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Sample records for wire coil inserts

  1. Flow pattern assessment in tubes with wire coil inserts in laminar and transition regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Solano, J.P.; Vicente, P.G.; Viedma, A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the flow mechanisms in tubes with wire coils using hydrogen bubble visualization and PIV techniques. Results have been contrasted with experimental data on pressure drop. The relation between the observed flow patterns and the friction factor has been analysed. The experimental analysis that has been carried out allows one to state that at low Reynolds numbers (Re < 400) the flow in tubes with wire coils is basically similar to the flow in smooth tubes. At Reynolds numbers between 500 and 700 and in short pitch wire coils a recirculating flow appears. The insertion of wires coils in a smooth tube accelerates significantly the transition to turbulence. This is produced at Reynolds numbers between 700 and 1000 depending on the wire pitch

  2. Using a wire coil insert for biodiesel production enhancement in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghel, Babak; Rahimi, Masoud; Sepahvand, Arash; Alitabar, Mohammad; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic view of microreactor system. - Highlights: • A wire coil insert was used to promote mixing in a biodiesel microreactor. • Advantages of using the wire coil in the microreactor over plain one are shown. • A yield of 99% was obtained in the modified microreactor after 180 s. • RSM and the Box–Behnken method were used to optimize the biodiesel production. • Advantages of using this system over other conventional reactors are illustrated. - Abstract: In the present work, the application of wire coil to promote mixing in a microreactor during continuous production of biodiesel was studied. For this aim, soybean oil as a feedstock and potassium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyzed were used. The influences of the various parameters such as geometric and operational conditions on the performance of biodiesel production were experimentally examined. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the Box–Behnken method was used to statistically analyze and optimize the biodiesel production process. The comparison between two types of reactors (with and without wire coil) shows a significant enhancement in mixing during transesterification. The impacts of different wire coil lengths and wire coil pitchs on methyl ester conversion were also investigated. A reaction yield of 99% at the residence time of 180 s was obtained in the modified microreactor. However, the measured pressure drop show that the microreactor equipped with wire coil consumed more energy. Therefore, performance ratio was defined to evaluate energy efficiency and the results show the advantage of using the wire coil insert in lower feed flow rates

  3. Heat transfer enhancement of Al_2O_3-EG nanofluid in a car radiator with wire coil inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, K.; Jamali, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The purpose of this paper is heat transfer enhancement in a car radiator. • The simultaneous impacts of nanofluid EG/Al_2O_3 with wire coil inserts are studied. • Results show that the thermal performance enhancement up to 14%. • With increasing speed of cooling fan, Nusselt number at Reynolds numbers increased. - Abstract: In this experimental study, Aluminums Oxide (Al_2O_3) in Ethylene Glycol (EG) as nanofluid was used for heat transfer enhancement in car radiator together with wire coil inserts. Two wire coils inserts with different geometry and nanofluids with volume concentrations of 0.08%, 0.5% and 1% were investigated. The results indicated that the use of coils inserts enhanced heat transfer rates up to 9%. In addition, the simultaneous use of the coils inserts with the nanofluid with concentration of 0.08%, 0.5% and 1% resulted the thermal performance enhancement up to 5% as compared to the use of coils inserts alone.

  4. Experimental Research of Dynamic Instabilities in the Presence of Coiled Wire Inserts on Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroglu, Gokhan; Comakli, Omer; Karagoz, Sendogan; Sahin, Bayram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of the coiled wire insertions on dynamic instabilities and to compare the results with the smooth tube for forced convection boiling. The experiments were conducted in a circular tube, and water was used as the working fluid. Two different pitch ratios (H/D = 2.77 and 5.55) of coiled wire with circular cross-sections were utilised. The constant heat flux boundary condition was applied to the outer side of the test tube, and the constant exit restriction was used at the tube outlet. The mass flow rate changed from 110 to 20 g/s in order to obtain a detailed idea about the density wave and pressure drop oscillations, and the range of the inlet temperature was 15–35°C. The changes in pressure drop, inlet temperature, amplitude, and the period with mass flow rate are presented. For each configuration, it is seen that density wave and pressure drop oscillations occur at all inlet temperatures. Analyses show that the decrease in the mass flow rate and inlet temperature causes the amplitude and the period of the density wave and the pressure drop oscillations to decrease separately. PMID:23365547

  5. Caída de presión de un flujo turbulento en un espacio anular con hélices insertadas//The pressure drop of turbulent flow in an annular space with wire coil inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presentado evaluó el comportamiento experimental de la caída de presión en un espacio anular con alambres enrollados insertados para números de Reynolds entre 1500 y 5000. La zona de prueba se seleccionó alejada de la influencia de los efectos de entrada. Anteriormente se realizaron pruebas de visualización del flujo para verificar la presencia de un flujo turbulento en esta gama del número de Reynolds. A partir de los datos experimentales se obtuvieron ecuaciones de correlación del factor de fricción para el flujo turbulento. Las ecuaciones obtenidas se compararon con los datos experimentales. Los resultados indican hasta qué punto las hélices inducen la aparición de turbulencias en un espacio anularPalabras claves: caída de presión, flujo anular, análisis hidrodinámico, visualización de flujo, hélices insertadas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work presented evaluates the experimental behavior of the pressure drop in an annular space with coiled wires inserted forReynolds numbers between 1500 and 5000. The test zone was selected away from the influence of entrance effects. Previously flow visualization tests were performed to verify the presence of a turbulent flow in this range of Reynolds number. From the experimental data were obtained correlation equations of the friction factor for turbulent flow. The equations obtained were compared with experimental data. The results indicate to what extent the helices induce the occurrence of turbulence in an annular space.Key words: drop pressure, annular flow, hydrodynamic analysis, visualization flow, wire coil inserts.

  6. Clinical Application of Insertion Force Sensor System for Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Izumi, Takashi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marui, Naoki; Ota, Keisuke; Tajima, Hayato; Shintai, Kazunori; Ito, Masashi; Imai, Tasuku; Nishihori, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    In endovascular embolization for intracranial aneurysms, it is important to properly control the coil insertion force. However, the force can only be subjectively detected by the subtle feedback experienced by neurointerventionists at their fingertips. The authors envisioned a system that would objectively sense and quantify that force. In this article, coil insertion force was measured in cases of intracranial aneurysm using this sensor, and its actual clinical application was investigated. The sensor consists of a hemostatic valve (Y-connector). A little flexure was intentionally added in the device, and it creates a bend in the delivery wire. The sensor measures the change in the position of the bent wire depending on the insertion force and translates it into a force value. Using this, embolization was performed for 10 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The sensor adequately recorded the force, and it reflected the operators' usual clinical experience. The presence of the sensor did not affect the procedures. The sensor enabled the operators to objectively note and evaluate the insertion force and better cooperative handling was possible. Additionally, other members of the intervention team shared the information. Force records demonstrated the characteristic patterns according to every stage of coiling (framing, filling, and finishing). The force sensor system adequately measured coil insertion force in intracranial aneurysm coil embolization procedures. The safety of this sensor was demonstrated in clinical application for the limited number of patients. This system is useful adjunct for assisting during coil embolization for an intracranial aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal performance in circular tube fitted with coiled square wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, Pongjet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of wires with square cross section forming a coil used as a turbulator on the heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat flux, circular tube are experimentally investigated in the present work. The experiments are performed for flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 25,000. Two different spring coiled wire pitches are introduced. The results are also compared with those obtained from using a typical coiled circular wire, apart from the smooth tube. The experimental results reveal that the use of coiled square wire turbulators leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over those of a smooth wall tube. The Nusselt number increases with the rise of Reynolds number and the reduction of pitch for both circular and square wire coils. The coiled square wire provides higher heat transfer than the circular one under the same conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using both coil wires of the enhanced tube are determined

  8. New technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.

    1985-01-01

    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns has heretofore been confined exclusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  9. A new technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.

    1985-01-01

    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns, has heretofore been confined excusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  10. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly

  11. Scalable Nernst thermoelectric power using a coiled galfenol wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zihao; Codecido, Emilio A.; Marquez, Jason; Zheng, Yuanhua; Heremans, Joseph P.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2017-09-01

    The Nernst thermopower usually is considered far too weak in most metals for waste heat recovery. However, its transverse orientation gives it an advantage over the Seebeck effect on non-flat surfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the scalable generation of a Nernst voltage in an air-cooled metal wire coiled around a hot cylinder. In this geometry, a radial temperature gradient generates an azimuthal electric field in the coil. A Galfenol (Fe0.85Ga0.15) wire is wrapped around a cartridge heater, and the voltage drop across the wire is measured as a function of axial magnetic field. As expected, the Nernst voltage scales linearly with the length of the wire. Based on heat conduction and fluid dynamic equations, finite-element method is used to calculate the temperature gradient across the Galfenol wire and determine the Nernst coefficient. A giant Nernst coefficient of -2.6 μV/KT at room temperature is estimated, in agreement with measurements on bulk Galfenol. We expect that the giant Nernst effect in Galfenol arises from its magnetostriction, presumably through enhanced magnon-phonon coupling. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a transverse thermoelectric generator capable of scalable output power from non-flat heat sources.

  12. Scalable Nernst thermoelectric power using a coiled galfenol wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nernst thermopower usually is considered far too weak in most metals for waste heat recovery. However, its transverse orientation gives it an advantage over the Seebeck effect on non-flat surfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the scalable generation of a Nernst voltage in an air-cooled metal wire coiled around a hot cylinder. In this geometry, a radial temperature gradient generates an azimuthal electric field in the coil. A Galfenol (Fe0.85Ga0.15 wire is wrapped around a cartridge heater, and the voltage drop across the wire is measured as a function of axial magnetic field. As expected, the Nernst voltage scales linearly with the length of the wire. Based on heat conduction and fluid dynamic equations, finite-element method is used to calculate the temperature gradient across the Galfenol wire and determine the Nernst coefficient. A giant Nernst coefficient of -2.6 μV/KT at room temperature is estimated, in agreement with measurements on bulk Galfenol. We expect that the giant Nernst effect in Galfenol arises from its magnetostriction, presumably through enhanced magnon-phonon coupling. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a transverse thermoelectric generator capable of scalable output power from non-flat heat sources.

  13. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L; Stabel, Gerald R; Lawrence, Robert Anthony

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  14. Manufacture of the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert Coil (PFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.; Rajainmaeki, H.; Salpietro, E.; Keefe, C.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the R(and)D programme for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) the European team EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) have been charged with the design and manufacture of the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert Coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long length full scale NbTi conductors in ITER relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the Central Solenoid Model Coil test facility at the JAEA Naka Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing details of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single layer wound solenoid of 9 turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, pre-formed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and finally Vacuum Pressure Impregnated to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure which consist of an upper and lower flange that each are made up by 4 machined stainless steel castings which are electrically insulated by epoxy glass sheet material and 12 tie rods which preload the complete assembly in the vertical direction while the upper flange is equipped with 4 radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with 4 sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil is in the process of final impregnation and should be completed and delivered before the summer of this year. (author)

  15. Manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Keefe, C. [Tesla Engineering, Storrington, Sussex (United Kingdom); Rajainmaeki, H. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: hannu.rajainmaki@tech.efda.org; Salpietro, E. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Within the framework of the R and D programme for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) the European team European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been charged with the design and manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long-length full-scale NbTi conductors in ITER-relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the central solenoid model coil test facility at the JAEA, Naka, Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single-layered wound solenoid of nine turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, preformed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and is finally vacuum pressure impregnated (VPI) to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure, which consists of an upper and lower flange, each made up of four electrically insulated machined stainless steel castings, and 12 tie rods preloading the complete assembly in the vertical direction. The upper flange is equipped with four radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with four sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil has passed the final acceptance tests and it is in the support structure assembly stage.

  16. TF insert experiment log book. 2nd Experiment of CS model coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro

    2001-12-01

    The cool down of CS model coil and TF insert was started on August 20, 2001. It took almost one month and immediately started coil charge since September 17, 2001. The charge test of TF insert and CS model coil was completed on October 19, 2001. In this campaign, total shot numbers were 88 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was about 4 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. This is an experiment logbook for 2nd experiment of CS model coil and TF insert for charge test. (author)

  17. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  18. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wires for Wind-and-React Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Peter K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2-inch dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  19. Heat transfer experiments in a wire-inserted tube at supercritical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Yoo, Tae Ho

    2009-07-15

    The hydraulic diameter of a subchannel in a core concept developed at KAERI is 6.5 mm. The sub-channel is much smaller than that of the conventional PWR, and naturally a helical wire was considered as one of the candidates for a spacer. For simplicity the subchannel is simulated by a commercially available Inconel 625 tube of 6.32 mm ID with a helically-coiled spring steel wire insert of 1.3 mm OD. The medium is CO{sub 2}. The test pressures are 7.75 and 8.12 MPa corresponding to 1.05 and 1.1 times the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, respectively. The mass flux and heat flux, which were in the range of 400 {approx} 1200 kg/m{sup 2}s and 30 {approx} 90 kW/m{sup 2} respectively, were varied at a given system pressure. The corresponding Reynolds numbers at the inlet spans between 2.5 x 10{sup 4} and 7.5 x 10{sup 4}. It was observed that the heat transfer was enhanced by almost twice in most of the tested enthalpy range except for in the the region far from the pseudocritical point. The test results revealed that the wire effect was sustained in the downstream up to 40-60 times the wire diameter. The temperature decreased in the first half of the span between contact points and it increased in the second half of the span.

  20. In vivo field-cycling relaxometry using an insert coil for magnetic field offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Kerrin J; Goldie, Fred; Lurie, David J

    2014-11-01

    The T(1) of tissue has a strong dependence on the measurement magnetic field strength. T(1) -dispersion could be a useful contrast parameter, but is unavailable to clinical MR systems which operate at fixed magnetic field strength. The purpose of this work was to implement a removable insert magnet coil for field-cycling T(1) -dispersion measurements on a vertical-field MRI scanner, by offsetting the static field over a volume of interest. An insert magnet coil was constructed for use with a whole-body sized 59 milli-Tesla (mT) vertical-field, permanent-magnet based imager. The coil has diameter 38 cm and thickness 6.1 cm and a homogeneous region (± 5%) of 5 cm DSV, offset by 5 cm from the coil surface. Surface radiofrequency (RF) coils were also constructed. The insert coil was used in conjunction with a surface RF coil and a volume-localized inversion-recovery pulse sequence to plot T(1) -dispersion in a human volunteer's forearm over a range of field strengths from 1 mT to 70 mT. T(1) -dispersion measurements were demonstrated on a fixed-field MRI scanner, using an insert coil. This demonstrates the feasibility of relaxation dispersion measurements on an otherwise conventional MR imager, facilitating the exploitation of T(1) -dispersion contrast for enhanced diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nb3Al insert experiment log book. 3rd experiment of CS model coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Isono, Takaaki

    2002-10-01

    The cool down of CS model coil and Nb 3 Al insert was started on March 4, 2002. It took almost one month and immediately started coil charge since April 3, 2002. The charge test of Nb 3 Al insert and CS model coil was completed on May 2, 2002. All of the experiments including the warm up was also completed on May 30, 2002. In this campaign, total shot numbers were 102 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was about 5.2 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. (author)

  2. Thermal anchoring of wires in large scale superconducting coil test experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Dipak; Sharma, A.N.; Prasad, Upendra; Khristi, Yohan; Varmora, Pankaj; Doshi, Kalpesh; Pradhan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We addressed how thermal anchoring in large scale coil test is different compare to small cryogenic apparatus? • We did precise estimation of thermal anchoring length at 77 K and 4.2 K heat sink in large scale superconducting coil test experiment. • We addressed, the quality of anchoring without covering entire wires using Kapton/Teflon tape. • We obtained excellent results in temperature measurement without using GE Varnish by doubling estimated anchoring length. -- Abstract: Effective and precise thermal anchoring of wires in cryogenic experiment is mandatory to measure temperature in milikelvin accuracy and to avoid unnecessary cooling power due to additional heat conduction from room temperature (RT) to operating temperature (OT) through potential, field, displacement and stress measurement instrumentation wires. Instrumentation wires used in large scale superconducting coil test experiments are different compare to cryogenic apparatus in terms of unique construction and overall diameter/area due to errorless measurement in large time-varying magnetic field compare to small cryogenic apparatus, often shielded wires are used. Hence, along with other variables, anchoring techniques and required thermal anchoring length are entirely different in this experiment compare to cryogenic apparatus. In present paper, estimation of thermal anchoring length of five different types of instrumentation wires used in coils test campaign at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India has been discussed and some temperature measurement results of coils test campaign have been presented

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations of wire bending by linear winding of rectangular tooth coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komodromos, A.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Hofmann, J.; Fleischer, J.

    2018-05-01

    Since electric motors are gaining in importance in many fields of application, e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, optimization of the linear coil winding process greatly contributes to an increase in productivity and flexibility. For the investigation of the forming behavior of the winding wire the material behavior is characterized in different experimental setups. Numerical examinatons of the linear winding process are carried out in a case study for a rectangular bobbin in order to analyze the influence of forming parameters on the resulting properties of the wound coil. Besides the numerical investigation of the linear winding method by using the finite element method (FEM), a multi-body dynamics (MBD) simulation is carried out. The multi-body dynamics simulation is necessary to represent the movement of the bodies as well as the connection of the components during winding. The finite element method is used to represent the material behavior of the copper wire and the plastic strain distribution within the wire. It becomes clear that the MBD simulation is not sufficient for analyzing the process and the wire behavior in its entirety. Important parameters that define the final coil properties cannot be analyzed in the manner of a precise manifestation, e.g. the clearance between coil bobbin and wire as well as the wire deformation behavior in form of a diameter reduction which negatively affects the ohmic resistance. Finally, the numerical investigations are validated experimentally by linear winding tests.

  4. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  5. Swirl flow analysis in a helical wire inserted tube using CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yusun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2010-01-01

    An analysis on the two-phase flow in a helical wire inserted tube using commercial CFD code, CFX11.0, was performed in bubbly flow and annular flow regions. The analysis method was validated with the experimental results of Takeshima. Bubbly and annular flows in a 10 mm inner diameter tube with varying pitch lengths and inserted wire diameters were simulated using the same analysis methods after validation. The geometry range of p/D was 1-4 and e/D was 0.08-0.12. The results show that the inserted wire with a larger diameter increased swirl flow generation. An increasing swirl flow was seen as the pitch length increased. Regarding pressure loss, smaller pitch lengths and inserted wires with larger diameters resulted in larger pressure loss. The average liquid film thickness increased as the pitch length and the diameter of the inserted wire increased in the annular flow region. Both in the bubbly flow and annular flow regions, the effect of pitch length on swirl flow generation and pressure loss was more significant than that of the inserted wire diameters. Pitch length is a more dominant factor than inserted wire diameter for the design of the swirl flow generator in small diameter tubes.

  6. Analysis of magnetic energy stored in superconducting coils with and without ferromagnetic inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Inductance and energy of superconducting coils are calculated by (1) a long-solenoid approximation, (2) a finite-element model, and (3) working formulas and tables. The results of the finite-element model compare favorably with those of the working formulas. The long-solenoid approximation overpredicts the energy and inductance compared to the other two methods. The difference decreases with increasing length-to-diameter ratio. Energy stored in a coil with a ferromagnetic insert is calculated by using a long-solenoid approximation and a finite-element model. The analysis shows that the gain in energy ratio is equal to the relative permeability of the insert (which decreases with increasing current or current density). Even though large gains can be achieved at relatively low currents, the energy level itself is too low. The stored energy increases with current, but the gain decreases with increasing current because relative permeability decreases. If a coil with a diameter of 0.3 m and a length of 0.3 m is required to store 10 kJ of energy, the current density must equal 4000 A/cm 2 . The gain in energy ratio is equal to 2.55 when the insert is used

  7. A fully MEMS-compatible process for 3D high aspect ratio micro coils obtained with an automatic wire bonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratt, K; Badilita, V; Burger, T; Wallrabe, U; Korvink, J G

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of 3D micro coils made with an automatic wire bonder. Using standard MEMS processes such as spin coating and UV lithography on silicon and Pyrex® wafers results in high aspect ratio SU-8 posts with diameters down to 100 µm that serve as mechanical stabilization yokes for the coils. The wire bonder is employed to wind 25 µm insulated gold wire around the posts in an arbitrary (e.g. solenoidal) path, yielding arrays of micro coils. Each micro coil is bonded directly on-chip, so that loose wire ends are avoided and, compared to other winding methods, coil re-soldering is unnecessary. The manufacturing time for a single coil is about 200 ms, and although the process is serial, it is batch fabrication compatible due to the high throughput of the machine. Despite the speed of manufacture we obtain high manufacturing precision and reliability. The micro air-core solenoids show an RF quality factor of over 50 when tested at 400 MHz. We present a flexible coil making method where the number of windings is only limited by the post height. The coil diameter is restricted by limits defined by lithography and the mechanical strength of the posts. Based on this technique we present coils ranging from 100 µm diameter and 1 winding up to 1000 µm diameter and 20 windings

  8. Coil embolization of internal mammary artery injured during central vein catheter and cardiac pacemaker lead insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemelli, A.P. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Andreas.Chemelli@i-med.ac.at; Chemelli-Steingruber, I.E. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonaros, N. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Luckner, G. [Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Millonig, G. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Seppi, K. [Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Lottersberger, C.; Jaschke, W. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-08-15

    Purpose: This study describes several cases of endovascular coil embolization of the proximal internal mammary artery injured by blind approach to the subclavian vein for central venous catheter or pacemaker lead insertion. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of five patients with iatrogenic arterial lesions of the internal mammary artery (IMA). The lesions occurred in three patients from a puncture of the subclavian vein during insertion of a central venous catheter and in two patients from a puncture of the subclavian vein for insertion of a pacemaker lead. Four patients had acute symptoms of bleeding with mediastinal hematoma and hematothorax and one patient was investigated in a chronic stage. A pseudoaneurysm was detected in all five patients. All four acute and hemodynamic unstable patients required hemodynamic support. Results: In all patients, embolization was performed using a coaxial catheter technique, and a long segment of the IMA adjacent distally and proximally to the source of bleeding was occluded with pushable microcoils. In one patient, additional mechanically detachable microcoils were used at the very proximal part of the IMA. Microcoil embolization of the IMA was successful in all patients, and the source of bleeding was eliminated in all patients. Conclusion: Transarterial coil embolization is a feasible and efficient method in treating acute bleeding and pseudoaneurysm of the IMA and should be considered if mediastinal hematoma or hemathorax occurs after blind puncture of the subclavian vein.

  9. Assessment of conductor degradation in the ITER CS insert coil and implications for the ITER conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.

    2007-01-01

    Nb3Sn cable in conduit-type conductors were expected to provide an efficient way of achieving large conductor currents at high field (up to 13 T) combined with good stability to electromagnetic disturbances due to the extensive helium contact area with the strands. Although ITER model coils successfully reached their design performance (Kato et al 2001 Fusion Eng. Des. 56/57 59-70), initial indications (Mitchell 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 971-94) that there were unexplained performance shortfalls have been confirmed. Recent conductor tests (Pasztor et al 2004 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 14 1527-30) and modelling work (Mitchell 2005 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18 396-404) suggest that the shortfalls are due to a combination of strand bending and filament fracture under the transverse magnetic loads. Using the new model, the extensive database from the ITER CS insert coil has been reassessed. A parametric fit based on a loss of filament area and n (the exponent of the power-law fit to the electric field) combined with a more rigorous consideration of the conductor field gradient has enabled the coil behaviour to be explained much more consistently than in earlier assessments, now fitting the Nb3Sn strain scaling laws when used with measurements of the conductor operating strain, including conditions when the insert coil current (and hence operating strain) were reversed. The coil superconducting performance also shows a fatigue-type behaviour consistent with recent measurements on conductor samples (Martovetsky et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 1367-70). The ITER conductor design has already been modified compared to the CS insert, to increase the margin and provide increased resistance to the degradation, by using a steel jacket to provide thermal pre-compression to reduce tensile strain levels, reducing the void fraction from 36% to 33% and increasing the non-copper material by 25%. Test results are not yet available for the new design and performance

  10. Analysis of normal zone propagation and hot spot temperature on ITER CS insert coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Tomone; Ozeki, Hidemasa; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Isono, Takaaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) insert coil consists of a 42-m-long CS conductor, of which the specifications are the same as that of the ITER CS. In order to investigate normal zone propagation and hot spot temperature, a quench test was carried out on the CS insert under End-of-Burn condition at 12.5 T and 45.1 kA of after 16,000 cycles. External heat was applied at nearly the center of the CS insert using an inductive heater, and quench was induced. A current of 45.1 kA was dumped 9.5 s (7 s) after voltage generation (Quench detection, QD). The Normal zone propagation length reached 23.4 m, and the maxim propagation velocity was 3.1 m/s just before dumping. Considering the distribution of temperature, which is calculated by GANDALF, hot spot temperature was expected to reach 227 K. As the result, it was found that the hot spot temperature exceeded the criteria of 150 K which is designed on ITER. However, heating the CS insert to 227 K did not influence conductor performance, because the current sharing temperature was maintained after the quench test. Therefore, the quench detection has a margin of approximately 9.5 s (7 s) after voltage generation (QD) in view of the conductor performance under the conditions applied in this quench test. If the hot spot temperature is kept to less than 150 K, the current should be dumped 7.5 s (5 s) before voltage generation (QD). These results are very useful for designing quench protection of the ITER CS. (author)

  11. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2018-02-01

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of block

  12. External wire-frame fixation of digital skin grafts: a non-invasive alternative to the K-wire insertion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenyu; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-08-01

    The current skin graft fixation methods for digits, including the Kirschner wire insertion technique, can be limited by inadequate or excessive fixation and complications such as infection or secondary injuries. Therefore, the external wire-frame fixation method was invented and used for skin grafting of digits. This study aimed to investigate external wire-frame fixation of digital skin grafts as a non-invasive alternative to the K-wire insertion method. In 2005-2012, 15 patients with burn scar contractures on the hand digits received a skin graft that was then fixed with an external wire frame. The intra-operative time needed to make the wire frame, the postoperative time to frame and suture removal, the graft survival rate, the effect of contracture release and the complications were recorded. In all cases, the contracture release was 100%. The complete graft survival rate was 98.6%. Four patients had epithelial necrosis in wire-frame fixation is simple, minimally invasive and a custom-made technique for skin grafting of the fingers. It was designed for its potential benefits and the decreased risk it poses to patients with scar contractures on their fingers. It can be implemented in three phases of grafting, does not affect the epiphyseal line or subsequent finger growth and is suitable for children with multi-digit involvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of a PF insert coil conductor by the calorimetric method (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The PF Insert Coil is a single layer solenoid coil using a superconducting conductor designed for ITER, housed in a Poloidal field coil and installed in the bore of the CS Model Coil. A stability test of the conductor will be performed in a magnetic field generated by the CS Model Coil. In this test, the inductive heat of an inductive heater attached to the conductor will be applied to initiate a normal zone in the conductor. Since the conductor for the PF Insert Coil is a cable-in-conduit conductor, it is quite difficult to estimate inductive heating energy theoretically. Thus, the inductive heating energy is measured experimentally by the calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to a constant multiplied by the integrated square of an applied sinusoidal current wave over the heating period. Experimental results show that the proportional constants of the conductor, cable, conduit and dummy conductor are 0.138 [J/A 2 s], 0.028 [J/A 2 s], 0.118 [J/A 2 s] and 0.009 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The first three denote not only the inductive heating but also the joule heating of the inductive heater. The final value denotes joule heating only. Therefore, subtracting the first three constants by the last one, the proportional constants of inductive heating generated in the conductor, cable and conduit are estimated to be 0.129 [J/A 2 s], 0.019 [J/A 2 s] and 0.109 [J/A 2 s], respectively. (author)

  14. Microfabricated inserts for magic angle coil spinning (MACS wireless NMR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Badilita

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the "magic angle" of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning - MAS, accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds.

  15. Experimental analysis for heat transfer of nanofluid with wire coil turbulators in a concentric tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyürek, Eda Feyza; Geliş, Kadir; Şahin, Bayram; Manay, Eyüphan

    2018-06-01

    Nanofluids are a novel class of heat transfer suspensions of metallic or nonmetallic nanopowders with a size of less than 100 nm in base fluids and they can increase heat transfer potential of the base fluids in various applications. In the last decade, nanofluids have become an intensive research topic because of their improved thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. For comparison, an experiment using water as the working fluid in the heat exchanger without wire coils was also performed. Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-water nanofluids in a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without wire coil turbulators were experimentally investigated in this research. Experiments effected particle volume concentrations of 0.4-0.8 to 1.2-1.6 vol% in the Reynolds number range from 4000 to 20,000. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The average Nusselt number increased with increasing the Reynolds number and particle concentrations. Moreover, the pressure drop of the Al2O3-water nanofluid showed nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. As a result, nanofluids with lower particle concentrations did not show an important influence on pressure drop change. Nonetheless, when the wire coils used in the heat exchanger, it increased pressure drop as well as the heat transfer coefficient.

  16. Short echo time proton spectroscopy of the brain in healthy volunteers using an insert gradient head coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Danielsen, E R; Schneider, M

    1995-01-01

    An insert gradient head coil with built-in X, Y, and Z gradients was used for localized proton spectroscopy in the brain of healthy volunteers, using short echo time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequences. Volume of interest size was 3.4 ml, repetition time was 6.0 s, and echo times...... were 10 and 20 ms, respectively. Good quality proton spectra with practically no eddy current artefacts were acquired allowing observation of strongly coupled compounds, and compounds with short T2 relaxation times. The gradient head coil thus permits further studies of compounds such as glutamine....../glutamate and myo-inositols. These compounds were more prominent within grey matter than within white matter. Rough estimations of metabolite concentrations using water as an internal standard were in good agreement with previous reports....

  17. Microstructures and superconducting properties of Y-Ba-Cu and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide wires and coils prepared by the explosive compaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, S.; Suzuki, M.; Takeshita, T.; Takashima, K.; Tonda, H.

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown that explosive compaction technique can be used to densify metal, and ceramics powders and their mixtures. The authors discuss how they applied this technique to produce silver sheathed superconducting oxide wires and coils (Y-B-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O). The wires and coils to be compacted were placed into metal tube and the tube was filled with SiC powder as a pressure propagating medium and the tube was compacted by a cylindrically axisymmetric method. The wires and coils compacted were then heat-treated in order to improve grain boundary connections of superconducting oxide crystalline grains. The oxide cores heat-treated were seen to be very dense, and a part of a Y-Ba-Cu oxide coil which was heat-treated optimally was found to have a critical current density higher than 13,000A/cm 2 at 77K

  18. On the accurate analysis of vibroacoustics in head insert gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Simone A; Alejski, Andrew; Wade, Trevor; McKenzie, Charles A; Rutt, Brian K

    2017-10-01

    To accurately analyze vibroacoustics in MR head gradient coils. A detailed theoretical model for gradient coil vibroacoustics, including the first description and modeling of Lorentz damping, is introduced and implemented in a multiphysics software package. Numerical finite-element method simulations were used to establish a highly accurate vibroacoustic model in head gradient coils in detail, including the newly introduced Lorentz damping effect. Vibroacoustic coupling was examined through an additional modal analysis. Thorough experimental studies were used to validate simulations. Average experimental sound pressure levels (SPLs) and accelerations over the 0-3000 Hz frequency range were 97.6 dB, 98.7 dB, and 95.4 dB, as well as 20.6 g, 8.7 g, and 15.6 g for the X-, Y-, and Z-gradients, respectively. A reasonable agreement between simulations and measurements was achieved. Vibroacoustic coupling showed a coupled resonance at 2300 Hz for the Z-gradient that is responsible for a sharp peak and the highest SPL value in the acoustic spectrum. We have developed and used more realistic multiphysics simulation methods to gain novel insights into the underlying concepts for vibroacoustics in head gradient coils, which will permit improved analyses of existing gradient coils and novel SPL reduction strategies for future gradient coil designs. Magn Reson Med 78:1635-1645, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Construction and Test Results of Coils 2 and 3 of a 3-Nested-Coil 800-MHz REBCO Insert for the MIT 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongkeun; Bascuñán, Juan; Michael, Philip C; Lee, Jiho; Hahn, Seungyong; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2018-04-01

    We present construction and test results of Coils 2 and 3 of a 3-coil 800-MHz REBCO insert (H800) for the MIT 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet currently under construction. Each of three H800 coils (Coils 1-3) is a stack of no-insulation REBCO double pancakes (DPs). The innermost 8.67-T Coil 1 (26 DPs) was completed in 2016; the middle 5.64-T Coil 2 (32 DPs) has been wound, assembled, and tested; and for the outermost 4.44-T Coil 3, its 38 DPs have been wound and preliminary tests were performed to characterize each DP at 77 K. Included for Coil 2 are: 1) 77-K data of critical current, index, and turn-to-turn characteristic resistivity of each DP; 2) stacking order of the 32 DPs optimized to maximize the Coil 2 current margin and minimize its Joule dissipation in the pancake-to-pancake joints; 3) procedure to experimentally determine and apply a room-temperature preload to the DP stack; 4) 77-K and 4.2-K test results after each of 64 pancakes was over-banded with 75-μm-thick stainless steel tape for a radial thickness of 5 mm. Presented for each DP in Coil 3 are 77-K dada of critical current, index, and turn-to-turn characteristic resistivity.

  20. Superconducting Quadrupoles for the ISR High Luminosity insertion Coil cross section

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    This picture shows a cut out section of an ISR High Luminosity (low beta) Quadrupole. One can clearly see the distribution of conductors and spacers which produces the wanted quadrupolar field. The spacers are made of pure copper and the central pole of stainless steel.The superconducting wire may be seen in photo 8008591X. See also pictures 7702690X, 8008591X, 7702698X.

  1. REPARATIVE OSTEOGENESIS DURING TREATMENT OF FRACTURE UNDER TRANSOSSEOUS OSTEOSYNTHESIS AND INTRAMEDULLARY INSERTION OF WIRES WITH HYDROXYAPATITE COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii M. Irianov, Arnold V. Popkov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Tatiana Iu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of improving medical care for patients with the locomotor system injuries is very important especially last time. Material and Methods: Canine open comminuted tibial fractures modelled experimentally, wires with hydroxyapatite coating inserted intramedullary, osteosynthesis performed with the Ilizarov fixator. Regenerated bones investigated 14-360 days after surgery using the techniques of light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray electron probe microanalysis for histologic sections . Results: It has been found that a zone of active reparative osteo- and angiogenesis forms around the wires, as well as a bone sheath with the properties of osteogenesis conductor and inductor. Fracture consolidation occurs early according to the primary type without cartilaginous and connective tissue formation in bone adhesion. Presented morphological characteristics endovasal angiogenesis. Conclusion: The results of the study evidence of the positive effect of intramedullary wires with hydroxyapatite coating on the course and intensity of reparative osteogenesis during fracture healing

  2. Forty-five-degree or higher insertion angles are required to penetrate the opposite cortex in bicortical applications of Kirschner wires: an in vitro study on sheep bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet; Gurer, Burak; Sungur, Mehmet Ali; Eskandari, Metin Manouchehr

    2012-04-01

    Slippage of the wires over the opposite cortex from the endosteal side is frequent and can lead to insufficient stability. This in vitro biomechanical study was planned to investigate the angle of wire insertion that leads to trans cortex perforation. Long bones of sheep were cut longitudinally into two pieces and half bones were stabilised on a frame. Three orthopaedic surgeons performed the experiment using ten wires of four different diameters at two different drilling speeds. Each wire was introduced from the endosteal side at angles starting at 30° in 5° increments until perforation. When perforation was achieved, the angle was recorded. To determinate the critical angle of perforation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses was performed. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical comparisons. Kirschner-wire insertion angles of ≥ 45° provided perforation with a percentage of 83.9 %. Wire diameter, drilling speed and surgeon variables had no effect on perforation angles (p > 0.05). If preoperative evaluation of fractures to be fixed by K wires reveals the need for oblique wire insertion angle < 45°, a standard trocar-tip K wire application would lead to slippage of the wire tip on the endosteal surface of the opposite cortex. According to this study, the operative plan should be changed if such obliquity of the K wire is mandatory during bicortical applications.

  3. Heat treatment control of Bi-2212 coils: I. Unravelling the complex dependence of the critical current density of Bi-2212 wires on heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Ye, Liyang

    2018-01-01

    A robust and reliable heat treatment is crucial for developing superconducting magnets from several superconductors especially Bi-2212. An improper heat treatment may significantly reduce the critical current density Jc of a Bi-2212 superconducting coil, even to zero, since the Jc of Bi-2212 wires is sensitive to parameters of its heat treatment (partial melt processing). To provide an essential database for heat treating Bi-2212 coils, the dependence of Jc on heat treatment is studied systematically in 11 industrial Bi-2212 wires, revealing several common traits shared between these wires and outlier behaviors. The dependence of the Jc of Bi-2212 on heat treatment is rather complex, with many processing parameters affecting Jc, including the peak processing temperature Tp, the time at the peak temperature tp, the time in the melt tmelt, the rate at which Bi-2212 melt is initially cooled CR1, the rate at which the solidification of Bi-2212 melt occurs CR2, and the temperature Tq at which the cooling rate switches from CR1 to CR2. The role of these parameters is analyzed and clarified, in the perspective of heat treating a coil. Practical advices on heat treatment design are given. The ability of a Bi-2212 coil to follow the prescribed recipe decreases with increasing coil sizes. The size of a coil that can be properly heat treated is determined.

  4. A High-Sensitivity Current Sensor Utilizing CrNi Wire and Microfiber Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We obtain an extremely high current sensitivity by wrapping a section of microfiber on a thin-diameter chromium-nickel wire. Our detected current sensitivity is as high as 220.65 nm/A2 for a structure length of only 35 μm. Such sensitivity is two orders of magnitude higher than the counterparts reported in the literature. Analysis shows that a higher resistivity or/and a thinner diameter of the metal wire may produce higher sensitivity. The effects of varying the structure parameters on sensitivity are discussed. The presented structure has potential for low-current sensing or highly electrically-tunable filtering applications.

  5. Current-sharing temperature characteristics of ITER central solenoid insert coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabara, Yoshihiro; Saito, Toru; Suwa, Tomone; Ozeki, Hidemasa; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Kawano, Katsumi; Isono, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the ITER central solenoid insert (CSI) conductor was tested in 2015. The current-sharing temperatures (T cs ) were measured over 16,000 electromagnetic cycles, including three thermal cycles between 4.2 K and room temperature. T cs under the initial magnetization (IM) condition (13 T, 40 kA) of the CSI conductor not only increased, but also decreased between 6.71 and 6.84 K against cycling; then T cs became almost constant at 6.74 K. Thus T cs under the IM condition, was approximately 1.5 K higher than the specification of 5.2 K throughout the test. The slope of the hoop strain (ε hoop ) on the CSI conductor against the electromagnetic force was 1.55×10 -4 % m/kN (in ε hoop > 0) and 1.39×10 -4 % m/kN (in ε hoop < 0). Taking the effect of ε hoop into account, the T cs of the CSI under the SULTAN simulated condition (11.5 T, 45.1 kA) was equivalent to that of the SULTAN test after around 10,000 cycles. Before around 10,000 cycles, especially at the initial charge, the T cs of the SULTAN test was lower than that of the CSI test. It is assumed that the hoop strain in the CSI test accelerated a strain relaxation, which increased the T cs from the initial charge. When the strain fully relaxed and T cs stopped increasing after around 10,000 cycles, the T cs of the SULTAN test became equivalent to that of the CSI test. Given this perspective, the CSI test and SULTAN test were consistent. In ε hoop > 0, the absolute value of the effective strain (ε eff ) of the CSI test decreased (i.e., T cs increased) against the electromagnetic force (F r ) because the effect of the positive ε hoop on the increase in T cs exceeded the effect of the F r on the decrease in T cs . The line of ε eff -ε hoop of the CSI test against F r was nearly symmetric about the y-axis (F r =0). Comparing the ε eff -ε hoop of the CSI test and the ε eff of the SULTAN test, the slopes of the strain against F r were almost the same between the CSI test and SULTAN test before

  6. Modelling of coil-loaded wire antenna using composite multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available - tional Electromagnetics, Artech House, 2001. 3. Rogers, S. D. and C. M. Butler, \\An e–cient curved-wire integral equation solution technique," IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., 70{79, Vol. 49, Jan. 2001. 4. Mosig, J. and E. Suter, \\A multilevel divide.... 8. Wan, J. X., J. Lei, and C.-H. Liang, \\An e–cient analysis of large-scale periodic microstrip antenna arrays using the characteristic basis function method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 50, 61{81, 2005. 9. Taguchi, M., K...

  7. Augmented reality fluoroscopy simulation of the guide-wire insertion in DHS surgery: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duren, B H; Sugand, K; Wescott, R; Carrington, R; Hart, A

    2018-05-01

    Hip fractures contribute to a significant clinical burden globally with over 1.6 million cases per annum and up to 30% mortality rate within the first year. Insertion of a dynamic hip screw (DHS) is a frequently performed procedure to treat extracapsular neck of femur fractures. Poorly performed DHS fixation of extracapsular neck of femur fractures can result in poor mobilisation, chronic pain, and increased cut-out rate requiring revision surgery. A realistic, affordable, and portable fluoroscopic simulation system can improve performance metrics in trainees, including the tip-apex distance (the only clinically validated outcome), and improve outcomes. We developed a digital fluoroscopic imaging simulator using orthogonal cameras to track coloured markers attached to the guide-wire which created a virtual overlay on fluoroscopic images of the hip. To test the accuracy with which the augmented reality system could track a guide-wire, a standard workshop femur was used to calibrate the system with a positional marker fixed to indicate the apex; this allowed for comparison between guide-wire tip-apex distance (TAD) calculated by the system to be compared to that physically measured. Tests were undertaken to determine: (1) how well the apex could be targeted; (2) the accuracy of the calculated TAD. (3) The number of iterations through the algorithm giving the optimal accuracy-time relationship. The calculated TAD was found to have an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm. The accuracy of the algorithm was shown to increase with the number of iterations up to 20 beyond which the error asymptotically converged to an error of 2 mm. This work demonstrates a novel augmented reality simulation of guide-wire insertion in DHS surgery. To our knowledge this has not been previously achieved. In contrast to virtual reality, augmented reality is able to simulate fluoroscopy while allowing the trainee to interact with real instrumentation and performing the procedure on

  8. Does the insertion of more than one wire allow successful excision of large clusters of malignant calcification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordiner, C.M.; Litherland, J.C.; Young, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the insertion of more than one localization wire for larger areas of malignant microcalcification reduces the need for re-excision. METHOD: This is a retrospective study of 101 cases of malignant calcifications preoperatively marked by one or more wires. Surgical and histopathology data were obtained from hospital records. Mammograms and specimen radiographs were evaluated without knowledge of the eventual outcome, i.e., whether further surgery was required or not. All cases had a preoperative diagnosis of malignancy. RESULT: In this study the group of patients in which two or more wires were inserted had mammographically larger lesions (p < 0.000001) but did not have a greater chance of needing re-excision (p = 0.822). Mammograms that demonstrated flecks of microcalcification outlying the main cluster were also more likely to require further surgery (p < 0.01). Calcifications associated with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) had three times the risk of requiring further surgery (p < 0.01). However, as reported in other studies re-excision was not related to breast size (p = 0.63) [Kollias J, Gill PG, Beamond B, Rossi H, Langlois S, Vernon-Roberts E. Clinical and radiological predictors of complete excision in breast-conserving surgery for primary breast cancer. Aust N Z J Surg 1998;68:702-6]. CONCLUSION: It was previously suggested that the risk of re-excision for DCIS is related to the size of the initial lesion [Cheng L, Al-Kaisi NK, Gordon NH, Liu AY, Gebrail F, Shenk RR. Relationship between the size and margins of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and residual disease. J Nat Cancer Inst 1997;89:1356-60]. However, in the present study larger clusters of microcalcification that have been 'bracketed' by two or more wires do not appear to have a greater requirement for re-excision. Grading of the malignant microcalcifications preoperatively may encourage the surgeon to take a wider margin. Careful examination of the

  9. The Laser Welding with Hot Wire of 316LN Thick Plate Applied on ITER Correction Coil Case

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chao; Wu, Weiyue; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Shuquan; Li, Hongwei; Dolgetta, N; Libeyre, P; Cormany, C; Sgobba, S

    2014-01-01

    ITER correction coil (CC) cases have characteristics of small cross section, large dimensions, and complex structure. The cases are made of heavy thick (20 mm), high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel 316LN. The multi-pass laser welding with hot wire technology is used for the case closure welding, due to its low heat input and deformation. In order to evaluate the reliability of this welding technology, 20 mm welding samples with the same groove structure and welding depth as the cases were welded. High purity argon was used as the shielding gas to prevent oxidation because of the narrowness and depth of the weld. In this paper investigation of, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of welded joints using optimized welding parameters are presented. The results show that the base metal, fusion metal, and heat affected zone (HAZ) are all have fully austenitic microstructure, and that the grain size of fusion metal was finer than that of the base metal. The welding resulte...

  10. Endoscopically placed guide wire assisted nasogastric tube insertion for palliation of absolute dysphagia in patients with incurable esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkayastha Joydeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the esophagus is a dreadful disease because it causes a lot of distress to the patient due to its adverse effects on swallowing. Many patients present with large incurable disease or undergo disease progression and become incurable. Such patients are advised palliative and symptomatic care. The most distressing symptom that requires palliation in such patients is dysphagia. Many procedures are available for relief of dysphagia, but these are not readily available or are costly. We describe a simple, safe, cost effective and easy to do procedure for palliation of malignant dysphagia by insertion of Ryle′s tube over a endoscopically placed guide wire especially suitable for patients of the poor socio-economic strata.

  11. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The authors designed and fabricated a D-shape coil based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. • The toroid-type magnet consisted of 30 D-shape double pancake coil (DDC)s. The total length of the wire was 2.32 km. • The conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. • The maximum cooling temperature of reactor magnet is 5.5 K. • The inductance was 408 mH in the steady-state condition (300 A operating). - Abstract: This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  12. Critical current density and flux pinning in superconducting wires and coils of silver-clad Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Apperley, M.H.; Song, K.H.; Sorrell, C.C.; Guo, S.J.; Loberg, B.; Easterling, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    The critical current density (J c ) of Ag-clad of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O has been measured to be about 12,000 A/cm 2 at 77 K in zero field. This wire was rolled into a tape of thickness 0.1 mm and width of 2 to 3 mm, and a coil of 35 mm diameter was formed. The J c of this coil was measured to be about 2,000 A/cm 2 at 77 K over the full length (1.00 meter) of the coil. In this paper compositions, heat treatment parameters, and cold-deformation for enhancement of J c are presented. The microstructure is characterized and pinning interactions as well as possible weak links are emphasised. (orig.)

  13. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  14. Use of Flexible Cystoscopy to Insert a Foley Catheter over a Guide Wire in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Special Precautions to be Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Oo, Tun

    2011-01-01

    When urethral catheterisation is difficult or impossible in spinal cord injury patients, flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire can be performed on the bedside, thus obviating the need for emergency suprapubic cystostomy. Spinal cord injury patients, who undergo flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire, may develop potentially serious complications. (1) Persons with lesion above T-6 are susceptible to develop autonomic dysreflexia during cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire; nifedipine 5-10 milligrams may be administered sublingually just prior to the procedure to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. (2) Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk for getting urine infections as compared to able-bodied individuals. Therefore, antibiotics should be given to patients who get haematuria or urethral bleeding following urethral catheterisation over a guide wire. (3) Some spinal cord injury patients may have a small capacity bladder; in these patients, the guide wire, which is introduced into the urinary bladder, may fold upon itself with the tip of guide wire entering the urethra. If this complication is not recognised and a catheter is inserted over the guide wire, the Foley catheter will then be misplaced in urethra despite using cystoscopy and guide wire.

  15. Use of Flexible Cystoscopy to Insert a Foley Catheter over a Guide Wire in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Special Precautions to be Observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When urethral catheterisation is difficult or impossible in spinal cord injury patients, flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire can be performed on the bedside, thus obviating the need for emergency suprapubic cystostomy. Spinal cord injury patients, who undergo flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire, may develop potentially serious complications. (1 Persons with lesion above T-6 are susceptible to develop autonomic dysreflexia during cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire; nifedipine 5–10 milligrams may be administered sublingually just prior to the procedure to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. (2 Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk for getting urine infections as compared to able-bodied individuals. Therefore, antibiotics should be given to patients who get haematuria or urethral bleeding following urethral catheterisation over a guide wire. (3 Some spinal cord injury patients may have a small capacity bladder; in these patients, the guide wire, which is introduced into the urinary bladder, may fold upon itself with the tip of guide wire entering the urethra. If this complication is not recognised and a catheter is inserted over the guide wire, the Foley catheter will then be misplaced in urethra despite using cystoscopy and guide wire.

  16. High field Nb/sub 3/Sn Axicell insert coils for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Scanlan, R.M.; Agarwal, K.L.; Bailey, R.E.; Burgeson, J.E.; Kim, I.K.; Magnuson, G.D.; Mallett, B.D.; Pickering, J.L.

    1984-03-01

    Two 12-tesla superconducting insert coils are being designed by General Dynamics Convair Division for the axicell regions of MFTF-B for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A major challenge of this project is to ensure that combined fabrication and operational strains induced in the conductor are within stringent limitations of the relatively brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor filaments. These coils are located in the axicell region of MFTF-B. They have a clear-bore diameter of 36.195cm (14.25 inches) and consist of 27 double pancakes (i.e., 54 pancakes per coil) would on an electrically insulated 304LN stainless steel/bobbin helium vessel. Each pancake has 57 turns separated by G-10CR insulation. The complete winding bundle has 4.6 million ampere-turns and uniform current density of 2007 A/cm/sup 2/. In conjunction with the other magnets in the system, they produce a 12-tesla central field and a 12.52-tesla peak field. A multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor was selected to meet these requirements. The conductor consists of a monolithic insert soldered into a copper stabilizer. Sufficient cross-sectional area and work-hardening of the copper stabilizer has been provided for the conductor to self-react the electromagnetic Lorentz force induced hoop stresses with normal operational tensile strains less than 0.07 percent.

  17. High field Nb3Sn Axicell insert coils for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    Two 12-tesla superconducting insert coils are being designed by General Dynamics Convair Division for the axicell regions of MFTF-B for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A major challenge of this project is to ensure that combined fabrication and operational strains induced in the conductor are within stringent limitations of the relatively brittle Nb 3 Sn superconductor filaments. These coils are located in the axicell region of MFTF-B. They have a clear-bore diameter of 36.195cm (14.25 inches) and consist of 27 double pancakes (i.e., 54 pancakes per coil) would on an electrically insulated 304LN stainless steel/bobbin helium vessel. Each pancake has 57 turns separated by G-10CR insulation. The complete winding bundle has 4.6 million ampere-turns and uniform current density of 2007 A/cm 2 . In conjunction with the other magnets in the system, they produce a 12-tesla central field and a 12.52-tesla peak field. A multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor was selected to meet these requirements. The conductor consists of a monolithic insert soldered into a copper stabilizer. Sufficient cross-sectional area and work-hardening of the copper stabilizer has been provided for the conductor to self-react the electromagnetic Lorentz force induced hoop stresses with normal operational tensile strains less than 0.07 percent

  18. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  19. An automated coil winding machine for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, S.; Iwase, T.; Inoue, I.; Fukui, I.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, S.; Sato, Y.; Yoshihara, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Johnson, E.; Gibson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have finished the preliminary design of a fully automated coil winding machine that can be used to manufacture the large number of SSC dipole magnets. The machine aims to perform all coil winding operations including coil parts inserting without human operators at a high productive rate. The machine is composed of five industrial robots. In order to verify the design, they built a small winding machine using an industrial robot and successfully wound a 1 meter long coil using SSC dipole magnet wire. The basic design for the full length coil and the robot winding technique are described in this paper. A fully automated coil winding machine using standard industrial components would be very useful if duplicate production lines are used. 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Measurement of a Conduction Cooled Nb3Sn Racetrack Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HS; Kovacs, C.; Rochester, J.; Sumption, MD; Tomsic, M.; Peng, X.; Doll, D.

    2017-12-01

    Use of superconducting coils for wind turbines and electric aircraft is of interest because of the potential for high power density and weight reduction. Here we test a racetrack coil developed as a proof-of-concept for cryogen-free superconducting motors and generators. The coil was wound with 1209 m of 0.7-mm-diameter insulated tube-type Nb3Sn wire. The coil was epoxy-impregnated, instrumented, covered with numerous layers of aluminized mylar insulation, and inserted vertically into a dewar. The system was cooled to 4.2 K, and a few inches of liquid helium was allowed to collect at the bottom of the dewar but below the coil. The coil was cooled by conduction via copper cooling bars were attached to the coil but also were immersed in the liquid helium at their lower ends. Several current tests were performed on the coil, initially in voltage mode, and one run in current mode. The maximum coil Ic at 4.2 K was 480 A, generating 3.06 T at the surface of the coil. The coil met the design targets with a noticeable margin.

  1. Experimenting with wires, batteries, bulbs and the induction coil: Narratives of teaching and learning physics in the electrical investigations of Laura, David, Jamie, myself and the nineteenth century experimenters. Our developments and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    Physics is conventionally taught as a fixed curriculum which students must master. This thesis changes that: curriculum emerges from what learners try and question in experiments they invent. The thesis narrates: three adult students exploring wires, batteries and bulbs with me as teacher; nineteenth century investigations of electromagnetism; my laboratory work replicating historic instruments. In each case, learning arose through activity with materials. Evidences of this are analyzed within narratives and reflections. I used teaching-research, a method developed by Duckworth from Piaget's clinical interviewing, to research and simultaneously extend students' evolving understandings. What I learned through questioning students informed my next interactions; what they learned extended their experimenting. Similarly, I researched historical accounts interactively: improvising experiments to develop my understandings. Studying my own learning deepened my interpretations of students' learning. My students Laura, David and Jamie experimented by: soldering bulbs to wires, making series and parallel circuits, inserting resistive wire that dimmed bulbs, conducting electricity through salt water They noticed bulb brightness and battery heat, compared electricity's paths, questioned how voltage and current relate. They inferred electricity's effects manifest magnitudes of material properties. They found their experiences while learning were inseparable from what they learned. I researched investigations connected with Cavendish's leather fish, Galvani's frogs, Schweigger's wire spiraled around a compass needle, Henry's electromagnets, Faraday's induction ring, induction devices of Page, Callan, Hearder. Experimentally, I made galvanometers, electromagnets, induction rings, induction coil. I observed effects of electromagnetism, internal resistance, induced sparking. Across these investigations, learning developed with instrumental innovations; confusions were productive

  2. Hybrid coils having an improved heat transfer capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid coil ( 11 ) employs a wire layer ( 22 ), a wire layer ( 23 ) adjacent the wire layer ( 22 ), and a wire layer ( 24 ) adjacent the wire layer ( 23 ). The hybrid coil ( 11 ) further employs a thermal conductive insulator ( 42 ) physically disposed within a space between the wire layer ( 22 )

  3. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  4. Does the insertion of a gel-based marker at stereotactic breast biopsy allow subsequent wire localizations to be carried out under ultrasound guidance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.A.; James, J.J.; Cornford, E.J.; Hamilton, L.J.; Burrell, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the insertion of a gel-based marker at the time of stereotactic breast biopsy allows subsequent preoperative localization to be performed under ultrasound guidance. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive women who underwent either a 10 G stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or 14 G stereotactic core biopsy with marker placement, followed by wire localization and surgical excision were identified. All had mammographic abnormalities not initially visible with ultrasound. The method of preoperative localization was recorded and its success judged with reference to the wire position on the post-procedure films relative to the mammographic abnormality and the marker. Histopathology data were reviewed to ensure the lesion had been adequately excised. Results: Eighty-three women (83%) had a successful ultrasound-guided wire localization. Successful ultrasound-guided localization was more likely after stereotactic vacuum biopsy (86%) compared to stereotactic core biopsy (68%), although this did not quite reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). Conclusion: The routine placement of a gel-based marker after stereotactic breast biopsy facilitates preoperative ultrasound-guided localization.

  5. Asymmetrical distalization of maxillary molars with zygomatic anchorage, improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires, and open-coil springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Yoon, Hyung Sik; Ono, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Zygomatic anchorage enables distalization in uncooperative or noncompliant patients. We describe 1 such procedure in a 24-year-old woman. We used novel improved superelastic nickel-titanium archwires combined with nickel-titanium open-coil springs to provide a constant and continuous low force to the dentition. We were able to successfully eliminate the protrusive profile and correct the Class II molar relationship using this system of zygomatic anchorage. The posterior occlusal relationships were improved to achieve Class I canine and molar relationships on both sides, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were established. Facial esthetics was improved with decreased protrusion of the upper and lower lips. The method used here is a promising alternative to traditional distalization techniques and might offer an effective and simple means of distalizing maxillary molars in uncooperative patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LHC bending magnet coil

    CERN Multimedia

    A short test version of coil of wire used for the LHC dipole magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair.

  7. Surgical approach for minimal breast lesions in the material of the center, using preoperative insertion of metal identification wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltzer, I; Kroupa, K.; Cierny, R.; Palacka, P.; Puskarova, E.; Torok, A.; Osifova, O.; Laukova, T.; Bella, V.; Simova, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the pursuit of the detection of early subclinical forms of breast cancer, and with regard to the advancement in screening programs, the wire-guided excision is irreplaceable in the diagnostic and therapy of benign and malignant breast lesions. In the 15-year period (1. 1. 1991 - 31. 12. 2005) we have performed surgery on 21 826 patients. 7 845 (35,9 %) of them were surgically treated for breast disease, including patients (311 cases) with other operation (secondary suture, surgery for infection, debridement...). 3 383 patients were treated for benign, 4 151 for malignant lesions. Out of the total of 7 534 patients, 6 332 (84,0 %) were treated for palpable lesions, 1 202 (16,0 %) for non-palpable lesions, with the localization needle. In this article we present the analysis of clinical material of the Clinic of surgery of the National Oncological Institute (NOU). (author)

  8. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Barbara; Bjelic, Saša; Honnappa, Srinivas; Jawhari, Hatim; Jaussi, Rolf; Payapilly, Aishwarya; Jowitt, Thomas; Steinmetz, Michel O; Kammerer, Richard A

    2010-11-16

    Coiled coils are extensively and successfully used nowadays to rationally design multistranded structures for applications, including basic research, biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, and medicine. The wide range of applications as well as the important functions these structures play in almost all biological processes highlight the need for a detailed understanding of the factors that control coiled-coil folding and oligomerization. Here, we address the important and unresolved question why the presence of particular oligomerization-state determinants within a coiled coil does frequently not correlate with its topology. We found an unexpected, general link between coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity and trigger sequences, elements that are indispensable for coiled-coil formation. By using the archetype coiled-coil domain of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 as a model system, we show that well-established trimer-specific oligomerization-state determinants switch the peptide's topology from a dimer to a trimer only when inserted into the trigger sequence. We successfully confirmed our results in two other, unrelated coiled-coil dimers, ATF1 and cortexillin-1. We furthermore show that multiple topology determinants can coexist in the same trigger sequence, revealing a delicate balance of the resulting oligomerization state by position-dependent forces. Our experimental results should significantly improve the prediction of the oligomerization state of coiled coils. They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains.

  9. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-09-01

    The orthodontist seeks an archwire-bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and -7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction.

  11. Development and implementation of an 84-channel matrix gradient coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Sebastian; Jia, Feng; Layton, Kelvin J; Kroboth, Stefan; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2018-02-01

    Design, implement, integrate, and characterize a customized coil system that allows for generating spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) in a highly-flexible fashion. A gradient coil with a high number of individual elements was designed. Dimensions of the coil were chosen to mimic a whole-body gradient system, scaled down to a head insert. Mechanical shape and wire layout of each element were optimized to increase the local gradient strength while minimizing eddy current effects and simultaneously considering manufacturing constraints. Resulting wire layout and mechanical design is presented. A prototype matrix gradient coil with 12 × 7 = 84 elements consisting of two element types was realized and characterized. Measured eddy currents are gradient strengths between 24 mT∕m and 78 mT∕m could be realized locally with maximum currents of 150 A. Initial proof-of-concept imaging experiments using linear and nonlinear encoding fields are demonstrated. A shielded matrix gradient coil setup capable of generating encoding fields in a highly-flexible manner was designed and implemented. The presented setup is expected to serve as a basis for validating novel imaging techniques that rely on nonlinear spatial encoding fields. Magn Reson Med 79:1181-1191, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Mechanical design features of the MSU K-800 cyclotron superconducting coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, D.; Blosser, H.G.; Moskalik, J.M.; Stork, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The winding of the K-800 cyclotron superconducting magnet coil was completed in late 1983. The windings consist of four separate coils (symmetrical large and small coils on each side of the median plane). The coils are wound in vertical layers in a spiral fashion. The large coils are 32 layers with 2329 total turns each (59,000 feet of wire) and the small coils are 32 layers with 1544 turns each (39,000 feet of wire). The spiral winding was achieved by supporting the first turn of a layer by a set of gradually increasing spacers with subsequent turns supported by previous turns. Winding was done on the 10 foot diameter table vertical lathe. The winding apparatus was mounted on the lathe's tool arm which had an automatic vertical feed to match the spiral path of the wire. The superconducting cable has a retangular cross section (with rounded corners) of dimentions .207 inches x .150 inches. Approximately 200 niobium titanium filaments are contained in a .04 inch x .06 inches copper insert that is soldered (50/50 lead tin) in a slot in the side of the copper conductor substrate

  13. Trapped field properties of a Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk by pulsed field magnetization using a split coil inserted by iron yokes with various geometries and electromagnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K., E-mail: t2216017@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Ainslie, M.D. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T. [Department of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Shi, Y-H.; Cardwell, D.A. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The trapped field characteristics of a standard Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk magnetized by PFM was investigated using a split coil with three kinds of iron yokes inserted in the bores of coil,both experimentally and numerically. • Numerical results encourage better understanding of the role of yoke, including the typical behavior of the magnetic flux, such as a flux jump during PFM. • A higher saturation magnetic flux density of the yoke material was effective to reduce flux flow in the descending stage of the pulsed field. • A conductivity of the yoke material also acts to reduce the velocity of the flux intruding the bulk because of eddy currents that flow in the yoke that oppose the magnetization, which reduces the temperature rise in the bulk. - Abstract: We have investigated, both experimentally and numerically, the trapped field characteristics of a standard Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk of 30 mm in diameter and 14 mm in thickness magnetized by pulsed field magnetization (PFM) using a split coil, in which three kinds of iron yoke are inserted in the bore of the coil: soft iron with a flat surface, soft iron with a taper, and permendur (50Fe + 50Co alloy) with a flat surface. The highest trapped field, B{sub Tmax}, of 2.93 T was achieved at 40 K in the case of the permendur yoke, which was slightly higher than that obtained for the flat soft iron or the tapered soft iron yokes, and was much higher than 2.20 T in the case without the yoke. The insertion effect of the yoke on the trapped field characteristics was also investigated using numerical simulations. The results suggest that the saturation magnetic flux density, B{sub sat}, of the yoke acts to reduce the flux flow due to its hysteretic magnetization curve and the higher electrical conductivity, σ, of the yoke material also acts to suppress the flux increase rate. A flux jump (or flux leap) can be reproduced in the ascending stage of PFM using numerical simulation, using an assumption of relatively

  14. Development of low cost-Nb{sub 3}Sn coil with PVF insulated wire through react and wind technique (1); PVF zetsuen wo hodokoshita riakuto and waindo (R and W) ho ni yoru tei kosuto Nb{sub 3}Sn koiru no kaihatsu (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Y.; Yokoyama, S.; Hiramoto, K.; Komatsu, S. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    Recently, it has used the magnet of conduction cooling type which does not use liquid He for various industrial use ways. In the meantime, in our company, the development of low hysteresis loss and high current density and cost reduction of internal diffusion method Nb{sub 3}Sn wire rod is the progressing, and it advances the development to magnet application by this wire rod. In this study, it manufactured the small coil under the condition in search of permission strain condition in handling heat treatment-finished wire rod, after strain characteristic-proof of Nb{sub 3}Sn wire rod was grasped, and it was evaluated. (NEDO)

  15. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  16. A precise technique for manufacturing correction coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, L.

    1992-01-01

    An automated method of manufacturing correction coils has been developed which provides a precise embodiment of the coil design. Numerically controlled machines have been developed to accurately position coil windings on the beam tube. Two types of machines have been built. One machine bonds the wire to a substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube after it is completed while the second machine bonds the wire directly to the beam tube. Both machines use the Multiwire reg-sign technique of bonding the wire to the substrate utilizing an ultrasonic stylus. These machines are being used to manufacture coils for both the SSC and RHIC

  17. Tesla coil theoretical model and experimental verification

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkans, Janis; Voitkans, Arnis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract – In this paper a theoretical model of a Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wired format, where the line voltage is measured against electrically neutral space. It is shown that equivalent two-wired scheme can be found for a single-wired scheme and already known long line theory can be applied to a Tesla coil. Formulas for calculation of voltage in a Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance fre...

  18. Complete Obliteration of a Basilar Artery Aneurysm after Insertion of a Self- Expandable Leo Stent into the Basilar Artery without Coil Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszkat, Robert; Nowak, Stanis Aw; Wieloch, Micha; Zarzecka, Anna [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland)

    2008-08-15

    We report a case of a 45-year-old man who underwent endovascular treatment in the acute setting of a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a widenecked basilar trunk aneurysm. The patient was treated with stent implantation without coiling. A control angiographic scan obtained immediately after the procedure revealed significantly decreased intraaneurysmal flow. Follow-up angiography performed after one month demonstrated total aneurysm occlusion.

  19. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  20. Superconducting coil development and motor demonstration: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1995-12-01

    Superconducting bismuth-cuprate wires, coils, and magnets are being produced by industry as part of a program to test the viability of using such magnets in Naval systems. Tests of prototype magnets, coils, and wires reveal progress in commercially produced products. The larger magnets will be installed in an existing superconducting homopolar motor and operated initially at 4.2K to test the performance. It is anticipated that approximately 400 Hp will be achieved by the motor. This article reports on the initial tests of the magnets, coils, and wires as well as the development program to improve their performance.

  1. Optimization of Coil Element Configurations for a Matrix Gradient Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroboth, Stefan; Layton, Kelvin J; Jia, Feng; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jurgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, matrix gradient coils (also termed multi-coils or multi-coil arrays) were introduced for imaging and B 0 shimming with 24, 48, and even 84 coil elements. However, in imaging applications, providing one amplifier per coil element is not always feasible due to high cost and technical complexity. In this simulation study, we show that an 84-channel matrix gradient coil (head insert for brain imaging) is able to create a wide variety of field shapes even if the number of amplifiers is reduced. An optimization algorithm was implemented that obtains groups of coil elements, such that a desired target field can be created by driving each group with an amplifier. This limits the number of amplifiers to the number of coil element groups. Simulated annealing is used due to the NP-hard combinatorial nature of the given problem. A spherical harmonic basis set up to the full third order within a sphere of 20-cm diameter in the center of the coil was investigated as target fields. We show that the median normalized least squares error for all target fields is below approximately 5% for 12 or more amplifiers. At the same time, the dissipated power stays within reasonable limits. With a relatively small set of amplifiers, switches can be used to sequentially generate spherical harmonics up to third order. The costs associated with a matrix gradient coil can be lowered, which increases the practical utility of matrix gradient coils.

  2. Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkans Janis; Voitkans Arnis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical model of Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wire form, where the line voltage is measured across electrically neutral space. By applying the principle of equivalence of single-wire and two-wire schemes an equivalent two-wire scheme can be found for a single-wire scheme and the already known long line theory can be applied to the Tesla coil. A new method of multiple re...

  3. Sensitive quench detection of the HTS coil using a co-winding coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Tomohiro; Ariyama, Takahiro; Takao, Tomoaki; Tsukamoto, Osami

    2017-01-01

    The authors have studied the co-winding coil method (CW method) using the co-wound coil electrically insulated from the HTS coil. In this method, the quench is detected by the voltage difference between the coil of the HTS tape (HTS coil) and the coil of the normal conductor (CW coil). The voltage induced in the CW coil caused by the change of the magnetic field is almost the same as that in the HTS coil because the coils are magnetically coupled close to each other. Therefore, it is expected that the induced voltage will be canceled with high accuracy and that the resistive voltage in the HTS coil will be detected with greater sensitivity compared to the bridge balance method, which is used commonly. In this study, quench detection applying the CW method is demonstrated using an experimental double-pancake coil. A tape with the copper layer deposited on the polymer substrate was used as the insulated conductor wire to form the CW coil. An additional pancake coil was used to expose the experimental double-pancake coil to the external magnetic field asymmetrically. It was shown that the CW method can detect the resistive voltage with greater sensitivity even when the HTS coil was exposed to the changing asymmetric external magnetic field. (author)

  4. Magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Takano, Hirohisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide an electrical-insulatively stabilized magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device, restraining an increase in voltage when plasma current is rapidly changed. Structure: A magnetic field coil comprises coils arranged coaxial with respective vacuum vessels, said coils being wound in positive and reverse polarities so as to form a vertical magnetic field within the plasma. The coils of the positive polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel inside of an axis vertical in section of the annular plasma and are arranged symmetrically up and down of a horizontal axis. On the other hand, the coils of the reverse polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel outside of a vertical axis and arranged symmetrically up and down of the horizontal axis. These positive and reverse polarity coils are alternately connected in series, and lead portions of the coils are connected to a power source by means of connecting wires. In this case, lead positions of the coils are arranged in one direction, and the connecting wires are disposed in closely contact relation to offset magnetic fields formed by the connecting wires each other. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  6. An inflatable surface coil for rectal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.F.; Hajek, P.C.; Baker, L.L.; Gylys-Morin, V.; Mattrey, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surface coils have become ubiquitous in MR imaging of the body because of substantial gains in signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, there are some anatomic regions, such as the prostate, for which surface coils have insufficient depth sensitivity. The authors have developed an inflatable, distributed capacitance, passively decoupled surface coil which is collapsed for insertion and reinflated for imaging. Images of the prostate are dramatically improved due to proximity of the coil. Lesions in cadaver specimens were observed which were not seen with body coil imaging. Clinical trials are expected to begin in September

  7. Remote maintenance of tandem mirror hybrid coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid Coils (superconducting coils with normal conducting inserts) are being employed with increasing frequency on Tandem Mirror Devices to obtain high field strengths. The normal conducting copper inserts are short lived in comparison to their encircling superconductors. It becomes desirable, therefore, to devise design features and maintenance procedures to replace the inner normal conducting coils without simultaneously replacing the longer lived (and significantly more costly) superconducting coils. The high neutron wall loadings require that the task be accomplished by remote control. The approach is to permanently mount the coil assemblies on track mounted carriages which serve, during machine operation merely as structural supports, but during maintenance procedures as moveable transport devices. The carriages incorporate all necessary provisions to facilitate remote maintenance operations and to adjust and align the coil assemblies with respect to adjacent machine components. The vacuum vessel is severed on both sides of the hybrid coil by means of a remote cutting machine. The entire coil is transported horizontally, normal to the machine axis to a nearby repair station. Prepositioned carriage mounted repair equipment at the repair station withdraws the damaged normal coil as a single entity and inserts a preassembled spare unit. The repaired hybrid coil is reassembled to the reactor. A cost and risk effective procedure has been evolved to maintain one of the more critical components of a Tandem Mirror Machine

  8. Electrical wire as a foreign body in a male urethra: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stravodimos Konstantinos G

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Self-inflicted foreign bodies in the male urethra and urinary bladder are an emergency that urologists may rarely have to face. A case of an electrical wire inserted in the male urethra and coiled in the bladder is presented. Case presentation A 53-year-old male presented with the inability to void and bloody urethral discharge after having introduced an electrical wire in his urethra for masturbation 3 hours earlier. He had made several unsuccessful attempts to remove it. Conclusion The variety of these objects may be impressive and removal of the foreign body may be quite challenging requiring imagination and high-level surgical skills., In this case an electrical wire was used and the diagnostic as well as the therapeutic steps for its removal are presented.

  9. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Lawson, J.E.; Persing, R.G.; Senko, T.R.; Woolley, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new coil protection system (CPS) is being developed to replace the existing TFTR magnetic coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPS, when installed in October of 1988, will permit operation up to the actual coil stress limits parameters in real-time. The computation will be done in a microprocessor based Coil Protection Calculator (CPC) currently under construction at PPL. THe new CPC will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates. The CPC will provide real-time estimates of critical coil and bus temperatures and stresses based on real-time redundant measurements of coil currents, coil cooling water inlet temperature, and plasma current. The critical parameter calculations are compared to prespecified limits. If these limits are reached or exceeded, protection action will be initiated to a hard wired control system (HCS), which will shut down the power supplies. The CPC consists of a redundant VME based microprocessor system which will sample all input data and compute all stress quantities every ten milliseconds. Thermal calculations will be approximated every 10ms with an exact solution occurring every second. The CPC features continuous cross-checking of redundant input signal, automatic detection of internal failure modes, monitoring and recording of calculated results, and a quick, functional verification of performance via an internal test system. (author)

  10. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  11. A new design of SMES coil for bridging instantaneous voltage dips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurusu, T; Ono, M; Ogata, H; Tosaka, T; Senda, I; Nomura, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of SMES coil for bridging instantaneous dips and some experimental results. The technical key point of this work is the design of a NbTi coil composed of a monolith NbTi/Cu wire for DC application. In order to cover the disadvantages of the monolith wire, some solutions have been proposed and tested using a fullscale test coil. Experimental results show the validity of the design concept of the SMES coil

  12. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent development of magnesium diboride superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting coils for heavy aircraft...

  13. Detailed 3D models of the induced electric field of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, F S; Lancaster, J L; Fox, P T

    2007-01-01

    Previous models neglected contributions from current elements spanning the full geometric extent of wires in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils. A detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry is shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of electric field (E-field) models. Modeling E-field dependence based on the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured) where simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured)

  14. Design of a dynamic transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sheng; Jiang, Ruoli; Wang, Ruimin; Chen, Ji

    2014-08-01

    To study the brain activity at the whole-head range, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) researchers need to investigate brain activity over the whole head at multiple locations. In the past, this has been accomplished with multiple single TMS coils that achieve quasi whole-head array stimulation. However, these designs have low resolution and are difficult to position and control over the skull. In this study, we propose a new dynamic whole-head TMS mesh coil system. This system was constructed using several sagittal and coronal directional wires. Using both simulation and real experimental data, we show that by varying the current direction and strength of each wire, this new coil system can form both circular coils or figure-eight coils that have the same features as traditional TMS coils. Further, our new system is superior to current coil systems because stimulation parameters such as size, type, location, and timing of stimulation can be dynamically controlled within a single experiment.

  15. Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitkans Janis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical model of Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wire form, where the line voltage is measured across electrically neutral space. By applying the principle of equivalence of single-wire and two-wire schemes an equivalent two-wire scheme can be found for a single-wire scheme and the already known long line theory can be applied to the Tesla coil. A new method of multiple reflections is developed to characterize a signal in a long line. Formulas for calculation of voltage in Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance frequencies are proposed. The theoretical calculations are verified experimentally. Resonance frequencies of Tesla coil are measured and voltage standing wave characteristics are obtained for different output capacities in the single-wire mode. Wave resistance and phase coefficient of Tesla coil is obtained. Experimental measurements show good compliance with the proposed theory. The formulas obtained in this paper are also usable for a regular two-wire long line with distributed parameters.

  16. BPX toroidal field coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenvoeder, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the toroidal field (TF) coil system of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which consists of (18) beryllium copper magnets arrayed in a wedged configuration with a major radius of 2.6 meters and a field strength capability on axis of 9.0 Tesla. The toroidal array is constructed from six (3)-coil modules to facilitate remote recovery in the event of a magnet failure after nuclear activation precludes hands-on servicing. The magnets are of a modified Bitter plate design with partial cases of type 316-LN stainless steel welded with Inconel 182 weld wire. The coil turn plates are fabricated from CDA C17510 beryllium copper with optimized mechanical, thermal, and electrical characteristics. joints within the turns and between turns are made by welding with C17200 filler wire. Cryogenic cooling is employed to reduce power dissipation and to enhance performance. The magnets are cooled between experimental pulses by pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through channels in the edges of the coil turns. This arrangement makes possible one full-power pulse per hour. Electrical insulation consists of polyimide-glass sheets bonded in place with vacuum-pressure impregnated epoxy/glass

  17. Effects of insulation on potted superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, A.F.; DeKamp, J.C.; Magsig, C.T.; Nolen, J.A.; McInturff, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Test coils using identical wire but with either Formvar or Polyesterimid insulation were fabricated to determine the effects of insulation on training behavior. It was found that the type of insulation did not affect the training behavior. While considerable attention has been paid to epoxy formulations used for superconducting coils, little study has been devoted to the effects of the wire insulation on training behavior. If the insulation does not bind well with the epoxy, the wires will not be held securely in place, and training will be required to make the coil operate at its design limit. In fact, the coil may never reach its design current, showing considerable degredation. Conversely, if the epoxy-insulation reaction is to soften or weaken the insulation, then shorts and/or training may result. The authors have undertaken a study of the effects of the insulation on potted coils wet wound with Stycast 2850 FT epoxy. The wire was insulated with one of two insulting varnishes: Formvar (a polyvinyl formal resin) or Polyesterimid (a phenolic resin). Formvar is the standard insulation in the United States while Polyesterimid the European standard

  18. Quench studies on a layer-wound Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/AgX coil at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trociewitz, U P; Czabaj, B; Hong, S; Huang, Y; Knoll, D C; Larbalestier, D C; Markiewicz, W D; Miao, H; Meinesz, M; Wang, X; Schwartz, J

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the controlled quench behavior of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils, particularly when using HTS coils in a hybrid configuration as an insert in a low temperature superconducting magnet, a layer-wound solenoid using Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O wire was instrumented with several strip heaters to generate quenches in the axial and azimuthal directions. An array of distributed voltage taps and thermocouples were used to monitor the quench signals. Minimum quench energies (MQE) and quench propagation velocities (NZPVs) were determined. Results show that quench energies were moderate. NZPVs were slow but quench reaction times were of the same order as reaction times obtained at low quench energy densities in Nb 3 Sn coils

  19. Spiral Gradient Coil Design for Use in Cylindrical MRI Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Xin, Xuegang; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2018-04-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, the stream function based method is commonly used in the design of gradient coils. However, this method can be prone to errors associated with the discretization of continuous current density and wire connections. In this paper, we propose a novel gradient coil design scheme that works directly in the wire space, avoiding the system errors that may appear in the stream function approaches. Specifically, the gradient coil pattern is described with dedicated spiral functions adjusted to allow the coil to produce the required field gradients in the imaging area, minimal stray field, and other engineering terms. The performance of a designed spiral gradient coil was compared with its stream-function counterpart. The numerical evaluation shows that when compared with the conventional solution, the inductance and resistance was reduced by 20.9 and 10.5%, respectively. The overall coil performance (evaluated by the figure of merit (FoM)) was improved up to 26.5% for the x -gradient coil design; for the z-gradient coil design, the inductance and resistance were reduced by 15.1 and 6.7% respectively, and the FoM was increased by 17.7%. In addition, by directly controlling the wire distributions, the spiral gradient coil design was much sparser than conventional coils.

  20. Rectangle Surface Coil Array in a Grid Arrangement for Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-13

    magnet wires with insulating coating for rectangular surface coils. The wires are formed into four one turn 145mm x 32mm rectangular coils...switchable array, RF magnetic field, NQR, MRI, NMR, tuning, decoupling I. INTRODUCTION ESONANCE imaging can be accomplished using Nuclear Magnetic ...grid array. This achieves the switchable array configuration. Later, investigations will have circuit controlled multiplexer for switching to

  1. Eccentric figure-eight coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Masaki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keita; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Hosomi, Koichi; Saitoh, Youichi

    2015-01-01

    Previously we proposed an eccentric figure-eight coil that can cause threshold stimulation in the brain at lower driving currents. In this study, we performed numerical simulations and magnetic stimulations to healthy subjects for evaluating the advantages of the eccentric coil. The simulations were performed using a simplified spherical brain model and a realistic human brain model. We found that the eccentric coil required a driving current intensity of approximately 18% less than that required by the concentric coil to cause comparable eddy current densities within the brain. The eddy current localization of the eccentric coil was slightly higher than that of the concentric coil. A prototype eccentric coil was designed and fabricated. Instead of winding a wire around a bobbin, we cut eccentric-spiral slits on the insulator cases, and a wire was woven through the slits. The coils were used to deliver magnetic stimulation to healthy subjects; among our results, we found that the current slew rate corresponding to motor threshold values for the concentric and eccentric coils were 86 and 78 A/µs, respectively. The results indicate that the eccentric coil consistently requires a lower driving current to reach the motor threshold than the concentric coil. Future development of compact magnetic stimulators will enable the treatment of some intractable neurological diseases at home. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. Operator coil monitoring Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) abort coils from the Master and RSS stations will be systematically tested during performance of this procedure. It should be noted that these are not physical abort coils but software coils controlled by the software's ladder logic. The readiness of the DACS to properly interface with the ENRAF wire level gauge installed in the SY-101 storage tank will also be tested. During this test, a verification of all abort coil indications will be conducted at the DACS Development Facility in the 306E Building by injecting an input signal for each DACS sensor that has an associated abort coil until the abort coil actuates, and then ensuring that the status of the abort coil indicated at the Master and RSS stations is correct. Each abort coil will also be tested to ensure that the ''ENABLE'' and ''DISABLE'' controls from the Master and RSS stations function correctly, and only with the use of proper passwords

  5. Automatic treatment of multiple wound coils in 3D finite element problems including multiply connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, P.J.; Lai, H.C.; Eastham, J.F.; Al-Akayshee, Q.H. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an efficient scheme for incorporating multiple wire wound coils into 3D finite element models. The scheme is based on the magnetic scalar representation with an additional basis for each coil. There are no restrictions on the topology of coils with respect to ferromagnetic and conductor regions. Reduced scalar regions and cuts are automatically generated.

  6. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  8. CS model coil experimental log book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  9. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part II: symmetric MSE coil arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    A globally optimal superconducting magnet coil design procedure based on the Minimum Stored Energy (MSE) current density map is outlined. The method has the ability to arrange coils in a manner that generates a strong and homogeneous axial magnetic field over a predefined region, and ensures the stray field external to the assembly and peak magnetic field at the wires are in acceptable ranges. The outlined strategy of allocating coils within a given domain suggests that coils should be placed around the perimeter of the domain with adjacent coils possessing alternating winding directions for optimum performance. The underlying current density maps from which the coils themselves are derived are unique, and optimized to possess minimal stored energy. Therefore, the method produces magnet designs with the lowest possible overall stored energy. Optimal coil layouts are provided for unshielded and shielded short bore symmetric superconducting magnets.

  10. OCLATOR (One Coil Low Aspect Toroidal Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1980-02-01

    A new approach to construct a tokamak-type reactor(s) is presented. Basically the return conductors of toroidal field coils are eliminated and the toroidal field coil is replaced by one single large coil, around which there will be placed several tokamaks or other toroidal devices. The elimination of return conductors should, in addition to other advantages, improve the accessibility and maintainability of the tokamaks and offer a possible alternative to the search for special materials to withstand large neutron wall loading, as the frequency of changeover would be increased due to minimum downtime. It also makes it possible to have a low aspect ratio tokamak which should improve the ..beta.. limit, so that a low toroidal magnetic field strength might be acceptable, meaning that the NbTi superconducting wire could be used. This system is named OCLATOR (One Coil Low Aspect Toroidal Reactor).

  11. Coil extensions improve line shapes by removing field distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2018-06-01

    The static magnetic susceptibility of the rf coil can substantially distort the field B0 and be a dominant source of line broadening. A scaling argument shows that this may be a particular problem in microcoil NMR. We propose coil extensions to reduce the distortion. The actual rf coil is extended to a much longer overall length by abutted coil segments that do not carry rf current. The result is a long and nearly uniform sheath of copper wire, in terms of the static susceptibility. The line shape improvement is demonstrated at 43.9 MHz and in simulation calculations.

  12. Reactivation of Open Coil Springs: A Novel Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Open coil springs are commonly used in orthodontic practice to create space for a palatally or lingually blocked out tooth. However, very often the clinician encounters a situation where the inter-bracket span is very less and the open coil spring is not long enough to open the required space needed for alignment. In such situations, the clinician needs to remove the arch wire and reinserts a longer coil spring. A new simple and cost-effective technique describes an intraoral reactivation of an open coil spring without the need for removal of the base archwire with the additional benefit of preventing unwanted forces to the adjacent teeth.

  13. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  18. Conception of Brownian coil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiayuan

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a conception of Brownian coil. Brownian coil is a tiny coil with the same size of pollen. Once immersed into designed magnetic field and liquid, the coil will be moved and deformed macroscopically, due to the microscopic thermodynamic molecular collisions. Such deformation and movement will change the magnetic flux through the coil, by which an ElectroMotive Force (EMF) is produced. In this work, Brownian heat exchanger and Brownian generator are further designed to tran...

  19. Dynamic multi-channel TMS with reconfigurable coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruoli; Jansen, Ben H; Sheth, Bhavin R; Chen, Ji

    2013-05-01

    Investigations of the causal involvement of particular brain areas and interconnections in behavior require an external stimulation system with reasonable spatio-temporal resolution. Current transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology is limited to stimulating a single brain area once in a given trial. Here, we present a feasibility study for a novel TMS system based on multi-channel reconfigurable coils. With this hardware, researchers will be able to stimulate multiple brain sites in any temporal order in a trial. The system employs a wire-mesh coil, constructed using x- and y-directional wires. By varying the current direction and/or strength on each wire, we can configure the proposed mesh-wire coil into a standard loop coil and figure-eight coil of varying size. This provides maximum flexibility to the experimenter in that the location and extent of stimulation on the brain surface can be modified depending on experimental requirement. Moreover, one can dynamically and automatically modify the site(s) of stimulation several times within the span of seconds. By pre-storing various sequences of excitation patterns inside a control unit, one can explore the effect of dynamic TMS on behavior, in associative learning, and as rehabilitative therapy. Here, we present a computer simulation and bench experiments that show the feasibility of the dynamically-reconfigurable coil.

  20. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  1. Development of Ground Coils with Low Eddy Current Loss by Applying the Compression Molding Method after the Coil Winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masao; Aiba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ota, Satoru; Okada, Shigenori

    In a magnetically levitated transportation (MAGLEV) system, a huge number of ground coils will be required because they must be laid for the whole line. Therefore, stable performance and reduced cost are essential requirements for the ground coil development. On the other hand, because the magnetic field changes when the superconducting magnet passes by, an eddy current will be generated in the conductor of the ground coil and will result in energy loss. The loss not only increases the magnetic resistance for the train running but also brings an increase in the ground coil temperature. Therefore, the reduction of the eddy current loss is extremely important. This study examined ground coils in which both the eddy current loss and temperature increase were small. Furthermore, quantitative comparison for the eddy current loss of various magnet wire samples was performed by bench test. On the basis of the comparison, a round twisted wire having low eddy current loss was selected as an effective ground coil material. In addition, the ground coils were manufactured on trial. A favorable outlook to improve the size accuracy of the winding coil and uneven thickness of molded resin was obtained without reducing the insulation strength between the coil layers by applying a compression molding after winding.

  2. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four simultaneous tests in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different coil materials. Test one is a completely insulated coil section where the insulation is the all polyamide system being tested at Brookhaven; test two is a wire stack insulated only with the normal Kapton overwrap; test three is a stack of bare cable; and test four is a completely insulated normal coil section. All, except for the bare cable, include the ground insulation. The insulated coil sections are carefully dried before loading and testing in order to eliminate stress changes due to varying moisture content. The temperature dependence of the stress relaxation is being studied separately. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: (1) ''Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation'' (2) ''Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures'' (3) ''Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil.''

  3. 12 tesla test coil. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Plasma Fusion Center at MIT has been charged with responsibility for the design, development, fabrication and test operation of a Niobium-3-Tin Superconducting Test Coil. Research is described on DOE's 12 tesla coil demonstration program in which several one-meter diameter superconducting test coils will be inserted and tested in DOE's High Field Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories. The work was initiated at the start of FY 79. FY 79 saw the completion of our Preliminary Design and the initiation of three (3) subcontracts: (1) Westinghouse review of the Preliminary Design, (II) Supercon, Inc. development of a tubular copper matrix, Nb 3 Sn Superconductor and (III) Airco optimization of the LCP-W Nb 3 Sn superconductor for 12T service. In addition, Airco was charged with the production of a 1000 foot length of model 15,000A conductor. Coil winding exercises were initiated at the Everson Electric Company

  4. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  5. AC loss in superconducting wires operating in a wind turbine like generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Eugen; Zirngibl, Thomas; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    We have manufactured a small circular superconducting coil impregnated with epoxy fibreglass. The coil was wound from a Bi-2223/Ag superconducting wire and it was tested in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. Current-voltage characteristic and the AC losses of the coil were measured and compared...

  6. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  7. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Scott; Holesinger, Terry; Huang, Ybing

    2012-01-01

    of an extremely high H c2 . For this reason, Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb 3 Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J E in the range 200-500 A/mm 2 ; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J E (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J E at the operating conditions, resistive transition

  8. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  9. A large-stroke shape memory alloy spring actuator using double-coil configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung-Won; An, Sungmin; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Lee, Jong-Gu; Cho, Maenghyo

    2015-01-01

    One way to increase the range of motion of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators is to create displacements of the SMA associated with not only the deformation from straining but also rigid-body motion from translation and rotation. Rigid-body motion allows the SMA to create larger displacements without exceeding the maximum recovery strain so that the SMA actuators can have a larger shape recovery ratio. To improve the linear actuation stroke of SMA wire actuators, a novel SMA spring actuator is proposed that employs a double-coil geometry that allows the displacement of the SMA to be mainly induced by rigid-body motion. A double-coil SMA spring actuator is fabricated by coiling an SMA wire twice so that the double coiling results in a reduction of the initial length of the double-coil SMA spring actuator. The effects of the geometric parameters on the actuation characteristic of a double-coil SMA spring actuator are verified numerically by finite element analysis and experimentally according to a parametric study of the geometric parameters. The displacement-to-force profile of the double-coil SMA spring actuator is nonlinear, and the spring stiffness changes when the actuator transforms its configuration from a double-coil shape to a single-coil shape. According to the results of the parametric study, increasing the wire diameter increases both primary and secondary coil stiffness, and increasing the primary inner coil diameter decreases both primary and secondary coil stiffness, whereas increasing the secondary inner coil diameter decreases only the secondary coil stiffness. The result shows that one of the double-coil SMA spring actuators with an initial length of 8 mm has a recovery ratio of 1250%, while the recovery ratio of the single-coil SMA spring actuator with the same geometric parameters is 432%. (paper)

  10. OCLATOR (One Coil Low Aspect Toroidal Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1980-02-01

    A new approach to construct a tokamak-type reactor(s) is presented. Basically the return conductors of toroidal field coils are eliminated and the toroidal field coil is replaced by one single large coil, around which there will be placed several tokamaks or other toroidal devices. The elimination of return conductors should, in addition to other advantages, improve the accessibility and maintainability of the tokamaks and offer a possible alternative to the search for special materials to withstand large neutron wall loading, as the frequency of changeover would be increased due to minimum downtime. It also makes it possible to have a low aspect ratio tokamak which should improve the β limit, so that a low toroidal magnetic field strength might be acceptable, meaning that the NbTi superconducting wire could be used. This system is named OCLATOR

  11. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  12. Coil supporting device for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Kazuo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce a thermal stress of a coil such as a magnetic limiter to minimize stress acting on a protective tube of the coil. Structure: A coil within a protective tube has its outer periphery surrounded and supported by a heat-resisting material such as ceramic at more than two positions suitably spaced lengthwise of a coil conductor, and heat insulating members are interposed between both sides of the coil and the protective tube so that it may be retained with respect to the width of the coil. Further, a heat-resisting resilient member is inserted in a clearance between an outer circumference and an inner circumference of the coil to allow a radial displacement of the coil. As a result, elongation of the coil due to thermal expansion may be escaped at the aforesaid two supports to reduce thermal stress of the coil and protective tube to support the coil within the protective tube in positively heat-resisting and insulating manner. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Versatile fill coils: initial experience as framing coils for oblong aneurysms. A technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Toshiya; Bain, Mark; Hui, Ferdinand K

    2014-01-01

    Coil embolization of oblong aneurysms is difficult because the majority of commercially available coils are manufactured with a helical or spherical tertiary structure. While adopting framing strategies for oblong aneurysms (aspect ratio ≥ 2: 1), traditional coils may be undersized in the long axis but oversized in the short axis, resulting in increased aneurysmal wall stress, risk of re-rupture, and difficulty creating a basket that respects the aneurysmal neck. We review three cases in which versatile filling coils (VFCs) were used as the initial coils for embolization of oblong aneurysms and report coil distribution characteristics and clinical outcomes. Packing density after VFC implantation was assessed using the software AngioSuite-Neuro edition and AngioCalc. a 58-year-old woman experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm (7.5 mm × 3.5 mm). A 3-6 mm × 15 cm VFC was selected as the first coil because the flexibility of its wave-loop structure facilitates framing of an irregularly shaped aneurysm. The loop portions of the structures tend to be pressed to the extremes of the aneurysmal sac by the wave component. The VFC was introduced smoothly into the aneurysmal sac without catheter kickback. We were then able to insert detachable filling coils without any adjunctive technique and achieved complete occlusion. Complete occlusion without severe complications was achieved in all three cases in our study. Average packing density after the first coil was 15.63%. VFC coils may have a specific role in framing oblong aneurysms given their complex loop-wave design, allowing spacing of the coils at the dome and neck while keeping sac stress to a minimum.

  14. High-Field Quench Behavior and Protection of $Bi_2 Sr_2 Ca Cu_2 O_x$ Coils: Minimum and Maximum Quench Detection Voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming [Fermilab; Ye, Liyang [NCSU, Raleigh; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Li, Pei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    Small insert coils have been built using a multifilamentary Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire, and characterized in background fields to explore the quench behaviors and limits of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconducting magnets, with an emphasis on assessing the impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection. Using heaters of various lengths to initiate a small normal zone, a coil was quenched safely more than 70 times without degradation, with the maximum coil temperature reaching 280 K. Coils withstood a resistive voltage of tens of mV for seconds without quenching, showing the high stability of these coils and suggesting that the quench detection voltage shall be greater than 50 mV to not to falsely trigger protection. The hot spot temperature for the resistive voltage of the normal zone to reach 100 mV increases from ~40 K to ~80 K with increasing the operating wire current density Jo from 89 A/mm2 to 354 A/mm2 whereas for the voltage to reach 1 V, it increases from ~60 K to ~140 K, showing the increasing negative impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection with increasing Jo and the need to limit the quench detection voltage to < 1 V. These measurements, coupled with an analytical quench model, were used to access the impact of the maximum allowable voltage and temperature upon quench detection on the quench protection, assuming to limit the hot spot temperature to <300 K.

  15. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Gibson, E. D.; Ostenson, J. E.; Schmidt, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb 3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb 3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting

  16. Split coil made of (RE)BCO pancake coils for IC(B) anisotropy measurements of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolek, L; Pardo, E; Gömöry, F; Šouc, J; Pitel, J

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the I c (B) anisotropy is standard characterization of superconducting tapes, wires or cables. This contribution presents a split coil consisting on two superconducting pancake coils in order to generate the magnetic field necessary for this kind of measurement. Both coils were made using (RE)BCO – based second generation (2G) coated conductor tape with cross section 0.1 mm × 12 mm. The individual turns of the tape were insulated by a fiberglass tape without impregnation. These coils have identical inner and outer diameter and number of turns. Their inner and outer diameters are 50 mm and 80 mm, respectively, and they have 62 turns. The length of conductor in each coil is approximately 13 m. The distance between both pancake coils is 22 mm. Individual coils and the complete split coil were characterized in liquid nitrogen bath. Their parameters, like the critical currents, E(I) characteristics and magnetic field of complete split coil, were measured and interpreted. The split coil can be used up to magnetic fields of 210 mT. The length between the potential taps on the sample can be up to 20 mm, while the magnetic field decrease is lower than 1% on this length.

  17. Experimental study on underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qing; Zhang Jun; Tan Xiangyu; Ren Baozhong; Zhang Qiaogen

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the physical process of underwater electrical wire explosion, electrical wire explosions with copper wires were investigated underwater using pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowsky coil and a voltage divider were used for current and voltage at the wire load, respectively. The shock wave pressure is measured with a piezoelectric pressure probe at the same distance. The current rise rate was adjusted by changing the applied voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire. The change of the current rise rate had a great effect on the process of underwater electrical wire explosion with copper wires. At last, the effect of discharge voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire were obtained on the explosion voltage and current as well as shock wave pressure. (authors)

  18. Power supply in a wire mill; Energiefuehrungen sind schwer auf Draht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Stahl, Ingelore [Kabelschlepp GmbH, Wenden-Gerlingen (Germany). International Fairs and Public Relation

    2009-09-15

    Near Rotterdam, steel producer Ovako operates a wire mill including a coating and pickling unit. The pickling unit has a capacity of 450,000 tpa of wire and is one of the biggest of its kind. The cranes and lifting gear for transporting wire coils and operating the dipping tanks have plastic power tracks for uninterrupted operation. (orig.)

  19. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, M.; Brooks, A.; Rushinski, J.; Upcavage, R.

    2009-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure

  20. Development of Nb3Sn AC superconducting wire. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Hobun; Torii, Shinji; Akita, Shirabe; Ueda, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Yoji; Yasohama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Ogasawara, Takeshi.

    1993-01-01

    For the realization of superconducting power apparatus, it is important that the development of highly stable superconducting cables. Nb 3 Sn wire has higher critical temperature than NbTi wire. Therefore, it is possible to make highly stable superconducting wires. In this report, we examine a manufacturing process of Ac Nb 3 Sn wire. This manufacturing process has four times higher critical current density than conventional processes. We have made a 400 kVA class AC coil with React and Wind method. The loss density of this coil was 20MW/m 3 at just before the quench. In this case, the temperature of cable increased about 3.8 K. This means that the Nb 3 Sn coil has a very high stability. (author)

  1. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  2. Detailed 3D models of the induced electric field of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, F S; Lancaster, J L; Fox, P T [Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2007-05-21

    Previous models neglected contributions from current elements spanning the full geometric extent of wires in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils. A detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry is shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of electric field (E-field) models. Modeling E-field dependence based on the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured) where simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured)

  3. Pulsed field losses and intentional quenches of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pulsed field losses of several 5-20 kJ coils have been measured under triangular field variations. The conductors, developed as potential subcables of 25-50 kA cables, consist of Cu wires and NbTi strands with or without CuNi barriers. Losses of soft-soldered subcables are compared with those of well-compacted cables. The coils were quenched intentionally by pulsing the coils above the critical current to observe loss variations due to possible conductor damage. The method of measurements, and effects of soldering and compactness of the conductors on the pulsed field losses will be presented

  4. Pacemaker wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  5. Coil optimisation for transcranial magnetic stimulation in realistic head geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Lari M; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Mutanen, Tuomas P; Stenroos, Matti; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows focal, non-invasive stimulation of the cortex. A TMS pulse is inherently weakly coupled to the cortex; thus, magnetic stimulation requires both high current and high voltage to reach sufficient intensity. These requirements limit, for example, the maximum repetition rate and the maximum number of consecutive pulses with the same coil due to the rise of its temperature. To develop methods to optimise, design, and manufacture energy-efficient TMS coils in realistic head geometry with an arbitrary overall coil shape. We derive a semi-analytical integration scheme for computing the magnetic field energy of an arbitrary surface current distribution, compute the electric field induced by this distribution with a boundary element method, and optimise a TMS coil for focal stimulation. Additionally, we introduce a method for manufacturing such a coil by using Litz wire and a coil former machined from polyvinyl chloride. We designed, manufactured, and validated an optimised TMS coil and applied it to brain stimulation. Our simulations indicate that this coil requires less than half the power of a commercial figure-of-eight coil, with a 41% reduction due to the optimised winding geometry and a partial contribution due to our thinner coil former and reduced conductor height. With the optimised coil, the resting motor threshold of abductor pollicis brevis was reached with the capacitor voltage below 600 V and peak current below 3000 A. The described method allows designing practical TMS coils that have considerably higher efficiency than conventional figure-of-eight coils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Ferromagnetic Material to Extend and Shield the Magnetic Field of a Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    the application of ferromagnetic cladding on the coil. Calculations were performed for an infinitely long wire with a 2.5- × 5.0-cm rectangular...turn coil with a 20-cm diameter, metal cladding of varying permeability of µo, 10 µo, and 50 µo, and cross sections identical to the previous infinite ...1 Fig. 2 Field from a rectangular saturated ferromagnetic material and an infinitely long wire with a rectangular cross section

  7. Misalignment tolerable coil structure for biomedical applications with wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeff P W; Chen, Nan; Chung, Henry S H; Chan, Leanne L H

    2013-01-01

    Coil-misalignment is one of the major hurdles for inductively coupled wireless power transfer in applications like retinal prosthesis. Weak magnetic flux linkage due to coil misalignments would significantly impair the power efficiency. A novel receiver configuration with high misalignment tolerance is presented in this paper. The proposed receiver is composed of two receiver coils placed orthogonally, so as to reduce the variation of mutual inductance between transmitting and receiving coils under misalignment conditions. Three different receiver coil structures are analyzed and compared using the same length of wire. Theoretical predictions have been confirmed with measurement results.

  8. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  9. NET model coil test possibilities in the TOSKA TWIN configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenhagen, A.; Heller, R.; Herz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Jentzsch, K.; Kapulla, H.; Kneifel, B.; Komarek, P.; Lehmann, W.; Maurer, W.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.

    1989-07-01

    This report continues an earlier one on the possibilities of NET model coil testing in the TOSKA Upgrade facility at KfK. The investigation of a 'Cluster Test Facility' and a 'Solenoid Test Facility' is followed by the investigation of two further test arrangements. They are called 'Twin Configurations'. One common feature of both arrangements is that the EURATOM-LCT-coil delivers a background magnetic field. This coil should be operated at a temperature of 1.8 K and an enhanced current up to 20 kA compared to the LCT test where 3.5 K and up to 16 kA were the operating conditions. In one configuration the NET model test coil is adjacent to the LCT coil (ATC = Adjacent Twin Configuration), in the other one the NET model coil is inserted into the bore of LCT coil (ITC = Inserted Twin Configuration) either upright or with a 60 0 C slope. The configurations are investigated with respect to their electromagnetic mechanical and thermo-hydraulic properties. The requirements for the necessary mechanical support structure of the LCT coil were computed. Installation and cooling of the whole system were discussed. The time schedule and the costs for the test facility modification were estimated. Advantages and disadvantages for the configurations were discussed with respect to feasibility of the test arrangement and operation. (orig.) [de

  10. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  11. Superconducting magnetic coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  12. Modelling of flexi-coil springs with rubber-metal pads in a locomotive running gear

    OpenAIRE

    Michálek T.; Zelenka J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, flexi-coil springs are commonly used in the secondary suspension stage of railway vehicles. Lateral stiffness of these springs is influenced by means of their design parameters (number of coils, height, mean diameter of coils, wire diameter etc.) and it is often suitable to modify this stiffness in such way, that the suspension shows various lateral stiffness in different directions (i.e., longitudinally vs. laterally in the vehicle-related coordinate system). Therefore, these sprin...

  13. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  14. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  15. Flux Redux: The Spinning Coil Comes around Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Daniel; Dietz, Eric; Zou, Xueli; Ard, Christopher; Lee, Jaydie; Kaneshiro, Chris; Blanton, Robert; Sun, Steven

    2017-01-01

    An essential laboratory exercise for our lower-division electromagnetism course involves the measurement of Earth's local magnetic field from the emf induced in a rotating coil of wire. Although many methods exist for the measurement of Earth's field, this one gives our students some practical experience with Faraday's law. The apparatus we had…

  16. Readout Distance Enhancement of the Passive Wireless Multi-Parameter Sensing System Using a Repeater Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A repeater coil is used to extend the detection distance of a passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system. The passive wireless sensing system has the ability of simultaneously monitoring three parameters by using backscatter modulation together with channel multiplexing. Two different repeater coils are designed and fabricated for readout distance enhancement of the sensing system: one is a PCB (printed circuit board repeater coil, and the other is a copper wire repeater coil. Under the conditions of fixed voltage and adjustable voltage, the maximum readout distance of the sensing system with and without a repeater coil is measured. Experimental results show that larger power supply voltage can help further increase the readout distance. The maximum readout distance of the sensing system with a PCB repeater coil has been extended 2.3 times, and the one with a copper wire repeater coil has been extended 3 times. Theoretical analysis and experimental results both indicate that the high Q factor repeater coil can extend the readout distance more. With the copper wire repeater coil as well as a higher power supply voltage, the passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system finally achieves a maximum readout distance of 13.5 cm.

  17. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  18. Thermal analysis of track based coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, K [American MAGLEV, Inc., Edgewater, FL (United States); Zowarka, R [CEM, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This document examines the temperature rise of coils embedded in a concrete matrix. The ultimate goal is to predict the steady state temperature of the coils subject to a repeated passage of vehicles at a regular interval. The primary concern is in maintaining a maximum temperature which is less than that which would compromise the integrity of the insulation used on the wires. Three techniques are used to examine the problem. First, an analytical approach is used to determine not only the immediate temperature rise of the wire material itself, but also a consevative estimate of the steady state temperature expected. Second, the equations are examined for a one dimensional transient profile of the temperature with time. Finally, a two dimensional steady state boundary element solution is employed to estimate the steady state temperature profile both within the coils and within the rail. In this two dimensional boundary element assessment, an iterative approach is employed to accurately model the heat transfer coefficient h which ultimately defines the steady state temperature. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of multiwire coil ends having 45 degree bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Multiwire is the name of a proprietary process for affixing small diameter wires to a flat substrate using digitally controlled machinery. It is currently being used to wind trim coils for the SSC dipoles on a flexible substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube. It is proposed for making multipole coils for the Corrector, a regular arc magnet in each half-cell of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The current Multiwire process does not permit a change in direction of the wire other than 45 degree. The present paper answers the question of whether the 45 degree bends in the flattened coil can be located along straight lines in such a way as to eliminate or reduce higher harmonics in the ends. The more general question of bends located along curves is not addressed

  20. Optimization of multiwire coil ends having 45 degree bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Multiwire is the name of a proprietary process for affixing small diameter wires to a flat substrate using digitally controlled machinery. It is currently being used to wind trim coils for the SSC dipoles on a flexible substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube. It is proposed for making multipole coils for the Corrector, a regular arc magnet in each half-cell of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The current Multiwire process does not permit a change in direction of the wire other than 45 degree. The present paper answers the question of whether the 45 degree bends in the flattened coil can be located along straight lines in such a way as to eliminate or reduce higher harmonics in the ends. The more general question of bends located along curves is not addressed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. High-field quench behavior and dependence of hot spot temperature on quench detection voltage threshold in a Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Turrioni, Daniele; Li, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a multifilamentary Ag/Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x round wire insulated with a mullite sleeve (∼100 μm in thickness) and characterized in background fields to explore the quench behaviors and limits of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x superconducting magnets, with an emphasis on assessing the impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection. Using heaters of various lengths to initiate a small normal zone, a coil was quenched safely more than 70 times without degradation, with the maximum coil temperature reaching 280 K. Coils withstood a resistive voltage of tens of mV for seconds without quenching, showing the high stability of these coils and suggesting that the quench detection voltage should be greater than 50 mV in order not to falsely trigger protection. The hot spot temperature for the resistive voltage of the normal zone to reach 100 mV increased from ∼40–∼80 K while increasing the operating wire current density J o from 89 A mm −2 to 354 A mm −2 , whereas for the voltage to reach 1 V, it increased from ∼60–∼140 K. This shows the increasing negative impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection with increasing J o and the need to limit the quench detection voltage to <1 V. These measurements, coupled with an analytical quench model, were used to assess the impact of the maximum allowable detection voltage and temperature upon quench detection on the quench protection, assuming a limit of the hot spot temperature to <300 K. (paper)

  2. An Air Bearing Rotating Coil Magnetic Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C; Taylor, David J; Thayer, William

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a rotating coil magnetic measurement system supported on air bearings. The design is optimized for measurements of 0.1micron magnetic centerline changes on long, small aperture quadrupoles. Graphite impregnated epoxy resin is used for the coil holder and coil winding forms. Coil holder diameter is 11 mm with a length between supports of 750mm. A pair of coils is used to permit quadrupole bucking during centerline measurements. Coil length is 616mm, inner radius 1.82mm, outer radius 4.74mm. The key features of the mechanical system are simplicity; air bearings for accurate, repeatable measurements without needing warm up time and a vibration isolated stand that uses a steel-topped Newport optical table with air suspension. Coil rotation is achieved by a low noise servo motor controlled by a standalone Ethernet servo board running custom servo software. Coil calibration procedures that correct wire placement errors, tests for mechanical resonances, and other system checks will also be discu...

  3. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  4. Active internal corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.; Dahl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Trim or corrector coils to correct main magnet field errors and provide higher multipole fields for beam optics purposes are a standard feature of superconducting magnet accelerator systems. This paper describes some of the design and construction features of powered internal trim coils and a sampling of the test results obtained

  5. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  6. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  7. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  8. Design Aspects on Winding of an MgB2 Superconducting Generator Coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, N.; Eliassen, J.C.; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2015-01-01

    copper conductors at room temperature at one tenth of the wire cost per unit carried current. In the framework of the European project INNWIND.EU, an MgB2 superconducting generator pole will be designed, built and tested. Some of the design aspects of this work with emphasis on the winding process...... and associated coil insulation are discussed. An overall high current density in the coil is of crucial importance to obtain clear benefits compared to conventional solutions. The wire itself may be the most important parameter in that respect. However, the overall current density of the coil is also influenced......% compared to the use of an additional, dedicated, electrical insulation like Kapton for wet-winding or glass-fibre for dry-winding followed by vacuum impregnation. We show the results of a trial winding of 500 m of MgB2 superconducting wire into a double pancake coil using the wet-winding technique...

  9. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  10. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty and... galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...

  11. Large coil task and results of testing US coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The United States, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland have collaborated since 1978 in development of superconducting toroidal field coils for fusion reactor applications. The United States provided a test facility nd three coils; the other participants, one coil each. All coils have the same interface dimensions and performance requirements (stable at 8 T), but internal design was decided by each team. Two US coil teams chose bath-cooled NbTi, 10-kA conductors. One developed a Nb 3 Sn conductor, cooled by internal flow, rated at 18 kA. All US coils have diagnostic instrumentation and imbedded heaters that enable stability tests and simulated nuclear heating experiments. In single-coil tests, each coil operated at full current in self-field (6.4 T). In six-coil tests that began in July 1986, one US coil and the Japanese coil hve been successfully operated at full current at 8 T. The other coils have operated as background coils while awaiting their turn as test coil. Coil tests have been informative and results gratifying. The facility has capably supported coil testing and its operation has provided information that will be useful in designing future fusion systems. Coil capabilities beyond nominal design points will be determined

  12. Commercial applications for COIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  13. Open coil traction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  14. Monorail snare technique for the recovery of stretched platinum coils: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, David; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Deshmukh, Vivek R; McDougall, Cameron G

    2005-07-01

    Coil stretching represents a potentially hazardous technical complication not infrequently encountered during the embolization of cerebral aneurysms. Often, the stretched coil cannot be advanced into the aneurysm or withdrawn intact. The operator is then forced to attempt to retract the damaged coil, which may result in coil breakage, leaving behind a significant length of potentially thrombogenic stretched coil material within the parent vessel. To overcome this problem, we devised a technique to snare the distal, unstretched, intact portion of the platinum coil by use of the indwelling microcatheter and stretched portion of the coil as a monorail guide. We have used this technique successfully in four patients to snare coils stretched during cerebral aneurysm embolization. Three of these patients were undergoing Neuroform (Boston Scientific/Target, Fremont, CA) stent-supported coil embolization of unruptured aneurysms. In all cases, the snare was advanced easily to the targeted site for coil engagement by use of the microcatheter as a monorail guide. Once the intact distal segment of the coil was ensnared, coil removal was uneventful, with no disturbance of the remainder of the indwelling coil pack or Neuroform stent. A 2-mm Amplatz Goose Neck microsnare (Microvena Corp., White Bear Lake, MN) was placed through a Prowler-14 microcatheter (Cordis Corp., Miami, FL). The hub of the indwelling SL-10 microcatheter (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) was then cut away with a scalpel, leaving the coil pusher wire intact, and removed. The open 2-mm snare was then advanced over the outside of the coil pusher wire and microcatheter. The snare and Prowler-14 microcatheter were then advanced into the guiding catheter (6- or 7-French) as a unit over the indwelling SL-10 microcatheter. By use of the SL-10 microcatheter and coil as a "monorail" guide, the snare was advanced over and beyond the microcatheter and the stretched portion of the coil until the snare was in position to

  15. Extending the self-assembly of coiled-coil hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robson Marsden, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Of the various biomolecular building blocks in use in nature, coiled-coil forming peptides are amongst those with the most potential as building blocks for the synthetic self-assembly of nanostructures. Native coiled coils have the ability to function in, and influence, complex systems composed of

  16. Periprocedural safety of aneurysm embolization with the Medina Coil System: the early human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Aquilla S; Maia, Orlando; Ferreira, Christian Candido; Freitas, Diogo; Mocco, J; Hanel, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms, if untreated, carry a high risk of morbidity and mortality from intracranial bleeding. Embolization coils are the most common treatment. We describe the periprocedural safety and performance of the initial human experience with the next generation Medina Coil System. The Medina Coil System is a layered three-dimensional coil made from a radiopaque, shape set core wire, and shape memory alloy outer coil filaments. Nine aneurysms in five patients were selected for treatment with the Medina Coil System. Nine aneurysms in five patients, ranging from 5 to 17 mm in size in various locations, were treated with the Medina Coil System. No procedural or periprocedural complications were encountered. Procedure times, number of coils used to treat the aneurysm, and use of adjunctive devices were much less than anticipated if conventional coil technology had been used. The Medina Coil System is a next generation coil that combines all of the familiar and expected procedural safety and technique concepts associated with conventional coils. We found improved circumferential aneurysm filling, which may lead to improved long term outcomes, with fewer devices and faster operating times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Development of sine/cosine coil based on cross-section modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Kondoh, Junji; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    New type sine and cosine coils whose areas of cross sections vary as sine and cosine are proposed. The measurements of current position by the new coils showed their availability. Traditional sine or cosine coil is wound with a pitch which varies as sine or cosine. However these coils have a problem of manufacturing, i.e. it is not easy to wind wire exactly with a pitch of sine or cosine. This new modulation, i.e. varying cross section, provides handy and accurate measurements of the current position. (author)

  18. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-01-23

    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus/search/periodic_table. In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  19. Structural mapping of the coiled-coil domain of a bacterial condensin and comparative analyses across all domains of life suggest conserved features of SMC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Vincent M; Stanage, Tyler H; Mims, Alexandra; Norden, Ian S; Oakley, Martha G

    2015-06-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins form the cores of multisubunit complexes that are required for the segregation and global organization of chromosomes in all domains of life. These proteins share a common domain structure in which N- and C- terminal regions pack against one another to form a globular ATPase domain. This "head" domain is connected to a central, globular, "hinge" or dimerization domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. To date, most efforts for structural characterization of SMC proteins have focused on the globular domains. Recently, however, we developed a method to map interstrand interactions in the 50-nm coiled-coil domain of MukB, the divergent SMC protein found in γ-proteobacteria. Here, we apply that technique to map the structure of the Bacillus subtilis SMC (BsSMC) coiled-coil domain. We find that, in contrast to the relatively complicated coiled-coil domain of MukB, the BsSMC domain is nearly continuous, with only two detectable coiled-coil interruptions. Near the middle of the domain is a break in coiled-coil structure in which there are three more residues on the C-terminal strand than on the N-terminal strand. Close to the head domain, there is a second break with a significantly longer insertion on the same strand. These results provide an experience base that allows an informed interpretation of the output of coiled-coil prediction algorithms for this family of proteins. A comparison of such predictions suggests that these coiled-coil deviations are highly conserved across SMC types in a wide variety of organisms, including humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  1. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  2. Sample of superconducting wiring from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots wh...

  3. ANALISIS RESISTANSI COIL KAWAT TEMBAGA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN SUHU SANGAT RENDAH SEBAGAI RANCANG DASAR PENGUKURAN SUHU RENDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswanto Riswanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of a wire conductor depend of the wire material. Copper wire formed into a coil shape an effective form to produce a large resistance. Copper wire resistance influenced bytemperature about it. Coil of copper wire has a good response at low temperature changes produced by liquid nitrogen. This response is shown by the index value determination (R2 = 0.999 which is close to the value 1,that means changes in temperature approaching a linear response to changes in a voltage. The results can be used as a basis for the design of the low-temperature measurements cheaper

  4. On modular stellarator reactor coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used

  5. TFTR toroidal field coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.; Punchard, W.F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The design of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Toroidal Field (TF) magnetic coils is described. The TF coil is a 44-turn, spiral-wound, two-pancake, water-cooled configuration which, at a coil current of 73.3 kiloamperes, produces a 5.2-Tesla field at a major radius of 2.48 meters. The magnetic coils are installed in titanium cases, which transmit the loads generated in the coils to the adjacent supporting structure. The TFTR utilizes 20 of these coils, positioned radially at 18 0 intervals, to provide the required toroidal field. Because it is very highly loaded and subject to tight volume constraints within the machine, the coil presents unique design problems. The TF coil requirements are summarized, the coil configuration is described, and the problems highlighted which have been encountered thus far in the coil design effort, together with the development tests which have been undertaken to verify the design

  6. NCSX Toroidal Field Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish M; Rushinski J; Myatt L; Brooks A; Dahlgren F; Chrzanowski J; Reiersen W; Freudenberg K.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is an experimental device whose design and construction is underway at the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The primary coil systems for the NCSX device consist of the twisted plasma-shaping Modular Coils, the Poloidal Field Coils, and the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils. The TF Coils are D-shaped coils wound from hollow copper conductor, and vacuum impregnated with a glass-epoxy resin system. There are 18 identical, equally spaced TF coils providing 1/R field at the plasma. They operate within a cryostat, and are cooled by LN2, nominally, to 80K. Wedge shaped castings are assembled to the inboard face of these coils, so that inward radial loads are reacted via the nesting of each of the coils against their adjacent partners. This paper outlines the TF Coil design methodology, reviews the analysis results, and summarizes how the design and analysis support the design requirements

  7. Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Strelkov, S V; Mesyanzhinov, V V; Rossmann, M G

    1997-06-15

    Oligomeric coiled-coil motifs are found in numerous protein structures; among them is fibritin, a structural protein of bacteriophage T4, which belongs to a class of chaperones that catalyze a specific phage-assembly process. Fibritin promotes the assembly of the long tail fibers and their subsequent attachment to the tail baseplate; it is also a sensing device that controls the retraction of the long tail fibers in adverse environments and, thus, prevents infection. The structure of fibritin had been predicted from sequence and biochemical analyses to be mainly a triple-helical coiled coil. The determination of its structure at atomic resolution was expected to give insights into the assembly process and biological function of fibritin, and the properties of modified coiled-coil structures in general. The three-dimensional structure of fibritin E, a deletion mutant of wild-type fibritin, was determined to 2.2 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. Three identical subunits of 119 amino acid residues form a trimeric parallel coiled-coil domain and a small globular C-terminal domain about a crystallographic threefold axis. The coiled-coil domain is divided into three segments that are separated by insertion loops. The C-terminal domain, which consists of 30 residues from each subunit, contains a beta-propeller-like structure with a hydrophobic interior. The residues within the C-terminal domain make extensive hydrophobic and some polar intersubunit interactions. This is consistent with the C-terminal domain being important for the correct assembly of fibritin, as shown earlier by mutational studies. Tight interactions between the C-terminal residues of adjacent subunits counteract the latent instability that is suggested by the structural properties of the coiled-coil segments. Trimerization is likely to begin with the formation of the C-terminal domain which subsequently initiates the assembly of the coiled coil. The interplay between the stabilizing effect of the C

  8. Upgrade of DC power supply system in ITER CS model coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimono, Mitsugu; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Keita; Kawano, Katsumi; Isono, Takaaki

    2014-03-01

    Objective of the ITER CS Model Coil Test Facility is to evaluate a large scale superconducting conductor for fusion using the Central Solenoid (CS) Model Coil, which can generate a 13T magnetic field in the inner bore with a 1.5 m diameter. The facility is composed of a helium refrigerator / liquefier system, a DC power supply system, a vacuum system and a data acquisition system. The DC power supply system supplies currents to two superconducting coils, the CS Model Coil and an insert coil. A 50-kA DC power supply is installed for the CS Model Coil and two 30 kA DC power supplies are installed for an insert coil. In order to evaluate superconducting performance of a conductor used for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils whose operating current is 68 kA, the line for an insert coil is upgraded. A 10 kA DC power supply was added, DC circuit breakers were upgraded, bus bars and current measuring instrument were replaced. In accordance to the upgrade, operation manual was revised. (author)

  9. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Woolley, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new coil protection calculator (CPC) is presented in this paper. It is now being developed for TFTR's magnetic field coils will replace the existing coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPC will permit operation up to the actual coil limits by accurately and continuously computing coil parameters in real-time. The improvement will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates

  10. Development of wire wrapping technology for FBR fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Tetsuya; Seki, Nobuo; Sawayama, Takeo; Ishibashi, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    For the FBR fuel assembly, the spacer wire is adopted to maintain the space between fuel pins. The developments have been carried out to achieve automatically wire wrapping with high precision. Based on the fundamental technology developed through the mock-up test operation, Joyo 'MK-I', fuel pin fabrication was started using partially mechanized wire wrapping machine in 1973. In 1978, an automated wire wrapping machine for Joyo 'MK-II' was developed by the adoption of some improvements for the wire inserting system to end plug hole and the precision of wire pitch. On the bases of these experiences, fully automated wire wrapping machine for 'Monju' fuel pin was installed at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in 1987. (author)

  11. A Systematic study of modular coil characteristics for 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jinxing; Song, Yuntao; Breslau, Joshua; Neilson, George Hutch

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic studies of modular coils characteristics for quasi-axisymmetric stellarator were carried out for the key design parameters. • We systematically analyzed the relationships between design parameters of modular coils and electromagnetic properties such as the maximum field. • The approximate formulae relating modular coil parameters to the maximum magnetic field were derived by the use of simple two coil systems. - Abstract: Modular coil characteristics of a 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA configuration with an aspect ratio A p = 3, magnetic pressure ∼4% and rotational transform ι ∼ 0.15 per field period supplied by its own shaping have been detailed studied. In addition, the characteristics of modular coils for QAS-LA were compared with those of an intermediate QA configuration QAS-LAx and a tokamak based on the same center magnet field B 0 , aspect ratio and number of coils. As expected, the B max /B 0 , force F and overturning moment M, increase with the increased complexity of the coil shape. The relationships between the modular coils’ parameters (such as radius curvature ρ, distance from coil to coil Δ c–c and the cross-section of coils) and the electromagnetic characteristics have been systematically summarized. The approximate formula for the maximum magnetic field in the coil body as functions of modular coil parameters (Δ c–c , ρ) was derived for a simple two wire system which will be useful when optimizations of coil properties are called for

  12. Low Impedance Voice Coils for Improved Loudspeaker Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In modern audio systems utilizing switch-mode amplifiers the total efficiency is dominated by the rather poor efficiency of the loudspeaker. For decades voice coils have been designed so that nominal resistances of 4 to 8 Ohms is obtained, despite modern audio amplifiers, using switch-mode techno...... responses are estimated. For this woofer it is shown that the sensitivity can be improved approximately 1 dB, corresponding to a 30% efficiency improvement, just by increasing the fill factor using a low impedance voice coil with rectangular wire....

  13. Restoration of Fertility after Removal of Extrauterine Mirena Coil: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti R. C. Bhatta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 27-year-old lady who was seen in the infertility clinic with a history of secondary infertility of a one-year duration. She had a hysteroscopy and Mirena insertion for heavy periods. Coil strings were not found by the GP during first coil check six weeks after insertion. A pelvic ultrasound scan did not show any coil, and it was not investigated further with a possible diagnosis of coil expulsion made. One year following that, she was seen in the infertility clinic. Initial investigations revealed anovulation, and HSG located the coil to be extrauterine. Mirena was removed laparoscopically, and a month following the removal she conceived. She is currently pregnant. This case highlights the effect of extrauterine mirena coils on fertility by possibly causing higher plasma levels of levonorgesterol and resulting suppression of ovulation. Laparoscopic removal of mirena coil can help in restoration of fertility.

  14. Lattice insertions for POPAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.A.; Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.; Ohnuma, S.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Teng, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Four types of insertions are described for the six 200-m straight sections of POPAE. All have dispersion matched to zero. (1) Injection-ejection insertion--This has proper high-β values and phase advances for horizontal injection and vertical ejection. (2) Phase-adjust insertion--The phase advance in this insertion is adjustable over a range of approximately 100 0 . (3) General-purpose insertion--The β* is adjustable from 2.5. to 200 m and the crossing angle is adjustable from 0 to 11 mrad. (4) High-luminosity insertion--This gives an even lower β + of meter

  15. Superconducting coil manufacturing method for low current dc beam line magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of manufacturing superconducting multipole coils for 40 to 50 kG dc beam line magnets with low current is described. Small coils were built and tested successfully to short sample characteristics. The coils did not train after the first cooldown. The coils are porous and well cooled to cope with mechanical instability and energy deposited in the coil from the beam particles. The coils are wound with insulated strand cable. The cable is shaped rectangularly for winding simplicity and good tolerances. After the coil is wound, the insulated strands are electrically connected in series. This reduces the operating current and, most important, improves the coil quench propagation due to heat conduction of one strand adjacent to the other. A well distributed quench allows the magnet energy to distribute more uniformly to the copper in the superconductor wire, giving self-protected coils. A one-meter long, 43 kG, 6-inch bore tube superconducting dipole is now being fabricated. The porous coil design and coil winding methods are discussed

  16. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  17. Fields and coupling between coils embedded in conductive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Son

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate solution is developed for the mutual inductance of two circular coils enclosed by insulating cavities in a conducting medium. This solution is used to investigate the variation of the mutual inductance upon the conductivity of the background (e.g., soil, seawater or human body, as well as upon other parameters such as the vertical of the coils and the displacement of one of the coils in the horizontal plane. Our theoretical results are compared with full wave simulations and a previous solution valid when a conductive slab is inserted between two coupled resonant coils. The proposed approach can have direct impact on the design and optimisation of magnetoinductive waveguides and wireless power transfer for underground/underwater networks and embedded biomedical systems.

  18. Progress of the ITER Correction Coils in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, J; Han, S; Yu, X; Du, S; Li, C; Fang, C; Wang, L; Zheng, W; Liu, L; Wen, J; Li, H; Libeyre, P; Dolgetta, N; Cormany, C; Sgobba, S

    2014-01-01

    The ITER Correction Coils (CC) include three sets of six coils each, distributed symmetrically around the tokamak to correct error fields. Each pair of coils, located on opposite sides of the tokamak, is series connected with polarity to produce asymmetric fields. The manufacturing of these superconducting coils is undergoing qualification of the main fabrication processes: winding into multiple pancakes, welding helium inlet/outlet on the conductor jacket, turn and ground insulation, vacuum pressure impregnation, inserting into an austenitic stainless steel case, enclosure welding, and assembling the terminal service box. It has been proceeding by an intense phase of R\\&D, trials tests, and final adjustment of the tooling. This paper mainly describes the progress in ASIPP for the CC manufacturing process before and on qualification phase and the status of corresponding equipment which are ordered or designed for each process. Some test results for the key component and procedure are also presented.

  19. Fields and coupling between coils embedded in conductive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Son; Vallecchi, Andrea; Stevens, Christopher J.; Shamonina, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    An approximate solution is developed for the mutual inductance of two circular coils enclosed by insulating cavities in a conducting medium. This solution is used to investigate the variation of the mutual inductance upon the conductivity of the background (e.g., soil, seawater or human body), as well as upon other parameters such as the vertical of the coils and the displacement of one of the coils in the horizontal plane. Our theoretical results are compared with full wave simulations and a previous solution valid when a conductive slab is inserted between two coupled resonant coils. The proposed approach can have direct impact on the design and optimisation of magnetoinductive waveguides and wireless power transfer for underground/underwater networks and embedded biomedical systems.

  20. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  1. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  2. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  3. Prototype ISR Superconducting Quadrupole for the low beta insertion.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The four coils are provisionally kept together by aluminium clamps while epoxy-glass bands are wrapped around them to form a number of spacer rings.Stainless steel spacers were then inserted between these rings and the yoke quadrants. The persons are Michel Bouvier(left) and Pierre Pugin. See also7702690X.

  4. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  5. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  6. Giant High-Flow Type Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Coil Embolization with Flow Control by Balloon Occlusion and an Anchored Detachable Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Watanabe, Haruo; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are often treated by pushable fibered or non-fibered microcoils, using an anchor or scaffold technique or with an Amplatzer plug through a guiding sheath. When performing percutaneous transcatheter microcoil embolization, there is a risk of coil migration, particularly with high-flow type PAVMs. The authors report on a unique treatment in a patient with a giant high-flow PAVM whose nidus had a maximum diameter of 6 cm. A detachable coil, not detached from a delivery wire (an anchored detachable coil), was first placed in the feeding artery under flow control by balloon occlusion, and then multiple microcoils were packed proximally to the anchored detachable coil. After confirming the stability of the microcoils during a gradual deflation of the balloon, we finally released the first detachable coil. The nidus was reduced in size to 15 mm at one year postoperatively.

  7. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  8. Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, E., E-mail: ueno-eisaku@sei.co.jp; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Sumitomo Electric manufactured the HTS field coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor. • The motor was developed and successfully passed the loading test by Kawasaki Heavy. • We tested and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of coils. - Abstract: Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

  9. Effect of epoxy impregnation on strain distribution of materials in Bi2223 superconducting coils by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinzhe, E-mail: xinzhe.jin@riken.jp [Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Osamura, Kozo [Research Institute for Applied Sciences, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8202 (Japan); Machiya, Shutaro [Daido University, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shobu, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Hideaki [Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2015-11-25

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to observe strain distributions in composite materials such as superconducting wires with a thickness of less than about 2 mm. In applications that employ wound coils of superconducting wire, it is necessary to understand the strain distribution within the coiled wire. Superconducting wires such as Bi2223 and REBCO wires approximately 4–5 mm wide are commercially available. Coiled wires of this width are too thick to easily measure using conventional X-ray techniques, especially the inner strain, because the penetration depth tends to be around 2 mm. Therefore, the beam penetration must be improved, and it is known that the penetration depth of an X-ray beam depends upon the beam energy, beam intensity, measurement material, and measurement method. In this study, we used a white X-ray diffractometer at SPring-8 to develop a method of observing the strain distribution in Bi2223 superconducting coils winded by a 4.5 mm wide Bi2223 wire. We successfully observed a clear (400) peak of the Bi2223 phase by an appropriate measurement condition, and then observed the strains of each material in the Bi2223 coils with and without epoxy impregnation. This is the first time that we have obtained the strain of a Bi2223 phase in coiled wire using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Further synchrotron-based study of superconducting coils will be useful in the development of advanced high-field magnets. The appropriate measurement method and the obtained measurement results are presented in this paper. - Highlights: • We successfully obtained clear peaks of Bi2223 phase in 4.5 mm thick coils. • The strain behaviors of materials in the coil correspond to a three turn cycle model. • A uniform strain distribution of the Bi2223 phase was obtained by epoxy impregnation.

  10. Central venous catheter insertion problem solving using intravenous catheter: technical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemohammad M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous catheter is an accepted method for hemodynamic monitor-ring, drug and fluid administration, intravenous access, hemodialysis and applying cardiac pace-maker in hospitalized patients. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach to prevent catheter malposition in states that the guide wire will not pass freely.During central venous insertion in internal jugular vein using modified seldinger technique, when after venous insertion, the passage of the guide wire shows difficulties and don’t pass freely, insertion of an intravenous cannula over the wire and re-insertion of the wire can help to prevent malposition of the wire and the catheter. Use of an intravenous cannula over the guide, in situations that the guide wire cannot pass freely among the needle inserted in internal jugular vein, and re-insertion of the guide can probably prevent or reduce the tissue or vascular trauma and the associated complica-tions. This simple maneuver can be helpful in difficult cases especially in cardiac surgery patients who receive high dose heparin and it is necessary to avoid traumatize-tion of carotid artery.

  11. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  12. Miniature coils for producing pulsed inplane magnetic fields for nanospintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawliszak, Łukasz; Zgirski, Maciej [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al.Lotnikow 32/46, PL 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Tekielak, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, ul.Lipowa 41, PL 15-424 Białystok (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Nanospintronic and related research often requires the application of quickly rising magnetic field pulses in the plane of the studied planar structure. We have designed and fabricated sub-millimeter-sized coils capable of delivering pulses of the magnetic field up to ∼500 Oe in the plane of the sample with the rise time of the order of 10 ns. The placement of the sample above the coil allows for easy access to its surface with manipulators or light beams for, e.g., Kerr microscopy. We use the fabricated coil to drive magnetic domain walls in 1 μm wide permalloy wires and measure magnetic domain wall velocity as a function of the applied magnetic field.

  13. Effect of reduction of mechanical losses in AC superconducting coils having various FRP bobbins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, N.; Tada, S.; Higuchi, T.; Takao, T.; Yamanaka, A.; Fukui, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated in our previous works that a use of the particular structural material for superconducting coils was effective to mechanical-loss reduction under AC operation. In this study, we measured losses to investigate influence of the mechanical losses in the coils having various fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) with different thermal expansion coefficients. The losses were small in the coils whose winding tension at coil-operating temperature were strong, on the contrary, the losses of the coil having the weak winding tension were large. The coil having the strongest winding tension at liquid helium temperature showed the smallest loss in all coils, and the loss agreed with a value from the Norris's analysis. We think that the mechanical loss becomes almost zero in this coil since the strong tension can prevent the periodic vibration of the superconducting wire. The dependence of the loss on the difference in surface conditions of the materials of the superconducting coil's bobbins was not observed, however, the mechanical losses in AC coils strongly depended on the winding tensions at cryogenic temperature

  14. Eccentric Coil Test Facility (ECTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, P.B.; Walstrom, P.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for testing superconducting coils under some conditions peculiar to tokamak systems is given. A primary element of the proposed facility is a large 25 MJ background solenoid. Discussions of the mechanical structure, the stress distribution and the thermal stability for this coil are included. The systems for controlling the facility and diagnosing test coil behavior are also described

  15. Modular coils: a promising toroidal-reactor-coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of modular coils, (2) types of coils, (3) types of configurations (general, helically symmetric, helically asymmetric, with magnetic well, with magnetic hill), (4) types of rotational transform profile, and (5) structure and origin of ripples are given. These results show that modular coils can offer a wide range of vacuum magnetic field configurations, some of which cannot be obtained with the classical stellarator or torsatron coil configuration

  16. A study on electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the field coil in HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Kadota, T.; Joo, J.H.; Sano, H.; Murase, S.; Lee, S.H.; Hong, J.P.; Kim, H.M.; Kwon, Y.K.; Jo, Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors electromagnetically consist of a rotator wound with HTS wires and an armature with conventional copper wires like Litz wire. The HTS rotor windings, as field coils, consist of a straight part and an end-ring part. Because a major rotation torque is induced by an interaction between magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors in the straight part, most of mechanical stresses in the motor occur at the straight part. An end-ring is placed in the edge of the straight part and used to connect to each adjacent straight-part coils. The magnetic fields by coil currents concentrate on the end-ring part, therefore, it is expected that the critical current of the entire coil, straight and end-ring, can be determined by the magnitude of the field in the end-ring. This paper deals with the overall J c degradation in the end-ring part by self-field generated from the coil. In addition to electromagnetic analyses, we have performed a numerical analysis in order to evaluate mechanical stresses in the straight part of field coil by armature reaction on steady-state operation. The analytical results will be presented in this paper.

  17. Analysis of mechanical characteristics of superconducting field coil for 17 MW class high temperature superconducting synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, S. I.; Im, S. H.; Kim, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting field coils using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high current density generate high magnetic field of 2 to 5 [T] and electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) acting on the superconducting field coils also become a very strong from the point of view of a mechanical characteristics. Because mechanical stress caused by these powerful electromagnetic force is one of the factors which worsens the critical current performance and structural characteristics of HTS wire, the mechanical stress analysis should be performed when designing the superconducting field coils. In this paper, as part of structural design of superconducting field coils for 17 MW class superconducting ship propulsion motor, mechanical stress acting on the superconducting field coils was analyzed and structural safety was also determined by the coupling analysis system that is consists of commercial electromagnetic field analysis program and structural analysis program.

  18. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  19. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  20. A viable dipole magnet concept with REBCO CORC® wires and further development needs for high-field magnet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ghiorso, William B.; Gourlay, Stephen A.; Higley, Hugh C.; Lin, Andy; Prestemon, Soren O.; van der Laan, Danko; Weiss, Jeremy D.

    2018-04-01

    REBCO coated conductors maintain a high engineering current density above 16 T at 4.2 K. That fact will significantly impact markets of various magnet applications including high-field magnets for high-energy physics and fusion reactors. One of the main challenges for the high-field accelerator magnet is the use of multi-tape REBCO cables with high engineering current density in magnet development. Several approaches developing high-field accelerator magnets using REBCO cables are demonstrated. In this paper, we introduce an alternative concept based on the canted cos θ (CCT) magnet design using conductor on round core (CORC®) wires that are wound from multiple REBCO tapes with a Cu core. We report the development and test of double-layer three-turn CCT dipole magnets using CORC® wires at 77 and 4.2 K. The scalability of the CCT design allowed us to effectively develop and demonstrate important magnet technology features such as coil design, winding, joints and testing with minimum conductor lengths. The test results showed that the CCT dipole magnet using CORC® wires was a viable option in developing a REBCO accelerator magnet. One of the critical development needs is to increase the engineering current density of the 3.7 mm diameter CORC® wire to 540 A mm-2 at 21 T, 4.2 K and to reduce the bending radius to 15 mm. This would enable a compact REBCO dipole insert magnet to generate a 5 T field in a background field of 16 T at 4.2 K.

  1. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  2. Supporting device for Toroidal coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the response of a toroidal coil supporting device upon earthquakes and improve the earthquake proofness in a tokamak type thermonuclear device. Constitution: Structural materials having large longitudinal modulus and enduring great stresses, for example, stainless steels are used as the toroidal coil supporting legs and heat insulating structural materials are embedded in a nuclear reactor base mats below the supporting legs. Furthermore, heat insulating concretes are spiked around the heat insulating structural materials to prevent the intrusion of heat to the toroidal coils. The toroidal coils are kept at cryogenic state and superconductive state for the conductors. In this way, the period of proper vibrations of the toroidal coils and the toroidal coil supporting structures can be shortened thereby decreasing the seismic response. Furthermore, since the strength of the supporting legs is increased, the earthquake proofness of the coils can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  4. Differences between two definitions of the critical current of HTS coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitel, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Definition of the critical current of a coil made of anisotropic high temperature superconducting conductor is rather complicated and ambiguous, since the magnetic field generated across the winding can differ considerably in relation to both its magnitude and orientation. Two definitions of the critical current of such coils are discussed. The first definition, very often used in calculations to analyze the current carrying capacity, electric field and power dissipation of individual turns, represents an operating current at which an electric field of 1 μV cm −1 appears on one turn. The second definition represents an integral approach, and is used in experiments. This definition introduces the critical current of the coil as an operating current at which an average electric field E s , usually 0.1 μV cm −1 , appears on coil terminals. As an example, the distribution of the critical current and electric field of individual turns in the winding of a BSCCO model coil was analyzed. Critical currents of the coil as a function of an external magnetic field parallel with the coil axis were calculated according to both definitions. The results show that the first definition, which characterizes the winding at the local level, is suitable for HTS coils either operating in self-field or in a low external field, because the differences between the critical currents and n-indices of individual turns are considerable. The second criterion is suitable for the HTS coils operating in high fields, i.e. like high field insert coils. The self-field of a high field insert coil is negligible if the external field is high. As a result, the critical currents of all turns are almost identical, and the anisotropy in I c (B) characteristic plays practically no role. Rather unexpected behavior of the voltage–current characteristic of the model coil is predicted if an external field is applied. (paper)

  5. Analytical Model and Optimized Design of Power Transmitting Coil for Inductively Coupled Endoscope Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.

  6. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Agarwal, K.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.; Peck, S.D.; Burgeson, J.; Dalder, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  7. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  9. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2001-01-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  10. A spiral, bi-planar gradient coil design for open magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Shi, Yikai; Wang, Wendong; Wang, Yaohui

    2018-01-01

    To design planar gradient coil for MRI applications without discretization of continuous current density and loop-loop connection errors. In the new design method, the coil current is represented using a spiral curve function described by just a few control parameters. Using a proper parametric equation set, an ensemble of spiral contours is reshaped to satisfy the coil design requirements, such as gradient linearity, inductance and shielding. In the given case study, by using the spiral coil design, the magnetic field errors in the imaging area were reduced from 5.19% (non-spiral design) to 4.47% (spiral design) for the transverse gradient coils, and for the longitudinal gradient coil design, the magnetic field errors were reduced to 5.02% (spiral design). The numerical evaluation shows that when compared with conventional wire loop, the inductance and resistance of spiral coil was reduced by 11.55% and 8.12% for x gradient coil, respectively. A novel spiral gradient coil design for biplanar MRI systems, the new design offers better magnetic field gradients, smooth contours than the conventional connected counterpart, which improves manufacturability.

  11. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang; Chung, Dong Chul

    2017-01-01

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils

  12. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Chul [Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils.

  13. Status report on the 12T split coil test facility SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, B.; Aebli, E.; Jakob, B.; Pasztor, G.; Vecsey, G.; della Corte, A.; Pasotti, G.; Sacchetti, N.; Spadoni, M.

    1992-01-01

    The third phase of upgrading of the superconductor test facility SULTAN into a split coil system (SULTAN III) is in progress. SULTAN III a join project of ENEA (Italy) and PSI (Switzerland) consists of two coil packages, each containing three concentrically mounted superconducting solenoids. Together they will produce a field of nearly 12T between the two coil packages, inside a solenoid bore of 58 cm. The outermost 6T coils have NbTi conductors, whereas the inner 9T and 12T coils are made of A-15 cables. All Nb 3 Sn coils are manufactured by the react-and-wind technique. The split coil arrangement, in connection with a sophisticated sample insert containing a 50 kA superconducting transformer, will allow testing of short samples of high current carrying superconductors, e.g. for fusion applications. The sample insert was designed to allow changing the samples within a few hours without warming up the whole magnet system. This paper deals with the present status and potential of the Split Coil Test Facility SULTAN III

  14. Use of palatally inserted mini-screw for upper molar distalization: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliollah Arash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Reports have shown that molars can be distalized successfully with virtually no orthodontic anchorage loss with an intraosseous anchorage, even with fully erupted second molars. The purpose of this study was evaluating the effects of mini-screws as skeletal anchorage for upper molar distalization. In this case series, three patients needing maxillary first molar distalization, were selected. mini-screw was inserted in the anterior part of the palate. The screws were anchored to the first premolars by transpalatal arch and immediately loaded (150-160 g by 0.018-inch arch-wire and steel open-coil spring to distalize maxillary molars. The skeletal and dental changes were measured on cephalograms obtained before and after distalization. The amount of first molar distalization in the patients was 4 mm with 2°of tipping, 4 mm with 5°of tipping, and 3.5 mm with 2°of tipping respectively. Upper incisors and first premolars were stable during distalization.       

  15. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  16. Coil Optimization for HTS Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    An optimization approach of HTS coils in HTS synchronous machines (SM) is presented. The optimization is aimed at high power SM suitable for direct driven wind turbines applications. The optimization process was applied to a general radial flux machine with a peak air gap flux density of ~3T...... is suitable for which coil segment is presented. Thus, the performed study gives valuable input for the coil design of HTS machines ensuring optimal usage of HTS tapes....

  17. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  18. Hall probe for measuring high currents in superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferendeci, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Constructional details of a compact Hall probe for measuring high currents in superconducting coils are given. The Hall probe is easy to assemble and can be inserted or removed from the system without breaking the superconducting loop. Upper current limit of the probe can be increased by using larger magnetic core material. Shielding becomes necessary if the probe holder is to be placed near large current dependent magnetic fields

  19. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  20. Soil water retention measurements using a combined tensiometer-coiled time domain reflectometry probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz, C.M.P.; Hopmans, J.W.; Macedo, A.

    2002-01-01

    -coiled TDR probe was constructed by wrapping two copper wires (0.8 mm diam. and 35.5 cm long) along a 5-cm long porous cup of a standard tensiometer. The dielectric constant of five different soils (Oso Flaco [coarse-loamy, mixed Typic Cryorthod-fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ustollic Haplargid], Ottawa sand [F-50...

  1. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  2. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  3. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-96 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0543; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coiled coil * hydrophilic polymer * recombinant protein Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.905, year: 2013

  4. Suppression of resistive wall instabilities with distributed, independently controlled, active feedback coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, C.; Shilov, M.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Maurer, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Nadle, D.; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.

    2000-01-01

    External kink instabilities are suppressed in a tokamak experiment by either (1) energizing a distributed array of independently controlled active feedback coils mounted outside a segmented resistive wall or (2) inserting a second segmented wall having much higher electrical conductivity. When the active feedback coils are off and the highly conducting wall is withdrawn, kink instabilities excited by plasma current gradients grow at a rate comparable to the magnetic diffusion rate of the resistive wall. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  6. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-01-01

    For this study, small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO 2 – polymer coating insulation (thickness in ~20 μm versus ~100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A/mm -2 in a background field 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagate slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in a strong contrast to a coil we previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with the mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ~80 K to ~140 K while increasing from the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. Finally, this work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design

  7. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  8. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Method and apparatus for making superconductive magnet coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    A curved, shell-type magnet coil, adapted to be used in a superconducting magnet, is wound by providing a mandrel having a tubular cylindrical mid-portion terminating at both ends in tapered end portions formed with longitudinal slots having flexible fingers therebetween. An elongated electrical conductor is wound around an elongated oval-shaped pole island engaged with the outside of the cylindrical mid-portion, to form a multiplicity of oval-shaped turns engaged with a 180-degree segment of the mandrel. The coil turns have longitudinal portions with curved portions therebetween, engaging the tapered end portions of the mandrel. Upon completion of the winding, tapered expansion members are fully inserted into the tapered end portions, to displace the flexible fingers outwardly into a cylindrical form and to displace the curved portions of the turns into a shape conforming to such cylindrical form while also exerting increased tension upon the turns to minimize draping of the turns and to enhance the mechanical integrity of the coil. A half cylinder clamp may then be employed to clamp the coil, whereupon the coil may be solified by the use of an epoxy adhesive.

  10. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation

  11. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  12. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  13. The significant impact of framing coils on long-term outcomes in endovascular coiling for intracranial aneurysms: how to select an appropriate framing coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Wataru; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The importance of a framing coil (FC)-the first coil inserted into an aneurysm during endovascular coiling, also called a lead coil or a first coil-is recognized, but its impact on long-term outcomes, including recanalization and retreatment, is not well established. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that the FC is a significant factor for aneurysmal recurrence and to provide some insights on appropriate FC selection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed endovascular coiling for 280 unruptured intracranial aneurysms and gathered data on age, sex, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphology, maximal size, neck width, adjunctive techniques, recanalization, retreatment, follow-up periods, total volume packing density (VPD), volume packing density of the FC, and framing coil percentage (FCP; the percentage of FC volume in total coil volume) to clarify the associated factors for aneurysmal recurrence. RESULTS Of 236 aneurysms included in this study, 33 (14.0%) had recanalization, and 18 (7.6%) needed retreatment during a mean follow-up period of 37.7 ± 16.1 months. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, p < 0.001), FCP < 32% (OR 3.54, p = 0.009), and VPD < 25% (OR 2.96, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with recanalization, while aneurysm size (OR 1.25, p < 0.001) and FCP < 32% (OR 6.91, p = 0.017) were significant predictors of retreatment. VPD as a continuous value or VPD with any cutoff value could not predict retreatment with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS FCP, which is equal to the FC volume as a percentage of the total coil volume and is unaffected by the morphology of the aneurysm or the measurement error in aneurysm length, width, or height, is a novel predictor of recanalization and retreatment and is more significantly predictive of retreatment than VPD. To select FCs large enough to meet the condition of FCP ≥ 32% is a potential relevant factor for better

  14. Preparation of the ITER Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanino, R.; Egorov, S.; Kim, K.; Martovetsky, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Salpietro, E.; Sborchia, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Weng, P.; Bangasco, M.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Polak, M.; Formisano, A.; Zapretilina, E.; Shikov, A.; Vedernikov, G.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Muzzi, L.; Ricci, M.; Deela Corte, A.; Sugimoto, M.; Hamada, K.; Portone, A.; Hurd, F.; Mitchell, N.; Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed in Europe and is being manufactured at Tesla Engineering, UK, in the frame of a Task Agreement with the ITER International Team. Completion of the PFCI is expected at the beginning of 2005. Then, the coil shall be shipped to JAERI Naka, Japan, and inserted into the bore of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil, where it should be tested in 2005 to 2006. The PFCI consists of a NbTi dual-channel conductor, almost identical to the ITER PF1 and PF6 design, about 45 m long, with a 50 mm thick square stainless steel jacket, wound in a single-layer solenoid. It should carry up to 50 kA in a field of about 6 T, and it will be cooled by supercritical He at around 4.5 K and 0.6 MPa. An intermediate joint, representative of the ITER PF joints and located at relatively high field, will be an important new item in the test configuration with respect to the previous ITER Insert Coils. The PFCI will be fully instrumented with inductive and resistive heaters, as well as with voltage taps, Hall probes, pick-up coils, temperature sensors, pressure taps, strain and displacement sensors. The test program shall be aimed at DC and pulsed performance assessment of conductor and intermediate joint, AC loss measurement, stability and quench propagation, thermalhydraulic characterization. Here we give an overview of the preparatory work towards the test, including a review of the coil manufacturing and of the available instrumentation, a discussion of the most likely test program items, and a presentation of the supporting modeling and characterization work performed so far. (authors)

  15. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  16. The IEA Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.

    1988-01-01

    A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)

  17. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  18. Superconducting poloidal coils for STARFIRE commercial reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Evans, K. Jr.; Turner, L.R.; Huang, Y.C.; Prater, R.; Alcorn, J.

    1979-01-01

    STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth commercial tokamak power plant. A preliminary design study on its superconducting poloidal coil system is presented. Key features of the design studies are: the elimination of the ohmic heating coil; the trade-off studies of the equilibrium field coil locations; and the development of a conceptual design for the superconducting equilibrium field coils. Described are the 100 kA cryostable conductor design, the coil structure, and evaluation of the coil forces

  19. Development of a 5.1 T conduction-cooled YBCO coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi17.miyazaki@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems Company, 2-4 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iwai, Sadanori; Tosaka, Taizo; Tasaki, Kenji; Hanai, Satoshi; Urata, Masami; Ioka, Shigeru; Ishii, Yusuke [Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems Company, 2-4 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► We confirmed that performance of YBCO coil was improved by using APC wire. ► We made a conduction-cooled YBCO coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancakes. ► The coil had a central magnetic field as high as 5.1 T at 10 K. ► We also tested the coil operation in a 4 T background magnetic field. -- Abstract: We fabricated and tested a 5 T-class conduction-cooled high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancake coils wound with YBCO-coated conductors. The length of each single pancake coil was 25 m, and the inner diameter of the coil was 50 mm. The voltage–current characteristics were measured in liquid nitrogen and under conduction-cooled conditions at 10–60 K. At 10 K, the central magnetic field of the 12 stacked pancake coils was as high as 5.1 T at 305 A. We also tested the coil operation in a 4 T background magnetic field.

  20. How much detail is needed in modeling a transcranial magnetic stimulation figure-8 coil: Measurements and brain simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, Stefano; Sommer, Iris E. C.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite TMS wide adoption, its spatial and temporal patterns of neuronal effects are not well understood. Although progress has been made in predicting induced currents in the brain using realistic finite element models (FEM), there is little consensus on how a magnetic field of a typical TMS coil should be modeled. Empirical validation of such models is limited and subject to several limitations. Methods We evaluate and empirically validate models of a figure-of-eight TMS coil that are commonly used in published modeling studies, of increasing complexity: simple circular coil model; coil with in-plane spiral winding turns; and finally one with stacked spiral winding turns. We will assess the electric fields induced by all 3 coil models in the motor cortex using a computer FEM model. Biot-Savart models of discretized wires were used to approximate the 3 coil models of increasing complexity. We use a tailored MR based phase mapping technique to get a full 3D validation of the incident magnetic field induced in a cylindrical phantom by our TMS coil. FEM based simulations on a meshed 3D brain model consisting of five tissues types were performed, using two orthogonal coil orientations. Results Substantial differences in the induced currents are observed, both theoretically and empirically, between highly idealized coils and coils with correctly modeled spiral winding turns. Thickness of the coil winding turns affect minimally the induced electric field, and it does not influence the predicted activation. Conclusion TMS coil models used in FEM simulations should include in-plane coil geometry in order to make reliable predictions of the incident field. Modeling the in-plane coil geometry is important to correctly simulate the induced electric field and to correctly make reliable predictions of neuronal activation PMID:28640923

  1. How much detail is needed in modeling a transcranial magnetic stimulation figure-8 coil: Measurements and brain simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar I; Mandija, Stefano; Sommer, Iris E C; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2017-01-01

    Despite TMS wide adoption, its spatial and temporal patterns of neuronal effects are not well understood. Although progress has been made in predicting induced currents in the brain using realistic finite element models (FEM), there is little consensus on how a magnetic field of a typical TMS coil should be modeled. Empirical validation of such models is limited and subject to several limitations. We evaluate and empirically validate models of a figure-of-eight TMS coil that are commonly used in published modeling studies, of increasing complexity: simple circular coil model; coil with in-plane spiral winding turns; and finally one with stacked spiral winding turns. We will assess the electric fields induced by all 3 coil models in the motor cortex using a computer FEM model. Biot-Savart models of discretized wires were used to approximate the 3 coil models of increasing complexity. We use a tailored MR based phase mapping technique to get a full 3D validation of the incident magnetic field induced in a cylindrical phantom by our TMS coil. FEM based simulations on a meshed 3D brain model consisting of five tissues types were performed, using two orthogonal coil orientations. Substantial differences in the induced currents are observed, both theoretically and empirically, between highly idealized coils and coils with correctly modeled spiral winding turns. Thickness of the coil winding turns affect minimally the induced electric field, and it does not influence the predicted activation. TMS coil models used in FEM simulations should include in-plane coil geometry in order to make reliable predictions of the incident field. Modeling the in-plane coil geometry is important to correctly simulate the induced electric field and to correctly make reliable predictions of neuronal activation.

  2. How much detail is needed in modeling a transcranial magnetic stimulation figure-8 coil: Measurements and brain simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar I Petrov

    Full Text Available Despite TMS wide adoption, its spatial and temporal patterns of neuronal effects are not well understood. Although progress has been made in predicting induced currents in the brain using realistic finite element models (FEM, there is little consensus on how a magnetic field of a typical TMS coil should be modeled. Empirical validation of such models is limited and subject to several limitations.We evaluate and empirically validate models of a figure-of-eight TMS coil that are commonly used in published modeling studies, of increasing complexity: simple circular coil model; coil with in-plane spiral winding turns; and finally one with stacked spiral winding turns. We will assess the electric fields induced by all 3 coil models in the motor cortex using a computer FEM model. Biot-Savart models of discretized wires were used to approximate the 3 coil models of increasing complexity. We use a tailored MR based phase mapping technique to get a full 3D validation of the incident magnetic field induced in a cylindrical phantom by our TMS coil. FEM based simulations on a meshed 3D brain model consisting of five tissues types were performed, using two orthogonal coil orientations.Substantial differences in the induced currents are observed, both theoretically and empirically, between highly idealized coils and coils with correctly modeled spiral winding turns. Thickness of the coil winding turns affect minimally the induced electric field, and it does not influence the predicted activation.TMS coil models used in FEM simulations should include in-plane coil geometry in order to make reliable predictions of the incident field. Modeling the in-plane coil geometry is important to correctly simulate the induced electric field and to correctly make reliable predictions of neuronal activation.

  3. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  4. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B.; Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2012-01-01

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  5. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  6. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  8. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  9. The energizing of a NMR superconducting coil by a superconducting rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkenga, J.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; van der Klundert, L.J.M.; Knoben, J.; Kraaij, G.J.; Spuorenberg, C.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    NMR magnets require a good homogeneity within a certain volume and an excellent field stability. The homogeneity can be met using a superconducting shim coil system. The field stability requires a constant current, although in many cases the current decay time constant is too low, due to imperfections in the superconducting wire and joints. This can be overcome using a rectifier. The rectifier can also be used to load the coil. The combination and interaction of the superconducting NMR coil (2.0 Tesla and 0.35 m cold bore) and the rectifier (20 W / 1 kA) is tested. The safety of the system is discussed. The shim coil system can compensate the strayfield of the rectifier. The field decay compensation will be discussed

  10. An internal superconducting ''holding-coil'' for frozen spin targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutz, H.; Gehring, R.; Goertz, S.; Kraemer, D.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Thomas, A.

    1995-01-01

    A new concept of a small superconducting holding magnet, placed inside a polarizing refrigerator, has been developed for frozen spin targets. The superconducting wire has been wound on the inner cooling shield of the vertical dilution refrigerator of the Bonn frozen spin target. The maximum field of the magnet is 0.35 T. The total thickness of the superconducting coil consisting of the wire and the copper carrier is of the order of 500 μm. Based on this concept, a frozen spin target is under construction for the measurement of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule with polarized real photons at the Mainz microtron MAMI and the Bonn electron stretcher accelerator ELSA. ((orig.))

  11. An internal superconducting ``holding-coil`` for frozen spin targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Gehring, R. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Goertz, S. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Kraemer, D. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Meyer, W. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Reicherz, G. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Thomas, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    1995-03-01

    A new concept of a small superconducting holding magnet, placed inside a polarizing refrigerator, has been developed for frozen spin targets. The superconducting wire has been wound on the inner cooling shield of the vertical dilution refrigerator of the Bonn frozen spin target. The maximum field of the magnet is 0.35 T. The total thickness of the superconducting coil consisting of the wire and the copper carrier is of the order of 500 {mu}m. Based on this concept, a frozen spin target is under construction for the measurement of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule with polarized real photons at the Mainz microtron MAMI and the Bonn electron stretcher accelerator ELSA. ((orig.))

  12. Method of inserting fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  13. Conserved residues in the coiled-coil pocket of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 are essential for viral replication and interhelical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Hongmei; Konstantinidis, Alex K.; Stewart, Kent D.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Ng, Teresa; Swift, Kerry; Matayoshi, Edmund D.; Kati, Warren; Kohlbrenner, William; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 plays an important role in mediating the fusion of HIV with host cells. During the fusion process, three N-terminal helices and three C-terminal helices pack in an anti-parallel direction to form a six-helix bundle. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the gp41 core demonstrated that within each coiled-coil interface, there is a deep and large pocket, formed by a cluster of residues in the N-helix coiled-coil. In this report, we systematically analyzed the role of seven conserved residues that are either lining or packing this pocket on the infectivity and interhelical interaction using novel approaches. Our results show that residues L568, V570, W571, and K574 of the N-helix that are lining the side chain and right wall of the pocket are important for establishing a productive infection. Mutations V570A and W571A completely abolished replication, while replication of the L568A and K574A mutants was significantly attenuated relative to wild type. Similarly, residues W628, W631, and I635 of the C-helix that insert into the pocket are essential for infectivity. The impaired infectivity of these seven mutants is in part attributed to the loss in binding affinity of the interhelical interaction. Molecular modeling of the crystal structure of the coiled-coil further shows that alanine substitution of those residues disrupts the hydrophobic interaction between the N- and C-helix. These results suggest that the conserved residues in the coiled-coil domain play a key role in HIV infection and this coiled-coil pocket is a good target for development of inhibitors against HIV. In addition, our data indicate that the novel fluorescence polarization assay described in this study could be valuable in screening for inhibitors that block the interhelical interaction and HIV entry

  14. Insertion in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  15. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  16. Experimental testing and modelling of a resistive type superconducting fault current limiter using MgB2 wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A C; Pei, X; Oliver, A; Husband, M; Rindfleisch, M

    2012-01-01

    A prototype resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) was developed using single-strand round magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) wire. The MgB 2 wire was wound with an interleaved arrangement to minimize coil inductance and provide adequate inter-turn voltage withstand capability. The temperature profile from 30 to 40 K and frequency profile from 10 to 100 Hz at 25 K were tested and reported. The quench properties of the prototype coil were tested using a high current test circuit. The fault current was limited by the prototype coil within the first quarter-cycle. The prototype coil demonstrated reliable and repeatable current limiting properties and was able to withstand a potential peak current of 372 A for one second without any degradation of performance. A three-strand SFCL coil was investigated and demonstrated scaled-up current capacity. An analytical model to predict the behaviour of the prototype single-strand SFCL coil was developed using an adiabatic boundary condition on the outer surface of the wire. The predicted fault current using the analytical model showed very good correlation with the experimental test results. The analytical model and a finite element thermal model were used to predict the temperature rise of the wire during a fault. (paper)

  17. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  19. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  20. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  1. Controlled motion of domain walls in submicron amorphous wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţibu, Mihai; Lostun, Mihaela; Rotărescu, Cristian; Atiţoaie, Alexandru; Lupu, Nicoleta; Óvári, Tibor-Adrian, E-mail: taovari@phys-iasi.ro; Chiriac, Horia [Department of Magnetic Materials and Devices, National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iaşi, 700050 (Romania); Allwood, Dan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Results on the control of the domain wall displacement in cylindrical Fe{sub 77.5}Si{sub 7.5}B{sub 15} amorphous glass-coated submicron wires prepared by rapid quenching from the melt are reported. The control methods have relied on conical notches with various depths, up to a few tens of nm, made in the glass coating and in the metallic nucleus using a focused ion beam (FIB) system, and on the use of small nucleation coils at one of the sample ends in order to apply magnetic field pulses aimed to enhance the nucleation of reverse domains. The notch-based method is used for the first time in the case of cylindrical ultrathin wires. The results show that the most efficient technique of controlling the domain wall motion in this type of samples is the simultaneous use of notches and nucleation coils. Their effect depends on wire diameter, notch depth, its position on the wire length, and characteristics of the applied pulse.

  2. Radiation resistant ducted superconductive coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-resistant ducted superconductive coil consists of a helically wound electrical conductor constituted by an electrically conductive core of superconductive material provided with a longitudinally extending cooling duct. The core is covered with a layer of inorganic insulating material and the duct is covered by an electrically conductive metallic gas-tight sheath. The metallic sheaths on adjacent turns of the coil are secured together. 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

  3. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  4. New type low loss, strong field, RF coils for commercial nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Shigetaka

    1990-01-01

    New RF coils of L-C-R connection loops type are proposed. One of the coils is only a bundle of μ order diameter isolated conductor, facing the both sides of the bundle ends each other for a capacity. The next characters were found by experiments. (1) This type coils show a sharp first resonance mode and few other modes are measured. (2) The complete proportional relation between the number of the conductors and the conductance of the bundle. (3) The ratio of the RF current resistance to the direct current resistance can be 1. Variational principle for eigenvalue problem was considered for it. The loss due to the vortex current in the conductor itself when exposed in the magnetic field was calculated accurately. And it was found that when the diameter of the conductor is 1/3 of the high frequency skin depth δ, the vortex current is very small. The litz wire can be used below 10 kHz. But this coil can be used above 100 MHz(δ≅7μ), because this coil need not to be stranded. For example, the turbulent heating at the axis of a tokamak plasma in μs order is possible, when a large amplitude stationary magnetosonic wave is excited by the magnetic piston of these coils array around the plasma. And the distance between the plasma and the coils can be large. The commercial nuclear fusion is thought to be possible. (author)

  5. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji

    1998-01-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  6. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1998-07-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  7. Development and manufacturing of bronze-processed Ta-added Nb3Sn wires for the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenichi; Seidou, Masahiro; Iwaki, Genzou; Sakai, Syuuji; Moriai, Hidezumi; Nishi, Masataka; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Isono, Takaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Development work to produce a high-performance Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire for the center solenoid coil of the ITER was carried out. The effects of concurrently adding Ti and Ta to bronze-processed Nb 3 Sn wires were examined. In addition, a high-Sn-concentration bronze matrix was applied. Then, the relation between hysteresis loss and filament diameter was examined. Moreover, the cause of wire breakage during processing was elucidated. As a result, a reliable manufacturing process for high-performance Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire was established. (author)

  8. Extra Luminal Entrapment of Guide Wire; A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Placement in Right Internal Jugular Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Md Abu Masud; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Shailesh; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Central venous Catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure for venous access. It is associated with several complications. We report a rare case of extra luminal entrapment of guide wire during CVC placement in right jugular vein. We report a case of 28 years old female patient presented in our emergency with history of entrapped guide wire in right side of neck during CVC. X-ray showed coiling of guide wire in neck. CT Angiography showed guide wire coursing in between common caro...

  9. Equilibrium field coil concepts for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Brown, T.G.

    1981-08-01

    Methods are presented for reducing ampere-turn requirements in the EF coil system. It is shown that coil currents in an EF coil system external to the toroidal field coils can be substantially reduced by relaxing the triangularity of a D-shaped plasma. Further reductions are realized through a hybrid EF coil system using both internal and external coils. Equilibrium field coils for a poloidally asymmetric, single-null INTOR configuration are presented. It is shown that the shape of field lines in the plasma scrapeoff region and divertor channel improves as triangularity is reduced, but it does so at the possible expense of achievable stable beta values

  10. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  11. ITER Side Correction Coil Quench model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicollet, S.; Bessette, D.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Gauthier, F.; Lacroix, B.

    2016-12-01

    Previous thermohydraulic studies performed for the ITER TF, CS and PF magnet systems have brought some important information on the detection and consequences of a quench as a function of the initial conditions (deposited energy, heated length). Even if the temperature margin of the Correction Coils is high, their behavior during a quench should also be studied since a quench is likely to be triggered by potential anomalies in joints, ground fault on the instrumentation wires, etc. A model has been developed with the SuperMagnet Code (Bagnasco et al., 2010) for a Side Correction Coil (SCC2) with four pancakes cooled in parallel, each of them represented by a Thea module (with the proper Cable In Conduit Conductor characteristics). All the other coils of the PF cooling loop are hydraulically connected in parallel (top/bottom correction coils and six Poloidal Field Coils) are modeled by Flower modules with equivalent hydraulics properties. The model and the analysis results are presented for five quench initiation cases with/without fast discharge: two quenches initiated by a heat input to the innermost turn of one pancake (case 1 and case 2) and two other quenches initiated at the innermost turns of four pancakes (case 3 and case 4). In the 5th case, the quench is initiated at the middle turn of one pancake. The impact on the cooling circuit, e.g. the exceedance of the opening pressure of the quench relief valves, is detailed in case of an undetected quench (i.e. no discharge of the magnet). Particular attention is also paid to a possible secondary quench detection system based on measured thermohydraulic signals (pressure, temperature and/or helium mass flow rate). The maximum cable temperature achieved in case of a fast current discharge (primary detection by voltage) is compared to the design hot spot criterion of 150 K, which includes the contribution of helium and jacket.

  12. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  13. Examination of rapid phase change in copper wires to improve material models and understanding of burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olles, Joseph; Garasi, Christopher; Ball, J. Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Electrically-pulsed wires undergo multiple phase changes including a postulated metastable phase resulting in explosive wire growth. Simulations using the MHD approximation attempt to account for the governing physics, but lack the material properties (equations-of-state and electrical conductivity) to accurately predict the phase evolution of the exploding (bursting) wire. To explore the dynamics of an exploding copper wire (in water), we employ a digital micro-Schlieren streak photography technique. This imaging quantifies wire expansion and shock waves emitted from the wire during phase changes. Using differential voltage probes, a Rogowski coil, and timing fiducials, the phase change of the wire is aligned with electrical power and energy deposition. Time-correlated electrical diagnostics and imaging allow for detailed validation of MHD simulations, comparing observed phases with phase change details found in the material property descriptions. In addition to streak imaging, a long exposure image is taken to capture axial striations along the length of the wire. These images are used to compare with results from 3D MHD simulations which propose that these perturbations impact the rate of wire expansion and temporal change in phases. If successful, the experimental data will identify areas for improvement in the material property models, and modeling results will provide insight into the details of phase change in the wire with correlation to variations in the electrical signals.

  14. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  15. Fuel insert shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.; Colley, R.; Gaiser, J.; Brookmire, T.; Engle, S.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of time required to perform certain functions and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. As the potential benefits are more and more demonstrated and realized, the development of expert systems becomes a necessary part of the nuclear power industry. The development of the fuel insert shuffle expert system is used as a case study. In fact, it shows that the potential benefits are realizable. Currently, the development of the insert shuffle plan requires three to four man-weeks of effort. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required dur to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel assemblies or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days of effort and could be stressful if they are critical path items on the outage schedule

  16. Coil supporting device in nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Ryo; Imura, Yasuya.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To secure intermediate fittings with a coil fixed thereon by an insulating tape to a fixed body by means of fittings, thereby supporting the coil in a narrow space. Structure: A coil is secured to intermediate fittings by means of an insulating tape, after which the intermediate fittings is mounted on a fixed body through fittings to support the coil in a narrow clearance portion between a plasma sealed vessel and a main coil. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Control of intravascular catheters using an array of active steering coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, N; Heilman, J A; Derakhshan, J J; Sunshine, J L; Duerk, J L; Griswold, M A

    2011-07-01

    To extend the concept of deflecting the tip of a catheter with the magnetic force created in an MRI system through the use of an array of independently controllable steering coils located in the catheter tip, and to present methods for visualization of the catheter and/or surrounding areas while the catheter is deflected. An array of steering coils made of 42-gauge wire was built over a 2.5 Fr (0.83 mm) fiber braided microcatheter. Two of the coils were 70 turn axial coils separated by 1 cm, and the third was a 15-turn square side coil that was 2 x 4 mm2. Each coil was driven independently by a pulse width modulation (PWM) current source controlled by a microprocessor that received commands from a MATLAB routine that dynamically set current amplitude and direction for each coil. The catheter was immersed in a water phantom containing 1% Gd-DTPA that was placed at the isocenter of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Deflections of the catheter tip were measured from image-based data obtained with a real-time radio frequency (RF) spoiled gradient echo sequence (GRE). The small local magnetic fields generated by the steering coils were exploited to generate a hyperintense signal at the catheter tip by using a modified GRE sequence that did not include slice-select rewinding gradients. Imaging and excitation modes were implemented by synchronizing the excitation of the steering coil array with the scanner by ensuring that no current was driven through the coils during the data acquisition window; this allowed visualization of the surrounding tissue while not affecting the desired catheter position. Deflections as large as 2.5 cm were measured when exciting the steering coils sequentially with a 100 mA maximum current per coil. When exciting a single axial coil, the deflection was half this value with 30% higher current. A hyperintense catheter tip useful for catheter tracking was obtained by imaging with the modified GRE sequence. Clear visualization of the areas surrounding the

  18. Superconducting self-correcting harmonic coils for pulsed superconducting dipole or multipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dael, A.; Kircher, F.; Perot, J.

    1975-01-01

    Due to the zero resistance of a superconducting wire, an induced current in a closed superconducting circuit is continuously exactly opposed to its cause. This phenomenon was applied to the correction of the field harmonics of a pulsed magnet by putting short-circuited superconducting coils of particular symmetry in the useful aperture of the magnet. After a review of the main characteristics of such devices, the construction of two correcting coils (quadrupole and sextupole) is described. Experimental results of magnetic efficiency and time behavior are given; they are quite encouraging, since the field harmonics were reduced by one or two orders of magnitude

  19. Heat treatment trials for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors using Nb 3 Sn strands are used in ITER toroidal fields (TF) coils. Heat treatment generates thermal strain in CIC conductors because of the difference in thermal expansion between the Nb 3 Sn strands and the stainless-steel jacket. The elongation/shrinkage of the TF conductor may make it impossible to insert a wound TF conductor into the groove of a radial plate. In addition, it is expected that the deformation of the winding due to heat treatment-based release of the residual force in the jacket may also make it impossible to insert the winding in the groove, and that correcting the winding geometry to allow insertion of the winding may influence the superconducting performance of the TF conductor. The authors performed several trials using heat treatment as the part of activities in Phase II of TF coil procurement aiming to resolve the above-mentioned technical issues, and evaluated the elongations of 0.064, 0.074 and 0.072% for the straight and curved conductors and 1/3-scale double-pancake (DP) winding, respectively. It was confirmed that correction if the deformed winding did not influence the superconducting performance of the conductor. (author)

  20. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device.

  2. Effect of insertion depth on helical antenna performance in a muscle-equivalent phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J W; Meeson, S; Birch, M J [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, 56-76 Ashfield Street, London, E1 1BB (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-21

    Barrett's oesophagus is considered to increase the risk of cancer 30 fold. A set of helical microwave antennas was designed to investigate their potential use in the thermal therapy of Barrett's oesophagus. For treatment, a balloon filled with muscle-equivalent material encapsulates the antenna. The effects of insertion depth and coil-spacing on the thermal distribution produced by the antennas (20-35 mm) were characterized. The 35 mm helical antenna, with a coil-spacing of 3.6 mm resulted in uniform heating for an insertion depth of 40 mm. It was observed that the resultant temperature distribution produced, by the antennas, was dependent on the insertion depth within the phantom. For all antennas studied, deeper insertion resulted in two high intensity regions, approximately 1/4 and 3/4 along the antenna length. In contrast, shallow insertion resulted in predominant tip heating with undesirable heating at the phantom entry point. However, by manipulating the coil-spacing of the helix, uniform temperature profiles were achieved for a range of insertion depths.

  3. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB 2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E. W.

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  4. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsic, Michael [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Rindfleisch, Matthew [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)]. E-mail: mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com; Yue, Jinji [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); McFadden, Kevin [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Doll, David [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Phillips, John [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Sumption, Mike D. [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Bhatia, Mohit [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Bohnenstiehl, Scot [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Collings, E.W. [LASM, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB{sub 2} superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB{sub 2} wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB{sub 2} superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB{sub 2} conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  5. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E.W.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc

  6. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 3. The superconductor-coils of JT-60SU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Mori, Katsuharu; Nakagawa, Syouji

    1997-03-01

    The superconducting coil systems and the cryogenic system for the JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) has been designed. Both Nb 3 Al and NbTi as a superconducting wire material are employed in the toroidal coils (D-shaped 18 coils) to realize a high field magnet with a low cost. Significant reduction of the coil weight (150 tons/coil) without losing the coil rigidity has been achieved by connecting two toroidal coils with shear panels. Validity of this design is confirmed by the detailed structural analysis and thermohydraulic analysis. The poloidal coil system consists of 4 central solenoid coils with (NbTi) 3 Sn and 6 outer equilibrium field coils with NbTi. This system has an enough capability to supply the flux of 170Vs to produce a 10MA discharge with 200s of flat-top and to make various plasma configurations. The construction procedure of the poloidal coil system is also established under the constraint of the JT-60 site. Two sets of race-track shaped superconducting coils mounted on the top of the machine is designed to compensate the error field inside the vessel by supplying helical (m=2/n=1) magnetic field. By using cryogenic system with a 36kW of cooling capacity, the total cold weight of around 4000tons can be cooled down to 4.5K within one month, and steady heat load of 6.5kW and transient heat load of 9.0MJ can be removed within 30 minutes of discharge repetition rate. (author)

  7. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  8. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Lee, Ji Kwang

    2015-01-01

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work

  9. Fuel assembly insertion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  10. PET Performance Evaluation of an MR-Compatible PET Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibao; Catana, Ciprian; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic resonance (MR) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert has been developed in our laboratory for simultaneous small animal PET/MR imaging. This system is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) photodetectors. The PET performance of this insert has been measured. The average reconstructed image spatial resolution was 1.51 mm. The sensitivity at the center of the field of view (CFOV) was 0.35%, which is comparable to the simulation predictions of 0.40%. The average photopeak energy resolution was 25%. The scatter fraction inside the MRI scanner with a line source was 12% (with a mouse-sized phantom and standard 35 mm Bruker 1H RF coil), 7% (with RF coil only) and 5% (without phantom or RF coil) for an energy window of 350–650 keV. The front-end electronics had a dead time of 390 ns, and a trigger extension dead time of 7.32 μs that degraded counting rate performance for injected doses above ~0.75 mCi (28 MBq). The peak noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) of 1.27 kcps was achieved at 290 μCi (10.7 MBq). The system showed good imaging performance inside a 7-T animal MRI system; however improvements in data acquisition electronics and reduction of the coincidence timing window are needed to realize improved NECR performance. PMID:21072320

  11. THE STRUCTURE ANALYTICAL RESEARCH OF POROUS PERMEABLE WIRE MATERIAL (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej JAKUBOWSKI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The details of making technology of porous permeable material with use of wire are allowed to carry out the analytical research of structure and structural characteristics of wire winding body. Its permit for prognostication the final proper-ties of material, that is produced by the following deformation treatment (diameter reduction. Due to the regular orga-nized arrangement of wire, the coil of winding body is considered as a multispan continuous beam, but a contact of coils – as interaction of two cylinders. Possibility of exactly calculation of the contacts between coils is allowed to go over the single fragment displacements into deformation of whole winding body. During research of deformation processes in regards of winding body geometry and used wire mechanical properties, the structural characteristics of porous permea-ble wire material are expected. The optimal number of winding layers, eliminating the distortion of organized final struc-ture, is established. The material pressure–compactness relation is obtained in order to control the technological condi-tions of winding and drafting for guarantee the product required properties.

  12. Balloon-assisted coiling through a 5-French system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J. Bradley; Layton, Kennith F.; Kallmes, David F.; Cloft, Harry J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a catheter technique that utilizes a 5F system for the purpose of balloon-assisted coiling in the setting of intracranial aneurysms. A standard 5F short sheath is placed in the common femoral artery, and a 5F diagnostic catheter is placed through the sheath and used for selective vessel angiography. When endovascular intervention is pursued, the diagnostic catheter is placed in the appropriate vessel and systemic heparinization is ensured. Over an exchange length wire, the 5F vertebral catheter and 5F short sheath are exchanged for a 5F Shuttle (Cook) sheath. We then routinely place a 10, 14 or 18 microcatheter over an appropriately gauged microguidewire into the aneurysm. As needed, balloon catheters are then placed across the neck of the aneurysm for remodeling purposes. During the course of the procedure, control angiography is performed through the Shuttle sheath. Following the placement of coils, the microcatheter and balloon catheter are removed and a final biplane image is obtained via the 5F Shuttle sheath. This technique has been employed in 15 patients who required balloon-assisted coiling of an intracranial aneurysm. There were no technical difficulties or arterial access site complications from the procedures. Catheter mobility and torque were not affected, nor was the quality of our imaging. We conclude that this small-diameter system provides ample ''room'' for catheter placement and interventional treatment while reducing the known risks of postprocedural complications. Angiographic images remain excellent and are comparable to those obtained by larger catheters. (orig.)

  13. Seismic analysis of ITER fourth PF (Poloidal Field Coil) feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sumei; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuntao; Ni, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhongwei; Chen, Yonghua; Gong, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    The ITER feeder systems connect the ITER magnet systems located inside the main cryostat to the cryo-plant, power-supply and control system interfaces outside the cryostat. The main purpose of the feeders is to convey the cryogenic supply and electrical power to the coils as well as house the instrumentation wiring. The PF busbar which carries 52 kA current will suffer from high Lorentz force due to the background magnetic field inspired by the coils and the self-field between every pair of busbars. Except their mechanical strength and thermal insulation performance must be achieved, the dynamic mechanism on PF structure should be assessed. This paper presents the simulation and seismic analysis on ITER 4th PF feeder including the Coil Terminal Box and S-bend Box (CTB and SBB), the Cryostat Feed-through (CFT), the In-Cryostat-Feeder (ICF), especially for the ground supports and main outer-tube firstly. This analysis aims to study seismic resistance on system design under local seismograms with floor response spectrum, the structural response vibration mode and response duration results of displacement, membrane stress, and bending stress on structure under different directions actuating signals were obtained by using the single-seismic spectrum analysis and Dead Weight analysis respectively. Based on the simulative and analytical results, the system seismic resistance and the integrity of the support structure in the 4th PF feeder have been studied and the detail design confirmed

  14. AC application of second generation HTS wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, C. L. H.; Gagnon, K.; Voccio, J.; Aized, D.; Claassen, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work.

  15. Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.

  16. CCHMM_PROF: a HMM-based coiled-coil predictor with evolutionary information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartoli, Lisa; Fariselli, Piero; Krogh, Anders

    2009-01-01

    tools are available for predicting coiled-coil domains in protein sequences, including those based on position-specific score matrices and machine learning methods. RESULTS: In this article, we introduce a hidden Markov model (CCHMM_PROF) that exploits the information contained in multiple sequence...... alignments (profiles) to predict coiled-coil regions. The new method discriminates coiled-coil sequences with an accuracy of 97% and achieves a true positive rate of 79% with only 1% of false positives. Furthermore, when predicting the location of coiled-coil segments in protein sequences, the method reaches...

  17. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  18. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  19. Cooling device of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, R.; Lottin, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This device is rotating around an horizontal axis. The superconducting coils are contained in a cryogenic enclosure feeded in liquid helium forced circulation. They are related to an electric generator by electric mains each of them comprising a gas exchanger, and an exchanger-evaporator set between the cryogenic device and those exchangers. The exchanger-evaporator is aimed at dissipating the heat arriving by conductors connected to the superconducting coils. According to the invention, the invention includes an annular canalization with horizontal axis in which the connection conductors bathe in liquid helium [fr

  20. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  1. Design Challenges for a Wide-Aperture Insertion Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, S; Perez, J C; Ramos, D; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Kirby, G; Sahner, T; Schwerg, N

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a superconducting (Nb-Ti) quadrupole with 120 mm aperture, for an upgrade of the LHC insertion region, faces challenges arising from the LHC beam optics requirements and the heat-deposition. The first triggered extensive studies of coil alternatives with four and six coil-blocks in view of field quality and operation margins. The latter requires more porous insulation schemes for both the cables and the ground-plane. This in turn necessitates extensive heatpropagation and quench-velocity studies, as well as more efficient quench heaters. The engineering design of the magnet includes innovative features such as self-locking collars, which will enable the collaring to be performed with the coils on a horizontal assembly bench, a spring-loaded and collapsible assembly mandrel, tuning-shims for field quality, porous collaring-shoes, and coil end-spacer design based on differential geometry methods. The project also initiated code extensions in the quench-simulation and CAD/CAM module...

  2. Studies of IBL wire bonds operation in a ATLAS-like magnetic field.

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Feito, D; Mandelli, B

    2015-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, most of silicon detectors use wire bonds to connect front-end chips and sensors to circuit boards for the data and service trans- missions. These wire bonds are operated in strong magnetic field environments and if time varying currents pass through them with frequencies close to their mechanical resonance frequency, strong resonant oscillations may occur. Under certain conditions, this effect can lead to fatigue stress and eventually breakage of wire bonds. During the first LHC Long Shutdown, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been upgraded with the addition of a fourth innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), which has more than 50000 wire bonds operated in the ATLAS 2 T magnetic field. The results of systematic studies of operating wire bonds under IBL-like conditions are presented. Two different solutions have been investigated to minimize the oscillation amplitude of wire bonds.

  3. Accurate guide wire of lag screw placement in the intertrochanteric fractures: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Liao; Li, Xiaodong; Feng, Kai; Tang, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-01

    Cephalomedullary fixations are commonly used in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. In clinical practice, one of the difficulties is when we exit the guide wire in a wrong position of femoral neck and insert near the hole again, the guide wire often flow into the previous track. This study develops a surgical technique to direct the guide wire to slip away the previous track and slip into a right position. When guide wire is exited to the cortex of femoral, we let the wire in and out at the cortical layer for several times to enlarge the entry hole. After that, electric drill is inverted, rubbed and entered slowly at a right angle. When guide wire encountered new resistance, the electric drill is turned back instantly. This technique can help trauma and orthopedic surgeons to obtain precision placement of the lag screw after the first try is failed.

  4. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  5. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  6. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  7. Design of Range Adaptive Wireless Power Transfer System Using Non-coaxial Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Won, Sokhui; Hong, Huan

    2017-05-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is a remarkable technology because of its convenience and applicability in harsh environment. Particularly, Magnetic Coupling WPT (MC-WPT) is a proper method to midrange power transfer, but the frequency splitting at over-coupling range, which is related with transfer distance, is challenge of transmission efficiency. In order to overcome this phenomenon, recently the range adaptive WPT is proposed. In this paper, we aim to the type with a set of non-coaxial driving coils, so that this may remove the connection wires from PA (Power Amplifier) to driving coil. And, when the radius of driving coil is changed, on the different gaps between driving and TX coils, coupling coefficient between these is computed in both cases of coaxial and non-coaxial configurations. In addition, the designing steps for 4-coil WPT system using non-coaxial coils are described with the example. Finally, the reliability of this topology has been proved and simulated with PSPICE.

  8. Development of quench protection system for HTS coils by active power method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanato, N.; Tsumiyama, Y.; Kim, S.B.; Murase, S.; Seong, K.-C.; Kim, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, HTS coils have been developed for electric power apparatuses. In superconducting coils, local and excessive joule heating may give damage to the superconducting windings when a quench occurs and therefore it is essential that the quench is detected quickly and precisely so that the coils can be safely discharged. Resistive voltage measurement method is universally used for the quench detection, however, it is vulnerable to an electromagnetic noise which causes insufficient quench detection and at least needs a central voltage tap in windings. In a large superconducting coil, a lead-wire from the central voltage tap may cause a short-circuit when high voltage will be applied. In this paper, we present a quench protection system based on the active power method which detects a quench by measuring the instantaneous active power generated in a superconducting coil. The protection system based on this method is very strong against to the noise and no more needs a central voltage tap. The performance of system developed by us is confirmed by using test coil wound with Bi-2223 HTS tapes

  9. Static Measurements on HTS Coils of Fully Superconducting AC Electric Machines for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Hunker, Keith R.; Hartwig, Jason; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing the high efficiency and high-power density superconducting (SC) electric machines in full support of electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems for a future electric aircraft. A SC coil test rig has been designed and built to perform static and AC measurements on BSCCO, (RE)BCO, and YBCO high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire and coils at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. In this paper, DC measurements on five SC coil configurations of various geometry in zero external magnetic field are measured to develop good measurement technique and to determine the critical current (Ic) and the sharpness (n value) of the super-to-normal transition. Also, standard procedures for coil design, fabrication, coil mounting, micro-volt measurement, cryogenic testing, current control, and data acquisition technique were established. Experimentally measured critical currents are compared with theoretical predicted values based on an electric-field criterion (Ec). Data here are essential to quantify the SC electric machine operation limits where the SC begins to exhibit non-zero resistance. All test data will be utilized to assess the feasibility of using HTS coils for the fully superconducting AC electric machine development for an aircraft electric propulsion system.

  10. Mechanical design and construction qualification program on ITER correction coils structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foussat, A., E-mail: arnaud.foussat@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Weiyue, Wu; Jing, Wei; Shuangsong, Du [Academy of Science Institute of Plasma Physics, PO 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sgobba, S. [European Center for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hongwei, Li [China International Nuclear Fusion Energy Program Execution Center, Ministry of Science and Technology, 15B Fuxing Rd., Beijing 100862 (China); Libeyre, Paul; Jong, Cornelis; Klofac, Kamil; Mitchell, Neil [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-04-01

    The ITER Magnet system consists of 4 main coils sub-systems, i.e. 18 toroidal field coils (TFC), a central solenoid (CS), 6 poloidal field coils (PF) and 3 sets of correction coils (CC). The ITER fusion project has selected the stainless steel 316LN as main material for the magnet structure. The CC contribute to reducing the range of magnetic error fields created by imperfections in the location and geometry of the other coils used to confine, heat, and shape the plasma. During plasma operation, a large number of loading condition scenarios have been considered and structural analysis performed on key items like Cable-In-Conduit Conductor and the coil case. The results obtained are used for both static and fatigue structural assessment defining the present baseline design. For the construction of the structural cases, welding techniques such as GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and techniques resulting in low distortion and shrinkage like EBW (Electron Beam Welding) or Laser Beam Welding (LBW) with filler metal wire have been selected. Those methods are considered for future qualifications to guarantee proper weld parameters and specified weld properties. In order to determine the strength and fracture toughness of 316LN stainless steel welds with respect to design criteria, some mechanical tests have been carried out at 7 K (or 77 K), and room temperature.

  11. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  12. Synchronized Re-Entrant Flux Reversal of Multiple FeSiB Amorphous Wires Having the Larger Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takajo, Minoru; Yamasaki, Jiro

    Technique to synchronize the re-entrant flux reversal of the multiple magnetostrictive Fe77.5Si7.5B15 amorphous wires was developed using a flux keeper of amorphous ribbons contacted to the wire ends. It is comprehended that the characteristics of the re-entrant flux takes place respectively at almost the same time in the three Fe-Si-B amorphous wires with a diameter of 65, 95μm. This phenomenon can be explained by considering the strong magnetic coupling of wires and amorphous ribbon by stray field from the each wire ends. As a result, the magnitude of the induced voltage in the sense coil is increased in proportion to the multiplication of the number of the wires.

  13. TEST RESULTS FOR LHC INSERTION REGION DEPOLE MAGNETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MURATORE, J.; JAIN, A.; ANERELLA, M.; COSSOLINO, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has made 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have the same coil design as the arc dipoles now operating in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL and are of single aperture, twin aperture, and double cold mass configurations. They are required to produce fields up to 4.14 T for operation at 7.56 TeV. Eighteen of these magnets have been tested at 4.5 K using either forced flow supercritical helium or liquid helium. The testing was especially important for the twin aperture models, whose construction was very different from the RHIC dipoles, except for the coil design. This paper reports on the results of these tests, including spontaneous quench performance, verification of quench protection heater operation, and magnetic field quality

  14. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  15. Demonstration poloidal coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Kawano, Katumi; Tada, Eisuke

    1989-01-01

    A new compact cryogenic cold compressor was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with Isikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) in order to produce the supercritical helium below 4.2 K for Demonstration Poloidal Coils (DPC) which are forced-flow cooled type superconducting pulse coils. This compressor is one of key components for DPC test facility. The cold compressor reduces pressure in liquid helium bath, which contains liquid helium of around 3,000 l, down to 0.5 atm efficiently. Consequently, supercritical helium down to 3.5 K is produced and supplied to the DPC coils. A centrifugal compressor with dynamic gas bearing is selected as a compressor mechanism to realize high adiabatic efficiency and large flow rate. In this performance tests, the compressor was operated for 220 h at saturated condition from 0.5 to 1.0 atm without any failure. High adiabatic efficiency (more than 60 %) is achieved with wide flow range (25-65 g/s) and the design value is fully satisfied. The compressor can rotate up to 80,000 rpm at maximum then the coil supply temperature of supercritical helium is 3.5 K. (author)

  16. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  17. PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented

  18. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  19. A World without Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  20. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  1. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  2. Designing a Sine-Coil for Measurement of Plasma Displacements in IR-T1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorshid, Pejman; Razavi, M.; Molaii, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; TalebiTaher, A.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; NikMohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the plasma position in the IR-T1 tokamak in toroidal coordinates is developed. A sine-coil, which is a Rogowski coil with a variable wiring density is designed and fabricated for this purpose. An analytic solution of the Biot-Savart law, which is used to calculate magnetic fields created by toroidal plasma current, is presented. Results of calculations are compared with the experimental data obtained in no-plasma shots with a toroidal current-carrying coil positioned inside the vessel to simulate the plasma movements. The results are shown a good linear behavior of plasma position measurements. The error is less than 2.5% and it is compared with other methods of measurements of the plasma position. This method will be used in the feedback position control system and tests of feedback controller parameters are ongoing

  3. Lessons learned from the manufacture of the W7-X planar coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebke, H; Gustke, D; Rummel, T; Sborchia, C; Schroeder, R; Williams, D; Bates, S; Leigh, B; Winter, R

    2006-01-01

    WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is a superconducting stellarator. The planar coils are in charge to modify the magnetic filed configuration of the W7-X. The major challenges during manufacturing were the fabrication of the cable-in-conduit conductor, the accuracy of the coil cases after welding and machining and the development of electrical joints with a resistance below 1 nΩ. Leaks were detected during repetitive in the case cooling system, which were caused by stress corrosion cracking. High voltage tests in a reduced vacuum environment (Paschen conditions) revealed that the insulation had to be reinforced and the quench detection wires had to be exchanged. This paper gives an overview about the main technical challenges of the planar coils and the lessons learned during production

  4. Lessons learned from the manufacture of the W7-X planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebke, H.; Gustke, D.; Rummel, T.; Sborchia, C.; Schroeder, R.; Williams, D.; Bates, S.; Leigh, B.; Winter, R.

    2006-06-01

    WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is a superconducting stellarator. The planar coils are in charge to modify the magnetic filed configuration of the W7-X. The major challenges during manufacturing were the fabrication of the cable-in-conduit conductor, the accuracy of the coil cases after welding and machining and the development of electrical joints with a resistance below 1 nΩ. Leaks were detected during repetitive in the case cooling system, which were caused by stress corrosion cracking. High voltage tests in a reduced vacuum environment (Paschen conditions) revealed that the insulation had to be reinforced and the quench detection wires had to be exchanged. This paper gives an overview about the main technical challenges of the planar coils and the lessons learned during production.

  5. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  6. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  7. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  8. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case

  9. Design and modelling of a SMES coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A, E-mail: wy215@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity group, Engineering Department, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    The design of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil wound by coated conductors has been presented. Based on an existing model for coated conductor pancake coils, this paper analysed the magnetic field and current density distribution of the coil at two different operation temperatures, 77K and 22K. A comparison table of the critical currents and AC losses at these two temperatures has been presented. Several steps to improve the transport current of the coil have been suggested as well.

  10. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  11. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Pla...

  12. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  13. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  14. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  15. Startup of large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils. (author)

  16. Novel method of aligning ATF-1 coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.; Neilson, G.H.; Jernigan, T.C.

    1983-08-01

    The coils for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF-1) torsatron may be easily aligned before the machine is placed under vacuum. This is done by creating nulls in the magnetic field by energizing the coils in various configurations. All of the nulls in vertical bar B vector vertical bar occur on the z-axis. When the nulls coincide, the coils are properly aligned

  17. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S

    1999-01-01

    ... the self-assembly of new rod-coil diblock, rod- coil-rod triblock, and coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers from solution and the resulting discrete and periodic mesostmctares with sizes in the 100...

  18. Gamma irradiation testing of prototype ITER in-vessel magnetic pick-up coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, Ludo; Leysen, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We tested five prototype ITER in-vessel coils up to a gamma dose of 72 MGy. ► Before and after irradiation thermal tests were also performed from 30 °C till 130 °C. ► The continuity resistances and the insulation resistances were continuously monitored. ► The observed behavior of all coils was satisfactory in all conditions. ► For the further design the mechanical robustness should be taken into account. -- Abstract: To fulfill the requirements for ITER in-vessel magnetic diagnostics, several coil prototypes have been developed, aiming at minimizing the disturbing effects of temperature gradients and radiation induced phenomena. As a first step in the radiation resistance testing of these prototypes, an in-situ high dose rate gamma radiation test on a selection of prototypes was performed. The aim of this test was to get a first experimental feedback regarding the behavior of the pick-up coil prototypes under radiation. Five prototypes (a coil wound with glass-insulated copper wire, two LTCC coils and two HTCC coils) were irradiated at a dose rate of 46 kGy/h up to a total dose of 72 MGy and at a temperature of 50 °C. During the irradiation, the continuity resistances and the insulation resistances were continuously measured. Before and after irradiation reference data were recorded as a function of temperature (from 30 °C to 130 °C). This paper includes the results of the temperature and irradiation tests and a discussion of the behavior of the prototype coils in terms of electrical and mechanical properties

  19. Development of a helical-coil double wall tube steam generator for 4S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Yuko; Maruyama, Shigeki; Jimbo, Noboru; Hino, Takehisa; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The 4S, Super-Safe Small and Simple, is a small-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor. A fast reactor usually uses sodium as a coolant to transfer heat from core to turbine/generator system. The heat of the intermediate heat transport system and that of the water stream systems are exchanged by the steam generator (SG) tubes. If the tube failure occurs, a sodium/water reaction could be occurred. To prevent the reaction and enhance safety, a helical-coil-type double wall tube with wire mesh interlayer and continuous monitoring systems of tube failure are applied to the SG of the 4S. The development and general features of this type double wall tube were described in Ref. 1) and Ref. 2). Those paper summarized following results; The tubes studied in these references were straight type. To establish this SG, development of manufacturing method of helical-coil-type double wall tube and validation of the tube failure monitoring system are needed. In this study, three demonstration tests have been performed; welding test of the double wall tube to manufacture the tubes with 70-80m length, assembling test of the helical-coil tube, and confirmation test of the tube processing system using the fabricated helical-coil tubes. As a result, following technologies have been successfully established. (1) Development of the welding techniques for manufacturing of the helical-coil-type double wall tube with wire mesh interlayer. (2) The confirmation test for manufacturing the helical coil tube of the SG. (author)

  20. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  1. Conceptual design of a 24--32 MW radially-cooled insert for a ≥45 T hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, R.J.; Hake, M.E.; Stejskal, V.

    1994-01-01

    The FBNML is designing and will fabricate a radially-cooled insert magnet to generate 70% of the field of a system, Hybrid V, to surpass 45 T in a 32 mm bore. The insert is to have an overall diameter and a maximum active coil length of 610 mm. With a background field of 14 T the system should generate 47 T at 24 MW and nearly 49 T at 32 MW. The peak stress is extremely high, calling for conductors such as Be-Cu (UNS C17510) and 24% Ag-Cu with strengths up to 1,100 MPa. The peak heat flux density also is high, nearly 12 W/mm 2 . Because the water is coldest and its velocity highest where the heat flux is highest, however, the peak temperature is only 80 C. The water flow is ∼ 200 l/s at 27 atm. The system is to be very user friendly. Access is completely unobstructed at the top. Insert removal leaves the plumbing and electrical connections intact. The massive and expensive outer coils should be long lived, the inner coil easily replaceable. During an inner coil burnout, a sleeve intercepts arcing from the inner coil to the middle one, reducing burnout severity and fault loads. The insert should be a worthy successor to those of the FBNML's world-record holding systems, Hybrids II and III

  2. Coil Migration through a Neuroform 3 Stent during Endovascular Coiling. A Case Report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2009-07-29

    Summary: A 43-year-old woman attended for stent assisted coiling. A Neuroform 30 x 4.5 mm stent had been successfully placed over the left periophthalmic aneurysm. During the coiling the first coil migrated through the crowns in the stent, lodging at the MCA bifurcation. We believe that the coil herniated through the overlying stent due to the carotid siphon curvature and the open cell design. Furthermore the distal markers of the stent impeded coil extraction with a MERCI device.

  3. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  4. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuhu [PPPL; Calzolaio, Ciro [Univ of Geneva; Senatore, Carmine [Univ of Geneva

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  5. ANL experimental program for pulsed superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and started in aggressive development program in FY 1977. The main objectives for FY 1977 are to develop cryostable basic cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to develop 12 kA cryostable cable, using it to design and build a 1.5 MJ pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat for the 1.5 MJ pulsed coil. The principal objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil ranging from 2 T/s up to 12 T/s. Another objective in the pulsed coil program is to determine the feasibility of parallel coil operation in order to avoid excessive voltage and current requirements and to minimize the number of turns for the equilibrium field (EF) coils, should the EF coils be connected in parallel with the OH coils. A two-coil section model using the 11 kA cable will be built and tested

  6. Pulse coil concepts for the LCP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Burn, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The pulse coils described in this paper are resistive copper magnets driven by time-varying currents. They are included in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) portion of the Large Coil Program (LCP) to simulate the pulsed field environment of the toroidal coils in a tokamak reactor. Since TNS (a 150 sec, 5MA, igniting tokamak) and the Oak Ridge EPR (Experimental Power Reactor) are representative of the first tokamaks to require the technology developed in LCP, the reference designs for these machines, especially TNS, are used to derive the magnetic criteria for the pulse coils. This criteria includes the magnitude, distribution, and rate of change of pulsed fields in the toroidal coil windings. Three pulse coil concepts are evaluated on the basis of magnetic criteria and factors such as versatility of design, ease of fabrication and cost of operation. The three concepts include (1) a pair of poloidal coils outside the LCTF torus, (2) a single poloidal coil threaded through the torus, and (3) a pair of vertical axis coil windings inside the bore of one or more of the toroidal test coils

  7. ANL experimental program for pulsed superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1977-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and started an aggressive development program in FY 1977. The main objectives for FY 1977 are to develop cryostable basic cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to develop 12 kA cryostable cable, using it to design and build a 1.5 MJ pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat for the 1.5 MJ pulsed coil. The principal objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil ranging from 2 T/s up to 12 T/s. Another objective in the pusled coil program is to determine the feasibility of parallel coil operation in order to avoid excessive voltage and current requirements and to minimize the number of turns for the equilibrium field (EF) coils, should the EF coils be connected in parallel with the OH coils. A two-coil section model using the 11 kA cable will be built and tested

  8. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  9. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  10. Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K.

    2010-01-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I c measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I c characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  11. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I c measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I c characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  12. Basic study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M., E-mail: ogata@rtri.or.j [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Miyazaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Sasakawa, T.; Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high-temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I{sub c} measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I{sub c} characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  13. Preliminary study of HTS magnet using 2G wires for maglev train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Ken, E-mail: ogata@rtri.or.j [Railway Technical Research Institute, Hikari-cho 2-8-38, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    There are several advantages by applying a high temperature superconducting wire to an on-board superconducting magnet for the maglev train. At first, an increase of thermal capacity of superconducting coils contributes a stability of the superconducting state of the coils. In addition, a reliability of superconducting magnet improves by simplification of the magnet structure. And the weight of the superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of the on-board cryocooler will decrease. Therefore, we examined the possibility on application of the 2G wire with a high critical current density in a high magnetic field. We performed numerical analysis regarding the weight of a superconducting magnet and the energy consumption of an on-board cryocooler in consideration of the characteristics of the 2G wire. Furthermore, we have carried out the I{sub c} measurement for the commercial 2G wires under various experimental conditions such as temperature, magnetic field strength and angle. We also performed the trial manufacture and evaluation of I{sub c} characteristics for the small race track-shaped superconducting coil.

  14. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  15. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  16. Superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  17. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  18. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  19. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  20. Prediction of shape diameter undergoing coil embolization of saccular intracranial aneurysm treatment using a hybrid decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owasirikul, Wiwat; Tantivatana, Jaturon; Gansawat, Duangrat; Auethavekiat, Supatana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design a hybrid decision support system (HDSS) that could simulate the embolized coil selection pattern of the radiologists in aneurysms treatment. As the longest available length of the coils should be used in most cases, therefore only the shape diameter (SD) selection was modeled and varied. Ninety-eight aneurysms successfully treated by a radiologist with coil embolization were divided into two groups (86 for training and 12 randomly selected for validating). Eight aneurysms treated by another radiologist were also used to cross validate the proposed HDSS. The HDSS was developed using the classification and the linear regression methods (LRM). The dome and the width of an aneurysm were used as the system inputs. The system outputs were the SDs of the first three coils indexed according to the insertion order. The HDSS that consisted of Bagging classification and LRM achieved the highest accuracy for all cases. The errors were within 1 mm for the SD selection of the first two coils. For the third coil, the SD selection within 1 mm bound had 80 % accuracy. The experimental results indicated the feasibility of using the HDSS as the guidance for selecting the SDs of the first two coils. The selection of the third coil required more training data for the rarely used SD. Moreover, the cross validation with another radiologist showed the feasibility of using the proposed HDSS as the guidance, however further validation with more data is recommended.

  1. A 16-channel receive, forced current excitation dual-transmit coil for breast imaging at 7T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha By

    Full Text Available To enable high spatial and temporal breast imaging resolution via combined use of high field MRI, array coils, and forced current excitation (FCE multi channel transmit.A unilateral 16-channel receive array insert was designed for use in a transmit volume coil optimized for quadrature operation with dual-transmit RF shimming at 7 T. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR maps, g-factor maps, and high spatial and temporal resolution in vivo images were acquired to demonstrate the utility of the coil architecture.The dual-transmit FCE coil provided homogeneous excitation and the array provided an increase in average SNR of 3.3 times (max 10.8, min 1.5 compared to the volume coil in transmit/receive mode. High resolution accelerated in vivo breast imaging demonstrated the ability to achieve isotropic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm within clinically relevant 90 s scan times, as well as the ability to perform 1.0 mm isotropic resolution imaging, 7 s per dynamics, with the use of bidirectional SENSE acceleration of up to R = 9.The FCE design of the transmit coil easily accommodates the addition of a sixteen channel array coil. The improved spatial and temporal resolution provided by the high-field array coil with FCE dual-channel transmit will ultimately be beneficial in lesion detection and characterization.

  2. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  3. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  4. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  5. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  6. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V, E-mail: maxmarche@gmail.co, E-mail: yxie@superpower-inc.co [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  7. Progress on MOD/RABiTSTM 2G HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Schoop, U.; Thieme, C.; Teplitsky, M.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Siegal, E.; Scudiere, J.; Maroni, V.; Venkataraman, K.; Miller, D.; Holesinger, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The development of the second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire has advanced beyond initial laboratory demonstrations and is now focused on developing and testing high critical current conductor designs required for commercial applications. The approach pursued at American Superconductor for 2G wire manufacturing is based on the combination of the RABiTS TM substrate-buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of the YBCO layer. This MOD/RABiTS TM approach has been demonstrated in 10 m lengths with critical currents of up to 184 A/cm-width (∼2.3 MA/cm 2 ) and in short length with critical currents of up to 270 A/cm-width (∼3.4 MA/cm 2 ). In addition to a high critical current, the superconducting wire must also meet stringent mechanical and electrical stability requirements that vary by application. Commercially viable architectures designed to meet these specifications have been fabricated and tested. Wires manufactured by this process have been successfully tested in prototype cable and coil applications

  8. Conformational switching in the coiled-coil domains of a proteasomal ATPase regulates substrate processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoberger, Aaron; Brettrager, Evan J; Smith, David M

    2018-06-18

    Protein degradation in all domains of life requires ATPases that unfold and inject proteins into compartmentalized proteolytic chambers. Proteasomal ATPases in eukaryotes and archaea contain poorly understood N-terminally conserved coiled-coil domains. In this study, we engineer disulfide crosslinks in the coiled-coils of the archaeal proteasomal ATPase (PAN) and report that its three identical coiled-coil domains can adopt three different conformations: (1) in-register and zipped, (2) in-register and partially unzipped, and (3) out-of-register. This conformational heterogeneity conflicts with PAN's symmetrical OB-coiled-coil crystal structure but resembles the conformational heterogeneity of the 26S proteasomal ATPases' coiled-coils. Furthermore, we find that one coiled-coil can be conformationally constrained even while unfolding substrates, and conformational changes in two of the coiled-coils regulate PAN switching between resting and active states. This switching functionally mimics similar states proposed for the 26S proteasome from cryo-EM. These findings thus build a mechanistic framework to understand regulation of proteasome activity.

  9. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  10. Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S

    2004-01-01

    MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Protection for low current superconducting coils wound with insulated strand cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.

    1980-09-01

    The insulated strand cable concept for winding of low current superconducting coil leads to an ideal quench protection by induction coupling. A superconducting secondary loop was made within a cable of a 6.2 Henry dipole coil. When quenching occurred, current was induced in the secondary strand above the critical value. The normal strand quenched the whole cable due to good thermal contact. The secondary loop works as a heater turned on as the wire becomes normal throughout the coil. With a well spread quench, the energy dissipation density is decreased thus preventing local burnout. The mechanism is possible because of close coupling that is present in the insulated cable as in bifilar winding. For the coil tested a 12 strand cable was used, thus a favorable 11 to 1 turn ratio was obtained for the primary to secondary. The superconductor in the secondary had a lower resistance until the critical current was achieved. A theoretical explanation is described for a simplified circuit. Test on the dipole coil with four individual shells showed that the one shell protected with the induced coupling heater always had a more rapid reduction of current. The induced coupling heater tested and explained in this paper works automatically and does not rely on mechanical or electrical devices

  12. Discussion of discrete D shape toroidal coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiho, Katsuyuki; Ohara, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Ko; Onishi, Toshitada

    1988-01-01

    A novel design for a toroidal coil, called the D shape coil, was reported by J. File. The coil conductors are in pure tension and then subject to no bending moment. This leads to a smaller number of emf supports in a simpler configuration than that with the conventional toroidal coil of circular cross-section. The contours of the D shape are given as solutions of a differential equation. This equation includes the function of the magnetic field distribution in the conductor region which is inversely proportional to the winding radius. It is therefore important to use the exact magnetic field distribution. However the magnetic field distribution becomes complicated when the D shape toroidal coil is comprised of discrete coils and also depends on the D shape configuration. A theory and a computer program for designing the practical pure-tension toroidal coil are developed. Using this computer code, D shape conductors are calculated for various numbers of discrete coils and the results are compared. Electromagnetic forces in the coils are also calculated. It is shown that the hoop stress in the conductors depends only on the total ampere-turns of the coil when the contours of the D shape are similar. (author)

  13. Extra Luminal Entrapment of Guide Wire; A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Placement in Right Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Md Abu Masud; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Shailesh; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-10-01

    Central venous Catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure for venous access. It is associated with several complications. We report a rare case of extra luminal entrapment of guide wire during CVC placement in right jugular vein. We report a case of 28 years old female patient presented in our emergency with history of entrapped guide wire in right side of neck during CVC. X-ray showed coiling of guide wire in neck. CT Angiography showed guide wire coursing in between common carotid artery and internal jugular vein (IJV), closely abutting the wall of both vessels. The guide wire was coiled with end coursing behind the esophageal wall. Guide wire was removed under fluoroscopic guide manipulation under local anesthesia. We want to emphasize that even though CVC placement is common and simple procedure, serious complication can occur in hands of untrained operator. The procedure should be performed under supervision, if done by trainee. Force should never be applied to advance the guide wire if resistance is encountered.

  14. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  15. Large coil test facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.; Mann, T.L.

    1978-02-01

    In the development of a superconducting toroidal field (TF) magnet for The Next Step (TNS) tokamak reactor, several different TF coils, about half TNS size, will be built and tested to permit selection of a design and fabrication procedure for full-scale TNS coils. A conceptual design has been completed for a facility to test D-shaped TF coils, 2.5 x 3.5-m bore, operating at 4-6 K, cooled either by boiling helium or by forced-flow supercritical helium. Up to six coils can be accommodated in a toroidal array housed in a single vacuum tank. The principal components and systems in the facility are an 11-m vacuum tank, a test stand providing structural support and service connections for the coils, a liquid nitrogen system, a system providing helium both as saturated liquid and at supercritical pressure, coils to produce a pulsed vertical field at any selected test coil position, coil power supplies, process instrumentation and control, coil diagnostics, and a data acquisition and handling system. The test stand structure is composed of a central bucking post, a base structure, and two horizontal torque rings. The coils are bolted to the bucking post, which transmits all gravity loads to the base structure. The torque ring structure, consisting of beams between adjacent coils, acts with the bucking structure to react all the magnetic loads that occur when the coils are energized. Liquid helium is used to cool the test stand structure to 5 K to minimize heat conduction to the coils. Liquid nitrogen is used to precool gaseous helium during system cooldown and to provide thermal radiation shielding

  16. The development of the high-tension wire for nuclear fusion superconductive magnet measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Morita, Yohsuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Furusawa, Ken-ichi.

    1987-01-01

    Following on tokamak critical plasma testing device JT-60, experimental fusion reactor JT-100 is being developed. The 6 kV high-tension wire has been developed for use in JT-100 under ultra-low temperature and high radiation environment. Used for superconductive magnet measurement, the wire is inserted in the vacuum vessel, being immersed within the liquid helium. As the insulating material of this wire, polyetherimido was found to be most suitable in the respects of radiation resistance and voltage-withstand property. In an electric wire covered with polyetherimido, which was made in trial, its test in voltage-withstand and bending characteristics at ultra-low temperature showed the wire to be usable for the intended purpose. (Mori, K.)

  17. Hot fuel examination facility element spacer wire-wrap machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, D.A.; Sherman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive examinations of irradiated experimental fuel elements conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North (HFEF/N) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory include laser and contact profilometry (element diameter measurements), electrical eddy-current testing for cladding and thermal bond defects, bow and length measurements, neutron radiography, gamma scanning, remote visual exam, and photography. Profilometry was previously restricted to spiral profilometry of the element to prevent interference with the element spacer wire wrapped in a helix about the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)-type fuel element from end to end. By removing the spacer wire prior to conducting profilometry examination, axial profilometry techniques may be used, which are considerably faster than spiral techniques and often result in data acquisition more important to experiment sponsors. Because the element must often be reinserted into the nuclear reactor (EBR-II) for additional irradiation, however, the spacer wire must be reinstalled on the highly irradiated fuel element by remote means after profilometry of the wireless elements. The element spacer wire-wrap machine developed at HFEF is capable of helically wrapping fuel elements with diameters up to 1.68 cm (0.660 in.) and 2.44-m (96-in.) lengths. The machine can accommodate almost any desired wire pitch length by simply inserting a new wrapper gear module

  18. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Parametric system studies of candidate TF coil system options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiersen, W.T.; Flanagan, C.A.; Miller, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    System studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of hybrid and superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil system options to maximum field at the TF coil and to field enhancement due to resistive insert coils. The studies were performed using Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design assumptions, guidelines, and criteria and involved iterative execution of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) systems code, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium code, and EFFI (a code to evaluate magnetic field strength). The results indicate that for TFCX with no minimum wall loading specified, a design point chosen solely on the basis of cost would likely be in the low-field region of design space where the cost advantage of hybrids is least apparent. However, as the desired neutron wall loading increases, the hybrid option suggests an increasing cost advantage over the all-superconducting option; this cost advantage is countered by increased complexity in design -- particularly in assembly and maintenance

  20. Parametric system studies of candidate TF coil system options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiersen, W.T.; Flanagan, C.A.; Miller, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    System studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of hybrid and superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil system options to maximum field at the TF coil and to field enhancement due to resistive insert coils. The studies were performed using Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design assumptions, guidelines, and criteria and involved iterative execution of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) systems code, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium code, and EFFI (a code to evaluate magnetic field strength). The results indicate that for TFCX with no minimum wall loading specified, a design point chosen solely on the basis of cost would likely be in the low-field region of design space where the cost advantage of hybrids is least apparent. However, as the desired neutron wall loading increases, the hybrid option suggests an increasing cost advantage over the all-superconducting option; this cost advantage is countered by increased complexity in design - particularly in assembly and maintenance

  1. Room Temperature Magnetic Determination of the Current Center Line for the ITER TF Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Lerch, Philippe; Buzio, Marco; Negrazus, Marco; Baynham, Elwyn; Sanfilippo, Stephane; Foussat, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The ITER tokamak includes 18 superconducting D-shaped toroidal field (IT) coils. Unavoidable shape deformations as well as assembly errors will lead to field errors, which can be modeled with the knowledge of the current center line (CCL). Accurate survey during the entire manufacturing and assembly process, including transfer of survey points, is complex. In order to increase the level of confidence, a room temperature magnetic measurement of the CCL on assembled and closed winding packs is foreseen, prior to insertion into their cold case. In this contribution, we discuss the principle of the CCL determination and present a low frequency ac measurement system under development at PSI, within an ITER framework contract. The largest current allowed to flow in the TF coil at room temperature and the precision requirements for the determination of the CCL loci of the coil are hard boundaries. Eddy currents in the radial plates, the winding pack enclosures, and possibly from iron in the reinforced concrete floor...

  2. Design, manufacturing and tests of first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils for offshore wind generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Pujana, A; Merino, J M; Apiñaniz, S; Marino, I; Iturbe, R; Nardelli, D

    2014-01-01

    Although renewable sector has started to take advantage of the offshore wind energy recently, the development is very intense. Turbines reliability, size, and cost are key aspects for the wind industry, especially in marine locations. A superconducting generator will allow a significant reduction in terms of weight and size, but cost and reliability are two aspects to deal with. MgB 2 wire is presented as one promising option to be used in superconducting coils for wind generators. This work shows the experimental results in first cryogen-free MgB 2 prototype coils, designed according to specific requirements of TECNALIA's wind generator concept.

  3. Effect of the Ignition Method on the Extinction Limit for a Flame Spreading over Electric Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsui, Fumiya; Nagachi, Masashi; Citerne, Jean-Marie

    . The experimental results show that the LOC of NiCr core wires assume an almost constant value under normal gravity conditions once ignition occurred, whereas under microgravity conditions, the LOC gradually decreases as the ignition power or heating time increases and eventually it reaches an almost constant value......Flame spread experiments with wire insulation were conducted in microgravity (parabolic flights) and in normal gravity to understand the effect of the ignition condition on the Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) for an opposed air flow condition of 100 mm/s (typical flow velocity on ISS). Both...... the ignition power (50-110 W) and the igniter heating time (5-15 s) were varied. Polyethylene-coated Nickel-Chrome or copper wires with inner core diameter of 0.50 mm and insulation thickness of 0.30 mm were used as sample wires, and a 0.50 mm diameter coiled Kanthal wire was used as the igniter...

  4. The public multi-coil information (PUMCIN) policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; de Graaf, Robin A

    2017-11-01

    Multi-coil (MC) magnetic field modeling has emerged as a viable alternative to conventional field generation based on spherical harmonic shapes, and an active MC community is forming. Although all MC applications share the same modeling concept, the specific MC designs can largely differ as a result of disparities in region of interest (eg, human versus rodent), intended MR application (eg, B 0 shimming versus spatial encoding), or other experimental constraints (eg, available bore space or integration with radiofrequency technology). To date, a lack of detailed information on existing MC designs complicates the assessment and precludes a meaningful comparison. Here, we suggest that future publications involving the MC technique not only report the benefits for the application at hand, but also include an explicit description of the MC wire pattern used. This public multi-coil information (PUMCIN) policy represents a voluntary commitment to promoting free public access to the details necessary for reproducing and benefiting from MC research. The PUMCIN policy is expected to initiate a paradigm shift with respect to the way MC innovation is reported. By setting an example, we hope to encourage the evolving MC community to maximize the benefits for science and society by embracing it. Magn Reson Med 78:2042-2047, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Embolization Coils Migrating and Being Passed per Rectum After Embolization of a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm, 'The Migrating Coil': A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Numan A.; Akingboye, Akinfemi; Haldipur, Nandon; Mackinlay, James Y.; Jacob, George

    2007-01-01

    Acute or chronic blood loss from pseudoaneurysms of the splanchnic artery in chronic pancreatitis poses diagnostic and management challenges. Arteriographic examination offers both diagnostic and therapeutic options, with success rates of 76%-100% for both modalities. In cases of failure of embolization, repeat embolization is also an option. Surgical intervention is advocated for rebleeding and failure of embolization. Evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal treatment modality for this condition are lacking. There has been a reported case of dislodgement of coil into the stomach through a gastropseudocystic fistula. We report the case of a migrating steel-wire coil through the gastrointestinal tract and splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. We highlight the potential complications of pseudoaneurysm and other available therapeutic management options

  6. Development of a new error field correction coil (C-coil) for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.I.; Scoville, J.T.

    1995-12-01

    The C-coil recently installed on the DIII-D tokamak was developed to reduce the error fields created by imperfections in the location and geometry of the existing coils used to confine, heat, and shape the plasma. First results from C-coil experiments include stable operation in a 1.6 MA plasma with a density less than 1.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , nearly a factor of three lower density than that achievable without the C-coil. The C-coil has also been used in magnetic braking of the plasma rotation and high energy particle confinement experiments. The C-coil system consists of six individual saddle coils, each 60 degree wide toroidally, spanning the midplane of the vessel with a vertical height of 1.6 m. The coils are located at a major radius of 3.2 m, just outside of the toroidal field coils. The actual shape and geometry of each coil section varied somewhat from the nominal dimensions due to the large number of obstructions to the desired coil path around the already crowded tokamak. Each coil section consists of four turns of 750 MCM insulated copper cable banded with stainless steel straps within the web of a 3 in. x 3 in. stainless steel angle frame. The C-coil structure was designed to resist peak transient radial forces (up to 1,800 Nm) exerted on the coil by the toroidal and ploidal fields. The coil frames were supported from existing poloidal field coil case brackets, coil studs, and various other structures on the tokamak

  7. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  8. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  9. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  10. Stabilized superconductive wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  11. Argonne National Laboratory superconducting pulsed coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The main objectives are to develop high current (approx. 100 kA) cryostable cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to build a demonstration pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat. A 1.5-MJ cryostable pulsed superconducting coil has been developed and constructed at ANL. The coil has a peak field of 4.5 T at an operating current of 11.0 kA. A large inexpensive plastic cryostat has been developed for testing the pulsed coil. The coil has been pulsed with a maximum dB/dt of 11 T/s. The coil was pulsed more than 4000 cycles. Detailed results of the ac loss measurements and the current sharing of the cryostability will be described

  12. Test facility for PLT TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearney, J.; File, J.; Dreskin, S.

    1975-01-01

    Past experience with the model C stellerator and other toroidal field devices indicates that mechanical and electrical tests of a toroidal field coil prior to maximum field operation of the device is prudent and desirable. This paper describes a test program for the PLT-TF coils. The test stand consists of one test coil, two background coils and a steel supporting structure. The three coil configuration produces a 67.5 kG field at the inner conductor (38 kG at the bore center) and simulates a 1/R field distribution in the bore of the test coil. The resolution of the field force system and resultant stresses within the test structure are discussed. A test procedure is described which maximizes the information obtained from a 100,000 pulse program

  13. Power loss problems in EXTRAP coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1977-02-01

    The Ohmic power loss in the coils of external ring traps is minimized with respect to the thermonuclear power production. In the case of the DT-reaction this leads to dimensions and power densities being relevant to full-scale reactors. Not only superconducting or refrigerated coil windings can thus be used, but also hot-coil systems which are operated at several hundred degrees centrigrade and form part of a steam cycle and power extraction system. For hot coils the problems of void formation and tritium regeneration have to be further examined. The high beta value leads to moderately large coil stresses. Finally, replacement and repair become simplified by the present coil geometry. (Auth.)

  14. Coil supporting device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Minoru; Ando, Toshiro; Ota, Mitsuru; Ishimura, Masabumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the bending stress exerted on coils thereby preventing the coils from deformation by branching the outer circumferential support frames of coil support frames disposed at an equal pitch circumferentially to the coils into plurality, and integrally forming them to the inner circumferential support frames. Constitution: Each of the support frames for supporting poloidal coils winding around a vacuum vessel is bisected at the radial midway so that the outer circumferential branches are disposed at an equal pitch and they are formed integrally with the inner circumferential support frames. The inner circumferential support frames are fixed by support posts on a bed and the outer circumferential support frames are mounted to the outer edge of wedge-like support posts. Accordingly, if the coils expand outwardly upon increase in the temperature, the stress exerted on the support frame can be decreased. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  16. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Fabrication and properties of multifilamentary MgB 2 wires by in-situ powder-in-tube process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Y.; Jiao, G. F.; Liu, G. Q.; Xiong, X. M.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. X.; Sulpice, A.; Mossang, E.; Feng, Y.; Yan, G.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated the long TiC-doped MgB2 wires with 6 filaments by in-situ powder-in-tube method using Nb as the barrier and copper as the stabilizer. To improve the strength of wires, the Nb-core was used as the central filament. The transport engineering critical current density (Jce) of the samples sintered at different temperature were measured, which reaches 2.5 × 104 A/cm2 at 4.2 K, 5 T. 100 m MgB2 wires with different diameter were wound into coils and the transport critical current (Ic) of the coil were measured at 30 K in self-field. The Jce value 100 m coil achieves 1.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 1.2 mm wire. The reasons leading to the enhancement of high field Jce were discussed. The results show a good potential to fabricate high performance MgB2 wires and tapes at ambient pressure on an industrial scale.

  18. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  19. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  20. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF COILED TUBING STRESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Matanović

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of coiled tubing is increasing rapidly with drilling of horizontal wells. To satisfy all requirements (larger mechanical stresses, larger fluid capacities the production of larger sizes and better material qualities was developed. Stresses due to axial forces and pressures that coiled tubing is subjected are close to its performance limits. So it is really important to know and understand the behaviour of coiled tubing to avoid its break, burst or collapse in the well.

  2. Quench studies of YBCO insulated and non-insulated pancake coils

    OpenAIRE

    Glowa Natalia; Wesche Rainer; Bruzzone Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    As a result of extremely high upper critical fields Bc2 high temperature superconductors (HTSs) have the potential to be used as high field insert coils in magnet systems where the background field is provided by low temperature superconductors (LTS). However due to low quench propagation velocity in HTS as compared to LTS the issue of developing a fast and reliable quench detection and protection scheme for such magnet systems remains a serious challenge. In order to provide a stable operati...

  3. High performance twisted and coiled soft actuator with spandex fiber for artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Yul; Cho, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Youngeun; Song, Min-Geun; Jung, Ho Sang; Yoo, Ji Wang; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the twisted and coiled soft actuator (abbreviated with STCA) with spandex fiber. The STCA exhibits higher actuation strain at lower temperature than the previous nylon twisted and coiled soft actuators (abbreviated with NTCAs). While NTCAs are fabricated using a twist-insertion process until coils are formed, a new method is developed to fabricate the STCA using the ultra-stretch of spandex, whereby the STCA is twisted again after the coil has been formed. A 6-gear-twist-insertion device that increases the stability and the fabrication speed is developed to fabricate the STCA. The superior performance exhibited by the STCA is due to the 14% contraction strain of the bare spandex (bare nylon: 4%) and the low spring constant of 0.0115 N mm-1. The maximum tensile actuation strain of STCA was 45% at 130 °C, and the maximum specific work was 1.523 kJ kg-1 at 130 °C. STCA could repeatedly actuate 100 times with a strain change of less than 0.4%.

  4. Superconducting wire for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Itaru; Ikeda, Masaru; Tanaka, Yasuzo; Meguro, Shinichiro

    1985-01-01

    In Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in USA, the development of a mirror type nuclear fusion reactor is carried out, and for plasma confinement, superconducting magnets are used. For the axicell coil generating a 12 T magnetic field in one of these magnets, Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires are to be used, and after the completion, it will be the largest magnet in the world as high magnetic field superconducting magnets. Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. has completed the delivery of Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires used for this purpose. Since the Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires are very brittle, attention was paid to the manufacture to satisfy the required characteristics, and it was able to obtain the good reputation that the product was highly homogeneous as the superconducting wires of this type. In this paper, the design, manufacture and various characteristics of these superconducting wires are reported. The Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires were manufactured on industrial scale of 8 tons. The features of these Nb 3 Sn wires are the compound structure with semi-hard copper for low temperature stability and strengthening. (Kako, I.)

  5. Engineering design framework for a shape memory alloy coil spring actuator using a static two-state model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sung-Min; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Ryu, Junghyun; Cho, Maenghyo

    2012-01-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA) coil spring actuator is fabricated by annealing an SMA wire wound on a rod. Four design parameters are required for the winding: the wire diameter, the rod diameter, the pitch angle and the number of active coils. These parameters determine the force and stroke produced by the actuator. In this paper, we present an engineering design framework to select these parameters on the basis of the desired force and stoke. The behavior of the SMA coil spring actuator is described in detail to provide information about the inner workings of the actuator and to aid in selecting the design parameters. A new static two-state model, which represents a force–deflection relation of the actuator at the fully martensitic state (M 100% ) and fully austenitic state (A 100% ), is derived for use in the design. Two nonlinear effects are considered in the model: the nonlinear detwinning effect of the SMA and the nonlinear geometric effect of the coil spring for large deformations. The design process is organized into six steps and is presented with a flowchart and design equations. By following this systematic approach, an SMA coil spring actuator can be designed for various applications. Experimental results verified the static two-state model for the SMA coil spring actuator and a case study showed that an actuator designed using this framework met the design requirements. The proposed design framework was developed to assist application engineers such as robotics researchers in designing SMA coil spring actuators without the need for full thermomechanical models. (paper)

  6. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb3Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nb 3 Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil

  7. Optimization of the ECT background coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.K.; Luton, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    This study was begun to optimize the Eccentric Coil Test (ECT) background coil. In the course of this work a general optimization code was obtained, tested, and applied to the ECT problem. So far this code has proven to be very satisfactory. The results obtained with this code and earlier codes have illustrated the parametric behavior of such a coil system and that the optimum for this type system is broad. This study also shows that a background coil with a winding current density of less than 3000 A/cm 2 is not feasible for the ECT models presented in this paper

  8. Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs

  9. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  10. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  11. Progress in American Superconductor’s HTS wire and optimization for fault current limiting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malozemoff, Alexis P., E-mail: amalozemoff@amsc.com

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • AMSC HTS wire critical current needed for rotating machinery is doubled by 16 MeV Au irradiation. • Nonuniformity of HTS wires in power devices causes hot spot formation during power system faults. • Lower normal-state resistivity and critical current lower HTS wire hot spot heating during faults. • HTS wire hot spot heating in HTS cables during faults must stay below lN{sub 2} bubble nucleation point. • HTS wire can be designed to meet hot spot heating limits in fault current limiting cables. - Abstract: American Superconductor has developed composite coated conductor tape-shaped wires using high temperature superconductor (HTS) on a flexible substrate with laminated metal stabilizer. Such wires enable many applications, each requiring specific optimization. For example, coils for HTS rotating machinery require increased current density J at 25–50 K. A collaboration with Argonne, Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories and several universities has increased J using an optimized combination of precipitates and ion irradiation defects in the HTS. Major commercial opportunities also exist to enhance electric power grid resiliency by linking substations with distribution-voltage HTS power cables [10]. Such links provide alternative power sources if one substation's transmission-voltage power is compromised. But they must also limit fault currents which would otherwise be increased by such distribution-level links. This can be done in an HTS cable, exploiting the superconductor-to-resistive transition when current exceeds the wires’ critical J. A key insight is that such transitions are usually nonuniform; so the wire must be designed to prevent localized hot spots from damaging the wire or even generating gas bubbles in the cable causing dielectric breakdown. Analysis shows that local heating can be minimized by increasing the composite tape's total thickness, decreasing its total resistance in the normal state and

  12. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodak, Andrei, E-mail: akhodak@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Modified design of coil for testing ITER superconducting cable is presented. • Numerical analysis allowed design verification. • Three-dimensional current sharing temperature distributions are obtained from the results. - Abstract: The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4 K, no current, (3) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4 K, no current, and temperature 4 K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor

  13. Improvements in or relating to superconductive magnet coils and their formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a superconductive magnet coil is described comprising winding on to a former a wire containing the components of a superconductive intermetallic compound and heating the assembly to a temperature such that the components of the compound react to form the intermetallic compound. The former should be made of metal, such as steel or stainless steel, of melting point higher than that at which the reaction occurs, and should have on all portions of its surface contacted by the wire a coating of a refractory material, such as Al 2 O 3 , non reactive with the metal and the wire. The wire may contain, after reaction, filaments of the intermetallic compound, and adjacent strands of wire in a single layer may be insulated one from the other by refractory material. A flange is formed on one end of the former, which may be cylindrical in shape. The refractory coating of the former may be flame sprayed into the metal. (U.K.)

  14. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  15. Multicoil2: predicting coiled coils and their oligomerization states from sequence in the twilight zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Trigg

    Full Text Available The alpha-helical coiled coil can adopt a variety of topologies, among the most common of which are parallel and antiparallel dimers and trimers. We present Multicoil2, an algorithm that predicts both the location and oligomerization state (two versus three helices of coiled coils in protein sequences. Multicoil2 combines the pairwise correlations of the previous Multicoil method with the flexibility of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs in a Markov Random Field (MRF. The resulting algorithm integrates sequence features, including pairwise interactions, through multinomial logistic regression to devise an optimized scoring function for distinguishing dimer, trimer and non-coiled-coil oligomerization states; this scoring function is used to produce Markov Random Field potentials that incorporate pairwise correlations localized in sequence. Multicoil2 significantly improves both coiled-coil detection and dimer versus trimer state prediction over the original Multicoil algorithm retrained on a newly-constructed database of coiled-coil sequences. The new database, comprised of 2,105 sequences containing 124,088 residues, includes reliable structural annotations based on experimental data in the literature. Notably, the enhanced performance of Multicoil2 is evident when tested in stringent leave-family-out cross-validation on the new database, reflecting expected performance on challenging new prediction targets that have minimal sequence similarity to known coiled-coil families. The Multicoil2 program and training database are available for download from http://multicoil2.csail.mit.edu.

  16. Design of the coolant system for the Large Coil Test Facility pulse coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgman, C.; Ryan, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse coils will be a part of the Large Coil Test Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which is designed to test six large tokamak-type superconducting coils. The pulse coil set consists of two resistive coaxial solenoid coils, mounted so that their magnetic axis is perpendicular to the toroidal field lines of the test coil. The pulse coils provide transient vertical fields at test coil locations to simulate the pulsed vertical fields present in tokamak devices. The pulse coils are designed to be pulsed for 30 s every 150 s, which results in a Joule heating of 116 kW per coil. In order to provide this capability, the pulse coil coolant system is required to deliver 6.3 L/s (100 gpm) of subcooled liquid nitrogen at 10-atm absolute pressure. The coolant system can also cool down each pulse coil from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. This paper provides details of the pumping and heat exchange equipment designed for the coolant system and of the associated instrumentation and controls

  17. Tissue encapsulation of the proximal Essure micro-insert from the uterine cavity following hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, John F; Munday, David; Ritossa, Martin; Rosen, David

    2007-01-01

    To assess the interaction between the trailing ends of a sterilization micro-insert extending into the uterine cavity and the surrounding uterine tissue environment over time. Multicenter, retrospective observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Hospital-based clinical research centers. A subset of a study population of 545 women who had undergone a hysteroscopic sterilization procedure. A second-look hysteroscopy was performed in 22 (20 with uterine bleeding, 2 pre IVF) of these 545 women between 4 and 43 months from the sterilization procedure. Over a mean time period of 19.73 months, the trailing coils of the micro-inserts into the uterine cavity shortened from a mean of 5.7 mm to 2.0 mm and from 5.4 mm to 1.8 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. In cases observed within 12 months or fewer post-procedure, the complete tissue encapsulation of both micro-inserts had already occurred in 17% of the observations. Among cases evaluated from 13 to 43 months post-procedure, 25% evidenced complete encapsulation. Two mechanisms appear to be responsible for this process. First, there is an initial mechanical "winding-in" of the micro-insert of approximately 1 rotation of its outer coil, accounting for 1 mm of its length, after release from its delivery system. Second, the tissue around the ostium appears to use the trailing coils of the micro-insert as a scaffolding structure, gradually encapsulating and excluding them from the uterine cavity. The gradual tissue exclusion of the micro-insert from the uterine cavity may make it pregnancy-compatible after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedures.

  18. Measurement of heating coil temperature for e-cigarettes with a "top-coil" clearomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Wang, Ping; Ito, Kazuhide; Fowles, Jeff; Shusterman, Dennis; Jaques, Peter A; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of applied power settings, coil wetness conditions, and e-liquid compositions on the coil heating temperature for e-cigarettes with a "top-coil" clearomizer, and to make associations of coil conditions with emission of toxic carbonyl compounds by combining results herein with the literature. The coil temperature of a second generation e-cigarette was measured at various applied power levels, coil conditions, and e-liquid compositions, including (1) measurements by thermocouple at three e-liquid fill levels (dry, wet-through-wick, and full-wet), three coil resistances (low, standard, and high), and four voltage settings (3-6 V) for multiple coils using propylene glycol (PG) as a test liquid; (2) measurements by thermocouple at additional degrees of coil wetness for a high resistance coil using PG; and (3) measurements by both thermocouple and infrared (IR) camera for high resistance coils using PG alone and a 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture of PG and glycerol (PG/GL). For single point thermocouple measurements with PG, coil temperatures ranged from 322 ‒ 1008°C, 145 ‒ 334°C, and 110 ‒ 185°C under dry, wet-through-wick, and full-wet conditions, respectively, for the total of 13 replaceable coil heads. For conditions measured with both a thermocouple and an IR camera, all thermocouple measurements were between the minimum and maximum across-coil IR camera measurements and equal to 74% ‒ 115% of the across-coil mean, depending on test conditions. The IR camera showed details of the non-uniform temperature distribution across heating coils. The large temperature variations under wet-through-wick conditions may explain the large variations in formaldehyde formation rate reported in the literature for such "top-coil" clearomizers. This study established a simple and straight-forward protocol to systematically measure e-cigarette coil heating temperature under dry, wet-through-wick, and full-wet conditions. In addition to applied power, the

  19. Progress on large superconducting toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.; Beard, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Large superconducting toroidal field coils of competing designs are being produced by six major industrial teams. In the US, teams headed by General Dynamics Convair, General Electric, and Westinghouse are under contract to design and fabricate one coil each to specifications established by the Large Coil Program. A facility for testing 6 coils in a toroidal array at fields to 8 to 12 tesla is under construction at Oak Ridge. Through an international agreement, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland will produce one coil each for testing with the US coils. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape winding bore and is designed to operate at a current of 10 to 18 kA at a peak field of 8T while subjected to pulsed fields of 0.14 T applied in 1.0 s. There are significant differences among the six coil designs: five use NbTi, one Nb 3 Sn; three are cooled by pool boiling helium, three by forced flow; five have welded or bolted stainless steel coil cases, one has aluminum plate structure. All are designed to be cryostable at 8T, with structural margin for extended operation. The three US coil teams are almost or completely finished with detailed design and are now procuring materials and setting up manufacturing equipment. The non-US teams are at various stages of verification testing and design. The GDC and GE coils are scheduled for delivery in the spring of 1981 and the others will be completed a year later. The 11-m diameter vessel at the test facility has been completed and major components of the test stand are being procured. Engineering and procurement to upgrade the helium liquifier-refrigerator system are under way

  20. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  1. Outcomes with single-coil versus dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Nicholas; Kaura, Amit; Murgatroyd, Francis; Dhillon, Para; Scott, Paul A

    2018-03-01

    Dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads have traditionally been used over single-coil leads due to concerns regarding high defibrillation thresholds (DFT) and consequent poor shock efficacy. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this position may be unfounded and that dual-coil leads may also be associated with higher complication rates during lead extraction. This meta-analysis collates data comparing dual- and single-coil ICD leads. Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized studies comparing single-coil and dual-coil leads. The mean differences in DFT and summary estimates of the odds-ratio (OR) for first-shock efficacy and the hazard-ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were calculated using random effects models. Eighteen studies including a total of 138,124 patients were identified. Dual-coil leads were associated with a lower DFT compared to single coil leads (mean difference -0.83J; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.39--0.27; P = 0.004). There was no difference in the first-shock success rate with dual-coil compared to single-coil leads (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.45-1.21; P=0.22). There was a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality associated with single-coil leads (HR 0.91; 95%CI 0.86-0.95; P dual-coil leads. The mortality benefit with single-coil leads most likely represents patient selection bias. Given the increased risk and complexity of extracting dual-coil leads, centres should strongly consider single-coil ICD leads as the lead of choice for routine new left-sided ICD implants. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. HydroCoil as an adjuvant to bare platinum coil treatment of 100 cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, Noel F.; Berentei, Zsolt; Brennan, Paul R.; Thornton, John

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The overall safety of the HydroCoil, an expansile hybrid hydrogel-platinum coil, is unknown. We report a prospective observational study of our first 100 cerebral aneurysms treated with HydroCoils, focusing on safety and initial efficacy.Methods Indications, procedural complications, clinical and angiographic outcomes were recorded. Packing density, number of coils deployed and angiographic results were compared with those in a matched control group of 100 aneurysms treated solely with bare platinum coils. HydroCoil complication rates were compared to bare platinum coil rates at our institution and in published series. Results Adjuvant HydroCoil treatment led to increased mean percentage aneurysm filling compared to controls (50 ± 21% versus 27 ± 13%, P < 0.001). Immediate posttreatment angiographic results showed significantly (P < 0.001) more complete occlusions and fewer incomplete (<95%) occlusions compared to controls. Intermediate follow-up angiograms (median 7.5 months) in 63 aneurysms showed a trend towards fewer incomplete occlusions with HydroCoil treatment. There were significantly fewer major recurrences with HydroCoil treatment compared to the control treatment (9.5% versus 22.6%, P 0.046). In the adjuvant HydroCoil group, major recurrent aneurysms had significantly less percentage volume packing with HydroCoils than non-recurrent aneurysms (50.3 ± 5.0% versus 65.3 ± 18.0%, P = 0.04). There was a 12% procedural complication rate, 6% procedural morbidity and 1% mortality rate, similar to institutional and reported bare platinum coil complication rates.Conclusion HydroCoils can be safely deployed with a similar complication rate to bare platinum coils. They result in improved aneurysm filling. Intermediate follow-up angiography showed significantly fewer major recurrences. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm initial improved stability. (orig.)

  3. Design of the 70 mm twin aperture superconducting quadrupole for the LHC dump insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Trinquart, G

    1996-01-01

    The LHC dump insertion features a pair of superconducting quadrupoles located on either side of a 340 m long straight section. Two horizontally deflecting kickers, located in between the quadrupole pairs, and a septum in the centre of the insertion, vertically deflect the two counter-rotating beams past the quadrupoles on the downstream sides, and into the dump areas. Due to the layout, the optical ß function in the quadrupoles is around 640 m, the largest around the LHC at injection. The quadrupoles must therefore have enlarged aperture and specially designed cryostats to allow for the safe passage of both the circulating and ejected beams. In this paper we present the design of the twin aperture dump quadrupole based on the 70 mm four layer coil proposed for the LHC low-ß quadrupoles. In preparation for model construction, we report on improvements of the coil design and a study of the retaining structures.

  4. Comparison of four techniques of nasogastric tube insertion in anaesthetised, intubated patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Chandra Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Insertion of nasogastric tubes (NGTs in anaesthetised, intubated patients with a conventional method is sometimes difficult. Different techniques of NGT insertion have been tried with varying degree of success. The aim of this prospective, randomised, open-label study was to evaluate three modified techniques of NGT insertion comparing with the conventional method in respect of success rate, time taken for insertion and the adverse events. Methods: In the operation theatre of general surgery, the patients were randomly allocated into four groups: Group C (control group, n = 54, Group W (ureteral guide wire group, n = 54, Group F (neck flexion with lateral pressure, n = 54 and Group R (reverse Sellick′s manoeuvre, n = 54. The number of attempts for successful NGT insertion, time taken for insertion and adverse events were noted. Results: All the three modified techniques were found more successful than the conventional method on the first attempt. The least time taken for insertion was noted in the reverse Sellick′s method. However, on intergroup analysis, neck flexion and reverse Sellick′s methods were comparable but significantly faster than the other two methods with respect to time taken for insertion. Conclusion: Reverse Sellick′s manoeuver, neck flexion with lateral neck pressure and guide wire-assisted techniques are all better alternatives to the conventional method for successful, quick and reliable NGT insertion with permissible adverse events in anaesthetised, intubated adult patients. Further studies after eliminating major limitations of the present study are warranted to establish the superiority of any one of these modified techniques.

  5. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okawa Atsushi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided.

  6. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Akimoto; Nakagawa, Teruhiko; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Okawa, Atsushi; Muneta, Takeshi

    2010-10-12

    Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided.

  7. US-guided preoperative hook-wire localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Hye Jung; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Ju; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Ha; Park, Ho Yong

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of US-guided preoperative wire localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. US-guided preoperative wire localization was performed upon 45 nonpalpable breast lesions including 14 nonpalpable masses, 11 nonpalpable masses with microcalcifications, 11 ductal lesions, 9 with microcalcifications. No local anesthesia was performed during the localization procedure. Under the US-guidance, the needle with the hook-wire was inserted into the lesion until the hook of the wire reached 1 cm beyond the posterior margin of the lesion. Precise wire positioning was confirmed by mammography. Specimen radiography or specimen ultrasonography was performed in all cases. US-guided preoperative wire localization was successfully achieved in all cases. The time required for US-guided wire localization was less than five minutes. All lesions were successfully removed by surgical excision. Successful removal was confirmed by specimen radiography or specimen ultrasonography, gross findings of the specimen and consistency between radiographic and pathologic findings. The histologic diagnosis of 45 lesions were 7 ductal carcinoma in situ, 8 invasive ductal carcinoma, 6 fibroadenoma, 8 intraductal papilloma, 2 atypical ductal hyperplasia, and 14 fibrocystic changes. No complications were occurred during and after the procedure. US-guided preoperative wire localization for excisional biopsy is simple, safe, and accurate method in the histologic diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions detectable with ultrasonography.

  8. US-guided preoperative hook-wire localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Hye Jung; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Ju; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Ha; Park, Ho Yong [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of US-guided preoperative wire localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. US-guided preoperative wire localization was performed upon 45 nonpalpable breast lesions including 14 nonpalpable masses, 11 nonpalpable masses with microcalcifications, 11 ductal lesions, 9 with microcalcifications. No local anesthesia was performed during the localization procedure. Under the US-guidance, the needle with the hook-wire was inserted into the lesion until the hook of the wire reached 1 cm beyond the posterior margin of the lesion. Precise wire positioning was confirmed by mammography. Specimen radiography or specimen ultrasonography was performed in all cases. US-guided preoperative wire localization was successfully achieved in all cases. The time required for US-guided wire localization was less than five minutes. All lesions were successfully removed by surgical excision. Successful removal was confirmed by specimen radiography or specimen ultrasonography, gross findings of the specimen and consistency between radiographic and pathologic findings. The histologic diagnosis of 45 lesions were 7 ductal carcinoma in situ, 8 invasive ductal carcinoma, 6 fibroadenoma, 8 intraductal papilloma, 2 atypical ductal hyperplasia, and 14 fibrocystic changes. No complications were occurred during and after the procedure. US-guided preoperative wire localization for excisional biopsy is simple, safe, and accurate method in the histologic diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions detectable with ultrasonography.

  9. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  10. Toroidal field coils for the PDX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering design features of the TF coils for the PDX machine. Included are design details of the electrical insulation, water cooling, and coil segment joint which allows access to the central machine area. A discussion of the problems anticipated in the manufacture and the planned solutions are presented

  11. Coil Optimization for High Temperature Superconductor Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents topology optimization of HTS racetrack coils for large HTS synchronous machines. The topology optimization is used to acquire optimal coil designs for the excitation system of 3 T HTS machines. Several tapes are evaluated and the optimization results are discussed. The optimiz...

  12. Novel transcranial magnetic stimulation coil for mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Stephen; Stark, Spencer; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows potential for non-invasive treatment of various neurological disorders. Significant work has been performed on the design of coils used for TMS on human subjects but few reports have been made on the design of coils for use on the brains of animals such as mice. This work is needed as TMS studies utilizing mice can allow rapid preclinical development of TMS for human disorders but the coil designs developed for use on humans are inadequate for optimal stimulation of the much smaller mouse brain. A novel TMS coil has been developed with the goal of inducing strong and focused electric fields for the stimulation of small animals such as mice. Calculations of induced electric fields were performed utilizing an MRI derived inhomogeneous model of an adult male mouse. Mechanical and thermal analysis of this new TMS helmet-coil design have also been performed at anticipated TMS operating conditions to ensure mechanical stability of the new coil and establish expected linear attraction and rotational force values. Calculated temperature increases for typical stimulation periods indicate the helmet-coil system is capable of operating within established medical standards. A prototype of the coil has been fabricated and characterization results are presented.

  13. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  14. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  15. Intraneural stimulation using wire-microelectrode arrays: analysis of force steps in recruitment curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.P.A.; Rutten, Wim; Boom, H.B.K.

    1996-01-01

    In acute experiments on six Wistar rats, a wire-microelectrode array was inserted into the common peroneal nerve. A 5-channel array and a 24-channel array were available. Each electrode in the array was used to generate a twitch contraction force recruitment curve for the extensor digitorum longus

  16. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  17. Composite coils for toroidal field coils and method of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R. G.; Trujillo, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    A composite toroidal field (TF) generating means consisting of segmented magnetic coil windings is disclosed. Each coil winding of the TF generating means consists of a copper or copper alloy conductor segment and an aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segment. The conductor segments are joined at a high strength, low electrical resistance joint and the joint may either be a mechanical or metallurgical one. The use of the aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segments improves the neutron economy of the reactor with which the TF coil is associated and reduces TF coil nuclear heating and heating gradients, and activation in the TF coils

  18. Open midplane designs based on sector coils in superconducting dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bruer, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of opening up the midplane in conventional sector coil dipoles, also known as cosè-designs. The open midplane design is a candidate for the higher luminosity upgrade for the LHC, and also for the future beta beam project at CERN, which has the heat deposition mainly concentrated in the midplane of the dipoles. By opening up the midplane, the major part of the spray particles can be avoided, allowing the use of strong superconductive magnets. The aim of this study is to maintain good field quality after a gap in the midplane has been inserted. Short sample field and the electromagnetic force distribution will also be presented for some solutions.

  19. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  20. Startup of Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Eventually, six different coils from four countries will be tested. Operations began in 1983 with acceptance testing of the helium refrigerator/liquefier system. Comprehensive shakedown of the facility and tests with the first three coils (from Japan, the United States, and Switzerland) were successfully accomplished in the summer of 1984. Currents up to 10,200 A and fields up to 6.4 T were reached. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils

  1. Startup of Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Eventually, six different coils from four countries will be tested. Operations began in 1983 with acceptance testing of the helium refrigerator/liquefier system. Comprehensive shakedown of the facility and tests with the first three coils (from Japan, the United States, and Switzerland) were successfully accomplished in the summer of 1984. Currents up to 10,200 A and fields up to 6.4 T were reached. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils

  2. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  3. Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR High Luminosity insertion:end view

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Connection end view of the prototype quadrupole before insertion of the inner vacuum chamber with inbedded 6-pole windings. The main components of the structure can be seen: (from inside outwards) the superconducting quadrupole coils surrounded by glass epoxy bandage rings and stainless steel spacers, the low-carbon steel yoke quadrants and the aluminium alloy shrinking rings. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307, 7702308, 7812604X.

  4. Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR high-luminosity (low beta)insertion:end view.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    In this picture, taken before the insertion of the inner vacuum chamber with inbedded 6-pole superconducting windings, one can see the main components of the magnet structure: (from inside outwards) the superconducting quadrupole coils surronded by glass epoxy bandage rings and stainless steel spacers, the low-carbon steel yoke quadrants and the aluminium alloy shrinking rings. See also photos 7702307, 7702688X, 7702690X.

  5. Effects of passive coils on spheromak gross MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, C.; Janos, A.; Paul, S.; Wysocki, F.; Yamada, M.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental investigation of the effectiveness of figure-8 coils in stabilizing the n=1 tilting mode of spheromak plasmas in Proto S-1 A/B is extended. In addition, another coil configuration, the saddle coil, is examined

  6. Effect of curettage and copper wire on rabbit endometrium: a novel rabbit model of endometrial mechanical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Qiu-Fang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Shen, Fei; Qiao, Jie; Feng, Huai-Liang

    2011-06-01

    It remains almost a helpless situation for the recurrent implantation failure and pregnancy loss caused by endometrial injury at present. The purpose of this study was to develop a rabbit model of endometrial mechanical injury that could provide a research platform for this difficult clinical predicament. Three experiments were conducted. Experiment 1: Curettages in both uterus horns and copper wire inserting after curettage (double-injury) in one horn. The histological changes were monitored at 0, 24, 48, 72 hours, as well as in 1 and 2 weeks after operation. Experiment 2: Direct copper wire inserting in one horn and double-injury in other horn. The wires in both horns were removed after 2 weeks. The histological changes were recorded at 0, 1 and 2 weeks after wire removal. Experiment 3: Double-injury procedure in one horn was performed and wire was removed after 2 weeks; another horn was remained normal to serve as control. Histological changes were recorded, tissue areas were measured, and proliferation indices (PIs, %) were calculated at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after wire removal, respectively. The experiments revealed that the injured endometrium by simple curettage or copper wire could be fully repaired. While the endometrial regeneration was severely impaired by double-injury, both areas of endometrium and uterine cavity decreased (P copper wire with comparable clinical index.

  7. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  8. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  9. Coil concepts for rapid and motion-compensated MR-Imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this work radiofrequency-coils for the imaging of small animals in clinical whole-body MRI-systems were developed. Therefore in a first step single-channel solenoids were designed and characterized. The solenoids had two and three windings respectively, which were implemented as double wires to increase the homogeneity of the receive profile. These coils allow the acquisition of whole-body images of mice with high signal-to-noise ratio and homogeneity over a distance of at least 6.3 cm. Since many imaging experiments require rapid image acquisition, in the next step a novel coil concept was developed, which, due to its geometry, enables parallel imaging in arbitrary directions. A prototype was assembled and tested on phantom and small-animal experiments. With an accelerating factor of R=2, the difference of the SNR in all directions from the theoretical maximum, was less than 1%. In order to compensate physiological motion by the self-gating technique, in this work a coil is presented for the first time, which selectively amplifies the self-gating signal, while - due to a optical detuning technique - preserving the homogeneous illumination of the image. In vivo experiments on a small animal show an amplification of the self-gating signal by at least 40%. (orig.)

  10. Quasistationary magnetic field generation with a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonchuk, V T; Bailly-Grandvaux, M; Santos, J J; Poyé, A

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments are showing possibilities to generate strong magnetic fields on the excess of 500 T with high-energy nanosecond laser pulses in a compact setup of a capacitor connected to a single turn coil. Hot electrons ejected from the capacitor plate (cathode) are collected at the other plate (anode), thus providing the source of a current in the coil. However, the physical processes leading to generation of currents exceeding hundreds of kiloamperes in such a laser-driven diode are not sufficiently understood. Here we present a critical analysis of previous results and propose a self-consistent model for the high current generation in a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly. It accounts for three major effects controlling the diode current: the space charge neutralization, the plasma magnetization between the capacitor plates, and the Ohmic heating of the external circuit-the coil-shaped connecting wire. The model provides the conditions necessary for transporting strongly super-Alfvenic currents through the diode on the time scale of a few nanoseconds. The model validity is confirmed by a comparison with the available experimental data.

  11. Particle-in-cell simulations of magnetically driven reconnection using laser-powered capacitor coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao; Wang, Xueyi; Fan, Feibin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experimental scheme to fulfill magnetically driven reconnections. Here, two laser beams are focused on a capacitor-coil target and then strong currents are wired in two parallel circular coils. Magnetic reconnection occurs between the two magnetic bubbles created by the currents in the two parallel circular coils. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation model in the cylindrical coordinate is used to investigate such a process, and the simulations are performed in the (r ,z ) plane. The results show that with the increase of the currents in the two coils, the associated magnetic bubbles expand and a current sheet is formed between the two bubbles. Magnetic reconnection occurs when the current sheet is sufficiently thin. A quadrupole structure of the magnetic field in the θ direction ( Bθ ) is generated in the diffusion region and a strong electron current along the r direction ( Je r ) is also formed due to the existence of the high-speed electron flow away from the X line in the center of the outflow region. Because the X line is a circle along the θ direction, the convergence of the plasma flow around r =0 will lead to the asymmetry of Je r and Bθ between the two outflow regions of magnetic reconnection.

  12. Modelling of flexi-coil springs with rubber-metal pads in a locomotive running gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michálek T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, flexi-coil springs are commonly used in the secondary suspension stage of railway vehicles. Lateral stiffness of these springs is influenced by means of their design parameters (number of coils, height, mean diameter of coils, wire diameter etc. and it is often suitable to modify this stiffness in such way, that the suspension shows various lateral stiffness in different directions (i.e., longitudinally vs. laterally in the vehicle-related coordinate system. Therefore, these springs are often supplemented with some kind of rubber-metal pads. This paper deals with modelling of the flexi-coil springs supplemented with tilting rubber-metal tilting pads applied in running gear of an electric locomotive as well as with consequences of application of that solution of the secondary suspension from the point of view of the vehicle running performance. This analysis is performed by means of multi-body simulations and the description of lateral stiffness characteristics of the springs is based on results of experimental measurements of these characteristics performed in heavy laboratories of the Jan Perner Transport Faculty of the University of Pardubice.

  13. Wirelessly powered electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) by planar receiver coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sang Hyun; Yuan, Junqi; Yoon, Myung Gon; Cho, Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is one of the most versatile methods used to control the wettability of liquids using electrical input. In most applications, EWOD is applied using physical wiring, which may restrict its application to implantable EWOD devices. In order to resolve this issue, we have studied and developed a wirelessly powered EWOD by using planar coils at the receiver that are fabricated out of a printed circuit board (PCB) by means of standard micro photolithography. Unlike conventional, bulky, spool coil type, the planar coil type lends itself to compact design and easy integration with EWOD chips. The present wireless powering principle is based on magnetic induction, which is very efficient when the transmitter and receiver coils are close to each other. The voltage obtained at the receiver is much higher than typically required EWOD voltages (>50 V) using a high transmission frequency (~MHz). The span of the EWOD contact angle is over 40°. In addition, amplitude modulation (AM) is implemented in the present wireless powering setup, followed by demodulation, in order to oscillate droplets at low frequency. This technique ensures smooth and reliable droplet movements. The wirelessly powered EWOD is used to transport a droplet and is mounted in a mini-boat which it powers and propels.

  14. Measurements on Subscale Y-Ba-Cu-O Racetrack Coils at 77 K and Self-Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.

    2009-10-19

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) tapes carry significant amount of current at fields beyond the limit of Nb-based conductors. This makes the YBCO tapes a possible conductor candidate for insert magnets to increase the bore field of Nb{sub 3}Sn high-field dipoles. As an initial step of the YBCO insert technology development, two subscale racetrack coils were wound using Kapton-insulated commercial YBCO tapes. Both coils had two layers; one had 3 turns in each layer and the other 10 turns. The coils were supported by G10 side rails and waxed strips and not impregnated. The critical current of the coils was measured at 77 K and self-field. A 2D model considering the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current was used to estimate the expected critical current. The measured results show that both coils reached 80%-95% of the expected values, indicating the feasibility of the design concept and fabrication process.

  15. Compound Tension Control of an Optical-Fiber Coil System: A Cyber-Physical System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment is a complex electromechanical system which contains signal acquisition, data processing, communications, and motor control. In the complex electromechanical system, the subsystems rely on wired or wireless network technology to complete the real-time perception, coordinate, accurate, and dynamitic control, and information exchange services. The paper points to the full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment with the characteristics of cyber-physical system to research its numerical design. We present a novel compound tension control system based on the experimental platform dSPACE to achieve semiphysical simulation of compound tension control system and examine the functions of control system.

  16. Switching transients in a superconducting coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed

  17. Correcting coils in end magnets of accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. Kassab

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical investigation of the correcting coils behavior used to homogenize the field distribution of the race-track microtron accelerator end magnets. These end magnets belong to the second stage of the 30.0 MeV cw electron accelerator under construction at IFUSP, the race-track microtron booster, in which the beam energy is raised from 1.97 to 5.1 MeV. The correcting coils are attached to the pole faces and are based on the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field measured. The performance of these coils, when operating the end magnets with currents that differ by ±10% from the one used in the mappings that originated the coils copper leads, is presented. For one of the magnets, adjusting conveniently the current of the correcting coils makes it possible to homogenize field distributions of different intensities, once their shapes are practically identical to those that originated the coils. For the other one, the shapes are changed and the coils are less efficient. This is related to intrinsic factors that determine the inhomogeneities. However, we obtained uniformity of 0.001% in both cases.

  18. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  19. Development of special machines for production of large number of superconducting coils for the spool correctors for the main dipole of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.M.; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting (Sc) spool correctors of different types namely Sextupole, (MCS) Decapole (MCD) and Octupole (MCO) are incorporated in each of the main dipole of Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In all 2464 MCS and 1232 MCDO magnets are required to equip all 1232 Dipoles of LHC. The coils wound from thin rectangular section Sc wires are the heart of magnet assembly and its performance for the field quality and cold quench training largely depends on the precise and robust construction of these coils. Under DAE-CERN collaboration CAT was entrusted with the responsibility of making these magnets for LHC. Starting with development of manual fixtures and prototyping using soldering, a more advances special Automatic Coils Winding and Ultrasonic Welding (USW) system for production of large no. of coils and magnets were built at CAT. The paper briefly describes the various developments in this area. (author)

  20. Routine phasing of coiled-coil protein crystal structures with AMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens M. H. Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coiled-coil protein folds are among the most abundant in nature. These folds consist of long wound α-helices and are architecturally simple, but paradoxically their crystallographic structures are notoriously difficult to solve with molecular-replacement techniques. The program AMPLE can solve crystal structures by molecular replacement using ab initio search models in the absence of an existent homologous protein structure. AMPLE has been benchmarked on a large and diverse test set of coiled-coil crystal structures and has been found to solve 80% of all cases. Successes included structures with chain lengths of up to 253 residues and resolutions down to 2.9 Å, considerably extending the limits on size and resolution that are typically tractable by ab initio methodologies. The structures of two macromolecular complexes, one including DNA, were also successfully solved using their coiled-coil components. It is demonstrated that both the ab initio modelling and the use of ensemble search models contribute to the success of AMPLE by comparison with phasing attempts using single structures or ideal polyalanine helices. These successes suggest that molecular replacement with AMPLE should be the method of choice for the crystallographic elucidation of a coiled-coil structure. Furthermore, AMPLE may be able to exploit the presence of a coiled coil in a complex to provide a convenient route for phasing.

  1. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-06-06

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where `m`is the free mass and `q` the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where 'm'is the free mass and 'q' the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  3. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Equations for nickel-chromium wire heaters of column transfer lines in gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2004-05-30

    Heating of chromatographic columns, transfer lines, and other devices is often required in neuroscience research. For example, volatile compounds passing through a capillary column of a gas chromatograph (GC) can be split, with half exiting the instrument through a heated transfer line to an insect antenna or olfactory sensillum for electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) recordings. The heated transfer line is used to prevent condensation of various chemicals in the capillary that would otherwise occur at room temperature. Construction of such a transfer line heater is described using (80/20%) nickel-chromium heating wire wrapped in a helical coil and powered by a 120/220 V ac rheostat. Algorithms were developed in a computer program to estimate the voltage at which a rheostat should be set to obtain the desired heater temperature for a specific coil. The coil attributes (radius, width, number of loops, or length of each loop) are input by the user, as well as AWG size of heating wire and desired heater temperature. The program calculates total length of wire in the helix, resistance of the wire, amperage used, and the voltage to set the rheostat. A discussion of semiochemical isolation methods using the GC-EAD and bioassays is presented.

  5. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal trim coils for CBA superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Aronson, S.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.; Hahn, H.; Sampson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to correct iron saturation effects and shape the beam working line, superconducting trim coils have been constructed, which operate inside the main coils. Detailed studies of mechanical properties, quench behavior, fields produced, and hysteresis have lead to the production of accelerator-quality coils generating the required-strength harmonics up to cos (7theta). These are routinely installed in CBA main magnets and operate at 80% of short sample with negligible training in an ambient field of more than 5.3T

  7. Large magnetic coils for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Ulbricht, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of research in this field and outlines future tasks and experiments for the Next European Torus (NET). Research and development work accomplished so far permits generation and safe operation of magnetic fields up to 9 T by means of NbTi coils. Fields up to 11 T are feasible if the coils are cooled with superfluid helium at 1.8 K. The potential of the Nb 3 Sn coils promise achievement of magnetic fields between 12 and 13 T. (MM) [de

  8. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  9. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Zhao, Zhihe; Yang, Zhi; Liao, Zhengyu; Shi, Zongdao; Wu, Taixiang; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Hickman, Joy

    2010-04-14

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment. To identify and assess the evidence for the effects of initial arch wires for alignment of teeth with fixed orthodontic braces in relation to alignment speed, root resorption and pain intensity. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (30th November 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 30th November 2009) and EMBASE (1980 to 30th November 2009). Reference lists of articles were also searched. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. We contacted all authors of included studies to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initial arch wires to align crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces were selected. Only studies involving patients with upper and/or lower full arch fixed orthodontic appliances were included. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. All disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team. Corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Seven RCTs, with 517 participants, provided data for this review. Among them, five trials investigated the speed of initial tooth alignment comparing: 0.016 inch ion-implanted A-NiTi wire versus 0.016 inch A-NiTi versus 0.0175 multistrand stainless steel wire; 0.016x0.022 inch medium force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.016x0.022 inch graded force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.0155 inch multistrand

  10. A study of effects on size and coils turns based on signal distribution on impedance plane diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Mahmood Dollah; Abdul Nassir Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A differential type eddy current probe is used to detect defects that exist in the heat exchanger tube. Every probes produced have their own size and frequency values depending on the purpose and functionality of the probe. In this study a probe is fabricated by winding wire in solenoid shape. When current flows through it, magnetic field is produced surrounding it. In this study, effects of two probe parameters namely numbers of coil, N and the diameter of the copper wire, d were investigated. Diameters of copper wire chosen were 0.10 mm, 0.12 mm and 0.13 mm. These wire were wound around the body probe with diameter of 15 mm. For each wire diameter, the wire is wound with numbers of wound of 30, 50 and 70. The fabricated probes will be tested on the Stainless Steel 304 calibration tube with the nominal outside diameter of 19.07 mm and thickness of 1.24 mm. It contains seven artificial defects that are purposely introduced in accordance to ASME V Article 8. Performance of the probe were evaluated based on the separation angle of signals obtained from 100 % wall lost and that obtained from a 20 % of side drill hole defect. The probe was used in conjunction with a special instrument known as RD Tech MS 5800. This special instrument is specifically used for data recording and storing as well as for analysing signals obtained during the test. (author)

  11. Design and Fabrication of the KSTAR Poloidal Field Coil Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. K.; Choi, C. H.; Sa, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR magnet system consists of 16 toroidal field(TF) coils. 4 pairs of central solenoid(CS) coils, and 3 pairs of outer poloidal field(PF) coils. The TF coils are encased in a structure to enhance mechanical stability. The CS coil structure is supported on top of the TF coil structure and supplies a vertical compression of 15 MN to prevent lateral movement due to a repulsive force between the CS coils. The PF coil system is vertically symmetry to the machine mid-plane and consists of 6 coils and 80 support structures(i.e, 16 for PF5, 32 for PF6 and 32 fort PF7). All PF coil structures should absorb the thermal contraction difference between TF coil structure and PF coils due to cool down and endure the vertical and radial magnetic forces due to current charging. In order to satisfy these structural requirements. the PF5 coil structure is designed base on hinges and both of PF6 and PF7 coil structures based on flexible plates. The PF coil structures are assembled on the TF coil structure with an individual basement that is welded on the TF coil structure

  12. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  13. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  14. MR-compatibility assessment of MADPET4: a study of interferences between an SiPM-based PET insert and a 7 T MRI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Negar; Topping, Geoffrey; Cabello, Jorge; Paul, Stephan; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2018-05-01

    Compromises in the design of a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system should minimize the deterioration of image quality in both modalities, particularly when simultaneous demanding acquisitions are performed. In this work, the advantages of using individually read-out crystals with high-gain silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were studied with a small animal PET insert for a 7 T MRI system, in which the SiPM charge was transferred to outside the MRI scanner using coaxial cables. The interferences between the two systems were studied with three radio-frequency (RF) coil configurations. The effects of PET on the static magnetic field, flip angle distribution, RF noise, and image quality of various MRI sequences (gradient echo, spin echo, and echo planar imaging (EPI) at 1H frequency, and chemical shift imaging at 13C frequency) were investigated. The effects of fast-switching gradient fields and RF pulses on PET count rate were studied, while the PET insert and the readout electronics were not shielded. Operating the insert inside a 1H volume coil, used for RF transmission and reception, limited the MRI to T1-weighted imaging, due to coil detuning and RF attenuation, and resulted in significant PET count loss. Using a surface receive coil allowed all tested MR sequences to be used with the insert, with 45–59% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation, compared to without PET. With a 1H/13C volume coil inside the insert and shielded by a copper tube, the SNR degradation was limited to 23–30% with all tested sequences. The insert did not introduce any discernible distortions into images of two tested EPI sequences. Use of truncated sinc shaped RF excitation pulses and gradient field switching had negligible effects on PET count rate. However, PET count rate was substantially affected by high-power RF block pulses and temperature variations due to high gradient duty cycles.

  15. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  16. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  17. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  18. A coil test facility for the cryogenic tests of the JT-60SA TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantant, M.; Genini, L.; Bayetti, P.; Millet, F.; Wanner, M.; Massaut, V.; Corte, A. Della; Ardelier-Desage, F.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Dael, A.; Decool, P.; Donati, A.; Duchateau, J.L.; Garibaldi, P.; Girard, S.; Hatchressian, J.C.; Fejoz, P.; Jamotton, P.; Jourdheuil, L.; Juster, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Broader Approach Activities, the EU will deliver to Japan the 18 superconducting coils, which constitute the JT-60SA Toroidal field magnet. These 18 coils, manufactured by France and Italy, will be cold tested before shipping to Japan. For this purpose, the European Joint Undertaking for ITER, the Development of Fusion Energy ('Fusion for Energy', F4E) and the European Voluntary Contributors are collaborating to design and set-up a coil test facility (CTF) and to perform the acceptance test of the 18 JT-60SA Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The test facility is designed to test one coil at a time at nominal current and cryogenic temperature. The test of the first coil of each manufacturer includes a quench triggered by increasing the temperature. The project is presently in the detailed design phase.

  19. Coil measurement data acquisition and curing press control system for SSC dipole magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1989-03-01

    A coil matching program, similar in theory to the methods used to match Tevatron coils, is being developed at Fermilab. Modulus of elasticity and absolute coil size will be determined at 18-inch intervals along the coils while in the coil curing press immediately following the curing process. A data acquisition system is under construction to automatically acquire and manage the large quantities of data that result. Data files will be transferred to Fermilab's VAX Cluster for long-term storage and actual coil matching. The data acquisition system will also provide the control algorithm for the curing press hydraulic system. A description of the SSC Curing Press Data Acquisition and Controls System will be reported. 20 figs

  20. A cradle-shaped gradient coil to expand the clear-bore width of an animal MRI scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, K M; Gati, J S; Klassen, L M; Menon, R S [Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada)], E-mail: kgilbert@imaging.robarts.ca

    2010-01-21

    The never ending quest for higher magnetic field strengths in MRI and MRS has led to small and medium bore scanners at 9.4 T and above for both human and animal use; however, these bore diameters restrict the size of object that can be accommodated when using a conventional gradient coil. By replacing a cylindrical gradient-coil insert with a single-sided gradient coil, the scanner's functionality can be extended to include localized imaging of wider samples. As a prototype, a three-axis, cradle-shaped gradient coil was designed, fabricated and implemented in a 9.4 T animal MRI scanner. Since gradient fields are required only to be monotonic over the desired field of view, the cradle gradient coil was designed to produce high gradient efficiencies (up to 2.25 mT m{sup -1} A{sup -1} over a 5 cm imaging region) at the expense of gradient linearity. A dedicated three-dimensional algorithm was developed to correct the resultant image distortion. Preliminary images of a grid phantom and a mouse demonstrated the fidelity of the algorithm in correcting image distortion of greater than 200%. Eddy currents were measured along each gradient axis. A large 65.2 (Hz mT{sup -1} m) B{sub 0} eddy current was produced by the y-axis, suggesting potential limitations of single-sided gradient coils.