demanding forms of mechanical flexure; and unconventional hybrid systems for lighting and photovoltaic energy conversion that provide a potentially transformational approach to supplant current technologies with high performance, low cost alternatives. Taken together, the results of recent research efforts illustrate important opportunities for exploiting advances in materials in synergy with physical means of patterning, fabrication and assembly. In this review, we explore several exemplary applications taken from this work, and specifically highlight scalable approaches to high performance integrated systems for low cost energy technologies.

  2. Fabrication and Application of Mono-sized Spherical Micro Particles by Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel technology called pulsated orifice ejection method(POEM and used for preparing mono-sized and high-precision spherical micro particles was introduced in this article. The working principle of the technique was illustrated and it was in two modes:low-melting point diaphragm mode and high-melting point rod mode, depending on the different melting points of materials. The particles prepared by POEM have the advantages of mono-sized, uniform and controllable particle size, high sphericity, and consistent thermal history. By introducing the application of particles prepared by this method, showing the huge application prospects of this technology in electronic packaging, bioengineering, micro-fabrication, rapid solidification analysis of metal droplets, additive manufacturing and so on.With the development of POEM, this technology is predicted to have wider prospects due to its unique characteristics.

  3. Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    2017-01-01

    Lab-scale plasmonic color printing using nano-structured and subsequently metallized surfaces have been demonstrated to provide vivid colors. However, upscaling these structures for large area manufacturing is extremely challenging due to the requirement of nanometer precision of metal thickness....... In this study, we have investigated a plasmonic color meta-surface design that can be easily upscaled. We have demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of these plasmonic color surfaces by a high-speed roll-to-roll method, comprising roll-to-roll extrusion coating at 10 m min-1 creating a polymer foil having...... 100 nm deep pits of varying sub-wavelength diameter and pitch length. Subsequently this polymer foil was metallized and coated also by high-speed roll-to-roll methods. The perceived colors have high tolerance towards the thickness of the metal layer, when this thickness exceeds the depths of the pits...

  4. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment

  5. Materials and fabrication methods for the next generation of respiratory protection (RESPO 21). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, H.S.; Agarwal, R.

    1990-11-02

    Although excellent protective items have been developed in the past, it has become very apparent that there is an urgent need for better masks, hoods, and garments that will protect soldiers and civilians from the chemical threats of terrorist groups and countries. There is much room for improvement in performance and cost in order to make the protection more readily available for military personnel and for mass distribution to civilians. We have prepared an overview of currently available materials and fabrication methods, and have recommended materials and methods that should be considered for future ijmprovements in this field. This overview is presented in addition to our report on the four tasks that were given to us in the statement of work for this program.

  6. Fabrication of nanopores and nanoslits with feature sizes down to 5 nm by wet etching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Liu, Zewen

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an improved three-step wet etching method for the fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanopores and nanoslists. A diffusion model was built to analyze the influence of the color-based feedback mechanism on the final pore size. Reference structures were added aside normal pore patterns, to obtain a more precise control of the pore size during the pore opening process. By using this method, square nanopores with the minimum size of 8 nm × 8 nm, rectangle nanopores and nanoslits with feature sizes down to 5 nm were successfully obtained. Focused ion beam cutting revealed that the nanopore profile keeps well the inverted-pyramid shape, with an included angle of 54.7°.

  7. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  8. Development of Test Methods for the Electrostatic Properties of Nonhomogeneous Fabrics: Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-07

    test of factory-fresh control fabric ..... 14 2. Static decay test of control fabric after rinse in perchlorethylene .......................... 15 3...fabric rinsed in perchlorethylene ......................... 23 11. Triboelectric test of control fabric".I. - treated with topical antistat...recorded from the same material with the " exception that this specimen had been lightly rinsed in ~ perchlorethylene and allowed to air-dry. Note that

  9. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  10. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  11. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong, E-mail: phdyu@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles (China); Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion and single alternating hot–cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot–cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (T{sub 5%}) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  12. The effects of composition and sintering temperature on the silica foam fabricated by slurry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharom, Syazwani, E-mail: hd140001@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Ahmad, Sufizar, E-mail: sufizar@uthm.edu.my; Taib, Hariati, E-mail: hariati@uthm.edu.my; Muda, Rizamarhaiza, E-mail: hd130013@siswa.uthm.edu.my [Department of Material and Design Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Reticulated ceramic or open pore ceramic foam is a well-known material which exhibits extremely high porosities, with a significant degree of interconnectivity that makes them desirable in a wide range of applications. There were broad types of ceramic foam fabrication method such as polymeric sponge method, direct foaming, and starch consolidation. In this study, the slurry method has been chosen to fabricate Silica (SiO{sub 2}) foam. In this process, Polyurethane (PU) foam template was dipped into ceramic slurry and followed by drying and sintering to obtain foam which contains porosity in the range of 50% to 70%. The compositions of SiO{sub 2} were varied starting from 55 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 65 wt.% and 70 wt.%. The samples of SiO{sub 2} that have been dipped and dried were sintered at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1250°C. The sintered SiO{sub 2} ceramic foam samples were characterized to observe their morphology, and physical properties. Thus, the microstructure of the SiO{sub 2} ceramic foams samples was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Meanwhile, the physical properties of the SiO{sub 2} ceramic foam samples such as the total porosity (%) and bulk density were determined using Archimedes method. It was found that the density of ceramic foam produced was in the range of 0.25 g/cm{sup 3} up to 0.75 g/cm{sup 3}, whereas the level of porosity percentage was in the range of 61.81% to 82.18% with the size of open pore or window cells were in between 141 µm up to 626 µm.

  13. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  14. A Developed Meta-model for Selection of Cotton Fabrics Using Design of Experiments and TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit

    2017-12-01

    Selection of cotton fabrics for providing optimal clothing comfort is often considered as a multi-criteria decision making problem consisting of an array of candidate alternatives to be evaluated based of several conflicting properties. In this paper, design of experiments and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are integrated so as to develop regression meta-models for identifying the most suitable cotton fabrics with respect to the computed TOPSIS scores. The applicability of the adopted method is demonstrated using two real time examples. These developed models can also identify the statistically significant fabric properties and their interactions affecting the measured TOPSIS scores and final selection decisions. There exists good degree of congruence between the ranking patterns as derived using these meta-models and the existing methods for cotton fabric ranking and subsequent selection.

  15. Fabrication method of low f-number microlens arrays by using surface coating and epoxy dispensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Pei, Jing; Pan, Long-fa; Zappe, Hans

    2014-04-01

    We describe a fabrication method for arrays of microlenses of low f-number by using a surface coating and dispensing technology. We demonstrate how to achieve a low f-number by selectively changing the surface wettability, as well as how to precisely control the f-number through control of the dispensing time. This advance enables the fabrication of arrays of microlenses with diameters varying from 400 to 1400 μm, f-number as low as 0.95. In addition, the optical performance tests indicate that this method is suitable for high performance microlens array fabrication. This dispensing technology may be low cost and allow fast fabrication of high-speed microlens arrays, and may thus be particularly useful for biologically inspired advanced optical systems.

  16. Rapid fabrication of an ordered nano-dot array by the combination of nano-plastic forming and annealing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Ohsawa, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new fabrication method for an ordered nano-dot array is developed. Combination of coating, nano-plastic forming and annealing processes is studied to produce uniformly sized and ordered gold nano-dot array on a quartz glass substrate. The experimental results reveal that patterning of a groove grid on the gold-coated substrate with NPF is effective to obtain the ordered gold nano-dot array. In the proposed fabrication process, the size of the gold nano-dot can be controlled by adjusting the groove grid size. A minimum gold nano-dot array fabricated on a quartz-glass substrate was 93 nm in diameter and 100 nm in pitch. Furthermore, the mechanism of nano-dot array generation by the presented process is investigated. Using a theoretical model it is revealed that the proposed method is capable of fabrication of smaller nano-dots than 10 nm by controlling process conditions adequately.

  17. Investigation on fabricating continuous vivid sharkskin surface by bio-replicated rolling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuehao, Luo; Deyuan, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Vivid sharkskin has been fabricated by a direct bio-replicated micro-imprinting method in previous studies, and the good drag-reducing effect has been validated in water tunnel. However, for surface of fluid is larger than the whole skin of shark, splicing and affixing steps are absolutely necessary. One hand, the complexity of process will be increased significantly, the other hand, the stress concentration produced by external flow will be produced on jointing seams, especially for those which are perpendicular to the flowing direction, the jointing surface will be destroyed at a high speed of flowing, and perhaps, the drag-reducing efficiency can be decreased. Therefore, how to manufacture continuous vivid sharkskin in a large area has become an urgent problem to be resolved. In this paper, for eliminating the influence of wedge angle on scale's back, the sputtering and photo lithography processes are put into application and the continuous vivid sharkskin surface with good forming effect is fabricated by rolling process at last.

  18. Trial fabrication of Be12Ti electrode for pebble production by rotating electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Iwadachi, T.; Uchida, M.; Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.

    2004-01-01

    Be 12 Ti has been one of candidates for advanced neutron multipliers, due to its high melting points and good chemical stability. Although Be 12 Ti is too brittle to product pebbles for neutron multipliers with the rotating electrode method (REM), a preliminary production of the pebbles which was made of two phase material of α-beryllium (α-Be) and Be 12 Ti was successfully demonstrated with REM. In this study a trial fabrication of the Be-5at%Ti'' ingot (α-Be + Be 12 Ti) for the REM electrode was carried out with a vacuum casting process. Three kinds of refractory crucibles (MgO, CaO and BeO) were tested for the evaluation of durability to the melt of Be-5%Ti. The water-cooled copper mould was applied for the casting mold to assist a one-direction solidification. The appearance (crack(s), shrinkage, etc.), microstructure and chemical analysis of the ''Be-5at%Ti'' ingots were investigated. As for the results of the trial fabrication, it was made clear that BeO crucible is most useful for the melting of Be-5at%Ti. The ingot, which was a size of φ85 x h 150 mm, had h 40mm sound portion from the bottom. The microstructure of the ingots showed two phases (probably α-Be and Be 12 Ti). The chemical composition of the Ti in the ingot were 3.1 - 6.2at%. (author)

  19. An improved cryo-FIB method for fabrication of frozen hydrated lamella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Ji, Gang; Huang, Xiaojun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides great insights into the ultrastructure of cells and tissues in their native state and provides a promising way to study the in situ 3D structures of macromolecular complexes. However, this technique has been limited on the very thin specimen, which is not applicable for most cells and tissues. Besides cryo-sectioning approach, cryo focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) appeared recently to achieve 'artifact-free' thin frozen hydrated lamella via fabrication. Considering that the current cryo-FIB methods need modified holders or cartridges, here, with a "D-shaped" molybdenum grid and a specific shutter system, we developed a simple cryo-FIB approach for thin frozen hydrated lamella fabrication, which fits both standard transmission cryo-electron microscopes with side-entry cryo-holders and state-of-the-art ones with AutoGrids. Our approach will expand the usage of cryo-FIB approach in many labs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work.

  1. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  2. Fabrication of oriented crystals as force measurement tips via focused ion beam and microlithography methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang [School of Science, North University of China, Shanxi 030051 China; Chun, Jaehun [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA; Chatterjee, Sayandev [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA; Li, Dongsheng [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA

    2017-11-09

    Detailed knowledge of the forces between nanocrystals is very crucial for understanding many generic (e.g., random aggregation/assembly and rheology) and specific (e.g., oriented attachment) phenomena at macroscopic length scales, especially considering the additional complexities involved in nanocrystals such as crystal orientation and corresponding orientation-dependent physicochemical properties. Because there are a limited number of methods to directly measure the forces, little is known about the forces that drive the various emergent phenomena. Here we report on two methods of preparing crystals as force measurement tips used in an atomic force microscope (AFM): the focused ion beam method and microlithography method. The desired crystals are fabricated using these two methods and are fixed to the AFM probe using platinum deposition, ultraviolet epoxy, or resin, which allows for the orientation-dependent force measurements. These two methods can be used to attach virtually any solid particles (from the size of a few hundreds of nanometers to millimeters). We demonstrate the force measurements between aqueous media under different conditions such as pH.

  3. Fabrication of SiC hardened bodies with geopolymer binders using a warm press method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinobu; Kubota, Kosuke; Ando, Kotaro; Tsutani, Masaki; Diko, Yusuke; Honda, Sawao; Iwamoto, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Novel SiC hardened bodies with geopolymer binders using a warm press method were fabricated. In this study, two methods were tried. The first method used a conventional powder mixture consisted of SiC and geopolymer particles as starting materials. In the second method, SiC particles was first immersed in hydrochloric acid solution with 2.5 mol/L and then heated at 1200 °C for 6 h to form a reactive aluminosilicate layer at the surface of SiC particles. Subsequently, the resultant SiC particles mixed with a fixed amount of sodium hydroxide solution with various concentrations were put into a steel mold which was set in the warm press device. This second method was defined as a chemical assist processing. As this warm press condition, heating temperature was 130 °C and pressed at 240 MPa for 30 min simultaneously. When a powder mixture consisted of geopolymer and SiC particles was used, the compressive strength of the hardened bodies decreased with the amount of SiC particles. On the contrary, when the chemical assist processing method was selected, the compressive strength of the hardened bodies increased with the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. When the sodium hydroxide solution was 4 mol/L was used, the compressive strength of the hardened body reached to 170 MPa which was the maximum value in this study.

  4. Correlation between fabrication factor and superconducting properties of the Tl-and-Bi-based high-Tc superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Naoki; Okada, Michiya; Doi, Toshiya J.; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Sato, Junichi; Higashiyama, Kazutoshi

    1995-01-01

    Large critical current densities (J(sub c)) were obtained in c axis oriented Tl-1 223/Ag composite tapes fabricated by spraying methods without a vacuum. Transport measurements at 77K under a zero field indicated a J(sub c) of 9 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm and 7 x 10(exp 3) A/sq cm at 1T for the tapes fabricated by spray pyrolysis. The novel GPM method was also applied for Bi-2212/Ag PIT composite wire, and found to be very effective for improving the distribution of voids, which caused from the melt-solidifying process. The GPM showed a marked effect for obtaining homogeneous long wire. A 1 T class coil was successfully fabricated with monocore wire.

  5. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  6. 1D Magnetic Materials of Fe3O4 and Fe with High Performance of Microwave Absorption Fabricated by Electrospinning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Li, Wei; Pan, Weiwei; Zhu, Minggang; Zhou, Dong; Li, Fa-shen

    2014-01-01

    Fe3O4 and Fe nanowires are successfully fabricated by electrospinning method and reduction process. Wiry microstructures were achieved with the phase transformation from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 and Fe by partial and full reduction, while still preserving the wire morphology. The diameters of the Fe3O4 and Fe nanowires are approximately 50–60 nm and 30–40 nm, respectively. The investigation of microwave absorption reveals that the Fe3O4 nanowires exhibit excellent microwave absorbing properties. For paraffin-based composite containing 50% weight concentration of Fe3O4 nanowires, the minimum reflection loss reaches −17.2 dB at 6.2 GHz with the matching thickness of 5.5 mm. Furthermore, the calculation shows that the modulus of the ratio between the complex permittivity and permeability |ε/μ| is far away from unity at the minimum reflection loss point, which is quite different from the traditional opinions. PMID:25510415

  7. Fabrication of fine metal structures based on laser drawing method using interference pattern from co-propagating optical vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Hizatsuki, Takuya; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Goto, Kohei; Ono, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a photolithography method for fine metal structure fabrication based on laser drawing that uses the interference pattern generated by co-propagating optical vortices. A tiny dark core region of the optical vortex allows us to overcome the diffraction limit for Gaussian beams. This means that the proposed method can be used to fabricate finer structures than those produced by the conventional laser drawing method while using a Gaussian beam, even under low numerical aperture conditions. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated experimentally using a system that included an axially symmetrical polarization element that can generate the co-propagating optical vortices using a common path optical system. Our method has potential to fabricate few tens of nanometer scale metal line structures by increasing numerical aperture conditions and should be applicable to the development of nanometer scale electronic and optical devices and structures, such as integrated circuits and metamaterials, without using electron beam lithography.

  8. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  9. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  10. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  11. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  12. Fabrication of Nb{sub 3}Al superconductor by the optimized mechanical alloying method with low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yongzhang@swjtu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, and Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Lin, W.J.; Xu, L.Y.; Yang, D.W.; Chen, Y.L. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, and Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, P.Y.; Pan, X.F.; Yan, G. [Western Superconducting Technoligies Co., Ltd., Xi' an 710018 (China); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, and Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Due to a much better strain tolerance than Nb{sub 3}Sn, Nb{sub 3}Al has been considered as an excellent candidate for making high field magnets. At present, the Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires were prepared mainly by the Jelly-roll method combined with a rapid heating and quenching (RHQ) heat treatment at around 2000 °C. In this study, Nb{sub 3}Al superconductor with T{sub c} of 15.6 K is directly prepared with a mechanical alloying method followed by a low temperature annealing at 800 to 900 °C. Our results hint the possibility that Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire with high performance can be prepared below the melting point of Cu (1080 °C) by a conventional powder in tube (PIT) method, thus effectively avoiding high temperature heat treatment and RHQ device. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to synthesize Nb{sub 3}Al superconductor successfully, and the process was optimization under various preparation conditions. In the current study, Nb{sub 3}Al superconductor with T{sub c} of 15.6 K was directly prepared from high quality Nb (Al) solid solution by mechanical alloying method and heat treatment at a low temperature of 800 to 900 °C. The results showed that Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire with high performance could be prepared after heat treatment below the melting point of Cu (1080°C) and using Nb (Al) solid solution and conventional powder in tube (PIT) method, thus effectively avoiding ultra-high temperature heat treatment and special rapid heating and quenching(RHQ) device.

  13. Periodic dielectric structure for production of photonic band gap and method for fabricating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ekmel; Tuttle, Gary; Michel, Erick; Ho, Kai-Ming; Biswas, Rana; Chan, Che-Ting; Soukoulis, Costas

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating a periodic dielectric structure which exhibits a photonic band gap. Alignment holes are formed in a wafer of dielectric material having a given crystal orientation. A planar layer of elongate rods is then formed in a section of the wafer. The formation of the rods includes the step of selectively removing the dielectric material of the wafer between the rods. The formation of alignment holes and layers of elongate rods and wafers is then repeated to form a plurality of patterned wafers. A stack of patterned wafers is then formed by rotating each successive wafer with respect to the next-previous wafer, and then placing the successive wafer on the stack. This stacking results in a stack of patterned wafers having a four-layer periodicity exhibiting a photonic band gap.

  14. Fabricated super-hydrophobic film with potentiostatic electrolysis method on copper for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Qiu Ri; Zhang Dun; Lin Zhifeng; Hou Baorong

    2010-01-01

    A novel one-step potentiostatic electrolysis method was proposed to fabricate super-hydrophobic film on copper surface. The resulted film was characterized by contact angle tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical measurements. It could be inferred that the super-hydrophobic property resulted from the flower-like structure of copper tetradecanoate film. In the presence of super-hydrophobic film, the anodic and cathodic polarization current densities are reduced for more than five and four orders of magnitude, respectively. The air trapped in the film is the essential contributor of the anticorrosion property of film for its insulation, the copper tetradecanoate film itself acts as a 'frame' to trap air as well as a coating with inhibition effect. The super-hydrophobic film presents excellent inhibition effect to the copper corrosion and stability in water containing Cl - .

  15. A novel method for Al/SiC composite fabrication. Lost foam casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guler, Kerem A.; Kisasoz, Alptekin; Karaaslan, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, an innovative manufacturing approach to cast metal-matrix composite is proposed. Aluminum matrix composite production by lost foam casting has been investigated. In order to produce metal-matrix composite by lost foam casting, expanded polystyrene boards were designed as sandwich shaped and three layered. SiC particulates with 60 {mu}m average grain size were settled between the board layers, while A6063 and A413 aluminum alloys were used as matrix materials. The effect of the matrix materials on the mechanical properties of the composite specimens was investigated and fabricated specimens were characterized using image analysis, hardness tests, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results show that in the lost foam casting method, the hardness of the A6063 and the A413 materials specimens increases with SiC reinforcement up to 70% and 80%, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Standard test method for abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials by means of a sliding wear test. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  18. Individual SnO{sub 2} nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)], E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com

    2009-06-24

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO{sub 2} nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10{sup 6} and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  19. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  20. Metallizing porous scaffolds as an alternative fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of electroless and electrolytic techniques is used to incorporate nickel into a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.90 scaffold. First a porous backbone was screen printed into a YSZ electrolyte using an ink that contains sacrificial pore formers. Once sintered, the scaffold was coated with silver using Tollens' reaction followed by electrodeposition of nickel in a Watts bath. At high temperatures the silver forms droplets enabling direct contact between the gadolinia-doped ceria and nickel. Using impedance spectroscopy analysis in a symmetrical cell a total area specific resistance of 1 Ωcm2 at 700 °C in 97% H2 with 3% H2O was found, indicating the potential of this fabrication method for scaling up.

  1. Facile method to fabricate raspberry-like particulate films for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Jung; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-12-04

    A facile method using layer-by-layer assembly of silica particles is proposed to prepare raspberry-like particulate films for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. Silica particles 0.5 microm in diameter were used to prepare a surface with a microscale roughness. Nanosized silica particles were then assembled on the particulate film to construct a finer structure on top of the coarse one. After surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosilane, the advancing and receding contact angles of water on the dual-sized structured surface were 169 and 165 degrees , respectively. The scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and the regularity of the particulate films on the superhydrophobic surface performance are discussed.

  2. Influence of Starting Powders on Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated by Room Temperature Spraying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Hahn, Byung Dong; Yoon, Seog Young

    2015-08-01

    Three types of raw materials were used for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by using the room temperature spraying method and their influence on the microstructure and in vitro characteristics were investigated. Starting hydroxyapatite powders for coatings on titanium substrate were prepared by a heat treatment at 1100 °C for 2 h of bovine bone, bone ash, and commercial hydroxyapatite powders. The phase compositions and Ca/P ratios of the three hydroxyapatite coatings were similar to those of the raw materials without decomposition or formation of a new phase. All hydroxyapatite coatings showed a honeycomb structure, but their surface microstructures revealed different features in regards to surface morphology and roughness, based on the staring materials. All coatings consisted of nano-sized grains and had dense microstructure. Inferred from in vitro experiments in pure water, all coatings have a good dissolution-resistance and biostability in water.

  3. A novel method for designing and fabricating custom-made artificial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, H; Kanno, Y; Mori, Y; Suzuki, S; Ohkubo, K; Chikazu, D; Yonehara, Y; Chung, U-i; Takato, T

    2011-09-01

    Artificial bones are useful for tissue augmentation in patients with facial deformities or defects. Custom-made artificial bones, produced by mirroring the bone structure on the healthy side using computer-aided design, have been used. This method is simple, but has limited ability to recreate detailed structures. The authors have invented a new method for designing artificial bones, better customized for the needs of individual patients. Based on CT data, three-dimensional (3D) simulation models were prepared using an inkjet printer using plaster. The operators applied a special radiopaque paraffin wax to the models to create target structures. The wax contained a contrast medium to render it radiopaque. The concentration was adjusted to achieve easy manipulation and consistently good-quality images. After the radiopaque wax was applied, the 3D simulation models were reexamined by CT, and data on the target structures were obtained. Artificial bones were fabricated by the inkjet printer based on these data. Although this new technique for designing artificial bones is slightly more complex than the conventional methods, and the status of soft tissue should also be considered for an optimal aesthetic outcome, the results suggest that this method better meets the requirements of individual patients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystals and Its Solution Using the Transient Short Hot Wire Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Seiji; Maki, Syou; Maekawa, Ryunosuke; Tanaka, Seiichi; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2017-08-01

    Protein crystals are an essentially important biological sample to advance the analysis of X-ray structure, but their thermophysical properties, especially thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, have not been studied sufficiently. This current situation can be attributed to various kinds of technical problems; e.g., the fragility of protein crystals and the difficulty of nucleation control. Ideally speaking, protein crystallization should be carried out under a " containerless condition" to eliminate any mechanical distortion of the crystals from the walls. To realize the condition, we have developed an original crystallization method by means of the magneto-Archimedes effect. In this paper, a transient short hot wire method was combined with the technique of magneto-Archimedes effect to realize simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals. As the results, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of HEWL crystals were found to be 0.410-0.438 \\hbox {W}\\cdot \\hbox {m}^{-1}\\cdot \\hbox {K}^{-1} and 3.77-5.18× 10^{-8} \\hbox {m}2\\cdot \\hbox {s}^{-1}, respectively. We clarified by the crystallizing process of HEWL that the crystals were magnetically levitated at the air-liquid interface and the short hot wire was completely buried into them as the crystals grew. We also measured the HEWL solution by the same methods. The thermal conductivity of the solution had almost the same value as that of water and had little dependency on the concentration of HEWL, but the thermal diffusivity was unclear.

  5. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  6. Alignment method combining interference lithography with anisotropic wet etch technique for fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanchang; Qiu, Keqiang; Chen, Huoyao; Chen, Yong; Liu, Zhengkun; Liu, Ying; Xu, Xiangdong; Hong, Yilin

    2014-09-22

    A method was developed for aligning interference fringes generated in interference lithography to the vertical {111} planes of oriented silicon wafers. The alignment error is 0.036°. This high precision method makes it possible to combine interference lithography with anisotropic wet etch technique for the fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon gratings with extremely smooth sidewalls over a large sample area. With this alignment method, 320 nm and 2 μm period silicon gratings have been successfully fabricated. The highest aspect ratio is up to 100. The sample area is about 50 mm × 60 mm. The roughness (root mean square) of the sidewall is about 0.267 nm.

  7. Self-organization of mesoscopic silver wires by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long, straight mesoscale silver wires have been fabricated from AgNO3 electrolyte via electrodeposition without the help of templates, additives, and surfactants. Although the wire growth speed is very fast due to growth under non-equilibrium conditions, the wire morphology is regular and uniform in diameter. Structural studies reveal that the wires are single-crystalline, with the [112] direction as the growth direction. A possible growth mechanism is suggested. Auger depth profile measurements show that the wires are stable against oxidation under ambient conditions. This unique system provides a convenient way for the study of self-organization in electrochemical environments as well as for the fabrication of highly-ordered, single-crystalline metal nanowires.

  8. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  9. Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ávila-Orta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP with different melt flow indexes (MFI were used to fabricate nanocomposites (NCs with 10 wt % loadings of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs using ultrasound-assisted extrusion methods to determine their effect on the morphology, melt flow, and electrical properties of the NCs. Three different types of iPPs were used with MFIs of 2.5, 34 and 1200 g/10 min. Four different NC fabrication methods based on melt extrusion were used. In the first method melt extrusion fabrication without ultrasound assistance was used. In the second and third methods, an ultrasound probe attached to a hot chamber located at the exit of the die was used to subject the sample to fixed frequency and variable frequency, respectively. The fourth method is similar to the first method, with the difference being that the carbon nanotubes were treated in a fluidized air-bed with an ultrasound probe before being used in the fabrication of the NCs with no ultrasound assistance during extrusion. The samples were characterized by MFI, Optical microscopy (OM, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrical surface resistivity, and electric charge. MFI decreases in all cases with addition of MWCNTs with the largest decrease observed for samples with the highest MFI. The surface resistivity, which ranged from 1013 to 105 Ω/sq, and electric charge, were observed to depend on the ultrasound-assisted fabrication method as well as on the melt flow index of the iPP. A relationship between agglomerate size and area ratio with electric charge was found. Several trends in the overall data were identified and are discussed in terms of MFI and the different fabrication methods.

  10. Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Orta, Carlos A.; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V.; Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A.; Rivera-Paz, Erika A.; Cruz-Delgado, Víctor J.; Mata-Padilla, José M.; González-Morones, Pablo; Ziolo, Ronald F.

    2015-01-01

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes (MFI) were used to fabricate nanocomposites (NCs) with 10 wt % loadings of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using ultrasound-assisted extrusion methods to determine their effect on the morphology, melt flow, and electrical properties of the NCs. Three different types of iPPs were used with MFIs of 2.5, 34 and 1200 g/10 min. Four different NC fabrication methods based on melt extrusion were used. In the first method melt extrusion fabrication without ultrasound assistance was used. In the second and third methods, an ultrasound probe attached to a hot chamber located at the exit of the die was used to subject the sample to fixed frequency and variable frequency, respectively. The fourth method is similar to the first method, with the difference being that the carbon nanotubes were treated in a fluidized air-bed with an ultrasound probe before being used in the fabrication of the NCs with no ultrasound assistance during extrusion. The samples were characterized by MFI, Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrical surface resistivity, and electric charge. MFI decreases in all cases with addition of MWCNTs with the largest decrease observed for samples with the highest MFI. The surface resistivity, which ranged from 1013 to 105 Ω/sq, and electric charge, were observed to depend on the ultrasound-assisted fabrication method as well as on the melt flow index of the iPP. A relationship between agglomerate size and area ratio with electric charge was found. Several trends in the overall data were identified and are discussed in terms of MFI and the different fabrication methods. PMID:28793686

  11. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 1: communication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J; Nesbit, M; Saberi, S; Petridis, H

    2014-09-01

    The General Dental Council (GDC) states that members of the dental team have to 'communicate clearly and effectively with other team members and colleagues in the interest of patients'. A number of studies from different parts of the world have highlighted problems and confirmed the need for improved communication methods and production techniques between dentists and dental technicians. The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. The current publication reports on the communication methods. Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables. The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). The laboratory prescription and the telephone were the main communication tools used. Statistical analysis of the results showed that a greater number of communication methods were used by large laboratories. Frequently missing items from the laboratory prescription were the shade and the date required. The majority of respondents (73%) stated that a single shade was selected in over half of cases. Sixty-eight percent replied that the dentist allowed sufficient laboratory time. Twenty-six percent of laboratories felt either rarely involved or not involved at all as part of the dental team. This study suggests that there are continuing communication and teamwork issues between dentists and dental laboratories.

  12. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  13. Micromachined hot-wire thermal conductivity probe for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ming; Panchawagh, Hrishikesh V; Podhajsky, Ronald J; Mahajan, Roop L

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, numerical simulation, and experimental validation of a micromachined probe that measures thermal conductivity of biological tissues. The probe consists of a pair of resistive line heating elements and resistance temperature detector sensors, which were fabricated by using planar photolithography on a glass substrate. The numerical analysis revealed that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity can be determined by the temperature response induced by the uniform heat flux in the heating elements. After calibrating the probe using a material (agar gel) of known thermal conductivity, the probe was deployed to calculate the thermal conductivity of Crisco. The measured value is in agreement with that determined by the macro-hot-wire probe method to within 3%. Finally, the micro thermal probe was used to investigate the change of thermal conductivity of pig liver before and after RF ablation treatment. The results show an increase in thermal conductivity of liver after the RF ablation.

  14. NiCo2S4nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-12-07

    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo 2 S 4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm -2 and 199.74 F cm -3 , respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm -1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (E V : 6.935 mW h cm -3 ; P V : 1.019 W cm -3 ). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of C A : 0.12 F cm -2 and C V : 19.57 F cm -2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (E V : 5.33 mW h cm -3 ) and power (P V : 855.69 mW cm -3 ) density.

  15. An Investigation On Air and Thermal Transmission Through Knitted Fabric Structures Using the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Anindya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics have excellent comfort properties because of their typical porous structure. Different comfort properties of knitted fabrics such as air permeability, thermal absorptivity, and thermal conductivity depend on the properties of raw material and knitting parameters. In this paper, an investigation was done to observe the effect of yarn count, loop length, knitting speed, and yarn input tension in the presence of two uncontrollable noise factors on selected comfort properties of single jersey and 1×1 rib knitted fabrics using the Taguchi experimental design. The results show that yarn count and loop length have significant influence on the thermo-physiological comfort properties of knitted fabrics.

  16. Two- and three-dimensional shape fabric analysis by the intercept method in grey levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launeau, Patrick; Archanjo, Carlos J.; Picard, David; Arbaret, Laurent; Robin, Pierre-Yves

    2010-09-01

    The count intercept is a robust method for the numerical analysis of fabrics Launeau and Robin (1996). It counts the number of intersections between a set of parallel scan lines and a mineral phase, which must be identified on a digital image. However, the method is only sensitive to boundaries and therefore supposes the user has some knowledge about their significance. The aim of this paper is to show that a proper grey level detection of boundaries along scan lines is sufficient to calculate the two-dimensional anisotropy of grain or crystal distributions without any particular image processing. Populations of grains and crystals usually display elliptical anisotropies in rocks. When confirmed by the intercept analysis, a combination of a minimum of 3 mean length intercept roses, taken on 3 more or less perpendicular sections, allows the calculation of 3-dimensional ellipsoids and the determination of their standard deviation with direction and intensity in 3 dimensions as well. The feasibility of this quick method is attested by numerous examples on theoretical objects deformed by active and passive deformation, on BSE images of synthetic magma flow, on drawing or direct analysis of thin section pictures of sandstones and on digital images of granites directly taken and measured in the field.

  17. The Application of Chemical Foaming Method in the Fabrication of Micro Glass Hemisphere Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbing Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have studied the miniaturization of the hemisphere resonator gyroscope for decades. The hemisphere resonator (HSR, as the core component, has a size that has been reduced to the submillimeter level. We developed a method of batch production of micro-hemisphere shell resonators based on a glass-blowing process to obtain larger hemisphere shells with a higher ratio of height to diameter (H/D, we introduced the chemical foaming process (CFP and acquired an optimized hemisphere shell; the contrasted and improved H/D of the hemisphere shell are 0.61 and 0.80, respectively. Finally, we increased the volume of glass shell resonator by 51.48 times while decreasing the four-node wineglass resonant frequencies from 7.24 MHz to 0.98 MHz. The larger HSR with greater surface area is helpful for setting larger surrounding drive and sense capacitive electrodes, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of HSR to the rotation. This CFP method not only provides more convenience to control the shape of a hemisphere shell but also reduces non-negligible cost in the fabrication process. In addition, this method may inspire some other research fields, e.g., microfluidics, chemical analysis, and wafer level package (WLP.

  18. Color matching of fabric blends: hybrid Kubelka-Munk + artificial neural network based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furferi, Rocco; Governi, Lapo; Volpe, Yary

    2016-11-01

    Color matching of fabric blends is a key issue for the textile industry, mainly due to the rising need to create high-quality products for the fashion market. The process of mixing together differently colored fibers to match a desired color is usually performed by using some historical recipes, skillfully managed by company colorists. More often than desired, the first attempt in creating a blend is not satisfactory, thus requiring the experts to spend efforts in changing the recipe with a trial-and-error process. To confront this issue, a number of computer-based methods have been proposed in the last decades, roughly classified into theoretical and artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches. Inspired by the above literature, the present paper provides a method for accurate estimation of spectrophotometric response of a textile blend composed of differently colored fibers made of different materials. In particular, the performance of the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory is enhanced by introducing an artificial intelligence approach to determine a more consistent value of the nonlinear function relationship between the blend and its components. Therefore, a hybrid K-M+ANN-based method capable of modeling the color mixing mechanism is devised to predict the reflectance values of a blend.

  19. A Facile Method to Fabricate Anisotropic Hydrogels with Perfectly Aligned Hierarchical Fibrous Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mredha, Md Tariful Islam; Guo, Yun Zhou; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2018-03-01

    Natural structural materials (such as tendons and ligaments) are comprised of multiscale hierarchical architectures, with dimensions ranging from nano- to macroscale, which are difficult to mimic synthetically. Here a bioinspired, facile method to fabricate anisotropic hydrogels with perfectly aligned multiscale hierarchical fibrous structures similar to those of tendons and ligaments is reported. The method includes drying a diluted physical hydrogel in air by confining its length direction. During this process, sufficiently high tensile stress is built along the length direction to align the polymer chains and multiscale fibrous structures (from nano- to submicro- to microscale) are spontaneously formed in the bulk material, which are well-retained in the reswollen gel. The method is useful for relatively rigid polymers (such as alginate and cellulose), which are susceptible to mechanical signal. By controlling the drying with or without prestretching, the degree of alignment, size of superstructures, and the strength of supramolecular interactions can be tuned, which sensitively influence the strength and toughness of the hydrogels. The mechanical properties are comparable with those of natural ligaments. This study provides a general strategy for designing hydrogels with highly ordered hierarchical structures, which opens routes for the development of many functional biomimetic materials for biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fabrication optimization of a micro-spherical fiber probe with the Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wang Weili; Chiou, Horng-Shing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a low-cost and efficient method to fabricate a micro-spherical fiber probe using a commercial fiber fusion splicer based on the Taguchi method. Based on the principles of electric arc discharging energy absorption and the surface tension phenomenon, a microsphere can be formed at the end of the optical glass fiber. The optimum parameters to control the geometrical accuracy of the probe were selected according to the Taguchi method with the signal-to-noise ratio and the analysis of variance processes. From the results, a spherical probe about 310 µm in diameter with less than 1 µm in roundness error could be produced using a 125 µm diameter single-mode optical fiber. The offset distance between the ball center and the fiber stylus central line due to the gravity effect could also be controlled to less than 1 µm after optimization of the parameters. The microprobe can be used for the contact-type stylus head to enhance the resolution and extend the capability of measuring meso- to micro-objects

  1. A novel fabrication method of carbon electrodes using 3D printing and chemical modification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pan; Chen, Chaoyang; Hu, Jie; Qi, Jin; Wang, Qianghua; Chen, Jimmy Ching-Ming; Cavanaugh, John; Peng, Yinghong; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2017-11-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical engineering and electronics. This paper presents a novel biofabrication method of implantable carbon electrodes with several advantages including fast prototyping, patient-specific and miniaturization without expensive cleanroom. The method combines stereolithography in additive manufacturing and chemical modification processes to fabricate electrically conductive carbon electrodes. The stereolithography allows the structures to be 3D printed with very fine resolution and desired shapes. The resin is then chemically modified to carbon using pyrolysis to enhance electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characteristics of 3D printing carbon electrodes are assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 3D printing carbon electrodes is much higher than the same sized platinum (Pt) electrode. In-vivo electromyography (EMG) recording, 3D printing carbon electrodes exhibit much higher signal-to-noise ratio (40.63 ± 7.73) than Pt electrodes (14.26 ± 6.83). The proposed biofabrication method is envisioned to enable 3D printing in many emerging applications in biomedical engineering and electronics.

  2. Development of new fabrication methods for solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Won

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have gained a great deal of attention in recent years since they have the potential to be high efficiency devices for the generation of electricity. The ability to use hydrocarbon fuels however requires the development of alternatives to conventional Ni/YSZ anodes that are prone to coking when exposed to hydrocarbons. The optimization of electrode microstructure and composition is also needed in order to maximize the electrode catalytic activity and thermal stability. In this thesis these issues were addressed through the development of new methods for anode fabrication that allowed for the incorporation of a wide range of materials and better control of electrode microstructure. The specific methods that were studied include (1) Impregnation with urea and (2) Electrochemical Deposition. First, how impregnation using Cu(NO3)2 and urea affect the microstructure of the Cu component in Cu/CeO2/YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) composite anodes and how this influences anode performance were examined. This method produced a more homogeneous distribution of Cu throughout the anode than impregnation with only Cu(NO3)2. Second, Cu electrodeposition into 0.12 cm thick, highly porous Ni/YSZ cermets was investigated for the initial study to evaluate electrodeposition for the electrode fabrication method. An electrochemical cell in which the electrolyte solution was allowed to flow through the porous Ni/YSZ substrate was constructed in order to eliminate mass transfer limitations and determine conditions for which the potential drop in the electrolyte solution was minimized for the deposition of uniform Cu layer in the cermet. Finally it was demonstrated how the anodes for SOFCs could be prepared by electrodeposition. After the addition of CeO2, a 60 mum thin porous layer of YSZ was made conductive by the deposition of a conductive carbon layer with exposing the porous layer to C4H10 at 1123 K and either Ni or Co was then electrodeposited on the

  3. Fabrication of Chitosan Silk-based Tracheal Scaffold Using Freeze-Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Zeinab; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali; Seyedsalehi, Amir; Mohammad-Behgam, Shadmehr; Ghorbani, Fariba; Mirahmadi, Fereshte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since the treatments of long tracheal lesions are associated with some limitations, tissue engineered trachea is considered as an alternative option. This study aimed at preparing a composite scaffold, based on natural and synthetic materials for tracheal tissue engineering. Methods: Nine chitosan silk-based scaffolds were fabricated using three freezing rates (0.5, 1, and 2°C/min) and glutaraldehyde (GA) concentrations (0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%). Samples were characterized, and scaffolds having mechanical properties compatible with those of human trachea and proper biodegradability were selected for chondrocyte cell seeding and subsequent biological assessments. Results: The pore sizes were highly influenced by the freezing rate and varied from 135.3×372.1 to 37.8×83.4 µm. Swelling and biodegradability behaviors were more affected by GA rather than freezing rate. Tensile strength raised from 120 kPa to 350 kPa by an increment of freezing rate and GA concentration. In addition, marked stiffening was demonstrated by increasing elastic modulus from 1.5 MPa to 12.2 MPa. Samples having 1 and 2°C/min of freezing rate and 0.8 wt% GA concentration made a non-toxic, porous structure with tensile strength and elastic modulus in the range of human trachea, facilitating the chondrocyte proliferation. The results of 21-day cell culture indicated that glycosaminoglycans content was significantly higher for the rate of 2°C/min (12.04 µg/min) rather than the other (9.6 µg/min). Conclusion: A homogenous porous structure was created by freeze drying. This allows the fabrication of a chitosan silk scaffold cross-linked by GA for cartilage tissue regeneration with application in tracheal regeneration. PMID:28131109

  4. Development of Low-Cost Method for Fabrication of Metal Neutron Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhaupt, Darell [Dawn Research Inc., Madison, AL (United States); Khaykovich, Boris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Romaine, Suzanne [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Neutron scattering is one of the most useful methods of studying the structure and dynamics of matter. US DOE neutron scattering research facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are among the World’s most advanced, providing researchers with unmatched capabilities for probing the structure and properties of materials, including engineering and biological systems. This task is to develop a lower cost process to optimize and produce the required neutron guides capable of efficiently delivering neutron beams for tens of meters between neutron moderators and instruments. Therefore, our effort is to improve the performance and lower the production cost of neutron guides. Our approach aims at improving guide quality while controlling their rising costs by adopting a novel electroforming replication approach to their fabrication. These guides will be especially advantageous when used near the neutron source since the radiation resistance of nickel is superior to glass. Additionally, we are depositing low-stress nickel from an extremely low impurity solution completely free of stress-reducing agents, which nominally contain and impart sulfur, carbon and other elements that potentially activate in the neutron environment. This is achieved by using a pulsed periodically reversed current methodology. The best guides quote waviness of 0.1 mrad. It is reasonable to prepare just one mandrel of about 0.5 m long, for production of tens of guide segments, saving both the cost and supply time of guides to neutron facilities. We estimate that we can fabricate a single mandrel for the current cost of an individual one-meter guide, but from this, we can produce tens of meters of guide very inexpensively without mandrel refurbishment. While a multilayer coating will add to the overall cost, we expect this will be less than that of commercially available guides today. Therefore, we will produce higher quality guides, which are less susceptible to radiation damage, at the lower cost

  5. Evaluation of the color reproducibility of all-ceramic restorations fabricated by the digital veneering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical acceptability of all-ceramic crowns fabricated by the digital veneering method vis-à-vis the traditional method. Zirconia specimens manufactures by two different manufacturing method, conventional vs digital veneering, with three different thickness (0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm) were prepared for analysis. Color measurement was performed using a spectrophotometer for the prepared specimens. The differences in shade in relation to the build-up method were calculated by quantifying ΔE(*) (mean color difference), with the use of color difference equations representing the distance from the measured values L(*), a(*), and b(*), to the three-dimensional space of two colors. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with a Tukey multiple-range test was used to analyze the data (α=0.05). In comparing means and standard deviations of L(*), a(*), and b(*) color values there was no significant difference by the manufacturing method and zirconia core thickness according to a two-way ANOVA. The color differences between two manufacturing methods were in a clinically acceptable range less than or equal to 3.7 in all the specimens. Based on the results of this study, a carefully consideration is necessary while selecting upper porcelain materials, even if it is performed on a small scale. However, because the color reproducibility of the digital veneering system was within the clinically acceptable range when comparing with conventional layering system, it was possible to estimate the possibility of successful aesthetic prostheses in the latest technology.

  6. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  7. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.

    2002-01-22

    Two new deposition systems were realized enabling the entire and respectively, large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the so called 'hot-wire' (HW) CVD. The deposition conditions for appropriate n- and p-doped a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H layers have been developed. For the first time in the world a-Si:H based pin solar cells were entirely deposited by the HWCVD method. A maximum initial conversion efficiency of {eta}{sub initial}=8.9% was obtained. After the development of a suitable p/n-tunnel/recombination junction pin-pin tandem structures with a-Si:H absorbers could be entirely fabricated by the HWCVD for the first time in the world, too. A conversion efficiency of {eta}=7% was measured for the tandem cell, after some structural degradation took place. In general, the stability of the HWCVD solar cells is not satisfactory, what could be attributed to a structural instability of the HWCVD-p-layers. For the first time we have deposited nip solar cells on stainless steel substrates entirely by HWCVD ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). The incorporation of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers by HWCVD or ECWR-PECVD into pin solar cells was not successfull until now. Large area deposition of a-Si:H films has been performed in a simple vacuum vessel. Under consideration of appropriate filament and gas supply geometry as well as simulation calculations a good electronic quality and a film thickness uniformity of {delta}d={+-}2.5% of the material was obtained. i-layers for small area solar cells on an area of 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been deposited which could be completed to solar cells with very uniform conversion efficiencies of {eta}{sub initial} = 6,1{+-}0.2%. This result represents a proof of concept for the large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the HWCVD. Also for the first time the HWCVD was used for the deposition of emitter layers on c-Si-wafers to realize hetero solar cells. Hetero solar cells with amorphous, microcrystalline and epitaxial n

  8. Method for testing the adhesion between the rubber compound and the cord fabric of a pneumatic tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.-L.; Courtois, G.; Tanguy, J.-C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method for determining whether a used tyre exhibits zones of detachment between the rubber compound and the cord fabric or zones of substantial porosity. The method is distinguished by the fact that a radioactive gas which emits gamma-rays is injected under pressure into the interior of the tyre in the zone of the layers of textile fibers which constitute the cord fabric, said gas is allowed to diffuse within the interior of the tyre and to accumulate at the defective points, wherupon the radiation emitted at least at one point of the tyre is detected. (author)

  9. Comparison of 3 methods on fabricating micro- /nano- structured surface on 3D mold cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    limited to flat or simple shaped geometries. In this paper, 3 approaches for fabricating micro and nano- structured surfaces on a mold cavity for injection moulding are investigated and compared. The first approach is to use pre-fabricated plate with micro-structured surface as an insert for the mold...

  10. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  11. Characterization of mechanical behavior of woven fabrics: experimental methods and benchmark results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, J.; Akkerman, Remko; Boisse, P.; Chen, J.; Cheng, H.S.; de Graaf, E.F.; Gorczyca, J.L.; Harrison, P.

    2008-01-01

    Textile composites made of woven fabrics have demonstrated excellent mechanical properties for the production of high specific-strength products. Research efforts in the woven fabric sheet forming are currently at a point where benchmarking will lead to major advances in understanding both the

  12. Modern methods of material accounting for mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Pindak, J.L.; Brouns, R.J.; Williams, R.C.; Brite, D.W.; Kinnison, R.R.; Fager, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The generic requirements loss detection, and response to alarms of a contemporary material control and accounting (MCandA) philosophy have been applied to a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant to produce a detailed preliminary MCandA system design that is generally applicable to facilities of this type. This paper summarizes and discusses detailed results of the mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant study

  13. A novel method for the fabrication of freestanding PZT features on substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, Joost G.; van Bennekom, J.G.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Nijdam, W.; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and cheap micromoulding fabrication route was developed to prepare freestanding piezo active features. Dimensions as small as 200 μm by 200 μm and 40 μm high were successfully fabricated via a replication technique. The lead zirconate titanate features were thoroughly characterized using

  14. Development of Powder-in-Tube Processed Iron Pnictide Wires and Tapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanwei

    2011-06-01

    The development of PIT fabrication process of iron pnictide superconducting wires and tapes has been reviewed. Silver was found to be the best sheath material, since no reaction layer was observed between the silver sheath and the superconducting core. The grain connectivity of iron pnictide wires and tapes has been markedly improved by employing Ag or Pb as dopants. At present, critical current densities in excess of 3750 A /cm 2 (I c = 37.5 A) at 4.2 K have been achieved in Ag-sheathed SrKFeAs wires prepared with the above techniques, which is the highest value obtained in iron-based wires and tapes so far. Moreover, Ag-sheathed Sm-1111 superconducting tapes were successfully prepared by PIT method at temperatures as low as ̃ 900 °C, instead of commonly used temperatures of ̃ 1200 °C. These results demonstrate the feasibility of producing superconducting pnictide composite wires, even grain boundary properties require much more attention. © 2010 IEEE.

  15. A Rapid and Low-Cost Nonlithographic Method to Fabricate Biomedical Microdevices for Blood Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are electrical/mechanical systems that offer the ability to work with minimal sample volumes, short reactions times, and have the possibility to perform massive parallel operations. An important application of microfluidics is blood rheology in microdevices, which has played a key role in recent developments of lab-on-chip devices for blood sampling and analysis. The most popular and traditional method to fabricate these types of devices is the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS soft lithography technique, which requires molds, usually produced by photolithography. Although the research results are extremely encouraging, the high costs and time involved in the production of molds by photolithography is currently slowing down the development cycle of these types of devices. Here we present a simple, rapid, and low-cost nonlithographic technique to create microfluidic systems for biomedical applications. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to perform cell free layer (CFL measurements and the formation of microbubbles in continuous blood flow.

  16. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Raoul; Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  17. Reverse freeze casting: a new method for fabricating highly porous titanium scaffolds with aligned large pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Se-Won; Jung, Hyun-Do; Park, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Kwan-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2012-07-01

    Highly porous titanium with aligned large pores up to 500 μm in size, which is suitable for scaffold applications, was successfully fabricated using the reverse freeze casting method. In this process we have newly developed, the Ti powders migrated spontaneously along the pre-aligned camphene boundaries at a temperature of 45.5°C and formed a titanium-camphene mixture with an aligned structure; this was followed by freeze drying and sintering. As the casting time increased from 24 to 48 h, the initial columnar structures turned into lamellar structures, with the porosity decreasing from 69 to 51%. This reduction in porosity caused the compressive yield strength to increase from 121 to 302 MPa, with an elastic modulus of the samples being in the range of 2-5 GPa. In addition, it was demonstrated that reverse freeze casting can also be successfully applied to various other raw powders, suggesting that the method developed in this work opens up new avenues for the production of a range of porous metallic and ceramic scaffolds with highly aligned pores. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification of the Langmuir-Schaefer method for fabrication of ordered protein films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, M. V.; Boikova, A. S.; Dyakova, Yu. A.; Marchenkova, M. A.; Opolchentsev, A. M.; Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A.; Seregin, A. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    A modification of the Langmuir-Schaefer method for the fabrication of high-quality protein films on a solid substrate was proposed and applied to lysozyme. The procedure relies on the use of a pre-prepared protein solution, the parameters of which correspond to crystallization conditions. A lysozyme Langmuir monolayer was shown to be formed with the involvement of complexes, namely, dimers and octamers of protein molecules that are present in such protein solutions. These complexes apparently retain the structure after spreading a protein solution onto an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough. The thickness of the film after the transfer of the monolayer, which was formed by the proposed procedure, onto a solid substrate corresponds to the diameter of the octamer and this film is dense, continuous, and uniform, as was demonstrated by several methods: X-ray reflectivity, total external reflection X-ray standing wave, and atomic force microscopy. A layer of chloride ions that formed under the Langmuir monolayer was found at the air-protein film interface. This fact confirms an important role of the precipitating agent (chloride ions) in all steps of the formation of lysozyme films.

  19. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium wires.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Senn, C.; Wichelhaus, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanical properties of commercially available thermodynamic wires and to classify these wires mathematically into different groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples examined were 48 nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy orthodontic wires commercially available from five

  20. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wang, Chaoxia

    2017-05-01

    Multifunctional silk fabrics with electrical conductive, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent were successfully prepared by surface modification with graphene oxide (GO). The yellow-brown GO deposited on the surface of silk fabric was converted into graphitic black reduced graphene (RGO) by sodium hydrosulfite. The surface properties of silk fabrics were changed by repeatedly RGO coating process, which have been proved by SEM and XPS. The SEM results showed that the RGO sheets were successive form a continuously thin film on the surface of silk fabrics, and the deposition of GO or RGO also can be proved by XPS. The electrical conductivity was tested by electrical surface resistance value of the silk fabric, the surface resistance decreased with increasing of RGO surface modification times, and a low surface resistance value reached to 3.24 KΩ cm-1 after 9 times of modification, indicating the silk obtained excellent conductivity. The UPF value of one time GO modification silk fabric (silk-1RGO) was enhanced significantly to 24.45 in comparison to 10.40 of original silk. The contact angle of RGO coating silk samples was all above of 120°. The durability of RGO coated silk fabrics was tested by laundering. The electrical surface resistance of silk-4RGO (65.74 KΩ cm-1), silk-6RGO (15.54 KΩ cm-1) and silk-8RGO (3.86 KΩ cm-1) fabrics was up to 86.82, 22.30 and 6.57 KΩ cm-1 after 10 times of standard washing, respectively. The UPF value, contact angle and color differences of RGO modified silk fabric slightly changed before and after 10 times of standard washing. Therefore, the washing fastness of electric conduction, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent multifunctional silk fabrics was excellent.