WorldWideScience

Sample records for wire code categories

  1. 47 CFR 36.153 - Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunications Property Cable and Wire Facilities § 36.153 Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories. (a) Cable consists of: Aerial cable, underground cable, buried cable, submarine cable, deep sea... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF...

  2. Developments in the Generation and Interpretation of Wire Codes (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Three new developments in the generation and interpretation of wire codes are discussed. First, a method was developed to computer generate wire codes using data gathered from a utility database of the local distribution system and from tax assessor records. This method was used to wire code more than 250,000 residences in the greater Denver metropolitan area. There was an approximate 75% agreement with field wire coding. Other research in Denver suggests that wire codes predict some characteristics of a residence and its neighbourhood, including age, assessed value, street layout and traffic density. A third new development is the case-specular method to study the association between wire codes and childhood cancers. Recent results from applying the method to the Savitz et al and London et al studies suggest that the associations between childhood cancer and VHCC residences were strongest for residences with a backyard rather than street service drop, and for VHCC residences with LCC speculars. (author)

  3. Reclassification of ICD-9 Codes into Meaningful Categories for Oncology Survivorship Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassekh, S. R.; Lorenzi, M.; Lee, L.; Devji, S.; McBride, M.; Goddard, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) is designed to code disease into categories which are placed into administrative databases. These databases have been used for epidemiological studies. However, the categories used in the ICD9-codes are not always the most effective for evaluating specific diseases or their outcomes, such as the outcomes of cancer treatment. Therefore a re-classification of the ICD-9 codes into new categories specific to cancer outcomes is needed. Methods. An expert panel comprised of two physicians created broad categories that would be most useful to researchers investigating outcomes and morbidities associated with the treatment of cancer. A Senior Data Coordinator with expertise in ICD-9 coding, then joined this panel and each code was re-classified into the new categories. Results. Consensus was achieved for the categories to go from the 17 categories in ICD-9 to 39 categories. The ICD-9 Codes were placed into new categories, and sub categories were also created for more specific outcomes. The results of this re-classification is available in tabular form. Conclusions. ICD-9 codes were re-classified by group consensus into categories that are designed for oncology survivorship research. The novel re-classification system can be used by those involved in cancer survivorship research

  4. Annual coded wire tag program (Washington) missing production groups : annual report 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammers, Wolf; Mills, Robin D.

    2002-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ''Annual Coded-wire Tag Program - Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries'' project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time and to meet various measures of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The WDFW project has three main objectives: (1) coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to enable evaluation of survival and catch distribution over time, (2) recover coded-wire tags from the snouts of fish tagged under objective 1 and estimate survival, contribution, and stray rates for each group, and (3) report the findings under objective 2 for all broods of chinook, and coho released from WDFW Columbia Basin hatcheries. Objective 1 for FY-00 was met with few modifications to the original FY-00 proposal. Under Objective 2, snouts containing coded-wire tags that were recovered during FY-00 were decoded. Under Objective 3, this report summarizes available recovery information through 2000 and includes detailed information for brood years 1989 to 1994 for chinook and 1995 to 1997 for coho

  5. Using Wireless Network Coding to Replace a Wired with Wireless Backhaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    of wireless emulated wire (WEW), based on two-way relaying and network coding. This setup leads to a new type of broadcast problem, with decoding conditions that are specific to the requirement for equivalence to the wired backhaul. We formulate and solve the associated optimization problems. The proposed...... approach is a convincing argument that wireless backhauling solutions should be designed and optimized for two-way communication....

  6. The use of coded wire tags to estimate cormorant predation on fish stocks in an estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Klenke, Reinhard; Sonnesen, Per Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to resolving the conflict between an increasing population of cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, and the fishing industry is the lack of documentation of the effect of the birds’ predation on fish stocks. Tagging and releasing fish with coded wire tags followed...

  7. Input parameters to codes which analyze LMFBR wire wrapped bundles. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Todreas, N.E.

    1979-05-01

    This report provides a current summary of recommended values of key input parameters required for ENERGY code analysis of LMFBR wire wrapped bundles. This data is based on the interpretation of experimental results from the MIT and other available laboratory programs

  8. Retention of coded wire tags, and their effect on maturation and survival of yellow mealworms (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, James J.; Isely, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coded wire tags can be used to mark certain insect larvae without adverse effects on maturation, and that tags are retained through the adult phase in high enough proportion for practical application. Coded wire tags also offer the benefit that marked organisms can be identified to the batch or individual level.

  9. Modeling of Al wire-array implosions on existing generators with the ''ZPIMP'' Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, J.L. Jr.; Rogerson, J.; Davis, J.; Spielman, R.

    1994-01-01

    Aluminum wire-array implosion experiments have been performed on a number of pulsed-power generators, including Double EAGLE, SATURN, PHOENIX, and BLACKJACK 5. Recently, the measured K-shell emissions (> 1 keV) from the first three machines were compared with predictions of the Whitney-Thornhill scaling law. The present report employs a numerical simulation code to make a similar comparison. The code ZPIMP models the imploding Al plasma shell as a single, but variable width, zone. Two MMHD momentum equations, an electron energy, an ion energy, and a magnetic diffusion equation are solved in a coupled fashion to a lumped driver circuit model. Artificial viscosity is included in this Lagrangian formulation. Al ionization dynamics and probability-of-escape radiation transport are calculated self-consistently. Atomic structure is included for all ionization stages of the Al. Results for SATURN simulations and comparisons with data will be presented in an initial radius-mass loading plane. When the region interior to the primary plasma shell is treated as an adiabatic gas, the simulations match the existing data remarkably well for energetic implosions. The significant differences for the few small η implosion are discussed. Comparisons with the other three generators mentioned above are anticipated. The report will focus on significant trends between the studied generators

  10. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Missing Production Groups, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mark A.; Mallette, Christine; Murray, William M.

    1998-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Annual Coded Wire Tag Program - Oregon Missing Production Groups Project. Tule stock fall chinook were caught primarily in British Columbia and Washington ocean, and Oregon freshwater fisheries. Up-river bright stock fall chinook contributed primarily to Alaska and British Columbia ocean commercial, and Columbia River gillnet and other freshwater fisheries. Contribution of Rogue stock fall chinook released in the lower Columbia River occurred primarily in Oregon ocean commercial and Columbia river gillnet fisheries. Willamette stock spring chinook contributed primarily to Alaska and British Columbia ocean commercial, Oregon freshwater sport and Columbia River gillnet fisheries. Willamette stock spring chinook released by CEDC contributed to similar ocean fisheries, but had much higher catch in gillnet fisheries than the same stocks released in the Willamette system. Up-river stocks of spring chinook contributed almost exclusively to Columbia River sport fisheries and other freshwater recovery areas. The up-river stocks of Columbia River summer steelhead contributed primarily to the Columbia River gillnet and other freshwater fisheries. Coho ocean fisheries from Washington to California were closed or very limited from 1994 through 1997 (1991 through 1994 broods). This has resulted in a greater average percent of catch for other fishery areas. Coho stocks released by ODFW below Bonneville Dam contributed mainly to Oregon and Washington ocean, Columbia Gillnet and other freshwater fisheries. Coho stocks released in the Klaskanine River and Youngs Bay area had similar ocean catch, but much higher contribution to gillnet fisheries than the other coho releases. Coho stocks released above Bonneville Dam had similar contribution to ocean fisheries as other coho releases. However, they

  11. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  12. Interactive Video Coding and Transmission over Heterogeneous Wired-to-Wireless IP Networks Using an Edge Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestino James W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital video delivered over wired-to-wireless networks is expected to suffer quality degradation from both packet loss and bit errors in the payload. In this paper, the quality degradation due to packet loss and bit errors in the payload are quantitatively evaluated and their effects are assessed. We propose the use of a concatenated forward error correction (FEC coding scheme employing Reed-Solomon (RS codes and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes to protect the video data from packet loss and bit errors, respectively. Furthermore, the performance of a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach employing this concatenated FEC coding scheme for video transmission is studied. Finally, we describe an improved end-to-end architecture using an edge proxy in a mobile support station to implement differential error protection for the corresponding channel impairments expected on the two networks. Results indicate that with an appropriate JSCC approach and the use of an edge proxy, FEC-based error-control techniques together with passive error-recovery techniques can significantly improve the effective video throughput and lead to acceptable video delivery quality over time-varying heterogeneous wired-to-wireless IP networks.

  13. Follow-up of mesh complications using the IUGA/ICS category-time-site coding classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, H F; van de Pol, G; van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; Spaans, W A

    2014-06-01

    The International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS) developed a complication classification to facilitate international comparison and to improve our understanding of complications. This code was applied to surgical cases for the analysis of complications after mesh insertion. The study included patients who had undergone vaginal prolapse repair with a trocar-guided polypropylene mesh between 2006 and 2010 in a Dutch peripheral hospital. Complications were assessed at secondary follow-up and classified using category (C), timing (T), and site (S) components (CTS). Of the 107 women included, 84 returned for secondary follow-up (response rate 80 %, median time after surgery 36 months, range 12-64). In 45 patients no complications occurred. In the remaining 39 patients, 43 complication codes were established. Six of the seven categories of complications were found at all different time codes. Concerning the site of the complication codes S1, S2, and S3 were applicable. Perioperative complications (6 %) included hemorrhage and bladder perforation. Six patients were reoperated for symptomatic mesh exposure or local pain. At secondary follow-up exposure was diagnosed in another 4 patients (12 %). In 36 % mesh wrinkling or shrinkage was discovered, although without complaints in most. Eight women had daily complaints or dyspareunia. Eighty-two percent of patients indicated strong improvement after surgery. Several limitations of the classification are discussed. Despite limitations, the IUGA/ICS code is demonstrated to be useful in describing mesh complications. We advise the use of the CTS code at follow-up consultations after a minimum of 2 years for improved insight into and knowledge on the occurrence of complications.

  14. On the Role of Functional Categories in Code-Switching: The Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most scholars on codeswitching will agree that it has a grammar but differ on the nature of this grammar. Some are of the opinion that codeswitching involves two monolingual grammars with constraints that determine points where switches are possible. While some see code-switching as a monolingual grammar where the ...

  15. Local flow blockage analysis with checkerboard configuration in a wire wrapped fuel subassembly using the ASFRE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Fukano, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Local fault (LF) has been historically considered as one of the possible causes of severe accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors because fuel pins are generally densely arranged in the fuel subassemblies (FSAs) in this type of reactors. Local flow blockage (LB) has been one of the dominant initiators of LFs. Therefore evaluations were performed on LBs in the past safety licensing assuming a planar and impermeable blockage of 66% of the total flow area at an FSA for the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor. A conservative evaluation revealed that fuel pin damage propagation would be limited within a restricted area of the reactor core, even assuming such a hypothetical initiating event. In the newly formulated regulatory requirements, however, after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, best estimate (BE) safety analyses on the basis of state-of-the-art knowledge are being required for beyond design basis accidents. A deterministic and BE evaluation therefore based on the most-recent knowledge was newly performed in this study for revalidation of the above-mentioned historical background using the ASFRE code, whereas the LF accidents would not be identified as a representative accident sequence from a viewpoint of both its frequencies and consequences. Nominal power and flow rate without safety margins were assumed for the analyses in order to make the accidental conditions to be realistic. A most likely and realistic blockage configuration was newly proposed and employed based on the existing experimental data in accordance with the BE concept mentioned above. The aforementioned blockage configuration was excessively conservative on a state-of-the-art knowledge basis. The most-recent experimental studies clarified that LBs due to foreign substances would be formed by accumulating the steel fragments of certain sizes trapped along the wrapping wires. This leads to an LB in a checkerboard configuration for an FSA of wire spacer type, which

  16. Positive predictive value between medical-chart body-mass-index category and obesity versus codes in a claims-data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Eleanor O; Kamble, Pravin S; Harvey, Raymond A; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Renda, Andrew; Bouchard, Jonathan R; Huang, Joanna C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value of claims-based V85 codes for identifying individuals with varying degrees of BMI relative to their measured BMI obtained from medical record abstraction. This was a retrospective validation study utilizing administrative claims and medical chart data from 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2015. Randomly selected samples of patients enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) or commercial health plan and with a V85 claim were identified. The claims-based BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese class I-III) was determined via corresponding V85 codes and compared to the BMI category derived from chart abstracted height, weight and/or BMI. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of the claims-based BMI categories were calculated with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall PPVs (95% CIs) in the MAPD and commercial samples were 90.3% (86.3%-94.4%) and 91.1% (87.3%-94.9%), respectively. In each BMI category, the PPVs (95% CIs) for the MAPD and commercial samples, respectively, were: underweight, 71.0% (55.0%-87.0%) and 75.9% (60.3%-91.4%); normal, 93.8% (85.4%-100%) and 87.8% (77.8%-97.8%); overweight, 97.4% (92.5%-100%) and 93.5% (84.9%-100%); obese class I, 96.9 (90.9%-100%) and 97.2% (91.9%-100%); obese class II, 97.0% (91.1%-100%) and 93.0% (85.4%-100%); and obese class III, 85.0% (73.3%-96.1%) and 97.1% (91.4%-100%). BMI categories derived from administrative claims, when available, can be used successfully particularly in the context of obesity research.

  17. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  18. Critical state and magnetization loss in multifilamentary superconducting wire solved through the commercial finite element code ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Gömöry, F.

    2010-11-01

    The commercially available finite element code ANSYS has been adapted to solve the critical state of single strips and multifilamentary tapes. We studied a special algorithm which approaches the critical state by an iterative adjustment of the material resistivity. Then, we proved its validity by comparing the results obtained for a thin strip to the Brand theory for the transport current and magnetization cases. Also, the challenging calculation of the magnetization loss of a real multifilamentary BSCCO tape showed the usefulness of our method. Finally, we developed several methods to enhance the speed of convergence, making the proposed process quite competitive in the existing survey of ac losses simulations.

  19. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  20. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  3. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...

  4. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... are subject to negotiation as well as re-configuration and re-stabilization processes. Organized around the themes of biological substances and objects, personhood and the genomic body and the creation and dispersion of knowledge, each of the volume’s chapters reveals the elusive nature of fixity with regard...

  9. Categorial Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastenhof, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis constitutes an exploration into categorial type logics, attempting the reduction of natural language grammar to proof theory. Originating in Lambek's proposal for a syntactic calculus, the field has since grown to accommodate various competing extensions. For while the suitability of

  10. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  11. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  12. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  13. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  14. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  15. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  16. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  17. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  18. A symmetry model for genetic coding via a wallpaper group composed of the traditional four bases and an imaginary base E: towards category theory-like systematization of molecular/genetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-05-07

    Previously, we suggested prototypal models that describe some clinical states based on group postulates. Here, we demonstrate a group/category theory-like model for molecular/genetic biology as an alternative application of our previous model. Specifically, we focus on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base sequences. We construct a wallpaper pattern based on a five-letter cruciform motif with letters C, A, T, G, and E. Whereas the first four letters represent the standard DNA bases, the fifth is introduced for ease in formulating group operations that reproduce insertions and deletions of DNA base sequences. A basic group Z5 = {r, u, d, l, n} of operations is defined for the wallpaper pattern, with which a sequence of points can be generated corresponding to changes of a base in a DNA sequence by following the orbit of a point of the pattern under operations in group Z5. Other manipulations of DNA sequence can be treated using a vector-like notation 'Dj' corresponding to a DNA sequence but based on the five-letter base set; also, 'Dj's are expressed graphically. Insertions and deletions of a series of letters 'E' are admitted to assist in describing DNA recombination. Likewise, a vector-like notation Rj can be constructed for sequences of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The wallpaper group B = {Z5×∞, ●} (an ∞-fold Cartesian product of Z5) acts on Dj (or Rj) yielding changes to Dj (or Rj) denoted by 'Dj◦B(j→k) = Dk' (or 'Rj◦B(j→k) = Rk'). Based on the operations of this group, two types of groups-a modulo 5 linear group and a rotational group over the Gaussian plane, acting on the five bases-are linked as parts of the wallpaper group for broader applications. As a result, changes, insertions/deletions and DNA (RNA) recombination (partial/total conversion) are described. As an exploratory study, a notation for the canonical "central dogma" via a category theory-like way is presented for future developments. Despite the large incompleteness of our

  19. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  20. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    component of our solution consists of a two-way, two-phase communication between the macro base station and a user in a small cell through the small cell base station. The second component consists of an optimized adjustment of the transmit power from the macro base station during the multiple access phase...... of the two-way protocol. The transmit power is set high enough to enable successive decoding at the small cell base station where the downlink data to the user is first decoded and its contribution removed from the received signal followed by the uplink data from the user. The decoding of the second layer...

  1. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  2. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Sheafifiable homotopy model categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tibor

    2000-11-01

    If a Quillen model category can be specified using a certain logical syntax (intuitively, ‘is algebraic/combinatorial enough’), so that it can be defined in any category of sheaves, then the satisfaction of Quillen's axioms over any site is a purely formal consequence of their being satisfied over the category of sets. Such data give rise to a functor from the category of topoi and geometric morphisms to Quillen model categories and Quillen adjunctions.

  4. Thermal analysis methods for LMFBR wire wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1976-11-01

    A note is presented which was written to stimulate an awareness and discussion of the fundamental differences in the formulation of certain existing analysis codes for LMFBR wire wrap bundles. The contention of the note is that for those array types where data exists (one wire per pin, equal start angles), the ENERGY method results for coolant temperature under forced convection conditions provide benchmarks of reliability equal to the results of codes COBRA and TH1-3D

  5. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  6. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  7. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  8. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  9. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  11. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  12. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  13. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  14. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Amblard, Maxime; Lecomte, Alain; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from...

  15. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil Rodríguez, Eva Patrícia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  16. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  17. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  19. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  20. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  1. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  3. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  4. Phonetic category recalibration: What are the categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Wozny, David R.; Mitterer, Holger; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use lexical or visual context information to recalibrate auditory speech perception. After hearing an ambiguous auditory stimulus between /aba/ and /ada/ coupled with a clear visual stimulus (e.g., lip closure in /aba/), an ambiguous auditory-only stimulus is perceived in line with the previously seen visual stimulus. What remains unclear, however, is what exactly listeners are recalibrating: phonemes, phone sequences, or acoustic cues. To address this question we tested generalization of visually-guided auditory recalibration to 1) the same phoneme contrast cued differently (i.e., /aba/-/ada/ vs. /ibi/-/idi/ where the main cues are formant transitions in the vowels vs. burst and frication of the obstruent), 2) a different phoneme contrast cued identically (/aba/-/ada/ vs. /ama/-/ana/ both cued by formant transitions in the vowels), and 3) the same phoneme contrast with the same cues in a different acoustic context (/aba/-/ada/ vs. (/ubu/-/udu/). Whereas recalibration was robust for all recalibration control trials, no generalization was found in any of the experiments. This suggests that perceptual recalibration may be more specific than previously thought as it appears to be restricted to the phoneme category experienced during exposure as well as to the specific manipulated acoustic cues. We suggest that recalibration affects context-dependent sub-lexical units. PMID:24932053

  5. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  6. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  7. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  8. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  9. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  10. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  11. Meromorphic tensor categories

    OpenAIRE

    Soibelman, Yan

    1997-01-01

    We introduce the notion of meromorphic tensor category and illustrate it in several examples. They include representations of quantum affine algebras, chiral algebras of Beilinson and Drinfeld, G-vertex algebras of Borcherds, and representations of GL over a local field. Hopefully the formalism will accomodate various tensor structures arising in relation to the quantized Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and deformed CFT

  12. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  13. Introduction to Ann-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tien Quang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present new concepts of Ann-categories, Ann-functors, and a transmission of the structure of categories based on Ann-equivalences. We build Ann-category of Pic-funtors and prove that each Ann-category can be faithfully embedded into an almost strictly Ann-category.

  14. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  15. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  16. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  17. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  18. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  19. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  20. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  1. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  2. Reliable Physical Layer Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Nazer, Bobak; Gastpar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    When two or more users in a wireless network transmit simultaneously, their electromagnetic signals are linearly superimposed on the channel. As a result, a receiver that is interested in one of these signals sees the others as unwanted interference. This property of the wireless medium is typically viewed as a hindrance to reliable communication over a network. However, using a recently developed coding strategy, interference can in fact be harnessed for network coding. In a wired network, (...

  3. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  4. Using WIRED to study Simulated Linear Collider Detector Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, A

    2004-02-05

    The purpose of this project is to enhance the properties of the LCD WIRED Event Display. By extending the functionality of the display, physicists will be able to view events with more detail and interpret data faster. Poor characteristics associated with WIRED can severely affect the way we understand events, but by bringing attention to specific attributes we open doors to new ideas. Events displayed inside of the LCD have many different properties; this is why scientists need to be able to distinguish data using a plethora of symbols and other graphics. This paper will explain how we can view events differently using clustering and displaying results with track finding. Different source codes extracted from HEP libraries will be analyzed and tested to see which codes display the information needed. It is clear that, through these changes certain aspects of WIRED will be recognized more often allowing good event display which lead to better physics results.

  5. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  6. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  7. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coating Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings... Coating Category [g O3/g product] Coating category Category code a Reactivity limit Clear Coatings CCP 1...

  9. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  10. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  11. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  12. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P. [and others

    1998-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  13. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  14. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  15. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  16. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  17. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  18. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  19. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  20. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  1. GPS-ABC Workshop Wired (Conducted) Test Results : GPS‐ABC Workshop V RTCA Washington, DC October 14, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    Overview: -Tests executed week of 25 July with 14 GNSS receivers ; -Representative set of equipment from chamber testing from each receiver category (except space) ; -Receivers tested were USG provided ; -Same test instrumentation for wired as with r...

  2. Constraints on colour category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Y.; Wakui, E.; Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  3. Constraints on Colour Category Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Yasmina; Wakui, Elley; Decock, Lieven; Douven, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  4. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  5. Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P., E-mail: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.

  6. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h -index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  7. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. Physical Layer Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli, Zhang; Liew, Soung-Chang; Lam, Patrick P. K.

    2007-01-01

    A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the b...

  9. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Beam-dynamics codes used at DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Several beam simulation codes are used to help gain a better understanding of beam dynamics in the DARHT LIAs. The most notable of these fall into the following categories: for beam production – Tricomp Trak orbit tracking code, LSP Particle in cell (PIC) code, for beam transport and acceleration – XTR static envelope and centroid code, LAMDA time-resolved envelope and centroid code, LSP-Slice PIC code, for coasting-beam transport to target – LAMDA time-resolved envelope code, LSP-Slice PIC code. These codes are also being used to inform the design of Scorpius.

  11. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  12. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  13. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  14. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis......The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  15. Investigation of exploding wire in different experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Gennady; Struve, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Stephen; Sasorov, Pavel

    2001-10-01

    The initial stage of electrical explosion of thin metal wires in different experimental conditions has been investigated. A pulser (3kA, 120kV) with fast (150A/ns) and slow (20A/ns) operational modes has been used. Current, voltage, laser-streaked images on 905nm, visible light emission have been monitored during the experiment. Two-wavelengths laser shadowgraphy and interferometry with 150ps pulse duration have been used to get information about shape and electron density. Different substances, diameters, lengths, target configurations, vacuum or air environment, surface conditions, cold or hot start and influence of pulser polarity have been investigated. Energy deposition is dramatically dependent from current rate and voltage polarity. Increasing of the current rate allows more energy deposition before surface breakdown. Changing polarity of the pulser from positive to negative in vacuum results in decrease of energy deposition into the wire and change of its structure. Direction of radial electric field becomes important for initial stage of wire explosion. These results can be understood in terms of influence of electronic emissions on triggering the plasma shell around the wire. The structure of radial electric field surrounding the wire has been simulated using 2D electrostatic code. Results of experiments have been compared with 2D MHD simulations.

  16. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  17. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  18. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional......-linguistic ‘coverage’ then formal or semantic categories. Finally it will be shown that functional categories have their own distinct grammatical properties (Rijkhoff 2008, 2009b, forthcoming). References Bulmer, Ralph. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological taxonomy among the Karam of the New...

  19. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 27609 - Reduction of Foreign Tax Credit Limitation Categories Under Section 904(d); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Reduction of Foreign Tax Credit Limitation Categories Under Section 904(d); Correction AGENCY: Internal... foreign tax credit limitation categories under section 904(d) of the Internal Revenue Code. DATES: This... in and Losses With Respect to the Pre-2007 Separate Category for High Withholding Tax Interest...

  1. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  2. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  3. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  4. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  5. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  6. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  7. Wire-wrapped rod-bundle heat-transfer analysis for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-07-01

    Helical wire wraps are widely used in the LMFBR fuel and blanket assemblies to provide coolant mixing and maintain proper spacing between fuel pins. The presence of the helical wire, however, may possibly induce heat transfer problems, such as the uncertainty of the maximum clad temperature as a result of the contact between the wires and the pins. In this study, the detailed transient three dimensional velocity and temperature distributions for the coolant around the pin will be determined by solving the governing momentum and energy equation numerically. A computer code HEATRAN has been developed to perform this calculation. Before the computer code HEATRAN is applied to the wire wrapped rod bundle problem, it is used to analyze a wide range of fluid and heat transfer problem to verify its capabilities

  8. Instantly Decodable Network Coding: From Centralized to Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-05-01

    From its introduction to its quindecennial, network coding have built a strong reputation in enhancing packet recovery process and achieving maximum information flow in both wires and wireless networks. Traditional studies focused on optimizing the throughput of the network by proposing complex schemes that achieve optimal delay. With the shift toward distributed computing at mobile devices, throughput and complexity become both critical factors that affect the efficiency of a coding scheme. Instantly decodable network coding imposed itself as a new paradigm in network coding that trades off this two aspects. This paper presents a survey of instantly decodable network coding schemes that are proposed in the literature. The various schemes are identified, categorized and evaluated. Two categories can be distinguished namely the conventional centralized schemes and the distributed or cooperative schemes. For each scheme, the comparison is carried out in terms of reliability, performance, complexity and packet selection methodology. Although the performance is generally inversely proportional to the computation complexity, numerous successful schemes from both the performance and complexity viewpoint are identified.

  9. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design....

  10. Category Accessibility as Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-06

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP category accessibility, social cognition, social or) In categorization, memory 19 ABSTRACT...and explicit memory in a common theoretical framework. Several types of social phenomena may usefully be conceptualized as involving implicit memory ...NO ACCESSION NO 61153N 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Category accessibility as implicit memory 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Smith, Eliot R

  11. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  12. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  13. Weighted effect coding for observational data with wec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, R.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Pelzer, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Weighted effect coding refers to a specific coding matrix to include factor variables in generalised linear regression models. With weighted effect coding, the effect for each category represents the deviation of that category from the weighted mean (which corresponds to the sample mean). This

  14. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  15. Relativistic electron transport in wire and foil targets driven by intense short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Hill, J.; van Woerkom, L. D.

    2006-10-01

    We model intense laser driven electron transport in wires and foils with the new implicit hybrid code e-PLAS. We focus on background plasma heating for Fast Ignitor applications. The model tracks collisional relativistic PIC electrons undergoing scatter and drag in a background plasma of colliding cold electron and ion Eulerian fluids. Application to 10 μm diameter, 250 μm long, fully ionized carbon wires with an attached cone [Kodama et al. Nature 432 1005 (2004)], exposed to 1 ps, 10^19 W/cm^2 pulses in a 30 μm centered spot, directly calculates resistive Joule heating of the background electrons in the wire to 1.7 KeV. 150 MG magnetic fields arise at the wire surfaces corresponding to hot electron flow outside the wire and a return electron flow just within it. Shorter wires (25 μm) exhibit hot electron recycling. Preliminary simulations indicate that reduction of the cone to a 30 μm diameter nail head produces little change in these results. We also report on tapered wires, wires attached to foils, and the modifying effects of pre-plasma on electron transport into the foils.

  16. Simulating the Wire Compensation of LHC Long-Range Beam-beam Effects.

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its minimum crossing angle are limited by long-range beam-beam collisions. Wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects. We perform simulations to explore the efficiency of the compensation at possible wire locations by examining the tune footprint and the dynamic aperture. Starting from the weak-strong simulation code BBTrack we developed a new Lyapunov calculation tool, which seems to better diagnose regular or chaotic particle behavior. We also developed faster ways to execute the simulation and the post-processing. These modifications have allowed us to study different wire positions (longitudinal and transverse), varying wire currents, several wire shapes, and a range of beam-beam crossing angles, in view of a prototype wire installation in the LHC foreseen for 2014/15. Our simulations demonstrate that the wire can provide a good compensation, including for reduced crossing angle. Among the benefits of an LHC wire compensator are a b...

  17. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  18. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  19. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  20. Parallel processing of structural integrity analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Structural integrity analysis forms an important role in assessing and demonstrating the safety of nuclear reactor components. This analysis is performed using analytical tools such as Finite Element Method (FEM) with the help of digital computers. The complexity of the problems involved in nuclear engineering demands high speed computation facilities to obtain solutions in reasonable amount of time. Parallel processing systems such as ANUPAM provide an efficient platform for realising the high speed computation. The development and implementation of software on parallel processing systems is an interesting and challenging task. The data and algorithm structure of the codes plays an important role in exploiting the parallel processing system capabilities. Structural analysis codes based on FEM can be divided into two categories with respect to their implementation on parallel processing systems. The first category codes such as those used for harmonic analysis, mechanistic fuel performance codes need not require the parallelisation of individual modules of the codes. The second category of codes such as conventional FEM codes require parallelisation of individual modules. In this category, parallelisation of equation solution module poses major difficulties. Different solution schemes such as domain decomposition method (DDM), parallel active column solver and substructuring method are currently used on parallel processing systems. Two codes, FAIR and TABS belonging to each of these categories have been implemented on ANUPAM. The implementation details of these codes and the performance of different equation solvers are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  1. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  2. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  3. Interlot variations of transition temperature range and force delivery in copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei-Reynolds, Renée C; Kanavakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The manufacturing process for copper-nickel-titanium archwires is technique sensitive. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the interlot consistency of the mechanical properties of copper-nickel-titanium wires from 2 manufacturers. Wires of 2 sizes (0.016 and 0.016 × 0.022 in) and 3 advertised austenite finish temperatures (27°C, 35°C, and 40°C) from 2 manufacturers were tested for transition temperature ranges and force delivery using differential scanning calorimetry and the 3-point bend test, respectively. Variations of these properties were analyzed for statistical significance by calculating the F statistic for equality of variances for transition temperature and force delivery in each group of wires. All statistical analyses were performed at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistically significant interlot variations in austenite finish were found for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.041) and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.048) wire categories, and in austenite start for the 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C wire category (P = 0.01). In addition, significant variations in force delivery were found between the 2 manufacturers for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.002), 0.016 in/35.0°C (P = 0.049), and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.031) wires. Orthodontic wires of the same material, dimension, and manufacturer but from different production lots do not always have similar mechanical properties. Clinicians should be aware that copper-nickel-titanium wires might not always deliver the expected force, even when they come from the same manufacturer, because of interlot variations in the performance of the material. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  5. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  6. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  7. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  8. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  9. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  10. Health care's 100 most wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  11. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  12. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  13. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  14. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  15. Essays on diffusion and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hugten, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    Essay’ derives from the French ‘to try’. Accordingly, in this book, I try three new interpretations of diffusion and categories. That is, I try to divide observations into groups in a new way. Some ways of dividing lead to confusion and frustration. For example, people’s default division seems to be

  16. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  17. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  18. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  19. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  1. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the United...

  2. Fixation of Trochanteric Fragments in Cementless Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture: Cerclage Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Park, Chan Ho; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an option for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients. There is a raising concern regarding cable-grip related complications for the fixation of trochanteric fragments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate outcome of cementless HA with fixation for the trochanteric fragments using monofilament wires in unstable intertrochanteric fracture. We reviewed 92 cementless bipolar HAs using a grit-blasted long stem design for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in 91 elderly patients with a mean age of 81.7 years. During the arthroplasty, trochanteric fracture fragments were fixed using 1 or 2 vertical wires and transverse wires. We evaluated the clinical outcomes such as abductor power, ambulatory ability and wire-related complications, and radiologic outcomes including the union of the trochanteric fragment and subsidence of stem. Sixty-two patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 59 months) postoperatively. The mean abductor power and Koval category was 4.1 (range, 3 to 5) and 4.6 (range, 1 to 6). The wire was broken in 3 hips (4.8%) and the nonunion of the greater trochanter occurred in 1 hips (1.6%). Two stems subsided by 3 mm and 8 mm, respectively, during postoperative 6 weeks, after which the subsidence was not progressive. Cerclage wiring of the trochanter using monofilament wire leads to acceptable outcome in cementless HA for senile patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Cerclage wiring using a monofilament wire is recommended for the fixation of trochanteric fragments.

  3. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    message symbols downstream, network coding achieves vast performance gains by permitting intermediate nodes to carry out algebraic oper- ations on the incoming data. In this article we present a tutorial introduction to network coding as well as an application to the e±cient operation of distributed data-storage networks.

  4. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  5. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  6. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  8. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  9. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  10. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  11. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... hf ngn) = (0 ugn) = 0 and dn−1. C( fg) is an epimorphism. Thus, u = 0. This proves our assertion. D. 2.4 n-Cluster tilting subcategories. Recall that a full subcategory D of an abelian category A is cogenerating if for every object X ∈ A there exists an object Y ∈ D and a monomorphism X → Y. The concept of.

  12. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  13. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  14. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  15. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  16. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  17. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017....... Coding Class projektet er et pilotprojekt, hvor en række skoler i København og Vejle kommuner har igangsat undervisningsaktiviteter med fokus på kodning og programmering i skolen. Evalueringen og dokumentationen af projektet omfatter kvalitative nedslag i udvalgte undervisningsinterventioner i efteråret...

  20. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  1. Questioning Categories Used By Elementary Science Teachers during Moving and Still Frames of Videodisc Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Coralee S.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to examine the categories of teacher-asked questions while using moving and still frames of science videodisc instruction. Videotapes were made of 12 volunteer, Midwestern, urban, elementary teachers using videodisc instruction. Coding of the teacher-asked questioning categories was determined…

  2. Design of Wire Antennas by Using an Evolved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Rogovic, A.; Marasini, C.; Monorchio, A.

    2007-01-01

    A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been used in conjunction with a full-wave numerical code based on the Method of Moments (MoM) to design and optimize wire antennas. The PSO is a robust stochastic evolutionary numerical technique that is very effective in optimizing multidimensional

  3. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  4. Individually Coded Telemetry: a Tool for Studying Heart Rate and Behaviour in Reindeer Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudas T

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV™ (PVNV and to measure heart rate (HR in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30°C using a pulse generator and the correlation between generated pulse and PVNV values was high (r = 0.9957. The accuracy was tested by comparing the HR obtained with the PVNV monitor with the standard ECG, and the correlation was significant (r = 0.9965. Both circadian HR and HR related to behavioural pattern were recorded. A circadian rhythm was observed in the HR in reindeer with a minimum during night and early morning hours and maximum at noon and during the afternoon, the average HR of the reindeer calves studied being 42.5 beats/min in February. The behaviour was recorded by focal individual observations and the data was synchronized with the output of the HR monitors. Running differed from all other behavioural categories in HR. Inter-individual differences were seen expressing individual responses to external and internal stimuli. The silver wire modified Polar Vantage NV™ provides a suitable and reliable tool for measuring heart rate in reindeer, also in natural conditions.

  5. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  6. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric, while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation. To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation. Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.

  7. The representation of material categories in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H A H; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric), while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation) or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation). To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation). Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.

  8. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  9. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  10. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  11. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  12. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  13. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  14. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  15. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...... of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......, which one also finds between them. The paper ends with an examination of the behavioural consequences of these institutional arrangements, which one also finds elsewehre, i.e. ion Estonia, Iceland, Norway and New Zealand (in the new electoral system currently being implemented there)....

  17. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  18. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  19. Studies of implosion processes of nested tungsten wire-array Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Liu Quan; Yang Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    Nested wire-array is a kind of promising structured-load because it can improve the quality of Z-pinch plasma and enhance the radiation power of X-ray source. Based on the zero-dimensional model, the assumption of wire-array collision, and the criterion of optimized load (maximal load kinetic energy), optimization of the typical nested wire-array as a load of Z machine at Sandia Laboratory was carried out. It was shown that the load has been basically optimized. The Z-pinch process of the typical load was numerically studied by means of one-dimensional three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD) code. The obtained results reproduce the dynamic process of the Z-pinch and show the implosion trajectory of nested wire-array and the transfer process of drive current between the inner and outer array. The experimental and computational X-ray pulse was compared, and it was suggested that the assumption of wire-array collision was reasonable in nested wire-array Z-pinch at least for the current level of Z machine. (authors)

  20. Effect of AC electric fields on flame spread over electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on the characteristics of flame spread over insulated electrical wire has been investigated experimentally by varying AC voltage and frequency applied to the wire in the normal gravity condition. The polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was placed horizontally on electrically non-conducting posts and one end of the wire was connected to the high voltage terminal. Thus, the electrical system is the single electrode configuration. The wire was ignited at one end and the flame spread rate along the wire has been measured from the images using a video camera. Two distinct regimes existed depending on the applied AC frequency. In the low frequency regime, the flame spread rate decreased with the frequency and voltage. While in the high frequency regime, it decreased initially with voltage and then increased. At high frequency, the spread rate was even over that without applying electric fields. This result implies that fire safety codes developed without considering the effect of electric fields may require modifications. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  1. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  2. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and softwa...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  3. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  5. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  6. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  7. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  8. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  9. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  10. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  11. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  12. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Codes and Channels. A noisy communication channel is illustrated in Fig- ... nication channel. Suppose we want to transmit a message over the unreliable communication channel so that even if the channel corrupts some of the bits we are able to recover ..... is d-regular, meaning thereby that every vertex has de- gree d.

  13. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  14. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  15. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  16. Constellations and their relationship with categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Victoria; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Constellations are partial algebras that are one-sided generalisations of categories. It has previously been shown that the category of inductive constellations is isomorphic to the category of left restriction semigroups. Here we consider constellations in full generality, giving many examples. We characterise those small constellations that are isomorphic to constellations of partial functions. We examine in detail the relationship between constellations and categories, showing the latter t...

  17. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  18. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  19. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements. In...

  20. Automatic inspection of railway overhead wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, C.; Valkenburg, A.L.G. van

    1988-01-01

    For the Netherlands railway company a system for inspection of the degree of wear of the contact wires is being developed. With an active sensor the reflective under-surface of the overhead wire is illuminated with a laserbeam and reflected radiation is detected by fast CCD detectors. With the

  1. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  2. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  3. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  4. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  5. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Delong; Wu, Jiming; Huang, Jun; Yin, Li; Sun, Shunkai; Xue, Chuang; Dai, Zihuan; Ning, Cheng; Shu, Xiaojian; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the "Qiangguang I" facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  6. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  7. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  8. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  9. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  10. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  11. Assessment of SFR Wire Wrap Simulation Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchini, Marc-Olivier G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Popov, Emilian L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Predictive modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor performance and fuel are challenging due to the large number of coupled physical phenomena that must be addressed. Models that will be used for design or operational decisions must be analyzed for uncertainty to ascertain impacts to safety or performance. Rigorous, structured uncertainty analyses are performed by characterizing the model’s input uncertainties and then propagating the uncertainties through the model to estimate output uncertainty. This project is part of the ongoing effort to assess modeling uncertainty in Nek5000 simulations of flow configurations relevant to the advanced reactor applications of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. Three geometries are under investigation in these preliminary assessments: a 3-D pipe, a 3-D 7-pin bundle, and a single pin from the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility. Initial efforts have focused on gaining an understanding of Nek5000 modeling options and integrating Nek5000 with Dakota. These tasks are being accomplished by demonstrating the use of Dakota to assess parametric uncertainties in a simple pipe flow problem. This problem is used to optimize performance of the uncertainty quantification strategy and to estimate computational requirements for assessments of complex geometries. A sensitivity analysis to three turbulent models was conducted for a turbulent flow in a single wire wrapped pin (THOR) geometry. Section 2 briefly describes the software tools used in this study and provides appropriate references. Section 3 presents the coupling interface between Dakota and a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code (Nek5000 or STARCCM+), with details on the workflow, the scripts used for setting up the run, and the scripts used for post-processing the output files. In Section 4, the meshing methods used to generate the THORS and 7-pin bundle meshes are explained. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present numerical results

  12. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  13. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  14. Study of a large wire chamber; Etude d`une chambre de grande taille a un fil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, C.; Del Moral, R. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); Dufour, J-P. [URA451 Gradignan (France)

    1997-06-01

    We have tested a cylindrical large size single-wire chamber to check the possibility of obtaining high precision in the measurement with such detectors of the energy of the particles, dissipated entirely in the gas of the chamber. Such tests were carried out at the same time as preliminary studies of the multiwire systems devoted to measurements of individual energies, multiplicity and angular distributions for particle nuclei, with or without beta emission. The length of the chamber is 1 m, the diameter, 0.2 m and the wire diameter is 100 {mu}m. The composition of the chamber gas is 90% Ar and 10% CH{sub 4}. Several measurements were performed with this chamber and the energy spectrum from a 3 {alpha} source is given. The FWHM at 5.16 MeV is 76 keV which is a rather good value for a detector of 4 {mu}{pi} geometrical efficiency. On the basis of these results the project of a 8 wire detector was developed. The simulation of the operation of this chamber was made with the help of GARFIELD code of CERN. It was found that the field in the vicinity of the wire is very homogeneous. The paper presents also the equipotentials at 1 mm distance from the wire center. Also, are shown the gain fluctuations computed for 20 avalanches when the external tube potential and the potential center wire are matched in order to obtain a homogeneous field around the wires

  15. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  16. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  17. A Single Model Explains both Visual and Auditory Precortical Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Honghao; Tong, Matthew H.; Cottrell, Garrison W.

    2016-01-01

    Precortical neural systems encode information collected by the senses, but the driving principles of the encoding used have remained a subject of debate. We present a model of retinal coding that is based on three constraints: information preservation, minimization of the neural wiring, and response equalization. The resulting novel version of sparse principal components analysis successfully captures a number of known characteristics of the retinal coding system, such as center-surround rece...

  18. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  19. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  20. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  1. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Greenly, J.B.; Haines, M.G.; Mock, R.C.; Mosher, D.; Peterson, D.L.; Reisman, D.B.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Sinars, D.B.; Spielman, R.B.; Whitnery, K.G.

    1999-01-04

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  2. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Greenly, J.B.; Haines, M.G.; Mock, R.C.; Mosher, D.; Peterson, D.L.; Reisman, D.B.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Sinars, D.B.; Spielman, R.B.; Whitnery, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels

  3. Transport of energy by ultraintense laser-generated electrons in nail-wire targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T.; Key, M. H.; Mason, R. J.; Akli, K. U.; Daskalova, R. L.; Freeman, R. R.; Green, J. S.; Highbarger, K.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; King, J. A.; Lancaster, K. L.; Hatchett, S. P.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Norreys, P. A.; Patel, P. K.; Stephens, R. B.; Theobald, W.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Wei, M. S.; Wilks, S. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2009-11-01

    Nail-wire targets (20 μm diameter copper wires with 80 μm hemispherical head) were used to investigate energy transport by relativistic fast electrons generated in intense laser-plasma interactions. The targets were irradiated using the 300 J, 1 ps, and 2×1020 Wṡcm-2 Vulcan laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. A spherically bent crystal imager, a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite spectrometer, and single photon counting charge-coupled device gave absolute Cu Kα measurements. Results show a concentration of energy deposition in the head and an approximately exponential fall-off along the wire with about 60 μm 1/e decay length due to resistive inhibition. The coupling efficiency to the wire was 3.3±1.7% with an average hot electron temperature of 620±125 keV. Extreme ultraviolet images (68 and 256 eV) indicate additional heating of a thin surface layer of the wire. Modeling using the hybrid E-PLAS code has been compared with the experimental data, showing evidence of resistive heating, magnetic trapping, and surface transport.

  4. Language is not necessary for color categories

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, O.; Shayan, S.; Liszkowski, U.; Majid, A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4–6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and m...

  5. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring... cable operator shall not remove the cable home wiring unless it gives the subscriber the opportunity to...

  6. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  7. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  8. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  9. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  10. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  11. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  12. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  13. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  14. Tensosensitivity of the Hot-Wire Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pak, A

    2002-01-01

    ...., on the anemometer type. In a constant current anemometer, it is possible to measure and separate out the noise moving to the electric circuit of the anemometer, it is not the case with hot-wire anemometers of other types...

  15. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  16. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  17. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  18. A traffic analyzer for multiple SpaceWire links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scige J.; Giusi, Giovanni; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Vertolli, Nello; Galli, Emanuele; Biondi, David; Farina, Maria; Pezzuto, Stefano; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Modern space missions are becoming increasingly complex: the interconnection of the units in a satellite is now a network of terminals linked together through routers, where devices with different level of automation and intelligence share the same data-network. The traceability of the network transactions is performed mostly at terminal level through log analysis and hence it is difficult to verify in real time the reliability of the interconnections and the interchange protocols. To improve and ease the traffic analysis in a SpaceWire network we implemented a low-level link analyzer, with the specific goal to simplify the integration and test phases in the development of space instrumentation. The traffic analyzer collects signals coming from pod probes connected in-series on the interested links between two SpaceWire terminals. With respect to the standard traffic analyzers, the design of this new tool includes the possibility to internally reshape the LVDS signal. This improvement increases the robustness of the analyzer towards environmental noise effects and guarantees a deterministic delay on all analyzed signals. The analyzer core is implemented on a Xilinx FPGA, programmed to decode the bidirectional LVDS signals at Link and Network level. Successively, the core packetizes protocol characters in homogeneous sets of time ordered events. The analyzer provides time-tagging functionality for each characters set, with a precision down to the FPGA Clock, i.e. about 20nsec in the adopted HW environment. The use of a common time reference for each character stream allows synchronous performance measurements. The collected information is then routed to an external computer for quick analysis: this is done via high-speed USB2 connection. With this analyzer it is possible to verify the link performances in terms of induced delays in the transmitted signals. A case study focused on the analysis of the Time-Code synchronization in presence of a SpaceWire Router is

  19. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  20. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  1. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  2. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  3. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le controle...be identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  4. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  5. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  6. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm 2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h −1 and 1.40 g h −1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning. (paper)

  7. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  8. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  9. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  10. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  11. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.5 Drug categories. Monographs promulgated pursuant to the provisions of... designated categories: (a) Antacids. (b) Laxatives. (c) Antidiarrheal products. (d) Emetics. (e) Antiemetics. (f) Antiperspirants. (g) Sunburn prevention and treatment products. (h) Vitamin-mineral products. (i...

  12. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  13. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...

  14. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  15. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  16. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  17. 2-D Fractal Wire Antenna Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Peterman, D. J.; Ewing, J. J.; Abbott, C. S.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    A 2-D fractal wire antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its length by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (of infinite iterations) have an infinite length. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling. A fundamental property of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that can be very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna tends to have additional frequencies that minimize far field return loss. This differs from traditional antenna designs in that a single fractal antenna can operate well at multiple frequencies. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of fractal wire antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, and number of iterations have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance.

  18. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  19. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  20. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  1. Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Robert; Kuperberg, Greg; Reichardt, Ben W.

    2010-01-01

    For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.

  2. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  3. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  4. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  5. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2018-04-18

    The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Engineering Implications is the second volume of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013, which describes the HayWired scenario, developed by USGS and its partners. The scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after a magnitude-7 earthquake (mainshock) on the Hayward Fault and its aftershocks.Analyses in this volume suggest that (1) 800 deaths and 16,000 nonfatal injuries result from shaking alone, plus property and direct business interruption losses of more than $82 billion from shaking, liquefaction, and landslides; (2) the building code is designed to protect lives, but even if all buildings in the region complied with current building codes, 0.4 percent could collapse, 5 percent could be unsafe to occupy, and 19 percent could have restricted use; (3) people expect, prefer, and would be willing to pay for greater resilience of buildings; (4) more than 22,000 people could require extrication from stalled elevators, and more than 2,400 people could require rescue from collapsed buildings; (5) the average east-bay resident could lose water service for 6 weeks, some for as long as 6 months; (6) older steel-frame high-rise office buildings and new reinforced-concrete residential buildings in downtown San Francisco and Oakland could be unusable for as long as 10 months; (7) about 450 large fires could result in a loss of residential and commercial building floor area equivalent to more than 52,000 single-family homes and cause property (building and content) losses approaching $30 billion; and (8) combining earthquake early warning (ShakeAlert) with “drop, cover, and hold on” actions could prevent as many as 1,500 nonfatal injuries out of 18,000 total estimated nonfatal injuries from shaking and liquefaction hazards.

  6. Mixed and dynamic response of hot wires and cold wires and measurements of turbulence statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen; Fairall, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Hot wires respond to temperature as well as to velocity, whereas cold wires respond to velocity as well as to temperature. The static and dynamic response characteristics are summarized and it is shown that the frequency transfer functions for the four different responses in general are different...

  7. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  8. Altered Implicit Category Learning in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shott, Megan E.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Jappe, Leah M.; Pryor, Tamara; Maddox, W. Todd; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent research has identified specific cognitive deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), including impairment in executive functioning and attention. Another such cognitive process, implicit category learning has been less studied in AN. This study examined whether implicit category learning is impaired in AN. Method Twenty-one women diagnosed with AN and 19 control women (CW) were administered an implicit category learning task in which they were asked to categorize simple perceptual stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories. Category membership was based on a linear integration (i.e., an implicit task) of two stimulus dimensions (orientation and spatial frequency of the stimulus). Results AN individuals were less accurate on implicit category learning relative to age-matched CW. Model-based analyses indicated that, even when AN individuals used the appropriate (i.e., implicit) strategy they were still impaired relative to CW who also used the same strategy. In addition, task performance in AN patients was worse the higher they were in self-reported novelty seeking and the lower they were in sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions These results indicate that AN patients have implicit category learning deficits, and given this type of learning is thought to be mediated by striatal dopamine pathways, AN patients may have deficits in these neural systems. The finding of significant correlations with novelty seeking and sensitivity to punishment suggests that feedback sensitivity is related to implicit learning in AN. PMID:22201300

  9. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  10. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  11. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  12. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  13. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  14. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  15. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  16. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  17. Percutaneous tension band wiring for patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Akhilesh; Swamy, M K S; Prasantha, I; Consul, Ashu; Bansal, Abhishek; Bahl, Vibhu

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate outcome of percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella. 16 men and 7 women aged 27 to 65 (mean, 40) years underwent percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella with a displacement of >3 mm. Pain, operating time, mobility, functional score, and complications were evaluated. 20 patients underwent successful percutaneous tension band wiring. The remaining 3 patients in whom closed reduction failed underwent open reduction and tension band wiring. The mean operating time was 46 (range, 28-62) minutes. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range, 15-30) months. At the latest follow-up, all patients had regained full extension. The objective score was excellent in 20 patients and good in 3, whereas the subjective score was excellent in 17, good in 5, and fair in one. All patients had radiological union at week 8. One patient had patellofemoral arthritis (secondary to a postoperative articular step). Two patients developed superficial infections, which resolved after antibiotic therapy. Mean thigh muscle wasting was 0.7 (range, 0.4-1) cm. Three patients encountered hardware problems (impingement/irritation of the skin over the knee) necessitating implant removal. Percutaneous tension band wiring is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella.

  18. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital loads...

  19. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  20. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  1. Effect of Size on Tensile Strength of Fine Polycrystalline Nickel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, Lester

    1966-01-01

    .... The tensile strength of recrystallized wires was diameter independent. The proportional limit stress of recrystallized wires was inversely related to power functions of wire diameter and grain size...

  2. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  3. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology of logically pos...

  4. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  5. Language is not necessary for color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ozge; Shayan, Shakila; Liszkowski, Ulf; Majid, Asifa

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4-6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and more seriously, other labs have reported failing to replicate the basic findings at all. In the current study we used eye-tracking to test 8-month-old infants' categorical perception of a previously attested color boundary (green-blue) and an additional color boundary (blue-purple). Our results show that infants are faster and more accurate at fixating targets when they come from a different color category than when from the same category (even though the chromatic separation sizes were equated). This is the case for both blue-green and blue-purple. Our findings provide independent evidence for the existence of color categories in pre-linguistic infants, and suggest that categorical perception of color can occur without color language. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  7. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist...... and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation...... and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences...

  8. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  9. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  10. Magnetic wires in MEMS and bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbic, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic wires of appropriate design have special features making them useful to micro-electromechanical systems and bio-medical applications. Several applications that exploit the properties of magnetic wires are reviewed including: (a) a magnetic micro-manipulation technique that utilizes integrated micro-coils and magnetic micro-wires for localized positioning of micron-sized magnetic objects, (b) integrated micro-coil/micro-wire system operating as a micro-fluidic micro-motor, (c) mechanical tweezers using magneto-static interaction between two magnetic micro-wires, and (d) ultra-high gradient magnetic separation system based on porous membranes partially filled with magnetic wires

  11. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  12. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  13. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  14. Use of Kirschner wires with eyelets for tension band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Sang Lim; Lee, Sang Ki; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of tension band wiring of displaced olecranon fractures treated using Kirschner wires with eyelets to assess their clinical performance with respect to complications such as backing out of the K-wires, restriction of forearm rotation, and neurovascular injury. The authors retrospectively reviewed 44 patients treated for an isolated, displaced olecranon fracture and checked range of motion, postoperative pain, complications, and incidence of hardware removal. The mean follow-up period was 41 months (range, 26-73 mo). All fractures united, and anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases at final follow-up. Mean elbow flexion was 135° (range, 115° to 140°), and mean elbow extension was 4° (range, 0° to 15°). No pin migration, restriction of forearm rotation, or neurovascular injury occurred. Hardware removal was performed in 8 cases (18%). Compared to previous results with conventional Kirschner wires, no meaningful improvement in postoperative pain level or in the rate of hardware removal was observed. Tension band wiring using the pin studied produced excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes for the treatment of isolated, displaced Mayo type IIA and some type IIB olecranon fractures. The pin was effective in preventing the backing out of Kirschner wires and avoiding the complications associated with anterior cortical engagement of Kirschner wires, such as neurovascular injury or restriction of forearm rotation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  16. Modeling of Service-Drop Wires and Interior-Wiring Cables for Lightning Overvoltage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Susumu; Noda, Taku; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    As the information society progresses, a variety of electronic appliances have come into wide use in common houses. If a lightning stroke causes faults or incorrect operations of these electronic appliances, a social economic loss is considered to be large. For this reason, the focus of lightning protection measures for distribution lines in Japan has expanded to include the low-voltage side of the distribution line in addition to the high-voltage side. In order to calculate lightning overvoltages at the low-voltage side, the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables have to be modeled accurately. First, this paper describes test results of the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables. The modal surge impedances and the propagation velocities of various service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables are obtained by the test. Based on the test results obtained, this paper proposes a modeling methodology of these wires and cables for accurate EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) lightning overvoltage simulations. The proposed model is validated by comparing EMTP simulation results with field test results.

  17. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  18. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...... is made with the results of a simulation that models the heat conduction in the metal head by means of a Biot boundary condition. The influence of the wire velocity, inlet temperature and power-law index will be examined....

  19. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  20. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  1. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  3. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  4. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  5. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that af...

  6. Test Specifications and the Design of the Wire Wrapped 37-Pin Fuel Assembly for Hydrodynamic Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. K.; Euh, D. J.; Bae, H.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Most influencing parameters on uncertainties and sensitivities of the CFD analyses are the friction coefficient and the mixing coefficient. The friction coefficient is related to the flow distribution in reactor sub-channels. The mixing coefficient is defined with the cross flow between neighboring sub-channels. The eventual purpose of the thermal hydraulic design considering these parameters is to guarantee the fuel cladding integrity as the design limit parameter. At the moment, the experimental program is being undertaken to quantify these friction and mixing parameters which characterize the flow distribution in sub-channels, and the wire wrapped 37-pin rod assembly and its hexagonal test rig have been designed and fabricated. The quantified thermal hydraulic experimental data from this program are utilized primarily to estimate the accuracy of the safety analysis codes and their thermal hydraulic model. A wire wrapped 37 pin fuel assembly has been designed for the measurements of the flow distribution, where the measurements are utilized to quantify the friction coefficient and the mixing coefficient. The test rig of the wire wrapped 37 pin fuel assembly has been fabricated considering the geometric and flow dynamic similarities. It comprises four components i. e., the upper plenum, the fuel housing, the lower plenum, and the wire wrapped 37 pin fuel assembly. At further works, the quantified friction and mixing coefficients through the experiments are going to be utilized for insuring the reliability of the CFD analysis results

  7. The performance of a wire mesh collimator SPECT camera for different breast volumes in prone position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roslan, R.E.; Saad, W.H. Mohd [Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Saripan, M.I., E-mail: iqbal@eng.upm.edu.m [Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, S. [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, W.-S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    The multihole collimator is the most commonly used collimator in conventional SPECT cameras for general purpose imaging. However, there are some limitations with this collimator, which includes the lack of sensitivity as a trade-off for obtaining better spatial resolution. This paper looks at the performance of a wire mesh collimator that was introduced recently in order to improve the ability of SPECT cameras in mapping breast cancer cells, utilizing the Technetium-99 m 140 keV radiotracer. In this work, various volumes of breast are modelled and simulated using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) code, derived based on the real cup sizes and volumes in prone position. The size of tumour is 1 cm in diameter with tumour to background ratios (TBRs) ranging between TBR from 1:1 to TBR 20:1, and located 2 cm inside breast skin. The results show that wire mesh collimator 1 (WM-1) has the highest sensitivity and signal to noise ratio (SNR) in comparison with wire mesh collimator 2 (WM-2) and the multihole collimator (MHC). This indicates the potential of using a wire mesh collimator for early mapping of breast cancer cells.

  8. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...

  9. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 ? 0.022 in2 and 0.019 ? 0.025 in2 (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bendin...

  10. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  11. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  12. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  13. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  14. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  15. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  16. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  17. ePLAS modeling of hot electron transport in nail-wire targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Ma, T.; Wei, M. S.; Beg, F. N.; Key, M. H.; Stephens, R. B.

    2010-08-01

    Relativistic electron transport in short-pulse laser illuminated nail-wire and foil targets has been studied with the e-PLAS implicit/hybrid plasma simulation code in a cylindrical geometry. The intensities are typical of the Vulcan and Titan petawatt lasers (1.06 μm, 1.7×1020 W/cm2) in 10 μm diameter Gaussian spots, producing hot electrons at a relativistic γ = 3.4 according to Beg scaling, and with 20% absorption assumed. The targets are 200 μm long nail-headed copper wires 20 μm in diameter, and copper foils 120 μm thick. The code dumps energy at constant intensity for a picosecond at the critical surface into an isotropic relativistic Maxwellian particle-in-cell hot electron distribution. The emitted hot particles draw a cold electron return current scattering off the background ions taken as ionized at a fixed Z = 15. Transport of the hot electrons is impeded by the electric field from a Spitzer resistivity acting on the cold electron return current. Assumed emission angle is shown to seriously affect hot e- penetration in the wires.

  18. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  19. Building Trades. Carpentry, Electrical Wiring, Plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide contains 21 units of self-paced, self-contained instructional materials in the complete building trades curriculum. It is divided into vocational areas of carpentry, electrical wiring, and plumbing. The purpose of the curriculum is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering mainstream…

  20. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  1. Selective deposition by hot wire ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A method for selectively depositing a metal nlm onto a substrate is disclosed. In particular, the method comprising nowing a metal precursor onto the substrate and nowing a non-metal precursor onto the substrate,while contacting the non-metal precursor with a hot wire. Specincally, a reaction

  2. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  3. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  4. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  5. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  6. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  7. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...

  8. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  9. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  10. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  11. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  13. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  14. Comparing supervised and unsupervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C

    2002-12-01

    Two unsupervised learning modes (incidental and intentional unsupervised learning) and their relation to supervised classification learning are examined. The approach allows for direct comparisons of unsupervised learning data with the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) seminal studies in supervised classification learning. Unlike supervised classification learning, unsupervised learning (especially under incidental conditions) favors linear category structures over compact nonlinear category structures. Unsupervised learning is shown to be multifaceted in that performance varies with task conditions. In comparison with incidental unsupervised learning, intentional unsupervised learning is more rule like, but is no more accurate. The acquisition and application of knowledge is also more laborious under intentional unsupervised learning.

  15. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  16. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  17. Structured Wiring Systems: Bringing Sanity to Network Cabling!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    While most organizations, including libraries, can benefit from a structured wiring system, few likely have the expertise and resources to place, specify, and install network cabling by themselves. This article reviews common wiring plans, addresses basic concepts of structured wiring systems, and discusses the importance and benefits of such a…

  18. Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, quadratic mathematical models have been derived to represent the process behavior of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operation. Experiments have been conducted with six process parameters: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire speed, wire tension and dielectric flow ...

  19. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  20. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  1. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  2. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of... 60092-302 (clause 7) (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Wiring. Instrumentation and...

  3. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  4. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404... Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design and protection. (a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding... construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in...

  5. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than...

  6. 46 CFR 28.370 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.370 Section 28.370... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.370 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable and... not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in a high risk fire area such as...

  7. 46 CFR 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.865 Section 28.865... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.865 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable... terminals is not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas...

  8. Interpolation Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of EM Coupling between Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasini, C.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and accurate evaluation of the EM field radiated by a current flowing along a wire is essential to solve the electromagnetic coupling between arbitrary oriented wires. In this paper, a numerically efficient algorithm for the evaluation of coupling is presented. The currents along the wires

  9. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  10. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  11. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser. Abstract. A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to ...

  12. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires. Keywords. Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser.

  13. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  14. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium wires.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Senn, C.; Wichelhaus, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanical properties of commercially available thermodynamic wires and to classify these wires mathematically into different groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples examined were 48 nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy orthodontic wires commercially available from five

  15. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall be...

  16. An X-ray scanner for wire chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, T.; Arik, E.; Assamagan, K.; Baker, K.; Benjamin, D.; Bertelsen, H.; Bytchkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeans-Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, A.; Cwetanski, P.; Danielsson, H.; Dittus, F.; Dolgoshein, B.; Dressnandt, N.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Farthouat, P.; Froidevaux, D.; Grichkevitch, Y.; Hajduk, Z.; Hansen, J. R.; Keener, P. K.; Kekelidze, G.; Konovalov, S.; Kowalski, T.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kruger, K.; Lundberg, B.; Luehring, F.; Manara, A.; McFarlane, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Morozov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Newcomer, F. M.; Olszowska, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Peshekhonov, V.; Price, M.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rust, D. R.; Schegelsky, V.; Sapinski, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnova, L. N.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Soutchkov, S.; Spiridenkov, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; VanBerg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V.; Wang, C.; Williams, H. H.

    2003-07-01

    The techniques to measure the position of sense wires and field wires, the gas gain and the gas flow rate inside wire chambers using a collimated and filtered X-ray beam are reported. Specific examples are given using barrel modules of the Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment.

  17. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  18. The Seismic Category I Structures Program results for FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Bennett, J.G.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Baker, W.E.

    1990-10-01

    The accomplishments of the Seismic Category I Structures Program for FY 1987 are summarized. These accomplishments include the quasi-static load cycle testing of large shear wall elements, an extensive analysis of previous data to determine if equivalent linear analytical models can predict the response of damaged shear wall structures, and code committee activities. In addition, previous testing and results that led to the FY 1987 program plan are discussed and all previous data relating to shear wall stiffness are summarized. Because separate reports have already summarized the experimental and analytical work in FY 1987, this report will briefly highlight this work and the appropriate reports will be references for a more detailed discussion. 12 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs

  19. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, W.J.; Lobner, P.R.; Powell, R.W.; Straker, E.A.

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems

  20. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Julian M L; Kisvárday, Zoltán F

    2012-01-01

    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimize communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction) and temporal (routing) costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fiber tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for cortical wiring patterns.

  1. The development of automaticity in short-term memory search: Item-response learning and category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Nosofsky, Robert M; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2017-05-01

    In short-term-memory (STM)-search tasks, observers judge whether a test probe was present in a short list of study items. Here we investigated the long-term learning mechanisms that lead to the highly efficient STM-search performance observed under conditions of consistent-mapping (CM) training, in which targets and foils never switch roles across trials. In item-response learning, subjects learn long-term mappings between individual items and target versus foil responses. In category learning, subjects learn high-level codes corresponding to separate sets of items and learn to attach old versus new responses to these category codes. To distinguish between these 2 forms of learning, we tested subjects in categorized varied mapping (CV) conditions: There were 2 distinct categories of items, but the assignment of categories to target versus foil responses varied across trials. In cases involving arbitrary categories, CV performance closely resembled standard varied-mapping performance without categories and departed dramatically from CM performance, supporting the item-response-learning hypothesis. In cases involving prelearned categories, CV performance resembled CM performance, as long as there was sufficient practice or steps taken to reduce trial-to-trial category-switching costs. This pattern of results supports the category-coding hypothesis for sufficiently well-learned categories. Thus, item-response learning occurs rapidly and is used early in CM training; category learning is much slower but is eventually adopted and is used to increase the efficiency of search beyond that available from item-response learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Numerical simulations of annular wire-array z-pinches in (x,y), (r,θ), and (r,z) geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marder, B.M.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1997-12-01

    The Total Immersion PIC (TIP) code has been used in several two-dimensional geometries to understand better the measured dynamics of annular, aluminum wire-array z-pinches. The areas investigated include the formation of the plasma sheath from current-induced individual wire explosions, the effects of wire number and symmetry on the implosion dynamics, and the dependence of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth on initial sheath thickness. A qualitative change in the dynamics with increasing wire number was observed, corresponding to a transition between a z-pinch composed of non-merging, self-pinching individual wires, and one characterized by the rapid formation and subsequent implosion of a continuous plasma sheath. A sharp increase in radiated power with increasing wire number has been observed experimentally near this calculated transition. Although two-dimensional codes have correctly simulated observed power pulse durations, there are indications that three dimensional effects are important in understanding the actual mechanism by which these pulse lengths are produced

  3. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  4. U.S. Navy Wire-Rope Handbook. Volume 1. Design and Engineering of Wire-Rope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    percent nickel and are designated "Type 304 " and "Type 302" by the American Iron and Steel Institute ( AISI ). Type 304 stainless steel rope may be...from AISI Specifica- tion XYZ14 on Alloy Steel Wire) .... ............ ... 3-2 3-2. Typical Load-Elongation Behavior of Wire Rope .... ...... 3-9 3...Cosecants .......... ................... ... 10-S 10-11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wire ............ . .. 10-10 10-12. Wire Gauges

  5. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  6. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  7. Evolution of Wikipedia’s Category Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchecki, K.; Salah, A.A.; Gao, C.; Scharnhorst, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, as a social phenomenon of collaborative knowledge creation, has been studied extensively from various points of view. The category system of Wikipedia, introduced in 2004, has attracted relatively little attention. In this study, we focus on the documentation of knowledge, and the

  8. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  9. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  10. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  11. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  12. Confronting the categories: Equitable admissions without apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confronting the categories: Equitable admissions without apartheid race classification. Z Erasmus. Abstract. South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education ...

  13. Reasoning with Polarity in Categorial Type Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis follows the parsing as deduction approach to lin- guistics. We use the tools of Categorial Type Logic (CTL) to study the interface of natural language syntax and semantics. Our aim is to investigate the mathematical structure of CTL and explore the

  14. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  15. Near-field optical spectroscopy of single quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Gershoni, D.; Grober, R. D.; Pfeiffer, L.; West, K.; Chand, N.

    1996-02-01

    Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy is used for spectroscopic studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. A direct experimental comparison between a two dimensional system and a single genuinely one dimensional quantum wire system, inaccessible to conventional far field optical spectroscopy, is enabled by the enhanced spatial resolution. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of 3 absorption enhancement for these wires compared to the wells is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  16. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  17. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  18. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sound quality is, in essence, obtained by accurate waveform coding and decoding of the audio signals. In addition, the coded audio information is protected against disc errors by the use of a Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC). Reed-. Solomon codes were discovered by Irving Reed and Gus Solomon in 1960.

  19. Enhanced THz guiding properties of curved two-wire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jingshu; Kim, Geun Ju; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-03-21

    We present experimental and simulation studies of enhanced terahertz (THz) guiding properties of curved two-wire lines for several surface conditions. When a THz-wave propagates through curved two-wire lines, a rough wire surface with dielectric coating contributes to a lower bending loss compared to a smooth or rough wire surface without coating. Dielectric coating and rough surface confine the THz field to the wire surface making the bending loss low. The guiding property at a curve depth of 30 mm of a rough wire surface with 25-μm-thick coating is improved by 34% compared to that of a smooth wire without coating. Furthermore, computer simulation technology (CST) software visually shows the bending loss as same as the experimental studies.

  20. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  1. Network Coding Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Brian; Adjih , Cédric; Bilbao , Josu; Firoiu , Victor; Fitzek , Frank; Samah , Ghanem ,; Lochin , Emmanuel; Masucci , Antonia; Montpetit , Marie-Jose; Pedersen , Morten V.; Peralta , Goiuri; Roca , Vincent; Paresh , Saxena; Sivakumar , Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Internet Research Task Force - Working document of the Network Coding Research Group (NWCRG), draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy-05 (work in progress), https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy/; This document summarizes a recommended terminology for Network Coding concepts and constructs. It provides a comprehensive set of terms with unique names in order to avoid ambiguities in future Network Coding IRTF and IETF documents. This document is intended to ...

  2. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  3. Color categories are not universal: new evidence from traditional and western cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi D.; Davidoff, Jules; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2002-06-01

    Evidence presented supports the linguistic relativity of color categories in three different paradigms. Firstly, a series of cross-cultural investigations, which had set out to replicate the seminal work of Rosch Heider with the Dani of New Guinea, failed to find evidence of a set of universal color categories. Instead, we found evidence of linguistic relativity in both populations tested. Neither participants from a Melanesian hunter-gatherer culture, nor those from an African pastoral tribe, whose languages both contain five color terms, showed a cognitive organization of color resembling that of English speakers. Further, Melanesian participants showed evidence of Categorical Perception, but only at their linguistic category boundaries. Secondly, in native English speakers verbal interference was found to selectively remove the defining features of Categorical Perception. Under verbal interference, the greater accuracy normally observed for cross-category judgements compared to within-category judgements disappeared. While both visual and verbal codes may be employed in the recognition memory of colors, participants only make use of verbal coding when demonstrating Categorical Perception. Thirdly, in a brain- damaged patient suffering from a naming disorder, the loss of labels radically impaired his ability to categorize colors. We conclude that language affects both the perception of and memory for colors.

  4. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  5. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  6. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P

    2003-01-01

    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  7. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plomp, J.; Barker, J.G.; Haan, V.O. de; Bouwman, W.G.; Well, A.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Undesired Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) from interior features of an object can be minimised by reducing the sample thickness. However, refraction effects produced by the exterior shape of the object depend upon the scattering cross-section and not on the thickness of the object. In the field of polarised neutrons a wire coil is often used to manipulate the polarisation vector of the neutron. In this paper, we show that the cylindrical shape of the wire together with the refractive index introduces an angular distribution in the neutron beam. This can be observed in instrumentation sensitive to SANS. We show results measured on three different SANS instruments: Ultra Small-Angle Neutrons Scattering (USANS), Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) SESANS. These results are all in good agreement with the theory of refraction

  8. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, J. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.plomp@tudelft.nl; Barker, J.G. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Haan, V.O. de [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Bouwman, W.G. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Well, A.A. van [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-05-01

    Undesired Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) from interior features of an object can be minimised by reducing the sample thickness. However, refraction effects produced by the exterior shape of the object depend upon the scattering cross-section and not on the thickness of the object. In the field of polarised neutrons a wire coil is often used to manipulate the polarisation vector of the neutron. In this paper, we show that the cylindrical shape of the wire together with the refractive index introduces an angular distribution in the neutron beam. This can be observed in instrumentation sensitive to SANS. We show results measured on three different SANS instruments: Ultra Small-Angle Neutrons Scattering (USANS), Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) SESANS. These results are all in good agreement with the theory of refraction.

  9. Linguistic Coding of Social Information and Mechanism by which social categories affect the communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nilu Choudhary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In many communities, two or more varieties of the same language are used by some speakers in different conditions. Perhaps the most familiar example is the use of the standard language and regional dialect when many speakers speak their local dialect at home or among family or friend of the same dialect area but use the standard language in communicating with speakers of other dialects on public occasions. Charles A. Ferguson (1964 in his famous work on ‘Diglossia’finds that in all the defining languages the speakers regard superposed variety as superior to regional dialects in number of respects. Sometimes the feeling is so strong that the superposed variety alone is regarded as real and the regional dialect is reported ‘not to exist’. This attitude cannot be called deliberate attempt to deceive the questioner, but seems almost a self-deception. Even the feeling of the reality and superiority of the superposed variety is not so strong there is usually a belief that this variety is somehow more beautiful, more logical, better able to express important thoughts, and the like. And this belief is held also by speakers whose command of the said variety is quite limited.

  10. A Four-Category Scheme for Coding and Assessing the Level of Reflection in Written Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, David; McKay, Jan; Sinclair, Kit; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet

    2008-01-01

    Where courses have as an aim the promotion of reflective practice, it will enhance the achievement of the goal if the level of reflective thinking is assessed. To do this in a satisfactory way requires a reliable protocol for assessing the level of reflection in written work. This article presents a protocol that can be used to guide the…

  11. From barbed wire to radar traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Several million DM are required already to protect the building sites of power plants. From the very beginning concrete, wood, and barbed wire are used to make a protective wall against intruders, or in official German, 'unauthorized persons'. This expensive provisional set-up is later supplanted by electronic alarm and safety systems. A review of available systems helps to give a picture of power plant protection. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  12. Visible emission from exploding wire in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2007), s. 53-53 ISSN 0003-0503. [The 61st Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference. Dallas, Texas , 13.10.2008-17.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Exploding wire * emission Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  14. Inverter design for four-wire microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Pagès Giménez, Marc; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a PQ four quadrant four-wire three-phase inverter for microgrids integration. The inverter is based in two full-bridge IGBT modules connected in a three-phase configuration plus a threephase parallelized neutral branch. This topology is galvanically isolated through a single-phase transformer bank. The converter operates as a non-ideal voltage-controlled voltage source inverter under AC droop strategy with hot-swap capability based on a dynamic virtual impedance.

  15. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  16. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... more to fragmented drawings than to outline drawings even though fragmentation had a clear impact on recognition performance. Instead, a region extending from the inferior occipital gyri to the middle parts of the fusiform gyri was activated during shape configuration of both outline drawings...

  17. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  18. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  19. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  20. Finding Entities in Wikipedia Using Links and Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap

    In this paper we describe our participation in the INEX Entity Ranking track. We explored the relations between Wikipedia pages, categories and links. Our approach is to exploit both category and link information. Category information is used by calculating distances between document categories and target categories. Link information is used for relevance propagation and in the form of a document link prior. Both sources of information have value, but using category information leads to the biggest improvements.

  1. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  2. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  4. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  5. Results of the Fermilab wire production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.P.; Remsbottom, R.H.; Reardon, P.J.; Curtis, C.W.; McDonald, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    In examining the various schedules of wire drawing and heat treating, the Critchlow type of schedule provided the highest and most uniform data from billet to billet. It consists of a long anneal at 400 +- 20 0 C at a cold work point giving about 99 percent reduction in area from the extrusion size. Several quick copper anneals at 300 0 C may be interspersed to aid in fabrication. A final anneal at finished size both peaks up the resistivity ratio of the copper as well as the critical current of the alloy by moving dislocations to subcell walls. Using this method, critical currents of 1.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 could be maintained in all billets. The copper cladding and sinking method looks promising and should save production costs. In spite of this, it was important to attain good packing density in the billets to assure uniform filament pattern and reduce breakage in wire drawing. Overall, a procedure was found for fabricating wire in large production lots that would be acceptable for constructing dipole magnets. It is felt that this method could be peaked up with time

  6. Reliability of the wire drawing dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Khany, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A wear based model is proposed for the dies used in wire drawing process. Using this wear model, it is possible to predict life of the die corresponding to a wear limit criterion. Since various quantities in the model are random in nature the resulting die life will also be random quantity characterized by an appropriate distribution. Using a probabilistic characterization of the parameters of the predictive model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to establish the die life distribution. To asses the sensitivity of life distribution with respect to various contributing variables (parameters), the simulation runs were conducted at different levels of these variables (parameters). It is shown that wire drawing die life is Weibull distributed. To compare the simulated results with actual time to failure, data of dies was obtained from a large wire drawing company and was compared with corresponding scenario generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations were very close to the actual time to failure data. (author)

  7. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  8. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Shannon's landmark paper 'A Mathematical Theory of. Communication' [1] laid the foundation for communica- ... coding theory, codes over graphs and iterative techniques, and informa- tion theory. .... An important consequence of independence is that if. {Xb X2 , . Xn} are independent random variables, each.

  9. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  10. Using BIRADS categories in ROC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergi, Maria; Hersh, Marla R.; Thomas, Jerry A.

    2002-04-01

    This paper investigated the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BIRADS) Lexicon in ROC mammography experiments. Analysis was based on data from parallel ROC experiments performed at two Institutions with different readers and databases to compare film to digitized mammography. Seven readers participated in the studies and read approximately 200 cases each in two formats: film and digital or softcopy. Reporting was done using BIRADS categories 1 through 5. Training was done with a separate set of cases and included detailed review of the relationship between BIRADS and a standard ROC discrete 5-point rating scale. The results from both sites showed equivalency between film and softcopy mammography. Decisions using the BIRADS categories showed no unsampled ROC regions and no degenerate data. Fits yielded smooth ROC curves that correlated to clinical practice. In a qualitative evaluation, all observers indicated preference in using the BIRADS classes instead of a discrete or continuous rating scheme. Familiarity with the rating process seems to relieve some of the bias associated with the interpretation of digitized mammograms from computer monitors (softcopy reading). Our results suggested that BIRADS categories can be used in comparative ROC studies because they represent a scale familiar to the reader that can be followed consistently and they provide a rating approach that accounts for both positive and negative cases to be evaluated and categorized.

  11. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  12. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Aoh, Jong-Hing; Wang, Chang-Ming

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were investigated by using a thermosonic bonding machine and a shear tester. This work shows that under proper preheat temperatures, the bonding force of thermosonic wire bonding can be explained based on interfacial microcontact phenomena such as energy intensity, interfacial temperature and real contact area. It is clearly shown that as the energy intensity is increased, the shear force increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. After saturation, i.e. the establishment of maximum atomic bonding, any type of additional energy input will damage the bonding, decreasing the shear force. If the preheat temperature is not within the proper range, the interfacial saturation phenomenon does not exist. For a preload of 0.5 N and a welding time of 15 ms in thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads, a maximum shear force of about 0.33 N is found where the interfacial energy intensity equals 1.8×106 J m-2 for preheat temperatures of 150°C and 170°C. Moreover, the corresponding optimal ultrasonic power is about 110 units.

  13. Three dimensional conjugated heat transfer analysis in sodium fast reactor wire-wrapped fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peniguel, C.; Rupp, I.; Juhel, JP.; Rolfo, S.; Guillaud, M.; Gervais, N.

    2009-01-01

    Fast reactors with liquid metal coolant have recently received a renewed interest owing to a more efficient usage of the primary uranium resources, and they are one of the proposal for the next Generation IV. In order to evaluate nuclear power plant design and safety, 3D analysis of the flow and heat transfer in a wire spacer fuel assembly are ongoing at EDF. The introduction of the wire wrapped spacers, helically wound along the pin axis, enhances the mixing of the coolant between sub-channels and prevents contact between the fuel pins. The mesh generation step constitutes a challenging task if a reasonable amount of cells in conjunction with a suitable spatial discretization is wanted. Several approaches have been investigated and will be presented. Quite complex global flow patterns are found using either k-ε or preferably Reynolds Stress turbulent models. Preliminary conjugated heat transfer calculations using a coupling between the finite element thermal code SYRTHES and the finite volume CFD code Code Saturne are also shown. (author)

  14. 28 CFR 60.2 - Authorized categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer of the Virgin Islands, Guam, or the Canal Zone. (d) Any officer of the Metropolitan Police... the United States. (f) Any civilian agent of the Department of Defense not subject to military... Uniform Code of Military Justice. (h) Any military agent of the Department of Defense who is authorized to...

  15. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  16. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  17. A new design of wire locators for drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    Every position-sensitive wire detector needs to solve the problem of wire positioning with a defined accuracy all over its sensitive volume. In particular, thin-walled drift tubes ("straws"), which are currently being attached to large detector units of several tens of square meters of surface, need to be equipped with wire locators along their signal wires. A wire locator has been developed together with an insertion device, especially for medium-sized drift tube systems, which significantly reduces the production time and avoids the danger of applying epoxy glue to the signal wire. The wire locator is being inserted in one single time-saving production step together with the signal wire itself. The proposed design is being compared to the rigid wire locators in use in the COMPASS straw tracking system at CERN. The investigation comprises both wire- centering capability and influence on the efficiency of adjacent detector regions, demonstrating the competitive performance of the proposed new system. Its suff...

  18. WIRELESS TENSION BAND WIRING FOR OLECRANON FRACTURES. Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukoz, Sami; Bayoud, Wael

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the results of wireless tension band wire (WTBW) which is a modified technique of tension band wires (TBW) for Mayo type II A and III A olecranon fractures. In this technique the K-wires of the TBW are replaced by a cerclage wire while keeping the figure of eight wiring. We reviewed retrospectively our WTBW cases done between 2000 and 2015 where we replaced the K-wires by a cerclage wire. In this technique no hardware migration is possible. Patients were evaluated clinically, radiographicaly and a DASH score was measured. Seventeen patients were reviewed with a mean age of 58.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 58.5 months. The mean DASH score was 12 with 7 patients having a DASH score of zero. Joint mobility was near normal compared to the other side with loss of a mean of 4º in elbow extension and a mean of 3º in elbow flexion. In comparison with other series, in addition to good results, hardware removal for medical reasons was the lowest in our technique. It was needed in three patients for pain on elbow contact and in one with ulnar nerve irritation. This represents a rate of 23.5%. Undesirable events related to the use of K-wires in standard tension band wiring, such as wire migration, wire protrusion through the skin and wire impingement, are absent in the wireless tension band wiring. The high rate of patient satisfaction, good clinical results as well as low rate of needed hardware removal make this technique preferable for fixing Mayo Type II A olecranon fractures.

  19. Aesthetic nickel titanium wires--how much do they deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphoor, Anil Abdul; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the force levels of aesthetic Ni-Ti wires to regular Ni-Ti wires of the same dimension and evaluate their mechanical properties. Aesthetic and regular maxillary superelastic Ni-Ti wires (0.016 × 0.022) from four different manufacturers (G&H Wire Company, TP Orthodontics, GAC International, and Ortho Organizers) were selected and grouped I-IV. The loading and unloading values were compared using a three-point bending test. The unloading end values were also recorded to evaluate the recovery of archwires after each deflection. The unloading values were recorded at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm after loading deflections of 1, 2, and 3 mm, respectively. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the coating thickness of aesthetic wires. The results, statistically analysed, showed a significant decrease in force values for the aesthetic wires in groups I, III, and IV (P wires of the same dimension from the same manufacturer. There was no significant difference in force values for group II wires. A statistically significant decrease in force values of epoxy-coated wires was observed in groups I, III, and IV only. This is of obvious clinical significance during wire selection. The group II coated wires, however, exhibited forces comparable to their regular Ni-ti wires with a difference that was statistically insignificant. The end values of aesthetic wires showed almost complete recovery for groups I, II, and III after 2 and 3 mm deflections.

  20. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  1. Continuous spatial representations in the olfactory bulb may reflect perceptual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

  2. A critical analysis of the use of code-switching in Nhlapho's novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Code-switching has become a common social phenomenon governed by social conversational needs. Central to the use of code-switching is the way in which social norms, which are also called rights and obligations, are attributed to speakers and listeners of certain social categories. Studies on code-switching reveal that ...

  3. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  4. Assessment of Proton Deflectometry for Exploding Wire Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat Nadeem [University of California San Diego

    2013-09-25

    This project provides the first demonstration of the application of proton deflectometry for the diagnosis of electromagnetic field topology and current-carrying regions in Z-pinch plasma experiments. Over the course of this project several milestones were achieved. High-energy proton beam generation was demonstrated on the short-pulse high-intensity Leopard laser, (10 Joules in ~350 femtoseconds, and the proton beam generation was shown to be reproducible. Next, protons were used to probe the electromagnetic field structure of short circuit loads in order to benchmark the two numerical codes, the resistive-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, Gorgon, and the hybrid particle-in-cell code, LSP for the interpretation of results. Lastly, the proton deflectometry technique was used to map the magnetic field structure of pulsed-power-driven plasma loads including wires and supersonic jets formed with metallic foils. Good agreement between the modeling and experiments has been obtained. The demonstrated technique holds great promise to significantly improve the understanding of current flow and electromagnetic field topology in pulsed power driven high energy density plasmas. Proton probing with a high intensity laser was for the first time implemented in the presence of the harsh debris and x-ray producing z-pinch environment driven by a mega-ampere-scale pulsed-power machine. The intellectual merit of the program was that it investigated strongly driven MHD systems and the influence of magnetic field topology on plasma evolution in pulsed power driven plasmas. The experimental program involved intense field-matter interaction in the generation of the proton probe, as well as the generation of plasma subjected to 1 MegaGauss scale magnetic fields. The computational aspect included two well-documented codes, in combination for the first time to provide accurate interpretation of the experimental results. The broader impact included the support of 2 graduate students, one at

  5. Usefulness of hook wire localization biopsy under imaging guidance for nonpalpable breast lesions detected radiologically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masroor I

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Imrana Masroor,1 Shaista Afzal,1 Gulnaz Shafqat,1 Hasan Rehman21Department of Radiology, 2Medical College, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PakistanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of hook wire localization biopsy under imaging guidance for nonpalpable breast lesions detected radiologically.Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. All patients undergoing needle localization biopsy of a nonpalpable breast lesion under mammographic or ultrasound guidance between January 2009 to December 2010 were included in the study. Patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. All patients’ mammograms or ultrasound were categorized using BI-RADS® assessment categories. The percentages of benign and malignant lesions were determined by pathological examination of surgically removed specimens. A correlation was sought between preoperative imaging assessment and the final diagnosis. The complications associated with the procedure were also recorded.Results: A total of 151 biopsies were carried out, of which 80 were performed under mammographic guidance and 71 were performed under ultrasound guidance. The mean age of the patients was 51.89 years. The overall malignancy rate was 25.16%. Of 93 cases reported radiologically as malignant, 60 turned out to be malignant, and of the 58 cases reported as benign on imaging, three proved to be malignant on histopathology. The sensitivity of imaging findings was 95% and the specificity was 62%. The malignancy rate was 5% for benign lesions and 64% for malignant lesions, respectively. There were no complications related to wire localization, and only two patients had minor complications following surgical excision, giving a complication rate of 1.32%.Conclusion: Hook wire localization biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for definitive diagnosis of suspicious lesions on imaging, and is more

  6. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  7. Model and code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in model and code development for reactor physics calculations is summarized. The codes included CINDER-10, PHROG, RAFFLE GAPP, DCFMR, RELAP/4, PARET, and KENO. Kinetics models for the PBF were developed

  8. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  9. Genetic Control of Wiring Specificity in the Fly Olfactory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Luo, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Precise connections established between pre- and postsynaptic partners during development are essential for the proper function of the nervous system. The olfactory system detects a wide variety of odorants and processes the information in a precisely connected neural circuit. A common feature of the olfactory systems from insects to mammals is that the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor make one-to-one connections with a single class of second-order olfactory projection neurons (PNs). This represents one of the most striking examples of targeting specificity in developmental neurobiology. Recent studies have uncovered central roles of transmembrane and secreted proteins in organizing this one-to-one connection specificity in the olfactory system. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how this wiring specificity is genetically controlled and focus on the mechanisms by which transmembrane and secreted proteins regulate different stages of the Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly in a coordinated manner. We also discuss how combinatorial coding, redundancy, and error-correcting ability could contribute to constructing a complex neural circuit in general. PMID:24395823

  10. Wire array K-shell sources on the SPHINX generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Grunenwald, Julien; Maury, Patrick; Zucchini, Frédéric; Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The SPHINX machine is a LTD based Z-pinch driver operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying K-shell radiation effects. We present the results of experiments carried out with single and nested large diameter aluminium wire array loads driven by a current of ~5 MA in ~800 ns. The dynamic of the implosion is studied with filtered X-UV time-integrated pin-hole cameras. The plasma electron temperature and the characteristics of the sources are estimated with time and spatially dependent spectrographs and PCDs. It is shown that Al K-shell yields (>1 keV) up to 27 kJ are obtained for a total radiation of ~ 230 kJ. These results are compared with simulations performed using the latest implementation of the non-LTE DCA code Spk in the 3D Eulerian MHD framework Gorgon developed at Imperial College. Filtered synthetic bolometers and PCD signals, time-dependent spatially integrated spectra and X-UV images are produced and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The capabilities of a prospective SPHINX II machine (20 MA ~ 800 ns) are also assessed for a wider variety of sources (Ti, Cu and W).

  11. FiberWire is superior in strength to stainless steel wire for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P B; Kosmopoulos, V; Coté, R E; Tayag, T J; Nana, A D

    2009-11-01

    The metal implants used to achieve fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures are associated with implant failure, postoperative pain and a significant re-operation rate. Recent studies have examined braided suture as a possible alternative to stainless steel wire to increase patient satisfaction and decrease re-operation rates, but suture has not demonstrated clearly superior fixation strength. FiberWire is a reinforced braided polyblend suture that has demonstrated superior characteristics to the previous sutures studied and has not to our knowledge been examined as a material for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures. Materials testing was performed on repeated samples of No. 5 FiberWire suture and 18-gauge stainless steel wire. The strength and stiffness of each material was measured. The two materials were then used for tension band fixation on a novel transverse patellar fracture model and tested to failure by three-point bending. The constructs included a single stainless steel wire, a single-strand FiberWire tied with a sliding knot, double-strand FiberWire tied with sliding knots and double-strand FiberWire tied with a Wagoner's Hitch. The fixation strength and stiffness of the constructs were measured. Unlike stainless steel, FiberWire maintained its initial stiffness until failure. Furthermore, during three-point-bend testing, double-strand FiberWire was found to have a significantly higher failure load than stainless steel wire when the suture was tied and locked under the tension produced by a modified Wagoner's Hitch. FiberWire is a potentially superior alternative to stainless steel wire in tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

  12. Emotion categories and patterns of change in experiential therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Imke R; Greenberg, Leslie S; Auszra, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between in-session types of emotional experience operationalized by the emotion category coding system and the reduction of depressive symptoms in emotion-focused therapy (EFT). Segments of videotaped sessions were coded and the different emotion categories were related to reduction in depressive symptoms in a sample of 30 clients who received EFT for depression. Both fewer secondary and more primary adaptive emotions, in the working phases of therapy, were found to significantly predict outcome. Moderate levels of primary maladaptive emotion in the middle working session were associated with outcome and the frequency with which clients moved from primary maladaptive to primary adaptive emotions in this session-predicted outcome. Results of this study support a transformational model of changing emotion with emotion.

  13. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  14. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  15. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  16. Successful removal of an intravesical electrical wire cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Son, Hwancheol

    2014-08-01

    A few previous reports have described cases wherein electrical wire cables were inserted into the male urethra and bladder. Electrical wire cables are available at home and are easy to insert. However, after they coil in the patient's bladder, they are difficult to remove. In February 2013, a 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room of SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center with a urethral foreign body. He had inserted an electrical wire cable into his urethra for the purpose of masturbation, despite having a regular sex partner and no underlying disease. A kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed a tangled wire in his bladder and urethra. On the next day, we tried to remove the wire cystoscopically, but this proved to be impossible because of complex coiling and the slippery surface of the wire. A Pfannenstiel incision was made to remove the foreign body. No postoperative complications were noted.

  17. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  18. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  19. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent flow in wire wrapped fuel pin bundles cooled by sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Aakanksha; Cadiou, Thierry; Bieder, Ulrich; Viazzo, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study is to understand the thermal hydraulics in a core sub-assembly with liquid sodium as coolant by performing detailed numerical simulations. The passage for the coolant flow between the fuel rods is maintained by thin wires wrapped around the rods. The contact point between the fuel pin and the spacer wire is the region of creation of hot spots and a cyclic variation of temperature in hot spots can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the clad due to the phenomena like thermal stripping. The current status quo provides two different models to perform the numerical simulations, namely Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The two models differ in the extent of modelling used to close the Navier-Stokes equations. LES is a filtered approach where the large scale of motions are explicitly resolved while the small scale motions are modelled whereas RANS is a time averaging approach where all scale of motions are modelled. Thus LES involves less modelling as compared to RANS and so the results are comparatively more accurate. An attempt has been made to use the LES model. The simulations have been performed using the code Trio-U (developed by CEA). The turbulent statistics of the flow and thermal quantities are calculated. Finally the goal is to obtain the frequency of temperature oscillations at the region of hot spots near the spacer wire. (authors)

  1. Multi-Dimensional Radiation Transport in Dense Z-pinch Wire Array Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, C. A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Sherlock, M.; Lebedev, S. V.

    2004-11-01

    Z-pinch wire arrays have proven to be an extremely efficient high yield, short pulse x-ray source with potential application to ICF. The characteristics of the x-ray pulse produced have been shown to be largely determined by non-uniform break up of the wires leading to a highly irregular distribution of mass which implodes towards the axis. Modelling the inherent 3D nature of these plasmas is already computationally very expensive, and so energy exchange through radiation is frequently neglected, assuming instead an optically thin radiation loss model. With a significant fraction of the total energy at late stages being radiated through a dense, optically thick plasma this approach is potentially inadequate in fully describing the implosion. We analyse the effects of radiative cooling and radiation transport on stagnation and precursor development in wire array z-pinch implosions. A three temperature multidimensional MHD code using a single group radiation diffusion model is used to study radiation trapping in the precursor, and the effects of preheating on the implosion dynamics. Energy exchange in the final stagnated plasma and its effects on the x-ray pulse shape is also discussed. This work was partially supported by the SSAA program of the NNSA through DoE cooperative agreement DE-F03-02NA00057.

  2. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  3. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  4. Importance of addressing National Electrical Code violations that result in unusual exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jack; Samuel Bitler, J; Riley, Karl

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated wiring in multifamily developments containing National Electrical Code(R) (NEC(R)) violations as a source of unusual exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields. Two methods were used in this evaluation: measurement and modeling. We measured the building wiring as a source of magnetic fields in six multifamily developments in Michigan. In this small sample, building wiring proved to be an important source of exposure in four of the six cases. In all four cases with exposure from building wiring, one or more NEC violations were involved. To supplement our measurement efforts, we used computer modeling to compare magnetic field exposure due to building wiring with magnetic field exposure from external power lines. Our calculations showed that where the building wiring has a NEC violation leading to net current loops, the exposure due to wiring is likely to be more important than that from external power lines. Our results support the results obtained in a recent study of the exposure of Californian K-12 students to magnetic fields, where building wiring with one or more NEC violation was found to be the single most important exposure source. If 60 Hz magnetic fields are important to avoid, then improved enforcement of the NEC, as required by law, is perhaps the single most important mitigation policy to adopt. Bioelectromagnetics 25:102-106, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  6. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the reading of data from memory the receiving process. Protecting data in computer memories was one of the earliest applications of Hamming codes. We now describe the clever scheme invented by Hamming in 1948. To keep things simple, we describe the binary length 7 Hamming code. Encoding in the Hamming Code.

  7. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  8. Flexible, polymer-supported, Si wire array photoelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-08-10

    Arrays of oriented, crystalline Si wires are transferred into flexible, transparent polymer films. The polymer-supported Si wire arrays in liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells yield current-potential behavior similar to the Si wires attached to the brittle growth substrate. These systems offer the potential for attaining high solar energy-conversion efficiencies using modest diffusion length, readily grown, crystalline Si in a flexible, processable form. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. The wire array Z pinch programme at Imperial College

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Lebedev, S.V.; Chittenden, J.P.; Bland, S.N.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma formation and implosion dynamics of wire array z-pinches have been studied experimentally using the MAGPIE generator (1.4MA, 240ns) at Imperial College. Simulations and theory verify much of the data. Both laser probing and x-ray radiography show after an initial volumetric heating of the wires the presence of dense wire cores surrounded by low density coronal plasma. Radiography shows development of perturbations on the dense core of each wire, while laser probing shows inward jetting of the coronal plasma caused by the global JxB force, and these plasma streams are axially non-uniform on the same spatial scale as later seen in the wire cores. The spatial scale of these perturbations (∼0.5mm for Al, ∼0.25mm for W) increases with the size of the wire cores (∼0.25mm for Al, ∼0.1mm for W). The inward flow of the coronal plasma is usually field free and leads to formation on the array axis of a straight plasma column, the dynamics of which is strongly affected by radiation cooling. Images obtained by optical streak camera show that the wire cores start their inward motion late and the implosion trajectory deviates significantly from the expected from 0-D analysis. An increase of the number of wires (decrease of inter-wire gap) resulted in a transition to 0-D trajectory for aluminium wire arrays, but not for tungsten. In experiments with nested wire arrays two modes of behaviour are observed; in the first the inner array is transparent to the imploding outer array, but the current transfers to it, leading to a fast implosion. The second mode occurs when a significant fraction of current is flowing in the inner array and the two arrays apparently implode simultaneously. In both modes the x-ray pulse is significantly sharpened in comparison with that generated in implosion of a single wire array. (author)

  10. The sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered wire media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered thin wire media is undertaken, in order to understand how its performance may be affected by manufacturing errors. The structure is found to be extremely robust to disorder which keeps the wires parallel. Variation in the orientation of the wires and their longitudinal position causes more significant degradation in the image quality, which is quantified numerically

  11. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  12. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  13. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  14. Duality as a category-theoretic concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, David

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.

  15. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-05-01

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  17. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  18. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima JABER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control. CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3 and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3, respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  19. Reduction of friction during wire drawing by electrode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-Y.; Marek, M.

    1995-04-01

    In wire drawing, the wire is drawn through a series of dies sprayed with or immersed in an emulsion lubricant. The surface conditions of the wire play a vital part in the mechanism of lubrication, and the conditions can be affected by electrochemical parameters. The electrochemical behavior of copper in selected emulsions was studied, and laboratory friction as well as pilot plant tests were performed. Reduction of friction was detected at various potentials depending on the lubricant composition. Surface quality of the wire was improved by the electrode control.

  20. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  1. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  2. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  3. Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents comparative risk, competitiveness, and resource requirements on technologies for performing the “making holes conductive” function during printed wiring board manufacturing.

  4. Elastic anisotropy in multifilament Nb$_3$Sn superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Alknes, P; Arnau, G; Bjoerstad, R; Bordini, B

    2015-01-01

    The elastic anisotropy caused by the texture in the Nb3Sn filaments of PIT and RRP wires has been calculated by averaging the estimates of Voigt and Reuss, using published Nb3Sn single crystal elastic constants and the Nb3Sn grain orientation distribution determined in both wire types by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. At ambient temperature the calculated Nb3Sn E-moduli in axial direction in the PIT and the RRP wire are 130 GPa and 140 GPa, respectively. The calculated E-moduli are compared with tensile test results obtained for the corresponding wires and extracted filament bundles.

  5. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Laura Cavalcante Lima; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  6. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.B.; Lee, C.C.; Yi, J.; An, X.H.; Pan, M.X.; Xie, K.Y.; Liao, X.Z.; Cairney, J.M.; Ringer, S.P.; Wang, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  7. Seeded perturbations in wire array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Fedin, Dmitry; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Ouart, Nicholas D.; LePell, Paul David; Safronova, Alla S.; Shrestha, I.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jones, B.; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Yilmaz, M. Faith; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher; Pokala, S.; Nalajala, V.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled seeding of perturbations is employed to study the evolution of wire array z-pinch implosion instabilities which strongly impact x-ray production when the 3D plasma stagnates on axis. Wires modulated in radius exhibit locally enhanced magnetic field and imploding bubble formation at discontinuities in wire radius due to the perturbed current path. Wires coated with localized spectroscopic dopants are used to track turbulent material flow. Experiments and MHD modeling offer insight into the behavior of z-pinch instabilities.

  8. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  9. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  10. The HayWired earthquake scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  11. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  12. Circummandibular wiring made easy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular fractures are less common in children as compared to adults. The treatment plan in children has to be modified as compared to adults considering the presence of tooth buds and potential disturbances in growth. Use of acrylic splints has been one of the popular techniques in children because of its relatively easy placement and reduced risk of hindrances to growth of jaw. These splints have been traditionally been fixed with the help of cements and circummandibular wires. We describe the use of intravenous cannula stilete instead of traditional bone awl to secure the splint in place.

  13. CEUS Helps to Rerate Small Breast Tumors of BI-RADS Category 3 and Category 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to explore if classification, whether using the BI-RADS categories based on CEUS or conventional ultrasound, was conducive to the identification of benign and malignant category 3 or 4 small breast lesions. Material and Methods. We evaluated 30 malignant and 77 benign small breast lesions using CEUS. The range of enhancement, type of enhancement strength, intensity of enhancement, and enhancement patterns were independent factors included to assess the BI-RADS categories. Results. Of the nonenhanced breast lesions, 97.8% (44/45 were malignant, while, of the hyperplasic nodules, 96.8% (30/31 showed no enhancement in our study. Category changes of the lesions were made according to the features determined using CEUS. The results showed that these features could improve diagnostic sensitivity (from 70.0 to 80.0, 80.0, 90.0, and 90.0%, reduce the negative likelihood ratio (from 0.33 to 0.22, 0.25, 0.11, and 0.12, and improve the NPV (from 88.8 to 92.2, 91.2, 96.2, and 95.5%. However, this was not conducive to improve diagnostic specificity or the PPV. Conclusion. The vast majority of nonenhanced small breast lesions were malignant and most of the hyperplasic nodules showed no contrast enhancement. As a reference, CEUS was helpful in identifying BI-RADS category 3 or 4 small breast lesions.

  14. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  15. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  16. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  17. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  18. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramji Lal

    2013-09-01

    Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  19. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  20. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.