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Sample records for wire anemometry measurements

  1. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...... can be directly converted into the fuel cell water balance. In this work an ex-situ experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the wire diameter and the outlet pipe diameter on the voltage signal. For a laboratory fuel cell where the mass flow rate the anode outlet is small...... number Nu range between m = 0.137 and m = 0.246. In general, it is shown that applying hot wire anemometry yields in fact very clear voltage readings with high frequency, and it can be used as a diagnosis tool in various fuel cell applications....

  2. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers’ fatigue and passengers’ thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction and outlet (each vent, and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  3. Applying hot wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...... expressions taken from the literature will be examined in detail, and it will be demonstrated that the power-law approach suggested by Hilpert is the only useful one for the current purposes because in this case the voltage response from the hot-wire sensor E/E0 shows the same dependency to the water balance...

  4. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance in a Proton Exchange membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Hussain, Nabeel; Berning, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) remains a critical problem for their durability, cost, and performance. Because the anode side of this fuel cell has the tendency to become dehydrated, measuring the water balance can be an important diagnosis tool during fuel cell...... operation. The water balance indicates how much of the product water leaves at the anode side versus the cathode side. Previous methods of determining the fuel cell water balance often relied on condensing the water in the exhaust gas streams and weighing the accumulated mass which is a time consuming...... process that has limited accuracy. Currently, our group is developing a novel method to accurately determine the water balance in a PEMFC in real time by employing hot-wire anemometry. The amount of heat transferred from the wire to the anode exhaust stream can be translated into a voltage signal which...

  5. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste......-hoc and real time electrical signal of the fuel cell water balance by employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor is placed into a binary mixture of hydrogen and water vapour, and the voltage signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC. A central question...

  6. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for a pre-humidified hydrogen stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Shakhshir, Saher Al

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication it has been shown how the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell can be determined employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor has to be placed into the anode outlet pipe of the operating fuel cell, and the voltage signal E that is read from the senso....... Finally, it will be shown how previously developed dew point diagrams for the anode side in a fuel cell can be corrected for a humidified hydrogen inlet stream....

  7. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  8. Experimental study of bypass flow in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor using hot wire anemometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Noushin; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant flow behavior in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor is studied. • Hot wire anemometry is applied for high frequency velocity measurements. • Bypass flow is identified within the velocity profiles of near wall gaps. • Effect of gap geometry and Reynolds number on bypass flow is investigated. • Variation of velocity power spectra with radial location and Reynolds number is studied. - Abstract: Coolant flow behavior through the core of an annular pebble bed reactor is investigated in this experimental study. A high frequency hot wire anemometry system coupled with an X-probe is used for measurement of axial and radial velocity components at different points within two near wall gaps at five different modified Reynolds numbers (Re m = 2043–6857). The velocity profiles within the gaps verify the presence of an area of increased velocity close to the pebble bed outer reflector wall, which is known as the bypass flow. Moreover, the characteristics of the coolant flow profile are seen to be highly dependent on the gap geometry. The effect of Reynolds number on the velocity profiles varies as the geometry of the gap changes. The time histories of the local velocities measured with considerably high frequency are further analyzed using power spectral density technique. Power spectral plots illustrate substantial spatial variation of the energy content, spectral shape, and the slope of the energy cascade region. A significant correlation between Reynolds number and characteristics of the velocity power spectra is observed

  9. Simultaneous velocity and particle size measurement in two phase flows by Laser Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungut, A.; Yule, A. J.; Taylor, D. S.; Chigier, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for particle size measurement by using Laser Doppler Anemometry is discussed. An additional gate photomultiplier has been introduced at right angles to the optical axis in order to select only those particles passing through the central region of the measurement control volume. Particle sizing measurements have been made in sprays of glass particles using the modified Laser Anemometry system. Measurements in fuel sprays are also reported and compared with the results obtained by a photographic technique. The application of the particle sizing technique to opaque particles is investigated and suitable optical arrangements are suggested. Light scattering characteristics of Laser Anemometry systems for different optical geometries are calculated to select the optimum optical arrangement for the particle sizing measurements.

  10. Sonic anemometry to measure natural ventilation in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego Luis; Molina-Aiz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us to study the direction of the airflow at all the greenhouse vents. Knowing through which vents the air enters and leaves the greenhouse enables us to establish the airflow pattern of the greenhouse under natural ventilation conditions. In the greenhouse analysed in this work for Poniente wind (from the southwest), a roof vent designed to open towards the North (leeward) could allow a positive interaction between the wind and stack effects, improving the ventilation capacity of the greenhouse. The cooling effect produced by the mass of turbulent air oscillating between inside and outside the greenhouse at the side vents was limited to 2% (for high wind speed, u(o) ≥ 4 m s(-1)) reaching 36.3% when wind speed was lower (u(o) = 2 m s(-1)).

  11. The Effect of Nitrogen Cross-Over on Water Balance Measurements in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Using Constant Temperature Anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain an ad-hoc and real time electrical signal of the PEMFC water balance by employing a constant temperature hot wire anemometry has been developed by our fuel cell research group. In this work, the effect of nitrogen-cross over on this method is experimentally demonstrated...... by introducing 1% of nitrogen concentration to the dry and humidified hydrogen flow simulating the PEMFC anode outlet. The hot wire voltage is measured with and without nitrogen and it was slightly lower with the presence of nitrogen. The effect of the voltage reduction on the measured water balance is small...

  12. Laser anemometry measurements of natural circulation flow in a scale model PWR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadambi, J.R.; Schneider, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental studies conducted to investigate the natural circulation of a single-phase fluid in a scale model pressurized water reactor system during a postulated degraded core accident. A half-section of a 1/7 scale model with a plexiglass adiabatic window was used. Water and sulfurhexafluoride (SF 6 ) were used as the fluid. Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) was used in marking the velocity measurements along the center plane of the model at five elevations

  13. Measurement of cylindrical particles with phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, H; Gréhan, G; Gouesbet, G; Xu, T H; Tropea, C

    1996-09-01

    Light scattering from cylindrical particles has been described with geometric optics. The feasibility of determining the particle diameter with a planar phase Doppler anemometer has been examined by simulations and experiments. In particular, the influence of particle orientation on measurability and measurement accuracy has been investigated. Some recommendations for realizing a practical-measurement instrument have been presented.

  14. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  15. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovandir Bazan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. OBJECTIVE: To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. METHODS: To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min. and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. RESULTS: It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series. Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves.

  16. Method of phase-Doppler anemometry free from the measurement-volume effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, H; Hsu, C T

    1999-05-01

    A novel method is developed to improve the accuracy of particle sizing in laser phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). In this method the vector sum of refractive and reflective rays is taken into consideration in describing a dual-mechanism-scattering model caused by a nonuniformly illuminated PDA measurement volume. The constraint of the single-mechanism-scattering model in the conventional PDA is removed. As a result the error caused by the measurement-volume effect, which consists of a Gaussian-beam defect and a slit effect, can be eliminated. This new method can be easily implemented with minimal modification of the conventional PDA system. The results of simulation based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory show that the new method can provide a PDA system free from the measurement-volume effect.

  17. Wind turbine power performance measurement with the use of spinner anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demurtas, Giorgio

    The spinner anemometer was patented by DTU in 2004 and licenced to ROMO Wind in 2011. By 2015 the spinner anemometer was installed on several hundred wind turbines for yaw misalignment measurements. The goal of this PhD project was to investigate the feasibility of use of spinner anemometry......-mast and spinner anemometer were then compared. Application of the NTF from one turbine to the other was made with a difference of only 0.38% in AEP. Different methods of analysis of fast sampled measurements such as the Langevin power curve were tested, concluding that the method of bins (IEC61400...... measurements was further improved with an innovation step to calibrate without use of the yaw position sensor, saving cost and time of installing the additional yaw sensor. The so called "wind speed response method" was validated by comparing 27 different calibration tests to the fist methods. This method...

  18. Wind Gust Measurement Techniques—From Traditional Anemometry to New Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Suomi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds maximum of the fluctuating wind speed. Until the digitalization of wind measurements in the 1990s, the wind gust measurements suffered from limited recording and data processing resources. Therefore, the majority of continuous wind gust records date back at most only by 30 years. Although the response characteristics of anemometer systems are good enough today, the traditional measurement techniques at weather stations based on cup and sonic anemometers are limited to heights and regions where the supporting structures can reach. Therefore, existing measurements are mainly concentrated over densely-populated land areas, whereas from remote locations, such as the marine Arctic, wind gust information is available only from sparse coastal locations. Recent developments of wind gust measurement techniques based on turbulence measurements from research aircraft and from Doppler lidar can potentially provide new information from heights and locations unreachable by traditional measurement techniques. Moreover, fast-developing measurement methods based on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs may add to better coverage of wind gust measurements in the future. In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and the current status of anemometry from the perspective of wind gusts. Furthermore, a discussion on the potential future directions of wind gust measurement techniques is provided.

  19. Comparison of Global Sizing Velocimetry and Phase Doppler Anemometry measurements of alternative jet fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Reza; Kannaiyan, Kumaran

    2013-11-01

    Atomization plays a crucial precursor role in liquid fuel combustion that directly affects the evaporation, mixing, and emission levels. Laser diagnostic techniques are often used to study the spray characteristics of liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to compare the spray measurements of Gas-to Liquid (GTL) jet fuels obtained using Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques at global and local levels, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of GTL fuels are different from conventional jet fuels, owing to the difference in their production methodology. In this work, the experimental facility, the measurement techniques, and spray characteristics of two different GTL fuels are discussed and compared with those of Jet A-1 fuel. Results clearly demonstrate that although the global measurement gives an overall picture of the spray, fine details are obtained only through local measurements and complement in gaining more inferences into the spray characteristics. The results also show a close similarity in spray characteristics between GTL and Jet A-1 fuels. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  20. Measurement of phase interaction in dispersed gas-particle two-phase flow by phase-doppler anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mergheni Ali Mohamed; Ben Ticha Hmaied; Sautet Jen-Charles; Godard Gille; Ben Nasrallah Sassi

    2008-01-01

    For simultaneous measurement of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow a technique phase-Doppler anemometry was used. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 up to 212 µm were used. In this two-phase flow an experimental results are presented which indicate a significant influence of the solid particles on the flow characteristics. The height of influence of these effects depends on the local position in the jet. Near t...

  1. Development of a New Fundamental Measuring Technique for the Accurate Measurement of Gas Flowrates by Means of Laser Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopheide, D.; Taux, G.; Krey, E.-A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), a research test facility for the accurate measurement of gas (volume and mass) flowrates has been set up in the last few years on the basis of a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) with a view to directly measuring gas flowrates with a relative uncertainty of only 0,1%. To achieve this, it was necessary to develop laser Doppler anemometry into a precision measuring technique and to carry out detailed investigations on stationary low-turbulence nozzle flow. The process-computer controlled test facility covers the flowrate range from 100 to 4000 m3/h (~0,03 - 1,0 m3/s), any flowrate being measured directly, immediately and without staggered arrangement of several flow meters. After the development was completed, several turbine-type gas meters were calibrated and international comparisons carried out. The article surveys the most significant aspects of the work and provides an outlook on future developments with regard to the miniaturization of optical flow and flowrate sensors for industrial applications.

  2. Measurement of phase interaction in dispersed gas-particle two-phase flow by phase-doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergheni Ali Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For simultaneous measurement of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow a technique phase-Doppler anemometry was used. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 up to 212 µm were used. In this two-phase flow an experimental results are presented which indicate a significant influence of the solid particles on the flow characteristics. The height of influence of these effects depends on the local position in the jet. Near the nozzle exit high gas velocity gradients exist and therefore high turbulence production in the shear layer of the jet is observed. Here the turbulence intensity in the two-phase jet is decreased compared to the single-phase jet. In the developed zone the velocity gradient in the shear layer is lower and the turbulence intensity reduction is higher. .

  3. Sonic anemometry measurements to determine airflow patterns in multi-tunnel greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Valera, D. L.; Molina-aiz, F. D.; Pena, A.

    2012-11-01

    The present work describes a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses using sonic anemometry. The experimental work took place in the three-span greenhouse located at the agricultural research farm belonging to the University of Almeria. This methodology has allowed us to obtain patterns of natural ventilation of the experimental greenhouse under the most common wind regimes for this region. It has also enabled us to describe how the wind and thermal effects interact in the natural ventilation of the greenhouse, as well as to detect deficiencies in the ventilation of the greenhouse, caused by the barrier effect of the adjacent greenhouse (imply a mean reduction in air velocity close to the greenhouse when facing windward of 98% for u, 63% for u, and more importantly 88% for ux, the component of air velocity that is perpendicular to the side vent). Their knowledge allows us to improve the current control algorithms that manage the movement of the vents. In this work we make a series of proposals that could substantially improve the natural ventilation of the experimental greenhouse. For instance, install vents equipped with ailerons which guide the air inside, or with vents in which the screen is not placed directly over the side surface of the greenhouse. A different proposal is to prolong the opening of the side vents down to the soil, thus fomenting the entrance of air at crop level. (Author) 34 refs.

  4. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  5. Flow measurement by Laser Doppler Anemometry in a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehoe, A.

    1984-12-01

    Development of a Laser Doppler Anemometer measurement system and its operation are examined in this research. The system is designed for flow measurement in laboratory models of nuclear fuel assemblies. Use of the system is demonstrated by measuring turbulent velocity profiles in the laboratory model at full scale reactor flow rates. The reactors at the Savanah River Plant (SRP) are heavy water moderated and operate at low temperatures and pressures. Reactor power is currently limited by the temperature of the water in the nuclear fuel assembly. These temperature limits are conservatively calculated without allowing for any turbulent mixing. This research incorporates the design, fabriction and operation of a plexiglas model fuel assembly for the purpose of making turbulent velocity measurement via a Laser Doppler Anemometer System

  6. 3D turbulence measurements using three intersecting Doppler LiDAR beams: validation against sonic anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays communities of researchers and industry in the wind engineering and meteorology sectors demand extensive and accurate measurements of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence for a better understanding of its role in a wide range of onshore and offshore applications: wind resource evaluation, wind turbine wakes, meteorology forecast, pollution and urban climate studies, etc. Atmospheric turbulence has been traditionally investigated through sonic anemometers installed on meteorological masts. However, the setup and maintenance of instrumented masts is generally very costly and the available location for the measurements is limited by the fixed position and height of the facility. In order to overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings, a measurement technique is proposed, based on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector from simultaneous measurements of three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. This measuring technique presents the main advantage of being able to measure the wind velocity at any point in space inside a very large volume, which can be set and optimized for each test. Furthermore, it is very flexible regarding its transportation, installation and operation in any type of terrain. On the other hand, LiDAR measurements are strongly affected by the aerosol concentration in the air, precipitation, and the spatial and temporal resolution is poorer than that of a sonic anemometer. All this makes the comparison between these two kinds of measurements a complex task. The accuracy of the technique has been assessed by this study against sonic anemometer measurements carried out at different heights on the KNMI's meteorological mast at Cabauw's experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. An early uncertainty analysis shows that one of the most important parameters to be taken into account is the relative angles between the intersecting laser beams, i.e., the position of each LiDAR on the terrain and their

  7. Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo using laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozdova, M. A.; Stiukhina, E. S.; Sdobnov, A. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Postnov, D. E.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results on in ovo application of developed Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 9-13 days chicken embryos was used as a biological model that allows an easy access to both arterial and venous vessels of different size. The key point of our study was to find out how the periodic and aperiodic pulsations of blood flow (which are inevitable in living organism) will affect the LDA functions and measuring capability. Specifically, we (i) developed the technique to extract and refine the pulse rhythm from the signal received from a vessel, and (ii) analyzed the changes in power spectra of LDA signal that are caused by heart beating and considerably complicate the reliable measurement of Doppler shift. Our main conclusion is that the algorithm of LDA data processing need to be improved, and this possibly can be done by counting the information on current phase of cardiac cycle.

  8. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  9. Digital thermal anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D.E.; Shook, M.

    1983-01-01

    Calibration and data reduction techniques relying completely on digital systems are described for standard hot-wire, cross-wires, and split-film probes. These techniques allow the probe to be calibrated in the actual orientation which will be used. Success of the method depends on initially balancing a dual element probe such that both sensors respond identically to velocity changes

  10. Local measurements in two-phase flow using a double-sensor conductivity probes and laser doppler anemometry in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiva, S.; Julia, E.; Hernandez, L.; Mendez, S.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    An upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (50.2 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a double sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using laser Doppler anemometry. Different air-water flow configurations was investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.29 m/s to 2 m/s and a void fraction up to 15%. For each two-phase flow configuration 15 radial position and three axial positions was measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles was measured with LDA at different axial positions. Two theoretical calibration factors have been defined to relate the mean measurable parameter to the interfacial area concentrations obtained and the measured bubbles, including the missed bubbles. Those factors include the effects of bubble motions, and probe spacing. These calibration factors were obtained through new analytical and numerical method, using a Monte Carlo approach. (author)

  11. Sensitive and simple method for measuring wire tensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Mishina, M.

    1982-08-01

    Measuring tension of wires in drift chambers and multiwire proportional chambers after construction is an important process because sometimes wires get loose after soldering, crimping or glueing. One needs to sort out wires which have tensions below a required minimum value to prevent electrostatic instabilities. There have been several methods reported on this subject in which the wires were excited either with sinusoidal current under magnetic field or with sinusoidal voltage electrostatically coupled to the wire, searching for a resonating frequency with which the wires vibrate mechanically. Then the vibration is detected either visually, optically or with magnetic pick-up directly touching the wires. Any of these is only applicable to the usual multiwire chamber which has open access to the wire plane. They also need fairly large excitation currents to induce a detectable vibration to the wires. Here we report a very simple method that can be used for any type of wire chamber or proportional tube system for measuring wire tension. Only a very small current is required for the wire excitation to obtain a large enough signal because it detects the induced emf voltage across a wire. A sine-wave oscillator and a digital voltmeter are sufficient devices aside from a permanent magnet to provide the magnetic field around the wire. A useful application of this method to a large system is suggested

  12. Numerical stud of glare spot phase Doppler anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel , Camille; Ren , Kuan Fang; Gréhan , Gérard; Onofri , Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The phase Doppler anemometry has (PDA) been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. When the concentration of particles is high, tightly focused beams must be used, as in the dual burst PDA. The latter permits an access to the refractive index of the particle, but the effect of wave front curvature of the incident beams becomes evident. In this paper, we introduce a glare spot phase Doppler anemometry which uses two large beams. The i...

  13. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and Laser Doppler Anemometry velocity measurements downstream of replacement heart valves: implications for in vivo assessment of prosthetic valve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, A A; Heinrich, R S; Walker, P G; Pedersen, E M; Scheidegger, M B; Boesiger, P; Walton, S P; Yoganathan, A P

    1996-01-01

    The non-invasive, in-vivo assessment of prosthetic valve function is compromised by the lack of accurate measurements of the transvalvular flow fields or hemodynamics by current techniques. Short echo time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide a method for the non-invasive, in vivo assessment of prosthetic valve function by accurately measuring changes in the transvalvular flow fields associated with normal and dysfunctional prosthetic valves. The objectives of these in vitro experiments were to investigate the potential for using MRI as a tool to measure the complex flow fields distal to replacement heart valves, and to assess the accuracy of MRI velocity measurements by comparison with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), a gold standard. The velocity fields downstream of tilting disc, bileaflet, ball and cage, and pericardial tissue valves were measured using both three-component LDA and MRI phase velocity encoding under a steady flow rate of 22.8 l/min, simulating peak systolic flow. The valves were tested under normal and stenotic conditions to assess the MRI capabilities under a wide range of local flow conditions, velocities and turbulence levels. A new short echo time MRI technique (FAcE), which allowed velocity measurements in stenotic jets with high turbulence, was tested. Good overall agreement was obtained between the MRI velocity measurements and the LDA data. The MRI velocity measurements adequately reproduced the spatial structure of the flow fields. In most cases peak velocities were accurately measured to within 15%. The results indicate that the FAcE MRI method has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool to assess prosthetic valve function.

  14. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Commercial Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce...... and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel. Our research group...... signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC....

  15. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shane M.; Godley, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis methods and test data is shown to be very good.

  16. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  17. Application of low-coherence optical fiber Doppler anemometry to fluid-flow measurement: optical system considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, William J. O.; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Palmer, Andrew W.; Meggitt, B. T.

    1991-08-01

    A fiber optic Doppler anemometric (FODA) sensor using an optical delay cavity technique and having the advantage of detecting velocity rather than simple speed is outlined. In this sensor the delay in a sensor cavity formed from light back-reflected from a fiber tip (Fresnel reflection) and light back-reflected from particles flowing in a fluid is balanced by the optical delay when light from this sensor cavity passes through a reference cavity formed by a combination of the zero and first diffraction orders produced by a Bragg cell inserted into the optical arrangement. The performance of an experimental sensor based on this scheme is investigated, and velocity measurements using the Doppler shift data from moving objects are presented. The sensitivity of the scheme is discussed, with reference to the other techniques of fluid flow measurement.

  18. Influence of internal refractive index gradients on size measurements of spherically symmetric particles by phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Hirleman, E D

    1994-04-20

    A model based on geometric optics for predicting the response of interferometric (phase Doppler) instruments for size measurements of particles with radially symmetric but inhomogeneous internal refractive index profiles is developed. The model and results are important for applications in which heat or mass transfer from the particles or droplets is significant, for example, in liquid-fuel combustion. To quantify the magnitude of potential bias errors introduced by the classical assumption of uniform internal properties on phase Doppler measurements, we compute calibration curves for a sequence of times during the evaporation of a decane droplet immersed in an environment of T = 2000 K and p = 10 bars. The results reveal considerable effects on the relation between phase difference and droplet diameter caused by the refractive index gradients present. The model provides an important tool to assess sizing uncertainties that can be expected when applying conventional (based on uniform properties) phase Doppler calibration curves in spray combustion and similar processes.

  19. An automatic tension measurement system of MWPC wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antone, I.; Lolli, M.; Torromeo, G.

    1992-01-01

    An electronic system is presented for automatic mechanical tension measurement to test wire chambers. The developed system works in the tension range from 50 g to 300 g; this large working range is obtained by using a microcontroller that performs a digital control on the bridge of an oscillator containing the wire of which the tension has to be measured. The microcontroller automatically brings the system towards the oscillation condition and subsequently, measuring the frequency, it evaluates, displays and sends to a host computer the value of the mechanical tension of the wires. The system is precise and allows fast measurements. A description of the hardware and software design is given. (orig.)

  20. Experience of precision measuring distances by invar wires at accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubaj, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to determining the deformations and displacements of the ring foundation of the ITEP accelerator, the method of very accurate distance measurements by means of invar wires and strips is described. Measurement errors are analyzed. This method has allowed to measure distances up to 40 m with a mean-square error of less than 40 μm. The calibration accuracy of 3 and 25-m measuring wires has been determined to be +- 27 μm. Time instability of the wires is +- 16 μm. It is shown that strips are more stable in time than wires. Elongation of 6, 19, 25 and 38 m invar wires has been measured as function of the tension time. The error due to tension of a 38-m wire may be tangible. Data on thermal coefficient variation in time has been obtained for invar wires and strips. The multiannual measurements of the ring foundation deformations show that variations of the mean radius are caused by increases of concrete temperature. Temperature increase by only 1 deg caused mean radius increase of 0.3 mm

  1. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-12-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system.

  2. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb 3 Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb 3 Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb 3 Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb 3 Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system

  3. Dual beam translator for use in Laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudnoy, David M.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively translating the path of at least one pair of light beams in a Laser Doppler anemometry device whereby the light paths are translated in a direction parallel to the original beam paths so as to enable attainment of spacial coincidence of the two intersection volumes and permit accurate measurements of Reynolds shear stress.

  4. Measurement of the saturation magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.; Vazquez, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire by conventional techniques is very difficult because of its small diameter. However, accurate determination of the magnetostriction constant is important in the study of amorphous wires. Here the saturation magnetostriction constant (λ s ) for a low-magnetostriction amorphous wire of nominal composition (Fe 6.3 Co 92.7 Nb 1 ) 77.5 Si 7.5 B 15 has been determined by means of the small-angle magnetization-rotation method. λ s has been evaluated to be 2.1x10 -7 for its as-received state. The dependence of thermal treatment is also reported

  5. Vibrating wire apparatus for periodic magnetic structure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temnykh, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Devices with periodic magnetic structures such as wigglers and undulators are often key elements in synchrotron radiation sources. In applications where the coherence of the emitted radiation is important, magnetic field errors distorting the periodicity of the field can significantly reduce the performance of the devices. Thus, the measurement, localization, and correction of the field errors can be a critical issue. This article presents a new method for magnetic field measurements in periodic magnetic structures. The method uses a vibrating taut wire passing through the magnetic structure, and it involves measurements of the amplitudes and phases of the standing waves excited on the wire by the Lorentz force between an AC current in the wire and the surrounding magnetic field. For certain arrangements of the wire, vibrations in the wire will be excited by only non-periodic magnetic field component, i.e., by the error field. By measuring the phase and amplitude of these waves, one can reconstruct the error field distribution and then correct it. The method was tested on a permanent magnet wiggler with 19.8 cm period and a peak field of ∼7000G. It demonstrated ∼0.6G RMS sensitivity, δB rms /B rms ∼1.2x10 -4 and spatial resolution sufficient to identify poles generating the field error. Good agreement was found between field error measurements obtained with the vibrating wire method and with traditional Hall probe field mapping

  6. Interferometer for electron density measurement in exploding wire plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Jigyasa; Jaiswar, Ashutosh; Kaushik, T.C.

    2016-12-01

    Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) has been developed for measuring electron density profile in pulsed plasmas. MZI is to be used for characterizing exploding wire plasmas for correlating electron density dynamics with x-rays emission. Experiments have been carried out for probing electron density in pulsed plasmas produced in our laboratory like in spark gap and exploding wire plasmas. These are microsecond phenomenon. Changes in electron density have been registered in interferograms with the help of a streak camera for specific time window. Temporal electron density profiles have been calculated by analyzing temporal fringe shifts in interferograms. This report deals with details of MZI developed in our laboratory along with its theory. Basic introductory details have also been provided for exploding wire plasmas to be probed. Some demonstrative results of electron density measurements in pulsed plasmas of spark gap and single exploding wires have been described. (author)

  7. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  8. Automation of the positioning of a laser anemometer flow rate measurement bench; Automatisation du positionnement d`un banc de mesure de vitesses d`ecoulements par anemometrie laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobillot, G

    1998-01-24

    The laser anemometry technique is commonly used by the Core Hydraulics Laboratory of the CEA for the determination of the field of flow rates inside fuel rod bundles. The adjustment of measurement point coordinates represents an important part of the velocimetry campaign. In order to increase the number of measurements and the preciseness of the positioning operation, the automation of these preliminary tasks was decided. This work describes first the principle of Doppler laser velocimetry, the components of the measurement system and their functioning conditions. Then, the existing software for tuning and measurement is presented. A new software, called PAMELA, for the automatic positioning of the laser anemometer using a moving table with 5 degrees of freedom, has been developed and tested. This software, written with the LabView language, advises the operator, drives the bench and executes the tunings with a greater precision than manually. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  9. Phase Doppler anemometry as an ejecta diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D. J.; Chapman, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    When a shock wave is incident on a free surface, micron sized pieces of the material can be ejected from that surface. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) is being developed to simultaneously measure the sizes and velocities of the individual shock induced ejecta particles; providing an important insight into ejecta phenomena. The results from experiments performed on the 13 mm bore light gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London are presented. Specially grooved tin targets were shocked at pressures of up to 14 GPa, below the melt on release pressure, to generate ejecta particles. These experiments are the first time that PDA has been successfully fielded on dynamic ejecta experiments. The results and current state of the art of the technique are discussed along with the future improvements required to optimise performance and increase usability.

  10. On the Humidity Sensitivity of Hot-Wire Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Busch, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of humidity changes on hot-wire measurements is discussed. Indications are that the humidity sensitivity parameters obtained by the authors in an earlier paper should be changed. This means, however, that the agreement between predicted and measured sensitivities ceases to exist...

  11. Skin-friction measurements with hot-wire gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeville, R.; Juillen, J. C.; Cousteix, J.

    1983-11-01

    The development of two hot-wire gauges for implantation in wind-tunnel models and their application to the measurement of skin-friction phenomena are reported. The measurement principle is explained; the design and calibration of a single-wire gage containing a thermocouple for temperature determination (Cousteix and Juillen, 1982-1983) are summarized; and sample results for 2D and 3D flows with positive pressure gradients are shown. An advanced design employing a thin hot film deposited on an 80-micron-diameter quartz fiber extending into a 1-mm-sq 0.8-mm-deep cavity is characterized and demonstrated on a pulsed flow on a flat plate, Tollmien-Schlichting waves, and a turbulent boundary layer. Two cold-wire temperature sensors are added to this gage to permit detection of the skin of the skin friction in the separated flow over a cylinder.

  12. Sidewall roughness measurement of photonic wires and photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The performance of nanophotonic building blocks such as photonic wires and photonic crystals are rapidly improving, with very low propagation loss and very high cavity Q-factors being reported. In order to facilitate further improvements in performance the ability to quantitatively measure...

  13. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H - beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  14. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  15. Wire scanner data analysis for the SSC Linac emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.Y.; Hurd, J.W.; Sage, J.

    1993-07-01

    The wire scanners are designed in the SSC Linac for measurement of beam emittance at various locations. In order to obtain beam parameters from the scan signal, a data analysis program was developed that considers the problems of noise reduction, machine modeling, parameter fitting, and correction. This program is intended as a tool for Linac commissioning and also as part of the Linac control program. Some of the results from commissioning runs are presented

  16. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  17. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  18. Flux wire measurements in Cavalier for verifying computer code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, M.; Stubbs, J.; Hosticka, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Cavalier and UVAR research reactors are to be converted from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. As a first step, an extensive set of gold wire activation measurements has been taken on the Cavalier reactor. Axial traverses show internal consistency to the order of ±5%, while horizontal traverses show somewhat larger deviations. The activation measurements will be converted to flux measurements via the Thermos code and will then be used to verify the Leopard-2DB codes. The codes will ultimately be used to design an upgraded LEU core for the UVAR

  19. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  20. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Martinez, Derwin; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H + LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  1. Pressure drop measurements in LMFBR wire wrapped blanket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Hawley, J.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-07-01

    In this experiment, measurements of subchannel static pressure for an interior and edge subchannel were taken at two elevations in two wire-wrapped 61-pin bundles. One of the bundles has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 8.0 (4 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter) and the other bundle has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 4.0 (2 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter). The bundle average friction factors as well as the local subchannel friction factors for both interior and edge subchannels were determined from the experimental static pressure data. The average subchannel flow rates for both edge and interior subchannels were determined in a separate experiment. Results show that two correlations suggested by Rehme and Novendstern for the bundle average friction factor cannot predict the data within the range of experimental error. The bundle average friction factors for both bundles under test were underestimated by Rehme's correlation and overestimated by Novendstern's correlation. The results of the local subchannel friction factors indicate the effect of the wire lead length is more pronounced in the interior subchannel friction factor than in the edge subchannel friction factor. As the wire wrap lead length decreases, both interior and edge subchannel friction factors increase

  2. Pressure drop measurements in LMFBR wire wrapped blanket assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C.; Hawley, J.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-07-01

    In this experiment, measurements of subchannel static pressure for an interior and edge subchannel were taken at two elevations in two wire-wrapped 61-pin bundles. One of the bundles has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 8.0 (4 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter) and the other bundle has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 4.0 (2 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter). The bundle average friction factors as well as the local subchannel friction factors for both interior and edge subchannels were determined from the experimental static pressure data. The average subchannel flow rates for both edge and interior subchannels were determined in a separate experiment. Results show that two correlations suggested by Rehme and Novendstern for the bundle average friction factor cannot predict the data within the range of experimental error. The bundle average friction factors for both bundles under test were underestimated by Rehme's correlation and overestimated by Novendstern's correlation. The results of the local subchannel friction factors indicate the effect of the wire lead length is more pronounced in the interior subchannel friction factor than in the edge subchannel friction factor. As the wire wrap lead length decreases, both interior and edge subchannel friction factors increase.

  3. Laser doppler anemometry in single- and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durst, F.

    1976-01-01

    The present report gives an introduction into laser-Doppler anemometry and tries to explain the basic physical principles of this measuring technique. Moire fringe patterns are used in order to visually model LDA-signals and to explain the basic difference in optical systems. It is pointed out that LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows and in two-phase flows should be attempted with direction sensitive instruments only. Some of the optical systems developed by the author and his collaborators are introduced and their functioning in measurements is demonstrated. These measurements embrace investigations in a number of single-phase flows including flames. (orig.) [de

  4. Beam profile measurement with flying wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Pishchalnikov, Yu.; Krider, J.; Hu, M.; Lorman, E.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Wilson, P.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement for both proton and antiproton beams. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, interactions between the wires and the beam, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of a stochastic cooling system.

  5. Beam profile measurement with flying wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Pishchalnikov, Yu.; Krider, J.; Hu, M.; Lorman, E.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Wilson, P.; Zagel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement for both proton and antiproton beams. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, interactions between the wires and the beam, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of a stochastic cooling system

  6. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    to sonic anemometry; there is no flow distortion caused by the instrument itself, there are no temperature effects and the instrument misalignment can be corrected for by assuming zero tilt angle at high altitudes. Contrary to mast-based instruments, the lidar measures the wind field with the exact same...... alignment error at a multitude of heights. Disadvantages with estimating vertical velocities from a lidar compared to mast-based measurements are potentially slightly increased levels of statistical errors due to limited sampling time, because the sampling is disjunct, and a requirement for homogeneous flow...

  7. Development of a "Digital Bridge" Thermal Anemometer for Turbulence Measurements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal anemometry (a.k.a. hot-wire anemometry) has been a key experimental technique in fluid mechanics for many decades. Due to the small physical size and high...

  8. Development of a "Digital Bridge" Thermal Anemometer for Turbulence Measurements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal anemometry (a.k.a. hot-wire anemometry) has been a key experimental technique in fluid mechanics for many decades. Due to the small physical size and high...

  9. Numerical study of glare spot phase Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, C.; Ren, K. F.; Gréhan, G.; Onofri, F.

    2008-03-01

    The phase Doppler anemometry has (PDA) been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. When the concentration of particles is high, tightly focused beams must be used, as in the dual burst PDA. The latter permits an access to the refractive index of the particle, but the effect of wave front curvature of the incident beams becomes evident. In this paper, we introduce a glare spot phase Doppler anemometry which uses two large beams. The images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes through the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences and the intensity ratios between two signals, the distance between the reflected and refracted spots can be obtained. These measured values provide information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its two velocity components. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  10. Measurement of 3-Axis Magnetic Fields Induced by Current Wires Using a Smartphone in Magnetostatics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; Septianto, R. D.; Suhendra, D.; Iskandar, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an inexpensive smartphone's magnetic sensor to measure magnetic field components (B[subscript x], B[subscript y] and B[subscript z]) induced by current wires in magnetostatic experiments. The variable parameters used to measure the magnetic sensor's capabilities were: the geometrical shapes of the wire, current…

  11. Measurement of the geometric parameters of power contact wire based on binocular stereovision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Ya-feng; Meng, Fei

    2010-10-01

    In the electrified railway power supply system, electric locomotive obtains power from the catenary's wire through the pantograph. Under the action of the pantograph, combined with various factors such as vibration, touch current, relative sliding speed, load, etc, the contact wire will produce mechanical wear and electrical wear. Thus, in electrified railway construction and daily operations, the geometric parameters such as line height, pull value, the width of wear surface must be under real-timely and non-contact detection. On the one hand, the safe operation of electric railways will be guaranteed; on the other hand, the wire endurance will be extended, and operating costs reduced. Based on the characteristics of the worn wires' image signal, the binocular stereo vision technology was applied for measurement of contact wire geometry parameters, a mathematical model of measurement of geometric parameters was derived, and the boundaries of the wound wire abrasion-point value were extracted by means of sub-pixel edge detection method based on the LOG operator with the least-squares fitting, thus measurements of the wire geometry parameters were realized. Principles were demonstrated through simulation experiments, and the experimental results show that the detection methods presented in this paper for measuring the accuracy, efficiency and convenience, etc. are close to or superior to the traditional measurements, which has laid a good foundation for the measurement system of geometric parameters for the contact wire of the development of binocular vision.

  12. Flow Field Measurements Using Hotwire Anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    is connected to the differential pressure transducer, the other is connected to an absolute pressure transducer. Static pressure from the absolute ...and intercept data. The seventh variable contains the calibration tunnel temperature in degrees Farenheit . This is0* . used for hotwire compensation...output is then directed to channel five of the Relay Multiplexer. Voltage output from the signal amplifier is zeroed at 0 degrees AOA and is positive for

  13. Hot Wire Measurements in a Axisymmetric Shear Layer with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D.; Pollard, A.

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that the introduction of swirl in an axisymmetric jet can influence the development of and mixing in the near field of the jet. Recent efforts to compute this flow have demonstrated that the development of the near field is dependent on parameters at the jet outlet other than distribution of the swirl component, such as the distribution the mean radial velocity (Xai, J.L., Smith, B.L., Benim, A. C., Schmidli, J., and Yadigaroglu, G. (1996) Influence of Boundary Conditions on Swirling Flow in Combustors, Proc. ASME Fluid. Eng. Div. Summer Meeting), San Diego, Ca., July 7-11.. An experimental rig has been designed to produce co-axial round and annular swirling jets with uniform outlet conditions in each flow. The flow rate and swirl component from each of these jets can be controlled independently and the rig can be configured to produce both co- and counter-swirling flows. Thus, the rig can be used to carry out an extensive investigation of the effect of swirl on the development of axisymmetric flows. The key design features of the rig and the first sets of hot-wire measurements in the shear layer will be reported here.

  14. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  15. Beam Profile Measurement with Flying Wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Martin; Krider, John; Lorman, Eugene; Marchionni, Alberto; Pishchalnikov, Yu M; Pordes, Stephen; Slimmer, David; Wilson, Peter R; Zagel, James

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a high vacuum fixed energy antiproton storage ring with stochastic and electron cooling systems. Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of both cooling systems.

  16. Comparison and analysis of BNCT radiation dose between gold wire and JCDS measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    We compared and evaluated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) radiation dose between gold wire measurement and JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS). Gold wire analysis demonstrates the actual BNCT dose though it dose not reflect the real the maximum and minimum dose in tumor tissue. We can conclude that JCDS is precise and high-reliable dose planning system for BNCT. (author)

  17. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, M.; Sancristobal, E.; Martin, S.; Gil, R.; Diaz, G.; Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zackrisson, J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustavsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a state-of-the-art remote laboratory project called Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR). VISIR allows wiring and measuring of electronic circuits remotely on a virtual workbench that replicates physical circuit breadboards. The wiring mechanism is developed by means of a relay switching matrix connected to a PCI…

  18. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    downstream of the nozzle contraction. We used two different hot wire probes: a dual sensor miniature wire probe (Dantec 55P61) and a triple sensor fiber film probe (Dantec 55R91). The turbulence intensity measured with the dual sensor probe in the empty tunnel section was significantly lower than the one...

  19. Experimental analysis of the velocity field in an anular channel with helicoidal wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, M.J.S. de.

    1979-06-01

    In general, nuclear reactor fuel elements are rod bundles with coolant flowing axially among them. LMFBR's (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) have wire wrapped fuel rods, with the wire working as spacer and mixer. The present work consists in the experimental analysis of the velocity field created by a typical LMFBR fuel rod placed in a cylinder, yielding an annular channel with helicoidal wire. Using hot wire anemometry, the main and secondary velocity fields were measured. The range for Re was from 2.2x 10 4 to 6.1x 10 4 , for air. The aspect ratio, P/D, and the lead-to-diameter ratio, 1/D, were 1.2 and 15, respectively. (Author) [pt

  20. Modified coaxial wire method for measurement of transfer impedance of beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Babbar, L. K.; Deo, R. K.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2018-05-01

    The transfer impedance is a very important parameter of a beam position monitor (BPM) which relates its output signal with the beam current. The coaxial wire method is a standard technique to measure transfer impedance of the BPM. The conventional coaxial wire method requires impedance matching between coaxial wire and external circuits (vector network analyzer and associated cables). This paper presents a modified coaxial wire method for bench measurement of the transfer impedance of capacitive pickups like button electrodes and shoe box BPMs. Unlike the conventional coaxial wire method, in the modified coaxial wire method no impedance matching elements have been used between the device under test and the external circuit. The effect of impedance mismatch has been solved mathematically and a new expression of transfer impedance has been derived. The proposed method is verified through simulation of a button electrode BPM using cst studio suite. The new method is also applied to measure transfer impedance of a button electrode BPM developed for insertion devices of Indus-2 and the results are also compared with its simulations. Close agreement between measured and simulation results suggests that the modified coaxial wire setup can be exploited for the measurement of transfer impedance of capacitive BPMs like button electrodes and shoe box BPM.

  1. Modified coaxial wire method for measurement of transfer impedance of beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transfer impedance is a very important parameter of a beam position monitor (BPM which relates its output signal with the beam current. The coaxial wire method is a standard technique to measure transfer impedance of the BPM. The conventional coaxial wire method requires impedance matching between coaxial wire and external circuits (vector network analyzer and associated cables. This paper presents a modified coaxial wire method for bench measurement of the transfer impedance of capacitive pickups like button electrodes and shoe box BPMs. Unlike the conventional coaxial wire method, in the modified coaxial wire method no impedance matching elements have been used between the device under test and the external circuit. The effect of impedance mismatch has been solved mathematically and a new expression of transfer impedance has been derived. The proposed method is verified through simulation of a button electrode BPM using cst studio suite. The new method is also applied to measure transfer impedance of a button electrode BPM developed for insertion devices of Indus-2 and the results are also compared with its simulations. Close agreement between measured and simulation results suggests that the modified coaxial wire setup can be exploited for the measurement of transfer impedance of capacitive BPMs like button electrodes and shoe box BPM.

  2. The development of the high-tension wire for nuclear fusion superconductive magnet measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Morita, Yohsuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Furusawa, Ken-ichi.

    1987-01-01

    Following on tokamak critical plasma testing device JT-60, experimental fusion reactor JT-100 is being developed. The 6 kV high-tension wire has been developed for use in JT-100 under ultra-low temperature and high radiation environment. Used for superconductive magnet measurement, the wire is inserted in the vacuum vessel, being immersed within the liquid helium. As the insulating material of this wire, polyetherimido was found to be most suitable in the respects of radiation resistance and voltage-withstand property. In an electric wire covered with polyetherimido, which was made in trial, its test in voltage-withstand and bending characteristics at ultra-low temperature showed the wire to be usable for the intended purpose. (Mori, K.)

  3. Measurement of wire deflection on loading may indicate union in Ilizarov constructs, an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineham, Beth; Stewart, Todd; Harwood, Paul

    2018-02-02

    No entirely reliable method exists for assessing union during Ilizarov treatment. Premature removal results in potential treatment failure; hence, alternative methods warrant investigation. Wire deflection might provide an indication of fracture site deformation on weight bearing, indicating progress towards union. This study aimed to test a method for assessing wire deflection within an Ilizarov frame. (1) To assess the repeatability of our novel measurement method in measuring wire deflection within an Ilizarov frame in vitro. (2) To compare the amount of wire deflection in an unstable model with that in an intact bone model. (3) To assess accuracy of this method by comparing wire deflection measured with overall machine extension. Tests were performed on clinical grade-tensioned fine wire 4-ring Ilizarov constructs stabilising a simulated fracture, with and without an unstable defect. Models were sequentially loaded to 700 N using an Instron testing machine. A digital depth gauge attached to the superior ring measured relative wire displacement at the ring closest to the fracture. Tests were repeated 3 times. (1) Both unstable and stable bone models produced highly repeatable load deformation curves (R 2  = 0.98 and 0.99). (2) In the unstable model, wires tensioned at 882 and 1274 N produced mean maximum deflections of 2.41 and 2.69 mm compared with 0.05 and 0.04 mm in the intact bone model (significant p measurable difference in wire deflection between stable and unstable situations exists using this method which appears accurate and repeatable, with clear correlation between displacement and load and displacement and machine extension. This approach might be clinically applicable, and further clinical testing is required.

  4. Characteristics of the wire biconical antenna used for EMC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Brian A.; Fourie, Andre P. C.

    1991-08-01

    The characteristics of a wire biconical antenna that determine its antenna factor were computed by using the method of moments code NEC-2. A fairly extensive validation exercise was conducted from which a suitable computer model was derived. The input impedance, gain, and radiation patterns of the antenna were computed for special cases where the biconical antenna is used above a conducting ground plane for open-field EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing. The effects of height above the ground plane and polarization of the antenna on these parameters were found and the antenna factor was corrected for them. The current distribution along the antenna elements was also examined, and it was found that significant pattern distortion can occur at some frequencies when a horizontal wire biconical antenna is used close to the ground. These results will allow this broadband antenna to be used with confidence in applications where previously only resonant dipoles were specified.

  5. Application of Hot-wire Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fine Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangxi WANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic substrate is preferred in high density packaging due to its high electrical resistivity and moderate expansion coefficient. The thermal conductivity is a key parameter for packaging substrates. There are two common methods to measure the thermal conductivity, which are the hot-wire method and the laser-flash method. Usually, the thermal conductivities of porcelain is low and meet the measurement range of hot-wire method, and the measured value by hot-wire method has little difference with that by laser-flash method. In recent years, with the requirement of high-powered LED lighting, some kinds of ceramic substrates with good thermal conductivity have been developed and their thermal conductivity always measured by the means of laser flash method, which needs expensive instrument. In this paper, in order to detect the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic with convenience and low cost, the feasibility of replacing the laser flash method with hot wire method to measure thermal conductivity of ceramic composites was studied. The experiment results showed that the thermal conductivity value of fine ceramics measured by the hot-wire method is severely lower than that by the laser-flash method. However, there is a positive relationship between them. It is possible to measure the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic workpiece instantly by hot-wire method via a correction formula.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12543

  6. Design project of the device for measuring the radioactivity of wires; Projekat uredjaja za merenje radioaktivnosti zica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokalovic, P; Bulovic, Lj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    This report includes the detailed design description and engineering drawings of the device and equipment for measuring the radioactivity of a wire. The wire is irradiated in the reactor core. The activity of the wire proportional to the neutron flux enables determining the neutron flux distribution. Activity is measured by GM counter.

  7. Measurement of the wire tension and position of the muon detector in the CMS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Weiping

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently being constructed at CERN including the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS. It this report, it is have a sample introduction of CMS Muon detector, the drift tube introduction and chamber construction. The scope of this report covers the drift tube design and technical description; measurement of the wire tension of the Muon detector and the quality control; measurement of the wire position of the Muon detector and the quality control and so on. (authors)

  8. Comparison of PIV and Hot-Wire statistics of turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dróżdż, A; Uruba, V

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows a cross checking of turbulent boundary layer measurements using large field of view PIV and hot-wire anemometry techniques. The time-resolved PIV method was used for the experiments. The measuring plane was oriented perpendicularly to the wall and parallel to the mean flow. Hot wire measurement has been performed using the special probe with perpendicular hot wire. The HW point measurements were performed in the same place as PIV experiments. The hot-wire probe has the wire length of l + < 20 in considered range of Reynolds numbers. Various evaluation methods were applied on PIV data. The profiles of statistical characteristics of streamwise velocity components were evaluated from the data. Mean values, standard deviations as well as skewness and kurtosis coefficients were compared for a few values of Re θ . Reynolds number ranges from 1000 to 5500. The result shows that with the increasing Reynolds number the attenuation of fluctuations maximum in PIV measurements occurs with respect to Hot-Wire measurements, however representation of velocity fluctuations using the PIV method is satisfactory. The influence of wall-normal fluctuation component on Hot-Wire near wall peak was also investigated.

  9. A Steel Wire Stress Measuring Sensor Based on the Static Magnetization by Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongge Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new stress measuring sensor is proposed to evaluate the axial stress in steel wires. Without using excitation and induction coils, the sensor mainly consists of a static magnetization unit made of permanent magnets and a magnetic field measurement unit containing Hall element arrays. Firstly, the principle is illustrated in detail. Under the excitation of the magnetization unit, a spatially varying magnetized region in the steel wire is utilized as the measurement region. Radial and axial magnetic flux densities at different lift-offs in this region are measured by the measurement unit to calculate the differential permeability curve and magnetization curve. Feature parameters extracted from the curves are used to evaluate the axial stress. Secondly, the special stress sensor for Φ5 and Φ7 steel wires is developed accordingly. At last, the performance of the sensor is tested experimentally. Experimental results show that the sensor can measure the magnetization curve accurately with the error in the range of ±6%. Furthermore, the obtained differential permeability at working points 1200 A/m and 10000 A/m change almost linearly with the stress in steel wires, the goodness of linear fits are all higher than 0.987. Thus, the proposed steel wire stress measuring sensor is feasible.

  10. The Calculated and Measured Performance Characteristics of a Heated-Wire Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Measuring Icing Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Carr B.; Steinmetz, Charles P.

    1952-01-01

    Ground tests have been made of an instrument which, when assembled in a more compact form for flight installation, could be used to obtain statistical flight data on the liquid-water content of icing clouds and to provide an indication of icing severity. The sensing element of the instrument consists of an electrically heated wire which is mounted in the air stream. The degree of cooling of the wire resulting from evaporation of the impinging water droplets is a measure. of the liquid-water content of the cloud. Determination of the value of the liquid-water content from the wire temperature at any instant requires a knowledge of the airspeed, altitude, and air temperature. An analysis was made of the temperature response of a heated wire exposed to an air stream containing water drops. Comparisons were made of the liquid-water content as measured with several heated wires and absorbent cylinders in an artificially produced cloud. For one of the wires, comparative tests were made with a rotating-disk icing-rate meter in an icing wind tunnel. From the test results, it was shown that an instrument for measuring the concentration of liquid water in an air stream can be built using an electrically heated wire of known temperatureresistance characteristics, and that the performance of such a device can be predicted using appropriate theory. Although an instrument in a form suitable for gathering statistical data in flight was not built, the practicability of constructing such an instrument was illustrated. The ground-test results indicated that a flight heated-wire instrument would be simple and durable, would respond rapidly to variations in liquid-water content, and could be used for the measurement of water content in clouds which are above freezing temperature, as well as in icing clouds.

  11. A fast wire scanner, used to measure the transverse density distribution of beams circulating in an accelerator or storage ring.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Fast wire scanners are used to measure the transverse density distribution of beams circulating in an accelerator or storage ring. In order to minimize blow-up of the beam through multiple Coulomb scattering, the wires are very thin (in the version shown here it is actually a twisted strand of carbon fibres with a total diameter of about 25 microns) and are swept through the beam at high speed (a linear motor, not mounted here, accelerates the wires to up to 20 m/s). One measures either the secondary emission current from the wire, or the signal from a scintillator/photomultiplier combination downstream from the wire scanner receiving the shower from nuclear reactions of beam particles with the wire nuclei. There are four such fast wire scanners in the 26 GeV PS and eight in the 1.4 GeV Booster.

  12. Measurement of position and profile of undulator radiation in Indus-2 using scanning wire monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Chander; Lal, Sohan; Raghuwanshi, V.K.; Prasad, Vijendra

    2015-01-01

    Two planar undulators (U1 and U2) for Atomic Molecular Spectroscopy (AMOS) beamline and Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline have been installed in Indus-2. The U1 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 6 eV to 250 eV and U2 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 30 eV to 600 eV. In order to measure the position and vertical profile of photon beams emitted from these undulators, one scanning wire monitor has been installed in each beamline front end. In these scanning wire monitors, a gold coated tungsten wire of 100 μm thickness, stretched between a fork shaped alumina ceramic holder, is scanned vertically perpendicular to the direction of propagation of photon beam by using a precisely controlled stepper motor. The photo-electron current generated in the wire is measured by an electrometer. A graphical user interface has been developed which facilitates the scanning as per the given range, plots the graphs and stores the scanned data in Excel file. This paper describes our experience and usefulness of these wire monitors during commissioning of planar undulators in Indus-2. (author)

  13. Results of stretched wire field integral measurements on the mini-undulator magnet - comparison of results obtained from circular and translational motion of the integrating wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, L.

    1998-05-01

    Measurements of the multipole content of the Mini-Undulator magnet have been made with two different integrating wire techniques. Both measurements used 43 strand Litz wire stretched along the length of the magnet within the magnet gap. In the first technique, the wire motion was purely translational, while in the second technique the wire was moved along a circular path. The induced voltage in the Litz wire was input into a Walker integrator, and the integrator output was analyzed as a function of wire position for determination of the multipole content of the magnetic field. The mini-undulator magnet is a 10 period, 80 mm per period hybrid insertion device. For all the data contained herein the magnet gap was set at 49 mm. In the mini-undulator magnet, the iron poles are 18mm x 32mm x 86 mm, and the Samarium Cobalt permanent magnet blocks are 22mm x 21mm x 110mm. For this magnet, which is a shortened prototype for the NSLS Soft X-Ray Undulator Magnet, the undulator parameter K = 0.934 B (Tesla)λ(cm), and B(tesla) = 0.534/sinh(πGap/λ). At a gap of 49 mm, the magnetic field is 1590 Gauss

  14. Comparison between wire mesh sensor and gamma densitometry void measurements in two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S.; Da Silva, M.; Hampel, U.; Zippe, C.; Beyer, M.; Azzopardi, B.

    2011-10-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are fast imaging instruments that are used for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two-phase flow measurements and experimental investigations. Experimental tests were conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf to test both the capacitance and conductance WMS against a gamma densitometer (GD). A small gas-liquid test facility was utilized. This consisted of a vertical round pipe approximately 1 m in length, and 50 mm internal diameter. A 16 × 16 WMS was used with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Air-deionized water was the two-phase mixture. The gas superficial velocity was varied between 0.05 m s-1 and 1.4 m s-1 at two liquid velocities of 0.2 and 0.7 m s-1. The GD consisted of a collimated source and a collimated detector. The GD was placed on a moving platform close to the plane of wires of the sensor, in order to align it accurately using a counter mechanism, with each of the wires of the WMS, and the platform could scan the full section of the pipe. The WMS was operated as a conductivity WMS for a half-plane with eight wires and as a capacitance WMS for the other half. For the cross-sectional void (time and space averaged), along each wire, there was good agreement between WMS and the GD chordal void fraction near the centre of the pipe.

  15. Comparison between wire mesh sensor and gamma densitometry void measurements in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, S; Azzopardi, B; Da Silva, M; Hampel, U; Zippe, C; Beyer, M

    2011-01-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are fast imaging instruments that are used for gas–liquid and liquid–liquid two-phase flow measurements and experimental investigations. Experimental tests were conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf to test both the capacitance and conductance WMS against a gamma densitometer (GD). A small gas–liquid test facility was utilized. This consisted of a vertical round pipe approximately 1 m in length, and 50 mm internal diameter. A 16 × 16 WMS was used with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Air–deionized water was the two-phase mixture. The gas superficial velocity was varied between 0.05 m s −1 and 1.4 m s −1 at two liquid velocities of 0.2 and 0.7 m s −1 . The GD consisted of a collimated source and a collimated detector. The GD was placed on a moving platform close to the plane of wires of the sensor, in order to align it accurately using a counter mechanism, with each of the wires of the WMS, and the platform could scan the full section of the pipe. The WMS was operated as a conductivity WMS for a half-plane with eight wires and as a capacitance WMS for the other half. For the cross-sectional void (time and space averaged), along each wire, there was good agreement between WMS and the GD chordal void fraction near the centre of the pipe

  16. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2018-02-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  17. X-ray residual stress measurements on cold-drawn steel wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Naughton, B.P.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interplanar spacing d{hkl} versus sin2 ψ distributions were measured for the 211, 310, 220 and 200 reflections from severely cold-drawn 0.7% C steel wire with a diameter of 0.25 mm. From the shape of the curves it was concluded that, as well as a 110 fibre texture and elastic anisotropy, plastic

  18. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  19. Iterative inversion of phase-Doppler-anemometry size distributions from sprays of optically inhomogeneous liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köser, O; Wriedt, T

    1996-05-20

    Using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) to investigate sprays of optically inhomogeneous liquids leads to blurred measured size distributions. The blurring function is formed by performance of PDA measurements on single-size droplets generated by a piezoelectric droplet generator. To obtain the undistorted droplet-size distributions, a constrained iterative inversion algorithm is applied. The number of iteration steps to achieve the best possible restoration is determined by the use of synthetically generated data that has noise properties similar to the measured histograms. The obtained size distributions are checked by comparison with undistorted measurement results of an atomized optical homogeneous liquid.

  20. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 61-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Hyungmo; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are crucial factor for the design code verification and validation. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a circumference of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Therefore the sub-channel analysis method is commonly used for thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped sub-channel type. To measure flow mixing characteristics, a wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, the recent reports that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. The subchannel flow characteristics analysis method is commonly used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped subchannel type. In this study, mixing experiments were conducted successfully at a hexagonally arrayed 61-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. Wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable

  1. Bench measurement of vacuum chamber impedances with wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Particle beams travelling in an accelerator or storage ring vacuum chamber produce electric and magnetic fields which interact with the walls of the chamber. The induced wall currents in turn generate secondary fields which can interact with the beam, giving rise to both energy loss and other effects which can cause beam instability. In many simple geometries these effects can be calculated. In more complex geometries the calculations are difficult and very approximate. For this reason it is important that the effects be measured if possible prior to installation. As accelerators become larger and the number of vacuum chamber components more numerous, and as more severe beam intensity and stability requirements are placing lower limits on the longitudinal and transverse impedances, a less than adequate component will be more likely to limit machine performance

  2. Measurement of kinetic inductance of superconducting wires and application for measuring flux state of Josephson-junction loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazu, Y.; Yokoyama, T

    2004-10-01

    In order to realize strong coupling in a system of multiple flux qubits with a DC-SQUID, the use of kinetic inductance is advantageous because it can be much larger than geometrical inductance for narrow superconducting wires. We measured the inductance associated with narrow Al wires, and estimated the contributions of kinetic and geometrical inductances. The London penetration depth which determines the kinetic inductance is evaluated. We fabricated samples of two Josephson-junction loops and a DC-SQUID which are all coupled with kinetic inductances. The observed magnetic flux due to the loops is in good agreement with the result of numerical simulation based on the estimated inductances.

  3. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  4. Wire screens as a tool for survey measurements of the unattached radon progeny in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janica, R.

    1996-07-01

    The radon hazard in mines is assessed by measuring the radioactivity accumulated on filters through which air is forced to flow. The filter collects both forms of the short-lived radon progeny, attached and unattached, and, therefore, the assessment is based on the measurement of the total radon progeny. Because of the special radiological significance of the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny, the estimation of the radiation hazard to miners would be improved if the unattached fraction could be measured. This report describes two methods of measurement for the simultaneous determination of the unattached and the total radon progeny. The proposed methods comply with the criterion of practicality (imposed by the working conditions in the mine environment), that is, they are implemented using standard survey equipment and simple procedures. Both methods use wire screens to collect, preferentially, the unattached fraction. According to the first method, air is sampled through a wire screen and a backup filter, and the radioactivity accumulated on both the filter and the wire screen are measured separately using standard counting protocols (e.g. the Kusnetz protocol). The wire screen's efficiency for collecting the unattached radon progeny is determined, in advance, under laboratory conditions. The method assumes the validity of the collection efficiencies when the screens are used under field conditions. To avoid the uncertainty of the lab-determined collection efficiency, a new measuring method was proposed based on the sampling of air through two screens in series and a backup filter. The measurement of the ratio of the activities deposited on both screens allows an estimation of the screen collection efficiency under field conditions. Once this is done, the 'unattached fraction' and total radon progeny are determined by counting only one of the screens and the backup filter as described in the previous method. (author). 73 refs., 8 tabs., 21 figs

  5. Estimating back to front ratio of wire screen for measurement of thoron decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koli, Amruta; Khandare, Pallavi; Joshi, Manish; Mariam; Khan, Arshad; Sapra, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Wire screens are widely used for measuring the fine fraction of radon/thoron decay products. Their capture efficiencies are generally defined at low aerosol concentration conditions as well as at low sampling flow rates. Effect of changes in sampling flow rate and aerosol concentration on wire screen capture efficiencies and counting correction factor has been studied in this work. Controlled experiments have been conducted using two different mesh sizes at two different aerosol concentration conditions. Experimental results were compared with the existing theories for capture efficiencies of wire screens given by Cheng and Yeh (1980) and Alonso et al. (2001); and semi empirical relation for the front to total ratio given by Solomon and Ren (1992). Theoretical predictions have been found to be relatively close to the experimental findings for moderate aerosol conditions but disagreement was observed in case of high aerosol concentration. The possible reasons for these differences have been discussed in this work. - Highlights: • Effect of Fiber Reynolds number on capture efficiency and back to front ratio of wire screen. • Experiments with Thoron decay products at moderate and elevated aerosol concentrations. • Comparison with theoretical estimates. • Fair agreement observed for moderate aerosol concentration.

  6. Determination of air and hydrofoil pressure coefficient by laser doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Slavica S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some results of experiments performed in water cavitation tunnel are presented. Pressure coefficient (Cp was experimentally determined by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements. Two models were tested: model of airplane G4 (Super Galeb and hydrofoil of high speed axial pump. These models are not prepared for conventional pressure measurements, so that LDA is applied for Cp determination. Numerical results were obtained using a code for average Navier-Stokes equations solutions. Comparisons between computational and experimental results prove the effectiveness of the LDA. The advantages and disadvantages of LDA application are discussed. Flow visualization was made by air bubbles.

  7. Investigation of the flow inside an urban canopy immersed into an atmospheric boundary layer using laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpin, Sophie; Perret, Laurent; Mathis, Romain; Tanguy, Christian; Lasserre, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) is used to investigate the flow inside an idealized urban canopy consisting of a staggered array of cubes with a 25% density immersed into an atmospheric boundary layer with a Reynolds number of δ ^+=32{,}300. The boundary layer thickness to cube height ratio (δ /h=22.7) is large enough to be representative of atmospheric surface layer in neutral conditions. The LDA measurements give access to pointwise time-resolved data at several positions inside the canopy (z=h/4, h/2, and h). Synchronized hot-wire measurements above the canopy (inertial region and roughness sublayer) are also realized to get access to interactions between the different flow regions. The wall-normal mean velocity profile and Reynolds stresses show a good agreement with available data in the literature, although some differences are observed on the standard deviation of the spanwise component. A detailed spectral and integral time scale analysis inside the canopy is then carried out. No clear footprint of a periodic vortex shedding on the sides of the cubes could be identified on the power spectra, owing to the multiple cube-to-cube interactions occuring within a canopy with a building density in the wake interference regime. Results also suggest that interactions between the most energetics scales of the boundary layer and those related to the cube canopy take place, leading to a broadening of the energy peak in the spectra within the canopy. This is confirmed by the analysis of coherence results between the flow inside and above the canopy. It is shown that linear interactions mechanisms are significant, but reduced compared to smooth-wall boundary-layer flow. To our knowledge, this is the first time such results are shown on the dynamics of the flow inside an urban canopy.

  8. A Preliminary Design of a Wire Mesh Sensor for Measurement of Void Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Ho; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seok Boong

    2006-01-01

    Steam explosion phenomena are accompanied with a multi-dimensional and multi-phase fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena. Void fraction is one of the major parameters, which governs the premixing behavior of melt particles in water and the explosion behavior of the pre-mixed fuel. However, efforts for the development of a reliable measurement technique for void fraction are still underway, as it deals with an interaction between a melt at a very high temperature and water in a short time scale. Hundreds of conductivity type probes installed in a test section enabled monitoring of the evolution of a melt-water interaction zone in the ECO test. A technique using a dual energy X-ray system was developed to measure gas fraction, liquid fraction, and melt fraction simultaneously for a small-scale steam explosion experiment. A high-energy X-ray system for monitoring multi-phase fractions is now being developed at CEA. Recently a measurement of multi-phase fractions by using a wire mesh system has been introduced. It has an advantage that the speed of the measurement is fast and a direct measurement is possible. As a part of a feasibility study on a wire mesh technique for a steam explosion experiment, this paper discusses the design of the wire mesh and the results of the preliminary calibration tests

  9. New devices for flow measurements: Hot film and burial wire sensors, infrared imagery, liquid crystal, and piezo-electric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcree, Griffith J., Jr.; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions is discussed. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar flow. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified.

  10. Analysis of ultra-relativistic charged particle beam and stretched wire measurement interactions with cylindrically symmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deibele, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The beam impedance and wakefield are quantities which describe the stability of charged particles in their trajectory within an accelerator. The stretched wire measurement technique is a method which estimates the beam impedance and wakefield. Definitions for the beam impedance, the wakefield, and the stretched wire measurement are presented. A pillbox resonator with circular beampipes is studied for its relatively simple profile and mode structure. Theoretical predictions and measurement data are presented for the interaction of various charged particle beams and center conductor geometries between the cavity and beampipe. Time domain predictions for the stretched wire measurement and wakefield are presented and are shown to be a linear interaction

  11. Wire-Mesh Tomography Measurements of Void Fraction in Rectangular Bubble Columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Vanga, B.N.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.A.; Zaruba, A.; Prasser, H.M.; Krepper, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bubble Columns are widely used in the process industry and their scale-up from laboratory scale units to industrial units have been a subject of extensive study. The void fraction distribution in the bubble column is affected by the column size, superficial velocity of the dispersed phase, height of the liquid column, size of the gas bubbles, flow regime, sparger design and geometry of the bubble column. The void fraction distribution in turn affects the interfacial momentum transfer in the bubble column. The void fraction distribution in a rectangular bubble column 10 cm wide and 2 cm deep has been measured using Wire-Mesh Tomography. Experiments were performed in an air-water system with the column operating in the dispersed bubbly flow regime. The experiments also serve the purpose of studying the performance of wire-mesh sensors in batch flows. A 'wall peak' has been observed in the measured void fraction profiles, for the higher gas flow rates. This 'wall peak' seems to be unique, as this distribution has not been previously reported in bubble column literature. Low gas flow rates yielded the conventional 'center peak' void profile. The effect of column height and superficial gas velocity on the void distribution has been investigated. Wire-mesh Tomography also facilitates the measurement of bubble size distribution in the column. This paper presents the measurement principle and the experimental results for a wide range of superficial gas velocities. (authors)

  12. Measuring the complex admittance and tunneling rate of a germanium hut wire hole quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Shu-Xiao; Gao, Fei; Li, Hai-Ou; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ke; Liu, He; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the microwave reflectometry of an on-chip reflection line cavity coupled to a Ge hut wire hole quantum dot. The amplitude and phase responses of the cavity can be used to measure the complex admittance and evaluate the tunneling rate of the quantum dot, even in the region where transport signal through the quantum dot is too small to be measured by conventional direct transport means. The experimental observations are found to be in good agreement with a theoretical model of the hybrid system based on cavity frequency shift and linewidth shift. Our experimental results take the first step towards fast and sensitive readout of charge and spin states in Ge hut wire hole quantum dot.

  13. Wire measurement of impedance of an X-band accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Baboi, N; Dolgashev, V A; Jones, R M; Lewandowski, J R; Tantawi, S G; Wang, J W

    2004-01-01

    Several tens of thousands of accelerator structures will be needed for the next generation of linear collders known as the GLC/NLC (Global Linear Collider/Next Linear Collider). To prevent the beam being driven into a disruptive BBU (Beam Break Up) mode or at the very least, the emittance being signifcantly diluted, it is important to damp down the wakefield left by driving bunches to a manageable level. Manufacturing errors and errors in design need to be measurable and compared with predictions. We develop a circuit model of wire-loaded X-band accelerator structures. This enables the wakefield (the inverse transform of the beam impedance) to be readily computed and compared with the wire measurement. We apply this circuit model to the latest series of accelerating for the GLC/NLC. This circuit model is based upon the single-cell model developed in [1] extended here to complete, multi-cell structures.

  14. Assessment of the Influence Factors on Nasal Spray Droplet Velocity Using Phase-Doppler Anemometry (PDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H.; Guo, Changning

    2011-01-01

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box–Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actua...

  15. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Bae, Hwang; Chang, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Sun Rock; Lee, Dong Won; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are very important. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a around the fuel rod) of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Experimental results of flow mixing can be meaningful for verification and validation of thermal mixing correlation in a reactor core thermo-hydraulic design code. A wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method for measuring of flow mixing characteristics. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, it has been recently reported that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. This can be powerfully adapted to recognize flow mixing characteristics by wrapped wires in SFR core thermal design. In this work, we conducted the flow mixing experiments using a custom designed wire mesh sensor. To verify and validate computer codes for the SFR core thermal design, mixing experiments were conducted at a hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. The well-designed wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable. In addition, by uncertainty analysis, the system errors and the random error were estimated in experiments. Therefore, the present results and methods can be used for design code verification and validation

  16. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S; Marín, E; Juárez, A G; Calderón, A; Ivanov, R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties. (paper)

  17. UV laser beam profile measurement by means of the photoelectric effect on the wires of a proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokoviev, O.; Seiler, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    A simple technique to measure the profiles of pulsed UV laser beams is described. Irradiating a cathode wire of a proportional chamber with UV laser shots results in signals from the anode wire whose amplitudes are proportional to the UV light intensity. Profile scanning is performed by shifting the chamber across the beam. The chamber can also be used with reversed polarities. This leads to avalanches developing outwardly from the signal wire. In this case we observe a quadratic dependence of the pulse height on the UV light intensity. (orig.)

  18. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using 197 Au wire activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10 9 neutrons/cm 2 .s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core

  19. Superharp: A wire scanner with absolute position readout for beam energy measurement at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Superharp is an upgrade CEBAF wire scanner with absolute position readout from shaft encoder. As high precision absolute beam position probe (Δx ∼ 10μm), three pairs of superharps are installed at the entrance, the mid-point, and the exit of Hall C arc beamline in beam switch yard, which will be tuned in dispersive mode as energy spectrometer performing 10 -3 beam energy measurement. With dual sensor system: the direct current pickup and the bremsstrahlung detection electronics, beam profile can be obtained by superharp at wide beam current range from 1 μA to 100 μA

  20. Pulsed taut-wire measurement of the magnetic alignment of the ITS induction cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, J.G.; Burns, M.J.; Honaberger, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical and magnetic alignment of the first eight induction-cell, solenoid magnets of the Integrated Test Stand (ITS) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility were measured by observing the deflection of a fine, taut wire carrying a pulsed current. To achieve the required alignment (less than 0.25 mm offset and less than 5 mrad tilt), the magnet design uses quadrufilar windings and iron field-smoothing rings. After detailed measurements of each solenoid magnet, the cells are assembled and then mechanically aligned using a laser and an alignment target moved along the cell centerline. After the cells are in final position, the pulsed wire method is used to verify the magnetic alignment. The measurements show an average offset of the magnetic axes from the mechanical axis of 0. 15 mm, with a maximum offset of 0.3 mm. The average tilt of the magnetic axis was 0.7 mrad with a maximum tilt of 1.4 mrad. Tilts are corrected to less than 0.3 mrad, using dipole trim magnets assembled into each cell. Correction is limited noise

  1. 2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  2. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.T.; Whicker, J.J.; Gong, H.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the-art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s -1 to 9.7 cm s -1 . There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s -1 to 35.5 cm s -1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%. (au)

  3. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, P T; Whicker, J J; Gong, H; Rodgers, J C

    1999-06-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s-1 to 9.7 cm s-1. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s-1 to 35.5 cm s-1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%.

  4. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P.T.; Whicker, J.J.; Gong, H.; Rodgers, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., Health Physics Measurements Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the-art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s{sup -1} to 9.7 cm s{sup -1}. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s{sup -1} to 35.5 cm s{sup -1} with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%. (au) 17 refs.

  5. USING HOT WIRE TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INFUSIONS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gordillo-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The technique of hot wire, a versatile method of low cost and high accuracy for measuring the thermal conductivity of fluids through the increasing temperature of a wire that is immersed into the liquid and between its ends a potential difference is abruptly applied. Using well-known conductivity liquids: water, ethylene glycol and glycerine, the system was tested and calibrated. In this work, this procedure was used to measure the thermal conductivity of the infusion samples of organic and conventional coffee. The same roast degree of the beans was verified with a colorimeter and the preparation was made by pressing 22g of coffee powder in 110mL of water. The obtained data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and this confirmed that the differences in the thermophysical parameter in the two samples are significant with a confidence level of 95\\%. On this way, it was proved that the thermal conductivity value of the coffee infusion allows differentiate between organic and conventional coffee.

  6. Two phase flow measurement and visualization using Wire Mesh Sensors (WMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, R.; Robin, Roshini; Rama Rao, A.

    2016-01-01

    Two phase flow behavior studies have gained importance in nuclear power plants to enhance fuel performance and safety. In this paper, taking into consideration low cost, high space-time resolution and instantaneous mapping, electrical sensors such as wire mesh sensors (WMS) is proposed for measurement of void distribution and its visualization. The sensor works on the conductivity principle and by measuring the variations in conductivity values of the two phases, the flow distributions can be identified. This paper describes the conceptual design of the WMS for two phase void measurements, Mathematical modeling of the sensor for data evaluation, modeling of the sensor geometry and FEM simulation studies for optimizing sensor geometry and excitation parameters, CFD two phase flows simulations, development of suitable algorithm and programming for two phase visualization and void distribution studies, prototype sensor fabrication and testing

  7. Release measurement of great amount of waste. Conveyor belt versus wire mesh pallet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland; Langer, Felix [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Great amount of waste has to be measured for release during the decommissioning and rebuilding of nuclear facilities and installation. Since the enclosed storage or decontamination is very expensive it is advisable for economic reasons to separate contaminated material. The necessary measurement is however a time and cost intensive work which has carefully provided. There are two general methods to perform this task: one is a continuously running system on the basis of a conveyor belt system. The other approach is a discontinuously running system using wire mesh pallets. With the knowledge from existing installations this article will discuss the pro's and contra's and show the limits of the systems.

  8. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  9. Global rainbow thermometry assessed by Airy and Lorenz-Mie theories and compared with phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck, Jeronimus Petrus Antonius Johannes; Grosges, Thomas; De Giorgi, Maria Grazia

    2003-07-01

    Global rainbow thermometry (GRT) measures the mean size and temperature of an ensemble of spray droplets. The domain of validity of the Airy theory for this technique is established through comparison with Lorenz-Mie theory. The temperature derivation from the inflection points of the Airy rainbow pattern appears to be independent of the type of spray dispersion. Measurements in a water spray are reported. The mean diameter obtained from the rainbow pattern lies between the arithmetic and the Sauter mean diameters measured by phase Doppler anemometry. The temperature measurement by GRT is shown to be accurate within a few degrees Celsius.

  10. Laser--Doppler anemometry technique applied to two-phase dispersed flows in a rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.L.; Srinivasan, J.

    1979-01-01

    A new optical technique using Laser--Doppler anemometry has been applied to the local measurement of turbulent upward flow of a dilute water droplet--air two-phase dispersion in a vertical rectangular channel. Individually examined were over 20,000 droplet signals coming from each of a total of ten transversely placed measuring points, the closest of which to the channel wall was 250 μ away from the wall. Two flows of different patterns due to different imposed flow conditions were investigated, one with and the other without a liquid film formed on the channel wall. Reported are the size and number density distribution and the axial and lateral velocity distributions for the droplets as well as the axial and lateral velocity distributions for the air

  11. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-01

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  12. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-20

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  13. Proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.H.; Kycia, T.F.

    1978-03-01

    A PWC system was developed and extensively used in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4 to 1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23 to 370 GeV/c). This ''electronic collimator'' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 nsec) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 msec) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hard-wired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events were read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure

  14. Creation of subsonic macro-and microjets facilities and automated measuring system (AMS-2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. M.; Grek, G. R.; Gilev, V. M.; Zverkov, I. D.

    2017-10-01

    Macro-and microjets facilities for generation of the round and plane subsonic jets are designed and fabricated. Automated measuring system (AMS - 2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field is designed and fabricated. Coordinate device and unit of the measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information were integrated in the AMS. Coordinate device is intended for precision movement of the hot - wire probe in jet flow field according to the computer program. At the same time accuracy of the hot - wire probe movement is 5 microns on all three coordinates (x, y, z). Unit of measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information is intended for the hot - wire anemometric measurement of the jet flow field parameters (registration of the mean - U and fluctuation - u' characteristics of jet flow velocity), their accumulation and preservation in the computer memory, and also carries out their processing according to certain programms.

  15. Coaxial wire impedance measurements of BPM buttons for the PEP-II B- factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1995-09-01

    The coaxial wire impedance measurement uses a conducting rod placed along the beam axis in the vacuum chamber, forming the center conductor in a coaxial line system. Tapers at either end of this section allow for smooth impedance transformation from the 50Ω lines used in common microwave measurement equipment, to the characteristic impedance of the vacuum chamber and center conductor, typically around 200Ω. RF and microwave absorptive material placed in the ends of the vacuum chamber and in the impedance matching tapers minimizes reflections which cause trapped modes within the apparatus, allowing measurements to be made above the traveling-wave cut-off frequency of the vacuum vessel (typically 2.5 - 3.0 GHz for PEP-II). A smooth vessel of the same cross-section as that containing the device under test is used in a reference measurement Resonances within the apparatus are difficult to avoid completely and require careful placing of absorptive material, manufacture of test and reference chambers, and assembly of apparatus

  16. Residual strain dependence on the matrix structure in RHQ-Nb3Al wires by neutron diffraction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Ito, Takayoshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Hemmi, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    We prepared three types of non-Cu RHQ-Nb 3 Al wire sample with different matrix structures: an all-Ta matrix, a composite matrix of Nb and Ta with a Ta inter-filament, and an all-Nb matrix. Neutron diffraction patterns of the wire samples were measured at room temperature in the J-PARC ‘TAKUMI’. To obtain the residual strains of the materials, we estimated the lattice constant a by multi-peak analysis in the wires. A powder sample of each wire was measured, where the powder was considered to be strain free. The grain size of all the powder samples was below 0.02 mm. For the wire sample with the all-Nb matrix, we also obtained the lattice spacing d by a single-peak analysis. The residual strains of the Nb 3 Al filament were estimated from the two analysis results and were compared. The resulting residual strains obtained from the multi-peak analysis showed a good accuracy with small standard deviation. The multi-peak analysis results for the residual strains of the Nb 3 Al filaments in the three samples (without Cu plating) were all tensile residual strain in the axial direction, of 0.12%, 0.12%, and 0.05% for the all-Ta matrix, the composite matrix, and the all-Nb matrix, respectively. The difference in the residual strain of the Nb 3 Al filament between the composite and all-Nb matrix samples indicates that the type of inter-filament material shows a great effect on the residual strain. In this paper, we report the method of measurement, method of analysis, and results for the residual strain in the three types of non-Cu RHQ-Nb 3 Al wires. (paper)

  17. The local domain wall position in ferromagnetic thin wires: simultaneous measurement of resistive and transverse voltages at multiple points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, R.; Sugawara, H.; Aoki, Y.; Sato, H.; Shigeto, K.; Shinjo, T.; Ono, T.; Miyajima, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the field dependences of voltages at multiple pairs of resistance and transverse voltage probes in ferromagnetic wires (with either magnetic or non-magnetic voltage probes). Both the resistive (through the giant magnetoresistance and anisotropic magnetoresistance) and transverse voltages (through the planar Hall effect) exhibit abrupt jumps, reflecting discrete motion of domain walls or rotations of magnetization. Voltage probes, even if non-magnetic, are found to affect the jump fields depending on the sample conditions. We demonstrate that the specific information on the domain (wall) motion along a thin ferromagnetic wire could be obtained from the jump fields. (author)

  18. Quantitative cross-sectional measurement of solid concentration distribution in slurries using a wire-mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Eduardo Nunes; Da Silva, Marco Jose; Schleicher, Eckhard; Reinecke, Sebastian; Hampel, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Wire-mesh sensors have so far been widely applied in gas–liquid flows where resistance or capacitance distributions are measured and converted into gas or liquid holdup distributions. In this work we report on the qualification of the wire-mesh imaging technique for the measurement of cross-sectional solid concentrations in solid–liquid mixtures. As the dielectric constants of solid particles are different from those of gas, water or oil in the flow, measuring this property can be used as an indication of solid distribution. Experiments were performed in a stirred tank of 100 mm diameter equipped with a capacitance wire-mesh sensor. The wire-mesh sensor was operated at an acquisition speed of 4000 frames per second and has a spatial resolution of 6.25 mm. As solids we used silica sand particles (diameter ∼250 μm) which were suspended in water in a volume concentration range of 1% to 35% to form slurries. By varying the stirring speed, different solid concentration distributions were produced and investigated. In order to convert the measured relative permittivity distribution into a solid concentration distribution, an empirical approach was employed. (paper)

  19. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  20. Experimental hot-wire measurements in a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinarbasi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the flow physics in a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser. For this reason three component hot wire measurements in the vaneless space and vane region of a low speed centrifugal compressor are presented. A low speed compressor with a 19 bladed backswept impeller and diffuser with 16 wedge vanes were used. The measurements were made at three inter-vane positions and are presented as mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and flow angle distributions. The flow entering the diffuser closely resembles the classic jet-wake flow characteristic of centrifugal impeller discharges. A strong upstream influence of the diffuser vanes is observed which results in significant variations in flow quantities between the vane-to-vane locations. The circumferential variations due to the passage and blade wakes rapidly mix out in the vaneless space, although some variations are still discernible in the vaned region. The impeller blade wakes mix out rapidly within the vaneless space and more rapidly than in an equivalent vaneless diffuser. Although the flow is highly non uniform in velocity at the impeller exit, there is no evidence in the results of any separation from the diffuser vanes

  1. Comparison between wire-mesh sensors and conductive needle-probes for measurements of two-phase flow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, A.; Ozar, B.; Paranjape, S.; Ishii, M.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of two-phase flow parameters such as void-fraction, bubble velocities, and interfacial area density have been performed in an upwards air-water flow at atmospheric pressure by means of a four-tip needle-probe and a wire-mesh sensor. For the first time, a direct comparison between the two measuring techniques has been carried out. Both techniques are based on the measurement of the fluid conductivity. For void-fraction and velocity measurements, similarity exists between the two methodologies for signal analysis. A significantly different approach is followed, instead, for the estimation of the interfacial area concentration: while the evaluation based on the needle-probe signal is carried out by using projections of the gas-liquid interface velocity, the evaluation based on the wire-mesh signals consist in a full reconstruction of the bubbles interfaces. The comparison between the two techniques shows a good agreement.

  2. Comparison between wire-mesh sensors and conductive needle-probes for measurements of two-phase flow parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Research Center Dresden Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: annalisa.manera@psi.ch; Ozar, B.; Paranjape, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Prasser, H.-M. [Research Center Dresden Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Measurements of two-phase flow parameters such as void-fraction, bubble velocities, and interfacial area density have been performed in an upwards air-water flow at atmospheric pressure by means of a four-tip needle-probe and a wire-mesh sensor. For the first time, a direct comparison between the two measuring techniques has been carried out. Both techniques are based on the measurement of the fluid conductivity. For void-fraction and velocity measurements, similarity exists between the two methodologies for signal analysis. A significantly different approach is followed, instead, for the estimation of the interfacial area concentration: while the evaluation based on the needle-probe signal is carried out by using projections of the gas-liquid interface velocity, the evaluation based on the wire-mesh signals consist in a full reconstruction of the bubbles interfaces. The comparison between the two techniques shows a good agreement.

  3. Recent progress in methods for non-invasive measurements of local strain in practical superconducting wires and conductors using quantum beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Machiya, Shutaro; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kohki; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Jin, Xinzhe; Kajiwara, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Practical superconducting wires are designed with a composite structure to meet the desired engineering characteristics by expert selection of materials and design of the architecture. In practice, the local strain exerted on the superconducting component influences the electromagnetic properties. Here, recent progress in methods used to measure the local strain in practical superconducting wires and conductors using quantum beam techniques is introduced. Recent topics on the strain dependence of critical current are reviewed for three major practical wires: ITER-Nb 3 Sn strand, DI-BSCCO wires and REBCO tapes. (author)

  4. Flat Plate Boundary Layer Stimulation Using Trip Wires and Hama Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, James; Fredette, Albert; Roberts, Raymond; Huyer, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Water tunnel experiments on a flat plate at zero angle of attack were performed to investigate the effect of single roughness elements, i.e., trip wires and Hama strips, on the transition to turbulence. Boundary layer trips are traditionally used in scale model testing to force a boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a single location to aid in scaling of flow characteristics. Several investigations of trip wire effects exist in the literature, but there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of Hama strips on the flat plate boundary layer. The intent of this investigation is to better understand the effects of boundary layer trips, particularly Hama strips, and to investigate the pressure-induced drag of both styles of boundary layer trips. Untripped and tripped boundary layers along a flat plate at a range of flow speeds were characterized with multiple diagnostic measurements in the NUWC/Newport 12-inch water tunnel. A wide range of Hama strip and wire trip thicknesses were used. Measurements included dye flow visualization, direct skin friction and parasitic drag force, boundary layer profiles using LDV, wall shear stress fluctuations using hot film anemometry, and streamwise pressure gradients. Test results will be compared to the CFD and boundary layer model results as well as the existing body of work. Conclusions, resulting in guidance for application of Hama strips in model scale experiments and non-dimensional predictions of pressure drag will be presented.

  5. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D2O by the transient hot-wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Y.; Hiraiwa, H.; Nagashima, A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D 2 O (heavy water) started in 1951. Since then, many researchers have measured the thermal conductivity of heavy water mainly with the aid of steady-state methods such as the parallel plate method and the concentric cylinder method. It should be noted here that even in the case of pure H 2 O or D 2 O enclosed in metallic vessel for a couple of days, the electrical conductivity seems to be not low enough for precise transient hot-wire measurements. The purpose of this paper is to obtain precise thermal conductivity data of liquid D 2 O which can be the reference standard values by the transient hot-wire method. The temperature range covered was 4 degrees C to 80 degrees C with pressure up to 40 MPa and the experimental data have an estimated accuracy of ±0.5%

  6. Introducing measure-by-wire, the systematic use of systems and control theory in transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, Arturo; Dekker, Arnold J. den; Van den Broek, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) are the tools of choice for academic and industrial research at the nano-scale. Due to their increasing use for routine, repetitive measurement tasks (e.g., quality control in production lines) there is a clear need for a new generation of high-throughput microscopes designed to autonomously extract information from specimens (e.g., particle size distribution, chemical composition, structural information, etc.). To aid in their development, a new engineering perspective on TEM design, based on principles from systems and control theory, is proposed here: measure-by-wire (not to be confused with remote microscopy). Under this perspective, the TEM operator yields the direct control of the microscope's internal processes to a hierarchy of feedback controllers and high-level supervisors. These make use of dynamical models of the main TEM components together with currently available measurement techniques to automate processes such as defocus correction or specimen displacement. Measure-by-wire is discussed in depth, and its methodology is illustrated through a detailed example: the design of a defocus regulator, a type of feedback controller that is akin to existing autofocus procedures. -- Highlights: ► High-throughput TEM operation is increasingly needed for research and industry. ► Autonomous high-throughput TEMs enabled by systems and control theory. ► Measure-by-wire is a new holistic automation oriented engineering view of TEM. ► A detailed example shows how to apply MBW to the automatic control of defocus.

  7. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  8. Influence of the profile of Iridium-192 wire in measurements of quality control for use in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Osvaldo L.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Somessari, Samir L.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Mattos, Fabio R.

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy is a method used in the treatment of cancerous tumors, by ionizing radiation produced by sources, introduced into the tumor area, this method seeks a more direct to the tumor, thereby maximizing the radiation dose to diseased tissue, while minimizing the dose to healthy tissues. One of the radionuclides used in brachytherapy is iridium-192. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR), of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), has produced commercially, since 1998, iridium-192 wires used in low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. To produce this radionuclides, firstly an iridium-platinum wire is irradiated in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 30 hours, with a neutron flux of 5x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 , the wire is left to decay by 30 days to remove the main contaminants, and then goes through a quality control, before being sent to the hospital. In this quality control is checked the radiation homogeneity along each centimeter of the wire. To implement this procedure, is used a device, consisting of an ionization chamber, surrounded by a lead shield, with a samol 1 cm wide slit, linked to the ionization chamber is a voltage source, and a Keithley 617 electrometer, 2 minutes is the range used to measure the charge by the electrometer. The iridium wire is considered in accordance, when there is no variation higher than 5%, between the average measures and the maximum and minimum values. However, due to design features of the measurement system, the wire may appear to the detector through the slit in larger sizes than the ideal, improperly influencing the final quality control. This paper calculates the difference in size of these variations in profile, and their influence on the final count, it compares the actual values obtained, and describes the improvements, made in quality control procedures, that provided more accurate measurement data, analyzes the results, and suggests changes in devices, aimed at further improving the quality control of iridium-192

  9. A comparison of disturbance levels measured in hypersonic tunnels using a hot-wire anemometer and a pitot pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, P. C.; Wagner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Disturbance levels were measured in the test section of a Mach 5 blowdown jet using a constant-current, hot-wire anemometer and a pressure transducer. The disturbance levels, measured by the two instruments and normalized by local mean values, agreed within about 30%, with the pitot data higher than the hot-wire data. The rms disturbance levels measured with the hot-wire anemometer and converted to pitot pressures using a quasi-steady flow analysis, were about two-thirds the levels measured with the pitot probe. The variation of the normalized rms disturbance levels with stagnation pressure indicated that transition occurred in the boundary layer on the nozzle wall and influenced the outputs of the instruments located at the exit of the nozzle when the total pressure was about 35 N/sq cm. Below this pressure the disturbance levels decreased markedly. At higher pressures the disturbances were predominantly aerodynamic noise generated by the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall.

  10. Experimental measurements of static pressure and pressure drop in a duct enclosing a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graca, M.C.; Ballve, H.; Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1981-01-01

    The friction factor and the static pressure distributions, in the axial and transversal directions, in the wall of the hexagonal duct, enclosing a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle, were experimentally measured, using an air opened loop. The Reynolds numbers are the range 10 3 - 5x10 4 . The friction factors are compared to existing correlations. The static pressure distributions show that the static pressure is not hydrostatic in the cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt

  11. A Novel Portable Absolute Transient Hot-Wire Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Marc J.; Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Metaxa, Ifigeneia N.; Mylona, Sofia K.; Assael, John-Alexander M.; Wu, Jiangtao; Hu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    A new portable absolute Transient Hot-Wire instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of solids over a range of 0.2 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} to 4 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} is presented. The new instrument is characterized by three novelties: (a) an innovative two-wires sensor which provides robustness and portability, while at the same time employs a soft silicone layer to eliminate the effect of the contact resistance between the wires and the sample, (b) a newly designed compact portable printed electronic board employing an FPGA architecture CPU to the control output voltage and data processing—the new board replaces the traditional, large in size Wheatstone-type bridge system required to perform the experimental measurements, and (c) a cutting-edge software suite, developed for the mesh describing the structure of the sensor, and utilizing the Finite Elements Method to model the heat flow. The estimation of thermal conductivity is modeled as a minimization problem and is solved using Bayesian Optimization. Our revolutionizing proposed methodology exhibits radical speedups of up to × 120, compared to previous approaches, and considerably reduces the number of simulations performed, achieving convergence only in a few minutes. The new instrument was successfully employed to measure, at room temperature, the thermal conductivity of two thermal conductivity reference materials, Pyroceram 9606 and Pyrex 7740, and two possible candidate glassy solids, PMMA and BK7, with an absolute low uncertainty of 2 %.

  12. Methods of Measurement of High Air Velocities by the Hot Wire Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-02-01

    to that of the heating current, as indicated by the minus sign. The cathode bias of the linearizing stage 1» then adjusted to obtain readings that...and tungsten wire. ! MM Taobaloai lot* lo. tifx» 3.- Heating aunnt of a bot «in at ooutaat-railitaae* operation. ? a UM tMMlMl nta Fe. IN nca . 4

  13. On the choice of the number of samples in laser Doppler anemometry signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, Federico; Comeron, Adolfo; Garcia-Vizcaino, David

    2001-05-01

    The minimum number of samples that must be taken from a sinusoidal signal affected by white Gaussian noise, in order to find its frequency with a predetermined maximum error, is derived. This analysis is of interest in evaluating the performance of velocity-measurement systems based on the Doppler effect. Specifically, in laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) it is usual to receive bursts with a poor signal-to- noise ratio, yet high accuracy is required for the measurement. In recent years special attention has been paid to the problem of monitoring the temporal evolution of turbulent flows. In this kind of situation averaging or filtering the data sequences cannot be allowed: in a rapidly changing environment each one of the measurements should rather by performed within a maximum permissible error and the bursts strongly affected by noise removed. The method for velocity extraction that will be considered here is the spectral analysis through the squared discrete Fourier transform, or periodogram, of the received bursts. This paper has two parts. In the first an approximate expression for the error committed in LDA is derived and discussed. In the second a mathematical formalism for the exact calculation of the error as a function of the signal-to- noise ratio is obtained, and some universal curves for the expected error are provided. The results presented here appear to represent a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of LDA measurements, yet, to our knowledge, they have not been reported in the literature so far.

  14. Passive directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometry by the two-wavelength quadrature homodyne technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2003-07-01

    We report a method for passive optical directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometers. For this purpose frequency-shift elements such as acousto-optic modulators, which are bulky and difficult to align during assembly, have traditionally been employed. We propose to use a quadrature homodyne technique to achieve directional discrimination of the fluid flow without any frequency-shift elements. It is based on the employment of two laser wavelengths, which generate two interference fringe systems with a phase shift of a quarter of the common fringe spacing. Measurement signal pairs with a direction-dependent phase shift of +/- pi/2 are generated. As a robust signal-processing technique, the cross-correlation technique is used. The principles of quadrature homodyne laser-Doppler anemometry are investigated. A setup that provides a constant phase shift of pi/2 throughout the entire measurement volume was achieved with both single-mode and multimode radiation. The directional discrimination was successfully verified with wind tunnel measurements. The complete passive technique offers the potential of building miniaturized measurement heads that can be integrated, e.g., into wind tunnel models.

  15. The 2d-LCA as an alternative to x-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  16. Two-phase flow pattern measurements with a wire mesh sensor in a direct steam generating solar thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Zahler, Christian; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton; Schleicher, Eckhard

    2017-06-01

    At Industrial Solar's test facility in Freiburg (Germany), two phase flow patterns have been measured by using a wire mesh sensor from Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Main purpose of the measurements was to compare observed two-phase flow patterns with expected flow patterns from models. The two-phase flow pattern is important for the design of direct steam generating solar collectors. Vibrations should be avoided in the peripheral piping, and local dry-outs or large circumferential temperature gradients should be prevented in the absorber tubes. Therefore, the choice of design for operation conditions like mass flow and steam quality are an important step in the engineering process of such a project. Results of a measurement with the wire mesh sensor are the flow pattern and the plug or slug frequency at the given operating conditions. Under the assumption of the collector power, which can be assumed from previous measurements at the same collector and adaption with sun position and incidence angle modifier, also the slip can be evaluated for a wire mesh sensor measurement. Measurements have been performed at different mass flows and pressure levels. Transient behavior has been tested for flashing, change of mass flow, and sudden changes of irradiation (cloud simulation). This paper describes the measurements and the method of evaluation. Results are shown as extruded profiles in top view and in side view. Measurement and model are compared. The tests have been performed at low steam quality, because of the limits of the test facility. Conclusions and implications for possible future measurements at larger collectors are also presented in this paper.

  17. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  18. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  19. Evaluation of droplet velocity and size from nasal spray devices using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2010-03-30

    To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Superimposed noninterfering probes to extend the capabilities of phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Fabrice; Lenoble, Anne; Radev, Stefan

    2002-06-20

    We propose using multiple superimposed noninterfering probes (SNIPs) of the same wavelength but different beam angles to extend the capabilities of phase Doppler anemometry. When a particle is moving in a SNIP the Doppler signals that are produced exhibit multiple Doppler frequencies and phase shifts. The resolution of the measurements of particle size (i.e., by fringe spacing and Doppler frequency) increases with beam angle. Then, with the solution proposed, even with only two detectors several measurements of size can be obtained for the same particle with increasing resolution if we consider higher frequencies in the signal. Several optical solutions to produce SNIPs as well as a signal-processing algorithm to treat the multiple-frequency Doppler signals are proposed. Experimental validations of the sizing of spherical and cylindrical particles demonstrate the applicability of this technique for particle measurement. We believe that this new technique can be of great interest when high resolution of size, velocity, and even refractive index is required.

  1. Experimental Study on The Two-Phase Flow Characteristics Using Conductivity Probes And Laser Doppler Anemometry In A Vertical Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva, S.; Mendez, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J. L.; Julia, J. E.; Hernandez, L.

    2007-06-01

    An upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (50.2 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a double sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). Different air-water flow configurations was investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.491 m/s to 0.981 m/s and a void fraction up to 10 %. For each two-phase flow configuration twenty five radial position and three axial locations were measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles was measured with LDA at different axial positions.

  2. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  3. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  4. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  5. Transverse vorticity measurements using an array of four hot-wire probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, J. F.; Klewickc, C. L.; Disimile, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the technique used to obtain a time series of the quasi-instantaneous transverse vorticity from a four wire array of probes is presented. The algorithmic structure which supports the technique is described in detail and demonstration data, from a large plane shear layer, are presented to provide a specific utilization of the technique. Sensitivity calculations are provided which allow one contribution to the inherent uncertainty of the technique to be evaluated.

  6. Evaluation of metered dose inhaler spray velocities using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2012-02-28

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter which can significantly influence inhalation drug delivery performance. Together with the droplet size, this parameter determines the efficiency of the deposition of MDI products at different sites within the lungs. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the instantaneous droplet velocity emitted from MDIs as well as the corresponding droplet size distribution. The nine commercial MDI products surveyed showed significantly different droplet velocities, indicating that droplet velocity could be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of MDI products. The droplet velocity for all tested MDI products decreased when the testing distance was increased from 3 cm to 6 cm from the front of mouthpiece, with CFC formulations showing a larger decrease than HFA formulations. The mean droplet diameters of the nine MDIs were also significantly different from one-another. Droplet size measurements made using PDA (a number-based technique) could not be directly compared to results obtained using laser light scattering measurements (a volume-based technique). This work demonstrates that PDA can provide unique information useful for characterizing MDI aerosol plumes and evaluating MDI drug delivery efficiency. PDA could also aid the evaluation of in vitro equivalence in support of formulation or manufacturing changes and in evaluation of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for MDIs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Measurement of weak electric currents in copper wire phantoms using MRI: influence of susceptibility enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruiwang; Posnansky, Oleg; Celik, Abdullah; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Ermer, Veronika; Irkens, Marco; Wegener, H-Peter; Shah, N Jon

    2006-08-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods for the direct detection of neuronal currents is a topic of intense investigation. Much experimental work has been carried out with the express aim of establishing detection thresholds and sensitivity to flowing currents. However, in most of these experiments, magnetic susceptibility enhancement was ignored. In this work, we present results that show the influence of a susceptibility artefact on the detection threshold and sensitivity. For this purpose, a novel phantom, consisting of a water-filled cylinder with two wires of different materials connected in series, was constructed. Magnitude MR images were acquired from a single slice using a gradient-echo echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. The data show that the time course of the detected MR signal magnitude correlates very well with the waveform of the input current. The effect of the susceptibility artefacts arising from the two different wires was examined by comparing the magnitudes of the MR signals at different voxel locations. Our results indicate the following: (1) MR signal enhancement arising from the magnetic susceptibility effect influences the detection sensitivity of weak current; (2) the detection threshold and sensitivity are phantom-wire dependent; (3) sub-mu A electric current detection in a phantom is possible on a 1.5-T MR scanner in the presence of susceptibility enhancement.

  8. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  11. Experimental investigation of turbulence modulation in particle-laden coaxial jets by Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergheni, M.A. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France)]|[LESTE Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Sautet, J.C.; Godard, G. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Ben Ticha, H.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [LESTE Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-03-15

    The effect of solid particles on the flow characteristics of axisymmetric turbulent coaxial jets for two flow conditions was studied. Simultaneous measurements of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow are presented using a Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 to 212 {mu}m were used in this two-phase flow, the experimental results indicate a significant influence of the solid particles and the Re on the flow characteristics. The data show that the gas phase has lower mean velocity in the near-injector region and a higher mean velocity at the developed region. Near the injector at low Reynolds number (Re = 2839) the presence of the particles dampens the gas-phase turbulence, while at higher Reynolds number (Re = 11 893) the gas-phase turbulence and the velocity fluctuation of particle-laden jets are increased. The particle velocity at higher Reynolds number (Re = 11 893) and is lower at lower Reynolds number (Re = 2839). The slip velocity between particles and gas phase existed over the flow domain was examined. More importantly, the present experiment results suggest that, consideration of the gas characteristic length scales is insufficient to predict gas-phase turbulence modulation in gas-particle flows. (author)

  12. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  13. Assessment of the influence factors on nasal spray droplet velocity using phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2011-03-01

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box-Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actuation parameters and formulation properties on nasal spray droplet velocity using a set of placebo formulations. The DOE study shows that all four input factors (stroke length, actuation velocity, concentration of the gelling agent, and concentration of the surfactant) have significant influence on droplet velocity. An optimized quadratic model generated from the DOE results describes the inherent relationships between the input factors and droplet velocity thus providing a better understanding of the input factor influences. Overall, PDA provides a new in vitro characterization method for the evaluation of inhalation drugs through assessment of spray velocity and may assist in product development to meet drug delivery equivalency requirements. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  14. Experimental Study of the Twin Turbulent Water Jets Using Laser Doppler Anemometry for Validating Numerical Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huhu; Lee Saya; Hassan, Yassin A.; Ruggles, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    The design of next generation (Gen. IV) high-temperature nuclear reactors including gas-cooled and sodium-cooled ones involves massive numerical works especially the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high cost of large-scale experiments and the inherent uncertainties existing in the turbulent models and wall functions of any CFD codes solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations necessitate the high-spacial experimental data sets for benchmarking the simulation results. In Gen. IV conceptual reactors, the high- temperature flows mix in the upper plenum before entering the secondary cooling system. The mixing condition should be accurately estimated and fully understood as it is related to the thermal stresses induced in the upper plenum and the magnitudes of output power oscillations due to any changes of primary coolant temperature. The purpose of this study is to use Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique to measure the flow field of two submerged parallel jets issuing from two rectangular channels. The LDA data sets can be used to validate the corresponding simulation results. The jets studied in this work were at room temperature. The turbulent characteristics including the distributions of mean velocities, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses were studied. Uncertainty analysis was also performed to study the errors involved in this experiment. The experimental results in this work are valid for benchmarking any steady-state numerical simulations using turbulence models to solve RANS equations. (author)

  15. Contact wire positions and contact forces. Measurements at high-speed lines in China; Fahrdrahtlage und Kontaktkraefte. Messungen an Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, Joerg; Rick, Frank; Sarnes, Bernhard [DB Systemtechnik GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Puschmann, Rainer [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Infrastructure and Cities

    2012-07-15

    The reliable energy transmission from overhead contact line to pantograph of traction units without interruption decides on the successful operation of high-speed railway lines. Measurements of contact wire position and contact forces are suited to assess interaction of overhead contact line and pantograph. Chinese Railways actually implement the biggest electrification program for high-speed lines worldwide. For these projects contact wire position and contact forces are monitored by procedures developed in Germany. The experience confirms that keeping the contact wire position within the specified limits lead to a superior energy transmission up to 350 km/h. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of errors in the measurement of unattached fractions of radon and thoron progeny in a Canadian uranium mine using wire screen methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Phillips, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The unattached fraction of radon/thoron progeny in uranium mines is generally small and therefore difficult to measure accurately. The simple wire screen method provides a direct estimate of the unattached fraction from the screen count, or an indirect estimate from the difference between the reference and back-up filter counts. Wire screen method results are often difficult to analyse, especially when the unattached activity is small. Experimental data obtained in Canadian uranium mines are presented here, together with a detailed error analysis. The method consisting of counting the wire screen and the back-up filter is found to be the most precise method for unattached fraction determination. (author)

  17. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  18. Computer programs for evaluation of turbulence characteristics from hot-wire measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosahlo, L.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the set of the computer programs for evaluation of the turbulent flow characteristics from hot-wire experimental data. Three different methods and, in addition, some variants are solved in these programs. This enables a comparison of the results obtained by these methods and the analysis of the influence of individual calculation parameters and calibration coefficients on the evaluated results. The results are printed in lucid numerical tables and written into files for further processing into graphs by plotting routines. (orig.) [de

  19. 2-D Low Energy Electron Beam Profile Measurement Based on Computer Tomography Algorithm with Multi-Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Nengjie; Li Qing Feng; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Zheng, Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    A new method for low energy electron beam profile measurement is advanced, which presents a full 2-D beam profile distribution other than the traditional 2-D beam profile distribution given by 1-D vertical and horizontal beam profiles. The method is based on the CT (Computer Tomography) algorithm. Multi-sets of data about the 1-D beam profile projections are attained by rotating the multi-wire scanner. Then a 2-D beam profile is reconstructed from these projections with CT algorithm. The principle of this method is presented. The simulation and the experiment results are compared and analyzed in detail.

  20. Precise measurement of internal sense-wire locations in high-energy physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.L.; O'Foghludha, F.; Yacount, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical straw tubes that contain central sense wires (as anodes) are commonly employed in high-energy and nuclear physics experiments to track charged particles through regions of large detectors. The outer tracking region of the proposed Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) detector for future experiments at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), for instance, is expected to contain more than a hundred thousand 4-mm-diam straw tube drift cells arranged in five cylindrically concentric superlayers. The superlayers will be made up of modules having roughly trapezoidal cross sections. The modules will be up to 4 m long and will contain ∼200 straws each, arranged in either six or eight layers. The module shells are expected to be made of thin but nontransparent carbon/epoxy composite material and the straws of mylar or kapton, which has been coated on the inside with a thin (∼0.15-μm) layer of copper. A precise knowledge of the locations of the sense wires in these modules is crucial to the intended particle tracking

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  6. A micro-scale hot wire anemometer based on low stress (Ni/W) multi-layers deposited on nano-crystalline diamond for air flow sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talbi, A.; Gimeno, L.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Viard, R.; Soltani, A.; Mortet, Vincent; Preobrazhensky, V.; Merlen, A.; Pernod, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-8, č. článku 125029. ISSN 0960-1317 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hot wire * nano-crystalline diamond * active flow control * anemometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.768, year: 2015

  7. Measurements of peripherical static pressure and pressure drop in a rod bundle with helical wire wrap spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballve, H.; Graca, M.C.; Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1981-07-01

    The fuel element of a LMFBR nuclear reactor consists of a wire wrapped rod bundle with triangular array with the coolant flowing parallel to the rods. Using this type of element with seven rods conected to an air open loop. The hydrodinamics behavior of the flow for p/d = 1.20 and l/d = 15.0, was simulated. Several measurements were performed in order to obtain the static pressure distribution at the walls of the hexagonal duct, for Reynolds number from 4.4x10 3 to 48.49x10 3 and for different axial and transverse positions, in a wire wrap lead. The axial pressure drop was obtained and determined the friction factor dependence with the Reynolds number. From the obtained results, it was observed the non-dependency of the non-dimensionalized axial and transverse local static pressure distribution at the wall of the hexagonal duct, with the Reynolds number. The obtained friction factor is compared to the results of previous works. (Author) [pt

  8. Test Measurements of a 20 ms-1 Carbon Wire Beam Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    De Freitas, J; Emery, J; Herranz Alvarez, J F; Koujili, M; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; Ait-Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper pre­sents the de­sign of the ac­tu­a­tor for the fast and high ac­cu­ra­cy Wire Scan­ner sys­tem. The ac­tu­a­tor con­sists of a ro­tary brushless syn­chronous motor with the per­ma­nent mag­net rotor in­stalled in­side the vac­u­um cham­ber and the sta­tor in­stalled out­side. The fork, per­ma­nent mag­net rotor and two an­gu­lar po­si­tion sen­sors are mount­ed on the same axis and lo­cat­ed in­side the beam vac­u­um cham­ber. The system has to re­sist a bake-out tem­per­a­ture of 200 C and ion­iz­ing radi­a­tion up to tenths of kGy/year. Max­i­mum wire trav­el­ling speed of 20 m/s and a po­si­tion mea­sure­ment ac­cu­ra­cy of 4 um is re­quired. Therefore, the sys­tem must avoid gen­er­at­ing vi­bra­tion and electromagnet­ic in­ter­fer­ence. A dig­i­tal feed­back con­troller will allow max­i­mum flex­i­bil­i­ty for the loop pa­ram­e­ters and feeds the 3-phase lin­ear power driv­er. The per­for­mance of the pr...

  9. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, Helsinki, 00101 (Finland); Pauscher, L. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Ward, H.C. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Kotthaus, S. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.F., E-mail: j.f.barlow@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Gouvea, M. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lane, S.E. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Grimmond, C.S.B. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65-0.68 m s{sup -1}) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35-0.73 m s{sup -1}). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12-1.63 m s{sup -1}) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new lidar operating technique was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  10. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.; Pauscher, L.; Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Barlow, J.F.; Gouvea, M.; Lane, S.E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65–0.68 m s −1 ) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35–0.73 m s −1 ). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12–1.63 m s −1 ) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: ► An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. ► A new lidar operating technique was developed. ► Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  11. Joint tests at INL and CEA of a transient hot wire needle probe for in-pile thermal conductivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.E.; Knudson, D.L.; Villard, J.F.; Liothin, J.; Destouches, C.; Rempe, J.L.; Matheron, P.; Lambert, T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, testing, and deployment of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are currently measured out-of-pile using a 'cook and look' approach. But repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state when each measurement is made. There are also limited thermo-physical property data available for advanced fuels; and such data are needed for simulation codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses efforts to develop and evaluate an innovative in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on the transient hot wire thermal conductivity method (THWM), using a single needle probe (NP) containing a line heat source and thermocouple embedded in the fuel. The sensor that has been designed and manufactured by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) includes a unique combination of materials, geometry, and fabrication techniques that make the hot wire method suitable for in-pile applications. In particular, efforts were made to minimize the influence of the sensor and maximize fuel hot-wire heating. The probe has a thermocouple-like construction with high temperature resistant materials that remain ductile while resisting transmutation and materials interactions. THWM-NP prototypes were

  12. Joint tests at INL and CEA of a transient hot wire needle probe for in-pile thermal conductivity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.E.; Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, (United States); Villard, J.F.; Liothin, J.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Rempe, J.L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID, 83404 (United States); Matheron, P. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Uranium Fuels Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Lambert, T. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Innovative Fuel Design and Irradiation Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, testing, and deployment of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are currently measured out-of-pile using a 'cook and look' approach. But repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state when each measurement is made. There are also limited thermo-physical property data available for advanced fuels; and such data are needed for simulation codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses efforts to develop and evaluate an innovative in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on the transient hot wire thermal conductivity method (THWM), using a single needle probe (NP) containing a line heat source and thermocouple embedded in the fuel. The sensor that has been designed and manufactured by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) includes a unique combination of materials, geometry, and fabrication techniques that make the hot wire method suitable for in-pile applications. In particular, efforts were made to minimize the influence of the sensor and maximize fuel hot-wire heating. The probe has a thermocouple-like construction with high temperature resistant materials that remain ductile while resisting transmutation and materials interactions. THWM-NP prototypes were

  13. Measurement of residual stress by using focused ion beam and digital image correlation method in thin-sized wires used for steel cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y S; Park, C G; Bae, J G

    2008-01-01

    Residual stress in the axial direction of the steel wires has been measured by using a method based on the combination of the focused ion beam (FIB) milling and digital image correlation software. That is, the residual stress was calculated from the measured displacement field before and after the introduction of a slot along the steel wires. The displacement was obtained by the digital correlation analysis of high-resolution scanning electron micrographs, while the slot was introduced by FIB milling with low energy beam. The fitting of the experimental results to an analytical model with the independent Young's modulus determined allows us to find the residual stress. The complete experimental procedures are described and its feasibilities are also evaluated for the thin-sized steel wires

  14. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  15. Design and Development of Embedded System for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids by Transient Hot Wire Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani GOSALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of polymers is an important property for both polymer applications and processing industry. The successful application of thermal insulating fluids in the last several years has demonstrated that such fluids can effectively control the heat loss. Understanding and controlling the thermal environment for oilfield operations has been a concern and research topic. As a consequence of this trend, there is huge demand for new methods of instrumentation to evaluate the performance of material properties and characterization. The main aim of the present study is the development of hardware and software for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using transient hot wire method. Because of the relatively short experimental times and large amounts of parametric data involved in the measurement process, embedded control of the measurement is essential. The experimental implementation requires a suitable temperature sensing, automatic control, data acquisition, and data analysis systems accomplished using an embedded system that has been built around the ARM LPC 2103 mixed signal controller.

  16. Measurement of surface charges on the dielectric film based on field mills under the HVDC corona wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donglai, WANG; Tiebing, LU; Yuan, WANG; Bo, CHEN; Xuebao, LI

    2018-05-01

    The ion flow field on the ground is one of the significant parameters used to evaluate the electromagnetic environment of high voltage direct current (HVDC) power lines. HVDC lines may cross the greenhouses due to the restricted transmission corridors. Under the condition of ion flow field, the dielectric films on the greenhouses will be charged, and the electric fields in the greenhouses may exceed the limit value. Field mills are widely used to measure the ground-level direct current electric fields under the HVDC power lines. In this paper, the charge inversion method is applied to calculate the surface charges on the dielectric film according to the measured ground-level electric fields. The advantages of hiding the field mill probes in the ground are studied. The charge inversion algorithm is optimized in order to decrease the impact of measurement errors. Based on the experimental results, the surface charge distribution on a piece of quadrate dielectric film under a HVDC corona wire is studied. The enhanced effect of dielectric film on ground-level electric field is obviously weakened with the increase of film height. Compared with the total electric field strengths, the normal components of film-free electric fields at the corresponding film-placed positions have a higher effect on surface charge accumulation.

  17. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  18. Multi-dimensional two-phase flow measurements in a large-diameter pipe using wire-mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a method of measurement to determine the multi-dimensionality of two phase flow. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) can acquire a void fraction distribution at a high temporal and spatial resolution and also estimate the velocity of a vertical rising flow by investigating the signal time-delay of the upstream WMS relative to downstream. Previously, one-dimensional velocity was estimated by using the same point of each WMS at a temporal resolution of 1.0 - 5.0 s. The authors propose to extend this time series analysis to estimate the multi-dimensional velocity profile via cross-correlation analysis between a point of upstream WMS and multiple points downstream. Bubbles behave in various ways according to size, which is used to classify them into certain groups via wavelet analysis before cross-correlation analysis. This method was verified by air-water straight and swirl flows within a large-diameter vertical pipe. A high-speed camera is used to set the parameter of cross-correlation analysis. The results revealed that for the rising straight and swirl flows, large scale bubbles tend to move to the center, while the small bubble is pushed to the outside or sucked into the space where the large bubbles existed. Moreover, it is found that this method can estimate the rotational component of velocity of the swirl flow as well as measuring the multi-dimensional velocity vector at high temporal resolutions of 0.2 s. (author)

  19. Pacemaker wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  20. In-wire measurement of the neutron dose rate on patients with 238Pu pacemakers implanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.; Kollmeier, W.

    1975-01-01

    In-vivo measurements of the neutron dose on Medtronic pacemakers have been performed by using a proportional counter and a scintillation counter. The paper discusses the technique of free air and phantom calibration and the method of in-vivo measurement of the neutron fluence and the estimation of the dose equivalent. The neutron dose equivalent rate measured on seven patients with 238 Pu pacemakers implanted were found to be (5.6+-0.1) mRem/h at the surface of the pacemaker in 1.25 cm distance from the center of the source corresponding to a neutron emission rate of 940 ns -1 . The results are in good agreement with results of other methods reported by different authors. (Auth.)

  1. Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Bell, K. S.; Hammer, D. A.; Agafonov, A. V.; Romanova, V. M.; Mingaleev, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.

  2. Limitations on the use of the pulsed-wire field-measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    As wigglers become longer and the wavelength of the light they produce becomes shorter, the requirements for magnetic field uniformity and precision of wiggler construction become more severe. Techniques used to measure magnetic fields and to estimate the performance of wigglers are now being pushed to their limits in precision and are generally awkward and time consuming in practice. A new field-error measurement technique has been developed that has the usual advantages of a null technique, demonstrates high sensitivity to field errors, and is rapid and simple to employ. With this technique, it appears practical to use computer control to both measure and correct field errors. In a particularly attractive application, these measuring and correcting steps could be carried out on a daily basis for an operational wiggler, which is mounted under vacuum in its optical cavity. In this way, changes in the fields caused by aging or by thermal or radiation-induced deterioration effects could be rapidly identified and corrections could be instituted without significant interruption to normal operations. The principles and limitations of ths technique will be described and examples given of various implementations that have been examined experimentally. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Roping in uncertainty – measuring the tensile strength of steel wire ropes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bergh, Riaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available , cost • No CRM, no PT schemes • No re-test of the same UUT 6Enter uncertainty… ? Instrumentation ? Environment e.g. temperature and humidity ? Variability ? Resolution of force measurement ? Electromagnetic noise ? Test method ? Personnel Riaan Bergh...

  4. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.A.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles

  5. Measured surface magnetic field attenuation of shielded windows and wire mesh over an electrically small enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, L.O.; Hofstra, J.S.; Karaskiewicz, R.J.; Wiser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The surface magnetic field attenuation of five types of shielded transparency (window) material was measured over the frequency range 10 kHz to 100 MHz by installing them on an .61 m x .61 m x .2 m enclosure, placing the enclosure on the wall of a TEM cell and measuring the surface and interior magnetic fields using a computer-controlled network analyzer system. The samples included two thicknesses of conductive grids on acrylic, hardware, cloth with 1/8 and 1/4-inch mesh, and a fine mesh laminated optical display window. These measurements are indicative of an enclosure with aperture coupling; namely, they become frequency-independent at high frequencies. Coarse mesh samples (1/8-1/4-inch mesh) were able to provide 50 to 60 dB of magnetic field reduction at tens of MHz, whereas the finer mesh did slightly better. This behavior is consistent with magnetic polarizability theory. Material thickness did not have an appreciable effect for frequencies above a MHz

  6. Novel corrosion experiments using the wire beam electrode: (III) Measuring electrochemical corrosion parameters from both the metallic and electrolytic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yong-Jun; Liu, Tie; Aung, Naing Naing

    2006-01-01

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) and the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) have been applied in a novel combination to measure, for the first time, electrochemical parameters simultaneously from both the metallic and electrolytic phases of a corroding metal surface. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the application of this combined WBE-SRET method in obtaining unique information on localised corrosion mechanism, by investigating typical corrosion processes occurring over a mild steel WBE surface exposed to the classic Evans solution. The WBE method was used to map current and potential distributions in the metallic phase, and the SRET was used to map current or potential distribution in the electrolytic phase. It has been found that the combined WBE-SRET method is able to gain useful information on macro-cell electrochemical corrosion processes that involve macro-scale separation of anodes and cathodes. In such macro-cell corrosion systems, maps measured using WBE and SRET were found to correlate with each other and both methods were able to detect the locations of anodic sites. However the movement of the scanning probe during SRET measurements was found to affect the SRET detection of cathodic sites. In micro-cell corrosion systems where the separation of anodic and cathodic sites were less distinct, SRET measurement was found to be insensitive in detecting anodic and cathodic sites, while the WBE method was still able to produce results that correlated well with observed corrosion behaviour. Results obtained from this work suggest that the WBE-SRET method is applicable for understanding the initiation, propagation and electrochemical behaviour of localised corrosion anodes and cathodes, and also their dependence on externally controllable variables, such as solution pH changes and the existence of surface coatings

  7. Transition over C4 leading edge and measurement of intermittency factor using PDF of hot-wire signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, B.K.; Hirsch, C. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Fluid Mechanics

    1997-07-01

    The variation of intermittency factors in the transition region of a C4 leading edge flat plate is measured at three incidence angles in a low-turbulence free stream. During the determination of intermittency factor, the threshold value of the detector function and the validity of conditional averaging are verified by a method based on the direct application of PDF of the hot-wire output. As the angle of incidence is increased, the transition progressively moves through all the three modes on the suction surface: at zero incidence the bypass transition, at 2 deg incidence the natural transition, and at 4 deg incidence the separated-flow transition occur, respectively. All three modes of transition exhibited the chordwise intermittency factor variation in accordance with Narasinha`s universal intermittency distribution; thus, the method based on spot production rate is applicable to all the three modes of transition. In the transition zone of the attached boundary layers, the conditionally averaged interturbulent profiles are fuller than the Blasius profile, while the conditionally averaged turbulent profiles follow a logarithmic profile with a variable additive parameter.

  8. A proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.-H.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Mazur, P.O.; Michael, D.N.; Mockett, P.M.; Rahm, D.C.; Rubinstein, R.; Eartly, D.P.; Wehmann, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The authors have developed and extensively used a PWC system in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4-1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23-370 GeV/c). This 'electronic collimator' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 ns) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 ms) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hardwired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events was read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure. (Auth.)

  9. Wire Mesh Dampers for Semi-Floating Ring Bearings in Automotive Turbochargers: Measurements of Structural Stiffness and Damping Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Ryu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work introduces a new semi-floating ring bearing (SFRB system developed for improving the rotordynamic and vibration performance of automotive turbochargers (TCs at extreme operation conditions, such as high temperature, severe external force excitation, and large rotor imbalance. The new bearing design replaces outer oil films, i.e., squeeze film dampers (SFDs, in TC SFRBs with wire mesh dampers (WMDs. This SFRB configuration integrating WMDs aims to implement reliable mechanical components, as an inexpensive and simple alternative to SFDs, with consistent and superior damping capability, as well as predictable forced performance. Since WMDs are in series with the inner oil films of SFRBs, experimentally determined force coefficients of WMDs are of great importance in the design process of TC rotor-bearing systems (RBSs. Presently, the measurements of applied static load and ensuing deflection determine the structural stiffnesses of the WMDs. The WMD damping parameters, including dissipated energy, loss factor, and dry friction coefficient, are estimated from the area of the distinctive local hysteresis loop of the load versus WMD displacement data recorded during consecutive loading-unloading cycles as a function of applied preload with a constant amplitude of motion. The changes in WMD loss factor and dry friction coefficient due to increases in preload are more significant for the WMDs with lower density. The present work shows, to date, the most comprehensive measurements of static load characteristics on the WMDs for application into small automotive TCs. More importantly, the extensive test measurements of WMD deflection versus increasing static loads will aid to anchor predictions of future computation model.

  10. Investigations of unsteady flow in the draft tube of the pump- turbine model using laser Doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznacheev, A; Kuznetsov, I

    2014-01-01

    The measurements and video observation of unsteady flow in the draft tube cone of the pump-turbine model were conducted in the Laboratory of Water Turbines, property of OJSC ''Power machines'' - ''LMZ''. The prototype head was about 250 m. The experiments were performed for the turbine mode of operation. Measurements were taken for the unit speed value n11 corresponding to rated head in the generating mode of operation, for a wide range of guide vanes openings at loads ranging from partial to maximum value. The researches of the velocity field in function of the Thoma number were carried out in some operating conditions. The mean values and RMS deviations of the velocity components were the results of laser measurements. The curves of the intensity of the vortex versus the guide vane opening and the Thoma number were plotted. The energy velocity spectra were presented for the points at which the most pronounced frequency precession of the helical axial vortex was observed. Video recording and laser Doppler anemometry were made in the operating conditions of the developed cavitation. Based on the results of video observations and energy spectra obtained via LDA, vortex frequencies were determined i.e. the frequencies of the vortex precession under the runner in the draft tube cone

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurements of Turbulent Boundary Layer over Hypothetical Urban Roughness Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y. K.; Liu, C. H.

    2012-04-01

    Urban morphology affects the near-ground atmospheric boundary layer that in turn modifies the wind flows and pollutant dispersion over urban areas. A number of numerical models (large-eddy simulation, LES and k-ɛ turbulence models) have been developed to elucidate the transport processes in and above urban street canyons. To complement the modelling results, we initiated a wind tunnel study to examine the influence of idealized urban roughness on the flow characteristics and pollutant dispersion mechanism over 2D idealized street canyons placed in cross flows. Hot-wire anemometry (HWA) was employed in this study to measure the flows over 2D street canyons in the wind tunnel in our university. Particular focus in the beginning stage was on the fabrication of hot-wire probes, data acquisition system, and signal processing technique. Employing the commonly adopted hot-wire universal function, we investigated the relationship in between and developed a scaling factor which could generalize the output of our hot-wire probes to the standardized one as each hot-wire probes has its unique behaviour. Preliminary experiments were performed to measure the wind flows over street canyons of unity aspect ratio. Vertical profiles of the ensemble average velocity and fluctuations at three different segments over the street canyons were collected. The results were then compared with our LES that show a good argument with each other. Additional experiments are undertaken to collect more data in order to formulate the pollutant dispersion mechanism of street canyons and urban areas.

  12. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Hot-film anemometry in air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Local measurements of void fraction and liquid velocity in a steady-state air-water bubbly flow at atmospheric pressure are presented. Use was made of a constant temperature anemometer and of a conical hot-film probe. The signal was processed with a multi-channel analyzer. Void fraction and liquid velocities are determined from the amplitude histogram of the signal. The integrated void fraction over a diameter is compared with the average void fraction along the same diameter obtained with a γ-ray absorption method. The liquid volumetric flow-rate is calculated from the void fraction and liquid velocity profiles and compared with the indication given by a turbine flowmeter [fr

  14. Structure of a swirl-stabilized spray flame by imaging, laser Doppler velocimetry, and phase Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. F.; Rudoff, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented which describe the mean structure of a steady, swirl-stabilized, kerosene spray flame in the near-injector region of a research furnace. The data presented include ensemble-averaged results of schlieren, luminosity, and extinction imaging, measurement of the gas phase velocity field by laser Doppler velocimetry, and characterization of the condensed phase velocity by phase Doppler anemometry. The results of these studies define six key regions in the flame: the dense spray region; the rich, two-phase, fuel jet; the main air jet; the internal product recirculation zone; the external product recirculation zone; and the gaseous diffusion flame zone. The first five of these regions form a conical mixing layer which prepares the air and fuel for combustion. The air and fuel jets comprise the central portion of this mixing layer and are bounded on either side by the hot product gases of the internal and external recirculation zones. Entrainment of these product gases into the air/fuel streams provides the energy required to evaporate the fuel spray and initiate combustion. Intermittency of the internal recirculation and spray jet flows accounts for unexpected behavior observed in the aerodynamics of the two phases. The data reported herein are part of the database being accumulated on this spray flame for the purpose of detailed comparison with numerical modeling.

  15. Thermography and Sonic Anemometry to Analyze Air Heaters in Mediterranean Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Peña

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería’s greenhouses produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W∙m−2 the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C.

  16. Thermography and sonic anemometry to analyze air heaters in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego L; Molina-Aiz, Francisco; Peña, Araceli

    2012-10-16

    The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter) that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería's greenhouses) produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W ∙ m(-2)) the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C) was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C.

  17. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  18. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  19. Development, implementation, and characterization of a standalone embedded viscosity measurement system based on the impedance spectroscopy of a vibrating wire sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José; Janeiro, Fernando M.; Ramos, Pedro M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an embedded liquid viscosity measurement system based on a vibrating wire sensor. Although multiple viscometers based on different working principles are commercially available, there is still a market demand for a dedicated measurement system capable of performing accurate, fast measurements and requiring little or no operator training for simple systems and solution monitoring. The developed embedded system is based on a vibrating wire sensor that works by measuring the impedance response of the sensor, which depends on the viscosity and density of the liquid in which the sensor is immersed. The core of the embedded system is a digital signal processor (DSP) which controls the waveform generation and acquisitions for the measurement of the impedance frequency response. The DSP also processes the acquired waveforms and estimates the liquid viscosity. The user can interact with the measurement system through a keypad and an LCD or through a computer with a USB connection for data logging and processing. The presented system is tested on a set of viscosity standards and the estimated values are compared with the standard manufacturer specified viscosity values. A stability study of the measurement system is also performed.

  20. Development, implementation, and characterization of a standalone embedded viscosity measurement system based on the impedance spectroscopy of a vibrating wire sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, José; Ramos, Pedro M; Janeiro, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embedded liquid viscosity measurement system based on a vibrating wire sensor. Although multiple viscometers based on different working principles are commercially available, there is still a market demand for a dedicated measurement system capable of performing accurate, fast measurements and requiring little or no operator training for simple systems and solution monitoring. The developed embedded system is based on a vibrating wire sensor that works by measuring the impedance response of the sensor, which depends on the viscosity and density of the liquid in which the sensor is immersed. The core of the embedded system is a digital signal processor (DSP) which controls the waveform generation and acquisitions for the measurement of the impedance frequency response. The DSP also processes the acquired waveforms and estimates the liquid viscosity. The user can interact with the measurement system through a keypad and an LCD or through a computer with a USB connection for data logging and processing. The presented system is tested on a set of viscosity standards and the estimated values are compared with the standard manufacturer specified viscosity values. A stability study of the measurement system is also performed. (paper)

  1. Development of gas-liquid two-phase flow measurement technique in narrow channel. Application of micro wire-mesh sensor to the flow between parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A novel two-phase flow measuring technique based on local electrical conductivity measurement was developed for clarifications of three-dimensional flow structure in gas-liquid two-phase flow in a narrow channel. The measuring method applies the principle of conventional wire-mesh tomography, which can measure the instantaneous void fraction distributions in a cross-section of a flow channel. In this technique, the electrodes are fixed on the inside of the walls facing each other, and the local void fractions were obtained by the electrical conductivity measurement between electrodes arranged on each wall. Therefore, the flow structure and the bubble behavior can be investigated by three-dimensional void fraction distributions in the channel with narrow gap. In this paper, a micro Wire-Mesh Sensor (μWMS) which has the gap of 3 mm was developed, and the instantaneous void fraction distributions were measured. From the measured distributions, three-dimensional bubble distributions were reconstructed, and bubble volumes and bubble velocities were estimated. (author)

  2. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  3. Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.

  4. Measurement of air distribution and void fraction of an upwards air–water flow using electrical resistance tomography and a wire-mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerni, Claudio; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Measurements on an upwards air–water flow are reported that were obtained simultaneously with a dual-plane electrical resistance tomograph (ERT) and a wire-mesh sensor (WMS). The ultimate measurement target of both ERT and WMS is the same, the electrical conductivity of the medium. The ERT is a non-intrusive device whereas the WMS requires a net of wires that physically crosses the flow. This paper presents comparisons between the results obtained simultaneously from the ERT and the WMS for evaluation and calibration of the ERT. The length of the vertical testing pipeline section is 3 m with an internal diameter of 50 mm. Two distinct sets of air–water flow rate scenarios, bubble and slug regimes, were produced in the experiments. The fast impedance camera ERT recorded the data at an approximate time resolution of 896 frames per second (fps) per plane in contrast with the 1024 fps of the wire-mesh sensor WMS200. The set-up of the experiment was based on well established knowledge of air–water upwards flow, particularly the specific flow regimes and wall peak effects. The local air void fraction profiles and the overall air void fraction were produced from two systems to establish consistency for comparison of the data accuracy. Conventional bulk flow measurements in air mass and electromagnetic flow metering, as well as pressure and temperature, were employed, which brought the necessary calibration to the flow measurements. The results show that the profiles generated from the two systems have a certain level of inconsistency, particularly in a wall peak and a core peak from the ERT and WMS respectively, whereas the two tomography instruments achieve good agreement on the overall air void fraction for bubble flow. For slug flow, when the void fraction is over 30%, the ERT underestimates the void fraction, but a linear relation between ERT and WMS is still observed. (paper)

  5. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  6. Characterization of Medication Velocity and Size Distribution from Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers by Phase Doppler Anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrash, Abubaker; Matida, Edgar

    2016-12-01

    Particle size and velocity are two of the most significant factors that impact the deposition of pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) sprays in the mouth cavity. pMDIs are prominently used around the world in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since their introduction in the field, and as a result of their effectiveness and simplicity of usage, pMDIs are considered to be the most widely prescribed medical aerosol delivery system. In the current study, particle velocity and size distribution were measured at three different locations along the centerline of a pMDI spray using Phase Doppler Anemometry. pMDIs from four different pharmaceutical companies were tested, each using salbutamol sulfate as the medication. Measurements along at the pMDI centerline (at 0, 75, and 100 mm downstream of the inhaler mouthpiece) showed that the spray velocities were bimodal in time for all four pMDI brands. The first peak occurred as the spray was leaving the mouthpiece, while the second peak (at the same location, 0 mm) occurred at around 60, 95, 95, and 115 milliseconds later, respectively, for the four tested inhalers, with a drop in the velocity between the two peaks. Three probability density functions (PDFs) were tested, and the Rosin-Rammler PDF best fit the empirical data, as determined using a chi-squared test. These results suggest that there is a difference in the mean particle velocities at the centerline for the tested pMDIs and the diameter of released particles varied statistically for each brand.

  7. Mechanistic study on spraying of blended biodiesel using phase Doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamrak, Juthamas; Kongsombut, Benjapol; Grehan, Gerard; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Kim, Kyo-Seon; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-01-01

    Droplet size and dynamics of blended palm oil-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel oil spray were mechanistically investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry. A two-fluid atomizer was applied for dispersing viscous blends of blended biodiesel oil with designated flow rates. It was experimentally found that the atomizer could generate a spray with large droplets with Sauter mean diameters of ca. 30 μm at low air injection pressure. Such large droplets traveled with a low velocity along their trajectory after emerging from the nozzle tip. The viscosity of blended biodiesel could significantly affect the atomizing process, resulting in the controlled droplet size distribution. Blended biodiesel with a certain fraction of palm oil-based FAME would be consistently atomized owing to its low viscosity. However, the viscosity could exert only a small effect on the droplet velocity profile with the air injection pressure higher than 0.2 MPa.

  8. Mechanistic study on spraying of blended biodiesel using phase Doppler anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrak, Juthamas; Kongsombut, Benjapol; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai [Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Grehan, Gerard; Saengkaew, Sawitree [LESP/UMR CNRS6614/INSA et Universite de Rouen, BP 12, avenue de l' universite, 76801, Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Kim, Kyo-Seon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    Droplet size and dynamics of blended palm oil-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel oil spray were mechanistically investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry. A two-fluid atomizer was applied for dispersing viscous blends of blended biodiesel oil with designated flow rates. It was experimentally found that the atomizer could generate a spray with large droplets with Sauter mean diameters of ca. 30 {mu}m at low air injection pressure. Such large droplets traveled with a low velocity along their trajectory after emerging from the nozzle tip. The viscosity of blended biodiesel could significantly affect the atomizing process, resulting in the controlled droplet size distribution. Blended biodiesel with a certain fraction of palm oil-based FAME would be consistently atomized owing to its low viscosity. However, the viscosity could exert only a small effect on the droplet velocity profile with the air injection pressure higher than 0.2 MPa. (author)

  9. In situ measurement of corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in 553 K pure water via the electrical resistance of a thin wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Lister, Derek

    2012-01-01

    A system for the in situ monitoring of corrosion depth via electrical resistance measurements was applied to study the corrosion rate of type 316L stainless steel at 553 K in pure water. Corrosion depth was measured using a 50 μm diameter wire probe mounted axially in the tube. Measurements were in good agreement with literature data for both the hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) condition and the normal water chemistry (NWC) condition. Oxide film analyses by scanning electron microscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy on the wire probe and the tube showed no effects from shape of the test specimens or the application of electric current. Corrosion kinetics was evaluated by fitting equations to the measurements. Data for the HWC condition could be fitted by a two-step logarithmic-parabolic law. A single-step logarithmic law fitted data for the NWC condition. Changes in corrosion rate by the water chemistry changes were readily detected with the technique. Corrosion depth change could be observed for the water chemistry change from the NWC condition to the HWC condition with electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of -0.56 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode, which is lower than the ECP that the phase of iron oxide changes from α-Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4 . (author)

  10. Study of cyclic and steady particle motion in a realistic human airway model using phase-Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelský, Jan; Lízal, František; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Transport and deposition of particles in human airways has been of research interest for many years. Various experimental methods such as constant temperature anemometry, particle image velocimetry and laser-Doppler based techniques were employed for study of aerosol transport in the past. We use Phase-Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA) for time resolved size and velocity measurement of liquid aerosol particles in a size range 1 to 8 μm. The di-2ethylhexyl sabacate (DEHS) particles were produced by condensation monodisperse aerosol generator. A thin-wall transparent model of human airways with non-symmetric bifurcations and non-planar geometry containing parts from throat to 3rd-4th generation of bronchi was fabricated for the study. Several cyclic (sinusoidal) breathing regimes were simulated using pneumatic breathing mechanism. Analogous steady-flow regimes were also investigated and used for comparison. An analysis of the particle velocity data was performed with aim to gain deeper understanding of the transport phenomena in the realistic bifurcating airway system. Flows of particles of different sizes in range 1 - 10 μm was found to slightly differ for extremely high Stokes numbers. Differences in steady and cyclic turbulence intensities were documented in the paper. Systematically higher turbulence intensity was found for cyclic flows and mainly in the expiration breathing phase. Negligible differences were found for behaviour of different particle size classes in the inspected range 1 to 8 μm. Possibility of velocity spectra estimation of air flow using the P/DPA data is discussed.

  11. Study of cyclic and steady particle motion in a realistic human airway model using phase-Doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport and deposition of particles in human airways has been of research interest for many years. Various experimental methods such as constant temperature anemometry, particle image velocimetry and laser-Doppler based techniques were employed for study of aerosol transport in the past. We use Phase-Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA for time resolved size and velocity measurement of liquid aerosol particles in a size range 1 to 8 μm. The di-2ethylhexyl sabacate (DEHS particles were produced by condensation monodisperse aerosol generator. A thin-wall transparent model of human airways with non-symmetric bifurcations and non-planar geometry containing parts from throat to 3rd-4th generation of bronchi was fabricated for the study. Several cyclic (sinusoidal breathing regimes were simulated using pneumatic breathing mechanism. Analogous steady-flow regimes were also investigated and used for comparison. An analysis of the particle velocity data was performed with aim to gain deeper understanding of the transport phenomena in the realistic bifurcating airway system. Flows of particles of different sizes in range 1 – 10 μm was found to slightly differ for extremely high Stokes numbers. Differences in steady and cyclic turbulence intensities were documented in the paper. Systematically higher turbulence intensity was found for cyclic flows and mainly in the expiration breathing phase. Negligible differences were found for behaviour of different particle size classes in the inspected range 1 to 8 μm. Possibility of velocity spectra estimation of air flow using the P/DPA data is discussed.

  12. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  13. Turbulent kinetic energy balance measurements in the wake of a low-pressure turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideridis, A.; Yakinthos, K.; Goulas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent kinetic energy budget in the wake generated by a high lift, low-pressure two-dimensional blade cascade of the T106 profile was investigated experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The purpose of this study is to examine the transport mechanism of the turbulent kinetic energy and provide validation data for turbulence modeling. Point measurements were conducted on a high spatial resolution, two-dimensional grid that allowed precise derivative calculations. Positioning of the probe was achieved using a high accuracy traversing mechanism. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) convection, production, viscous diffusion and turbulent diffusion were all obtained directly from experimental measurements. Dissipation and pressure diffusion were calculated indirectly using techniques presented and validated by previous investigators. Results for all terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget are presented and discussed in detail in the present work.

  14. An explanation for anomalous thermal conductivity behaviour in nanofluids as measured using the hot-wire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín, E; Bedoya, A; Alvarado, S; Calderón, A; Ivanov, R; Gordillo-Delgado, F

    2014-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to explain thermal conductivity enhancements in fluids due to the addition of nanoparticles. However, until now, there has been no general consensus on this issue. In this work a simple experiment is described that demonstrates a possible cause of misinterpretation of the experimental data of thermal conductivity obtained when using the hot-wire technique (HWT) in these systems. It has been demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of a two-layer sample of two non-miscible phase systems determined by means of the HWT must be modelled using a series thermal resistance model with consideration of the interfacial layers between different phases. This result sheds light on the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids with respect to the values corresponding to the base fluid, suggesting that this increase can be explained using the above-mentioned model and not by application of empirical formulae for effective media, as done before. (paper)

  15. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  16. Full-Volume, Three-Dimensional, Transient Measurements of Bubbly Flows Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry and Shadow Image Velocimetry Coupled with Pattern Recognition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin Hassan

    2001-01-01

    Develop a state-of-the-art non-intrusive diagnostic tool to perform simultaneous measurements of both the temporal and three-dimensional spatial velocity of the two phases of a bubbly flow. These measurements are required to provide a foundation for studying the constitutive closure relations needed in computational fluid dynamics and best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes employed in nuclear reactor safety analysis and severe accident simulation. Such kinds of full-field measurements are not achievable through the commonly used point-measurement techniques, such as hot wire, conductance probe, laser Doppler anemometry, etc. The results can also be used in several other applications, such as the dynamic transport of pollutants in water or studies of the dispersion of hazardous waste

  17. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  18. Long-range distributed optical fiber hot-wire anemometer based on chirped-pulse ΦOTDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Andres; Dominguez-Lopez, Alejandro; Pastor-Graells, Juan; Martins, Hugo F; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2018-01-08

    We demonstrate a technique allowing to develop a fully distributed optical fiber hot-wire anemometer capable of reaching a wind speed uncertainty of ≈ ±0.15m/s (±0.54km/h) at only 60 mW/m of dissipated power in the sensing fiber, and within only four minutes of measurement time. This corresponds to similar uncertainty values than previous papers on distributed optical fiber anemometry but requires two orders of magnitude smaller dissipated power and covers at least one order of magnitude longer distance. This breakthrough is possible thanks to the extreme temperature sensitivity and single-shot performance of chirped-pulse phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ΦOTDR), together with the availability of metal-coated fibers. To achieve these results, a modulated current is fed through the metal coating of the fiber, causing a modulated temperature variation of the fiber core due to Joule effect. The amplitude of this temperature modulation is strongly dependent on the wind speed at which the fiber is subject. Continuous monitoring of the temperature modulation along the fiber allows to determine the wind speed with singular low power injection requirements. Moreover, this procedure makes the system immune to temperature drifts of the fiber, potentially allowing for a simple field deployment. Being a much less power-hungry scheme, this method also allows for monitoring over much longer distances, in the orders of 10s of km. We expect that this system can have application in dynamic line rating and lateral wind monitoring in railway catenary wires.

  19. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  20. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  1. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  2. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  4. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2001-01-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  5. Measurements for the radiation spectra of fast Z-pinches produced at compression of multi-wire arrays on the 'Angara-5-1' facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkhovitinov, E.A.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Fedulov, M.V.; Grabovsky, E.V.; Gritsuk, A.N.; Oleinik, G.M.; Volkov, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The measurements results on the radiation spectra of fast z-pinches produced at compression of cylindrical multi-wire tungsten and aluminum arrays in the experiments on a high-current 'Angara-5-1' facility are presented. Cylindrical multi-wire arrays has linear mass 200-400 μg/cm and the initial diameter 12-20 mm. The pinch current was about 3 MA with pulse duration of 140 ns and peak power 3 TW. The radiation spectra are measured within the range of 50-900 eV quanta by a spectrometer with transmission diffraction grating, where the radiation is recorded on the UF-4 X-ray film. An electromagnetic curtain shutter was used to protect the transmission grating from fast microparticles produced by the erosion of high-voltage electrodes. The radiation spectrum of 1-3 keV quanta was recorded by a convex crystal wide-range spectrometer. Total yield of the radiation was measured by a thermocouple calorimeter. The main part of the tungsten plasma radiative energy proves to correspond to the quasi-continuous spectrum within the range of 80-300 eV quanta. Measurements of the tungsten plasma radiation spectrum with spatial resolution by a pinch radius have shown that the effective transversal size (diameter) of the pinch as not higher than 1 mm. In the case of aluminum plasma an intensive linear radiation of the [H]- and [He]-like ions have been recorded along with a continuous and linear radiation of the [Li]- and [Be]-like ions with the range of 100-300 eV quanta. Spectral measurements of the aluminum plasma radiation with spatial resolution by the pinch radius have shown that the effective transversal size (diameter) of the pinch is around the value of 1.5 mm. Within the framework of the stationary collisional-radiative model, in respect of the [H]- and [He]-like ion spectral lines relative intensities, the parameters of the aluminum plasma pinch, namely, the electron temperature T e ∼ 550 eV and electron density n e ∼ 3 x 10 20 cm

  6. Sonic anemometry and sediment traps to evaluate the effectiveness of windbreaks in preventing wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work analyzes the effectiveness of windbreaks against wind erosion through the study of streamline patterns and turbulent flow by means of sonic anemometry and sediment traps. To this end, windbreaks composed of plastic meshes (7.5 m long and 0.7 m tall were used. Windbreaks are a good means to reduce wind erosion, as they produce a positive effect on the characteristics of air currents that are related to wind erosion processes. Due to their ease of installation and dismantling, plastic meshes are widely used in areas where they are not required permanently. In our study, the use of a mesh of 13 × 30 threads cm−2 and 39 % porosity resulted in an average reduction of 85 % in face velocity at a height of 0.4 m and a distance of 1 m from the windbreak. The turbulence intensity i increased behind the windbreak because the reduction of mean of air speed on the leeside caused by the flow of air through the windbreak. Fluctuation levels, however, remained stable. The mean values of turbulence kinetic energy k decreased by 65 % to 86 % at a distance of 1 m from the windbreak and at a height of 0.4 m. The windbreak reduces erosion and sediment transportation 2 m downwind (2.9 times the windbreak height. Nevertheless, sediment transportation was not reduced at a height of 1.0 m and the effect of the windbreak was not observed at a distance of 6 m downwind (8.6 m times the windbreak height.

  7. A Laser-Wire System for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.; Qurshi, M.; Blair, G.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Driouichi, C.; Deacon, L.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Brachmann, A.; Frisch, J.; Ross, M.

    2009-01-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  8. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating ... beam size measurements to extract the phase space of the electron and positron ... the laser-wire (LW), instead of a conventional solid wire.

  9. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  10. A Calibrated Test-Set for Measurement of Access-Point Time Specifications in Hybrid Wired/Wireless Industrial Communication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tramarin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In factory automation and process control systems, hybrid wired/wireless networks are often deployed to connect devices of difficult reachability such as those mounted on mobile equipment. A widespread implementation of these networks makes use of Access Points (APs to implement wireless extensions of Real-Time Ethernet (RTE networks via the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN. Unfortunately, APs may introduce random delays in frame forwarding, mainly related to their internal behavior (e.g., queue management, processing times, that clearly impact the overall worst case execution time of real-time tasks involved in industrial process control systems. As a consequence, the knowledge of such delays becomes a crucial design parameter, and their estimation is definitely of utter importance. In this scenario, the paper presents an original and effective method to measure the aforementioned delays introduced by APs, exploiting a hybrid loop-back link and a simple, yet accurate set-up with moderate instrumentation requirements. The proposed method, which requires an initial calibration phase by means of a reference AP, has been successfully tested on some commercial APs to prove its effectiveness. The proposed measurement procedure is proven to be general and, as such, can be profitably adopted in even different scenarios.

  11. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  12. Experimental study on underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qing; Zhang Jun; Tan Xiangyu; Ren Baozhong; Zhang Qiaogen

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the physical process of underwater electrical wire explosion, electrical wire explosions with copper wires were investigated underwater using pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowsky coil and a voltage divider were used for current and voltage at the wire load, respectively. The shock wave pressure is measured with a piezoelectric pressure probe at the same distance. The current rise rate was adjusted by changing the applied voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire. The change of the current rise rate had a great effect on the process of underwater electrical wire explosion with copper wires. At last, the effect of discharge voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire were obtained on the explosion voltage and current as well as shock wave pressure. (authors)

  13. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  14. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  16. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  17. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  18. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  19. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  20. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  1. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  2. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20  m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell’s high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  3. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  4. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  5. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  7. Impedance Characterisation of the SPS Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091911; Prof. Sillanpää, Mika

    As a beam diagnostic tool, the SPS wire scanner interacts with the proton bunches traversing the vacuum pipes of the Super Proton Synchrotron particle accelerator. Following the interaction, the bunches decelerate or experience momentum kicks off-axis and couple energy to the cavity walls, resonances and to the diagnostic tool, the scanning wire. The beam coupling impedance and, in particular, the beam induced heating of the wire motivate the characterisation and redesign of the SPS wire scanner. In this thesis, we characterise RF-wise the low frequency modes of the SPS wire scanner. These have the highest contribution to the impedance. We measure the cavity modes in terms of resonance frequency and quality factor by traditional measurement techniques and data analysis. We carry out a 4-port measurement to evaluate the beam coupling to the scanning wire, that yields the spectral heating power. If combined with the simulations, one is able to extract the beam coupling impedance and deduce the spectral dissipa...

  8. Atom chips in the real world: the effects of wire corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, T.; Estève, J.; Figl, C.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Aussibal, C.; Nguyen, H.; Mailly, D.; Bouchoule, I.; Westbrook, C. I.; Aspect, A.

    2005-02-01

    We present a detailed model describing the effects of wire corrugation on the trapping potential experienced by a cloud of atoms above a current carrying micro wire. We calculate the distortion of the current distribution due to corrugation and then derive the corresponding roughness in the magnetic field above the wire. Scaling laws are derived for the roughness as a function of height above a ribbon shaped wire. We also present experimental data on micro wire traps using cold atoms which complement some previously published measurements [CITE] and which demonstrate that wire corrugation can satisfactorily explain our observations of atom cloud fragmentation above electroplated gold wires. Finally, we present measurements of the corrugation of new wires fabricated by electron beam lithography and evaporation of gold. These wires appear to be substantially smoother than electroplated wires.

  9. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110} α or {112} α slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  10. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...... decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...

  11. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  12. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  13. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry and laser doppler anemometry study of the turbulent flow field of bileaflet mechanical mitral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Toshinosuke; Fukuda, Takamasa

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to the study of the flow field associated with prosthetic heart valves. The results were compared with those of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Anatomically and antianatomically oriented Jyros (JR) and St. Jude Medical (SJM) valves were compared in the mitral position to study the effects of valve design on the downstream flow field. The experimental program used a dynamic PIV system utilizing high-speed, high-resolution video to map the true time-resolved velocity field inside the simulated ventricle. This system was complemented by a study using the more traditional LDA system for comparison. Based on the experimental data, the following general conclusions can be made. High-resolution dynamic PIV can capture true chronological changes in the velocity and turbulence fields. It also produces very detailed velocity and turbulence information comparable to the LDA results. In the vertical measuring plane that passes both the center of the aortic and mitral valves (A-A section), the two valves (the SJM and the JR) show distinct circulatory flow patterns when the valve is installed in the antianatomical orientation. Small differences in valve design can generate noticeable differences, particularly during the accelerating flow phase. The SJM valve maintains a relatively high velocity through the central orifice; the curved leaflets of the JR valve generate higher velocities with a divergent flow during the accelerating and peak flow phases. In the velocity field directly below the mitral valve and normal to the previous measuring plane (B-B section), where characteristic differences in valve design will be visible, symmetrical twin circulations were observed because of the divergent nature of the flow generated by the two inclined half-disks installed in the antianatomical orientation. The SJM valve, with a central downward flow near the valve, is contrasted with the JR valve, which has a peripheral downward

  14. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  15. Size and velocity measurements in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared

  16. Induced Voltage in an Open Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, K.; Gilbert, M.; Trupp, A.

    2017-07-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law has been considered and solved concerning the question which voltage will be induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of the magnetic field and the enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field with respect to the wave vector contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a spatially homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models of the Maxwell equations for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications.

  17. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  18. Correlation and spectral density measurements by LDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper is intended to give a review on the state-of-the art in correlation and spectral density measurements by means of laser Doppler anemometry. As will be shown in detail the most important difference in performing this type of studies is the fact that laser anemometry relies on the presence of particles in the flow serving as flow velocity indicators. This means that, except in heavily seeded flows, the instantaneous velocity can only be sampled at random instants. This calls for new algorithms to calculate estimates of both correlation functions and power spectra. Various possibilities to handle the problem of random sampling have been developed in the past. They are explained from the theoretical point of view and the experimental aspects are detailed as far as they are different from conventional applications of laser anemometry

  19. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of wire mesh forming life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemuoh, Emmanuel U.; Zhao, Ping; Kadlec, Alec

    2018-03-01

    Forming tables are used with stainless steel wire mesh conveyor belts to produce variety of products. The forming tables will typically run continuously for several days, with some hours of scheduled downtime for maintenance, cleaning and part replacement after several weeks of operation. The wire mesh conveyor belts show large variation in their remaining life due to associated variations in their nominal thicknesses. Currently the industry is dependent on seasoned operators to determine the replacement time for the wire mesh formers. The drawback of this approach is inconsistency in judgements made by different operators and lack of data knowledge that can be used to develop decision making system that will be more consistent with wire mesh life prediction and replacement time. In this study, diagnostic measurements about the health of wire mesh former is investigated and developed. The wire mesh quality characteristics considered are thermal measurement, tension property, gage thickness, and wire mesh wear. The results show that real time thermal sensor and wear measurements would provide suitable data for the estimation of wire mesh failure, therefore, can be used as a diagnostic parameter for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) system for stainless steel wire mesh formers.

  1. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  2. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  3. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  4. Welding wire velocity modelling and control using an optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method for controlling the velocity of a welding wire at the tip of the handle is described. The method is an alternative to the traditional welding apparatus control system where the wire velocity is controlled internal in the welding machine implying a poor disturbance reduction....... To obtain the tip velocity a dynamic model of the wire/liner system is developed and verified.  In the wire/liner system it turned out that backlash and reflections are influential factors. An idea for handling the backlash has been suggested. In addition an optical sensor for measuring the wire velocity...... at the tip has been constructed. The optical sensor may be used but some problems due to focusing cause noise in the control loop demanding a more precise mechanical wire feed system or an optical sensor with better focusing characteristics....

  5. Interchip link system using an optical wiring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Myung-Yung

    2008-08-15

    A chip-scale optical link system is presented with a transmitter/receiver and optical wire link. The interchip link system consists of a metal optical bench, a printed circuit board module, a driver/receiver integrated circuit, a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser/photodiode array, and an optical wire link composed of plastic optical fibers (POFs). We have developed a downsized POF and an optical wiring method that allows on-site installation with a simple annealing as optical wiring technologies for achieving high-density optical interchip interconnection within such devices. Successful data transfer measurements are presented.

  6. Basic characteristics of thin wire arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushihara, K.; Endoh, N.; Ono, S.; Teii, S.; Ishimura, T.

    1998-01-01

    The investigated plasma was generated by applying an electric current of about 50 A to a copper wire of 48 μm diameter in air. The development in time of emission spectra was measured and relative line intensity ratios were used to determine the temperature. The extension of the plasma was measured with a movable electrostatic probe which was placed next to the thin wire, and the electron density was estimated using the known electron mobility. The electron temperature was typically about 8000 K. On the other hand, the electron density tended to decrease with time from about 3.10 16 cm -3

  7. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  8. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  9. A World without Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  10. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  11. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  12. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using {sup 197} Au wire activation detectors; Medida do fluxo de neutrons termicos do reator IPEN/MB-01 com detectores de ativacao de fios de {sup 197} Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core 73 refs., 60 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using {sup 197} Au wire activation detectors; Medida do fluxo de neutrons termicos do reator IPEN/MB-01 com detectores de ativacao de fios de {sup 197} Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core 73 refs., 60 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  15. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  16. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  17. Silicon Nano wires with MoS_x and Pt as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.H.; Ho, S.T.; Chen, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method was used for synthesizing Pt-nanoparticle//silicon nano wires nano composites. Obtained Pt-/silicon nano wires electrocatalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen evolution reaction efficiency of the Pt-/silicon nano wire nano composite catalysts was assessed by examining polarization and electrolysis measurements under solar light irradiations. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in an acidic electrolyte. The hydrogen production capability of Pt-/silicon nano wires is also comparable to /silicon nano wires and Pt/silicon nano wires. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments suggest that the enhanced performance of Pt-/silicon nano wires can be attributed to the fast electron transfer between Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes and electrolyte interfaces.

  18. Mechanical optimisation of a high-precision fast wire scanner at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, Sebastian; Veness, Raymond

    Wire scanners are instruments used to measure the transverse beam prole in particle accelerators by passing a thin wire through the particle beam. To avoid the issues of vacuum leakage through the bellows and wire failure related to current designs of wire scanners, a new concept for a wire scanner has been developed at CERN. This design has all moving parts inside the beam vacuum and has a nominal wire scanning speed of 20 m/s. The demands on the design associated with this together with the high precision requirements create a need for\

  19. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  20. Mesoscopic NbSe3 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zant, H.S.J. van der; Kalwij, A.; Mantel, O.C.; Markovic, N.

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated wire structures with (sub)micron sizes in the charge-density wave conductor NbSe 3 . Electrical transport measurements include complete mode-locking on Shapiro steps and show that the patterning has not affected the CDW material. Our mesoscopic wires show strong fluctuation and hysteresis effects in the low-temperature current-voltage characteristics, as well as a strong reduction of the phase-slip voltage. This reduction can not be explained with existing models. We suggest that single phase-slip events are responsible for a substantial reduction of the CDW strain in micron-sized systems. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  2. Endoscopic PIV measurements in a low pressure turbine rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegalj, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Gas Turbines and Aerospace Propulsion

    2009-10-15

    Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is a useful way to acquire information about the flow in turbomachinery. Several premises have to be fulfilled to achieve high-quality data, for example, optical access, low vibrations and low reflections. However, not all test facilities comply with these requirements. If there is no optical access to the test area, measurements cannot be performed. The use of borescopic optics is a possible solution to this issue, as the access required is very small. Several different techniques can be used to measure the three components of the velocity vector, one of which is Stereo-PIV. These techniques require either large optical access from several viewing angles or highly complex setups. Orthogonal light sheet orientations in combination with borescopic optics using Planar-PIV can deliver sufficient information about the flow. This study will show the feasibility of such an approach in an enclosed test area, such as the interblade space in a Low-Pressure-Turbine-Rig. The results from PIV will be compared with data collected with conventional techniques, such as the Five-Hole-Probe and the 2-component Hot-Wire-Anemometry. An analysis of time- and phase-averaged data will be performed. (orig.)

  3. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  4. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  5. Superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  6. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  7. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  8. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  9. Flow Velocities After Carotid Artery Stenting: Impact of Stent Design. A Fluid Dynamics Study in a Carotid Artery Model with Laser Doppler Anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Oliver; Kleinschmidt, Thomas; Weiss, Wolfgang; Wolf, Oliver; Heider, Peter; Schaffner, Silvio; Gianotti, Marc; Schmid, Thomas; Liepsch, Dieter; Berger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To study the influence of a newly developed membrane stent design on flow patterns in a physiologic carotid artery model. Methods. Three different stents were positioned in silicone models of the carotid artery: a stainless steel stent (Wall-stent), a nitinol stent (SelfX), and a nitinol stent with a semipermeable membrane (MembraX). To increase the contact area of the membrane with the vessel wall, another MembranX model was modified at the outflow tract. The membrane consists of a biocompatible silicone-polyurethane copolymer (Elast-Eon) with a pore size of 100 μm. All stents were deployed across the bifurcation and the external carotid artery origin. Flow velocity measurements were performed with laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), using pulsatile flow conditions (Re = 220; flow 0.39 l/min; flow rate ratio ICA:ECA = 70:30) in hemodynamically relevant cross-sections. The hemodynamic changes were analyzed by comparing velocity fluctuations of corresponding flow profiles. Results. The flow rate ratio ICA:ECA shifted significantly from 70/30 to 73.9/26.1 in the MembraX and remained nearly unchanged in the SelfX and Wallstent. There were no changes in the flow patterns at the inflow proximal to the stents. In the stent no relevant changes were found in the SelfX. In the Wallstent the separation zone shifted from the orifice of the ICA to the distal end of the stent. Four millimeters distal to the SelfX and the Wallstent the flow profile returned to normal. In the MembraX an increase in the central slipstreams was found with creation of a flow separation distal to the stent. With a modification of the membrane this flow separation vanished. In the ECA flow disturbances were seen at the inner wall distal to the stent struts in the SelfX and the Wallstent. With the MembraX a calming of flow could be observed in the ECA with a slight loss of flow volume. Conclusions. Stent placement across the carotid artery bifurcation induces alterations of the physiologic flow

  10. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge's stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses

  11. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  12. Distributed Anemometry via High-Definition Fiber Optic Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna is developing a distributed anemometer that can directly measure flow field velocity profiles using high-definition fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS). The concept is...

  13. Current Capacity of Ag/Bi-2223 Wires for Rotating Electric Machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussennether, Volker; Leghissa, Martino; Neumueller, Heinz-Werner

    2006-01-01

    With focus on the application in rotating electric machines we measured the dependence of current capacity of Ag/Bi-2223 wires on temperature and magnetic field. Even for wires stemming from a single manufacturer we observe a significant spread of wire properties. We study different temperature and magnetic field dependence by a parallel path model which allows for a quantitative analysis. The implications of experiments and modelling are discussed with regard to the further wire development and for application within windings

  14. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  15. 19 mm sized bileaflet valve prostheses' flow field investigated by bidimensional laser Doppler anemometry (part II: maximum turbulent shear stresses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, V; Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; D'Avenio, G; Boccanera, G

    1997-11-01

    The investigation of the flow field generated by cardiac valve prostheses is a necessary task to gain knowledge on the possible relationship between turbulence-derived stresses and the hemolytic and thrombogenic complications in patients after valve replacement. The study of turbulence flows downstream of cardiac prostheses, in literature, especially concerns large-sized prostheses with a variable flow regime from very low up to 6 L/min. The Food and Drug Administration draft guidance requires the study of the minimum prosthetic size at a high cardiac output to reach the maximum Reynolds number conditions. Within the framework of a national research project regarding the characterization of cardiovascular endoprostheses, an in-depth study of turbulence generated downstream of bileaflet cardiac valves is currently under way at the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Four models of 19 mm bileaflet valve prostheses were used: St Jude Medical HP, Edwards Tekna, Sorin Bicarbon, and CarboMedics. The prostheses were selected for the nominal Tissue Annulus Diameter as reported by manufacturers without any assessment of valve sizing method, and were mounted in aortic position. The aortic geometry was scaled for 19 mm prostheses using angiographic data. The turbulence-derived shear stresses were investigated very close to the valve (0.35 D0), using a bidimensional Laser Doppler anemometry system and applying the Principal Stress Analysis. Results concern typical turbulence quantities during a 50 ms window at peak flow in the systolic phase. Conclusions are drawn regarding the turbulence associated to valve design features, as well as the possible damage to blood constituents.

  16. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Self-organization of mesoscopic silver wires by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long, straight mesoscale silver wires have been fabricated from AgNO3 electrolyte via electrodeposition without the help of templates, additives, and surfactants. Although the wire growth speed is very fast due to growth under non-equilibrium conditions, the wire morphology is regular and uniform in diameter. Structural studies reveal that the wires are single-crystalline, with the [112] direction as the growth direction. A possible growth mechanism is suggested. Auger depth profile measurements show that the wires are stable against oxidation under ambient conditions. This unique system provides a convenient way for the study of self-organization in electrochemical environments as well as for the fabrication of highly-ordered, single-crystalline metal nanowires.

  18. A New Flying Wire System for the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Willem; Dey, Joseph; Vogel, Greg

    1997-05-01

    A new Flying Wires system replaces the old system to enhance the analysis of the beam emittance, improve the reliability, and handle the upcoming upgrades of the Tevatron. New VME data acquisition modules and timing modules allow for more bunches to be sampled more precisely. The programming language LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh computer, controls the VME modules and the nuLogic motion board that flies the wires. LabVIEW also analyzes and stores the data, and handles local and remote commands. The new system flies three wires and fits profiles of 72 bunches to a gaussian function within two seconds. A new console application operates the flying wires from any control console. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup, the capabilities and measurement results of the new Flying Wires system.

  19. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Heath A.; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  20. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Dario; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed...... retainers in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain...... or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non...

  1. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  2. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  3. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  4. Stabilized superconductive wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  5. Investigation of two-phase bubbly flows using laser doppler anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Marié , Jean-Louis

    1983-01-01

    International audience; The present work is devoted to the development of an accurate and reliable laser Doppler anemometer technique (L.D.A.) meant for the measurement of the characteristics of twoephase bubbly flows. Most of these characteristics are the various statistical moments of the velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress tensor components within the continuous phase but also, under well defined conditions, the mean slip velocity of the dispersed phase. Although this technique w...

  6. Single wire drift chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  7. Preliminary Single-Phase Mixing Test using Wire Mesh System in a wire-wrapped 37-rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hwang; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Hae Seob; Choi, Sun Rock; Chang, Seokkyu; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dongjin; Lee, Hyeongyeon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary tests of the wire-mesh sensor are introduced before measuring of mixing coefficient in the wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly for a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Through this preliminary test, it was confirmed that city water can be used as a tracer for demineralized water as a base. A simple test was performed to evaluate the characteristics of a wire mesh with of a short pipe shape. The conductivity of de-mineralized water and city water is linearly increased for the limited temperature ranges as the temperature is increased. The reliability of the wire mesh sensor was estimated based on the averages and standard deviations of the plane image using the cross points. A wire mesh sensor is suitable to apply to a single-phase flow measurement for a mixture with de-mineralized water and city water. A wire mesh sensor and system have been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field with gas and liquid. Recently, Ylonen et al. successfully designed and commissioned a measurement system for a single-phase flow using a wire mesh sensor

  8. Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs

  9. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  10. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  11. Flow tilt angles near forest edges – Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dellwik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero-flow angles were assumed for neutral flow, the data was interpreted in relation to upstream and downstream forest edges.

    Uncertainties caused by flow distortion, vertical misalignment and limited sampling time (statistical uncertainty were evaluated and found to be highly significant. Since the attack angle distribution of the wind on the sonic anemometer is a function of atmospheric stratification, an instrumental error caused by imperfect flow distortion correction is also a function of the atmospheric stratification. In addition, it is discussed that the sonic anemometers have temperature dependent off-sets. These features of the investigated sonic anemometers make them unsuitable for measuring vertical velocities over highly turbulent forested terrain. By comparing the sonic anemometer results to that of a conically scanning Doppler lidar (Dellwik et al., 2010b, sonic anemometer accuracy for measuring mean flow tilt angles was estimated to between 2° and 3°. Use of planar fit algorithms, where the mean vertical velocity is calculated as the difference between the neutral and non-neutral flow, does not solve this problem of low accuracy and is not recommended.

    Because of the large uncertainties caused by flow distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies at the site.

    Since the mean flow tilt angles do not follow the terrain, an estimate of the vertical advection

  12. Measurement of Thermal Conductivities of Two Cryoprotective Agent Solutions for Vitreous Cryopreservation of Organs at the Temperature Range of 77 K-300 K Using a Thermal Sensor Made of Microscale Enamel Copper Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufang; Zhao, Gang; Hossain, S M Chapal; Panhwar, Fazil; Sun, Wenyu; Kong, Fei; Zang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Zhendong

    2017-06-01

    Biobanking of organs by cryopreservation is an enabling technology for organ transplantation. Compared with the conventional slow freezing method, vitreous cryopreservation has been regarded to be a more promising approach for long-term storage of organs. The major challenges to vitrification are devitrification and recrystallization during the warming process, and high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) induced metabolic and osmotic injuries. For a theoretical model based optimization of vitrification, thermal properties of CPA solutions are indispensable. In this study, the thermal conductivities of M22 and vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (two commonly used vitrification solutions) were measured using a self-made microscaled hot probe with enameled copper wire at the temperature range of 77 K-300 K. The data obtained by this study will further enrich knowledge of the thermal properties for CPA solutions at low temperatures, as is of primary importance for optimization of vitrification.

  13. A multi-wire beam profile monitor in the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Castillo, V.; Glenn, J.W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    A multi-wire beam profile monitor which can be used to directly monitor and control the optical matching between the Booster and AGS rings has been installed and tested in the AGS. Placement of a multi-wire monitor directly in the AGS provides profile measurements taken upon injection and the first two or more revolutions of the beam. The data from such measurements can be used to determine the optical properties of the beam transport line leading into the AGS.

  14. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  15. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Porcine Liver in the Temperature Range of Cryotherapy and Hyperthermia (250~315k) by A Thermal Sensor Made of A Micron-Scale Enameled Copper Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z D; Zhao, G; Lu, G R

      BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy and hyperthermia are effective treatments for several diseases, especially for liver cancers. Thermal conductivity is a significant thermal property for the prediction and guidance of surgical procedure. However, the thermal conductivities of organs and tissues, especially over the temperature range of both cryotherapy and hyperthermia are scarce. To provide comprehensive thermal conductivity of liver for both cryotherapy and hyperthermia. A hot probe made of stain steel needle and micron-sized copper wire is used for measurement. To verify data processing, both the least square method and the Monte Carlo inversion method are used to determine the hot probe constants, respectively, with reference materials of water and 29.9 % Ca 2 Cl aqueous solution. Then the thermal conductivities of Hanks solution and pork liver bathed in Hanks solution are measured. The effective length for two methods is nearly the same, but the heat capacity of probe calibrated by the Monte Carlo inversion is temperature dependent. Fairly comprehensive thermal conductivity of porcine liver measured with these two methods in the target temperature range is verified to be similar. We provide an integrated thermal conductivity of liver for cryotherapy and hyperthermia in two methods, and make more accurate predictions possible for surgery. The least square method and the Monte Carlo inversion method have their advantages and disadvantages. The least square method is available for measurement of liquids that not prone to convection or solids in a wide temperature range, while the Monte Carlo inversion method is available for accurate and rapid measurement.

  16. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  17. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  18. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  19. Confining jackets for concrete cylinders using NiTiNb and NiTi shape memory alloy wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Yoon, Soon-Jong [Department of Civil Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Tae-Hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 600-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sun-Kyu [School of Civil Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joonam, E-mail: eunsoochoi@hongik.ac.k [Department of Railroad Structure Research, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang 437-050, Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    This study used prestrained NiTiNb and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wires to confine concrete cylinders. The recovery stress of the wires was measured with respect to the maximal prestrain of the wires. SMA wires were preelongated during the manufacturing process and then wrapped around concrete cylinders of 150 mmx300 mm ({phi}xL). Unconfined concrete cylinders were tested for compressive strength and the results were compared to those of cylinders confined by SMA wires. NiTiNb SMA wires increased the compressive strength and ductility of the cylinders due to the confining effect. NiTiNb wires were found to be more effective in increasing the peak strength of the cylinders and dissipating energy than NiTi wires. This study showed the potential of the proposed method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns using SMA wires to protect them from earthquakes.

  20. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  1. Spectral correlations in Anderson insulating wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M.; Micklitz, T.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spectral level-level correlation function of Anderson insulating wires for all three Wigner-Dyson classes. A measurement of its Fourier transform, the spectral form factor, is within reach of state-of-the-art cold atom quantum quench experiments, and we find good agreement with recent numerical simulations of the latter. Our derivation builds on a representation of the level-level correlation function in terms of a local generating function which may prove useful in other contexts.

  2. Cleanliness of disposable vs nondisposable electrocardiography lead wires in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Nancy; Quatrara, Beth; Letzkus, Lisa; Strider, David; Rovnyak, Virginia; Syptak, Virginia; Fuzy, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Mediastinitis costs hospitals thousands of dollars a year and increases the incidence of patient morbidity and mortality. No studies have been done to evaluate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) counts on disposable and nondisposable electrocardiography (ECG) lead wires in pediatric patients. To compare the cleanliness of disposable and nondisposable ECG lead wires in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients by measuring the quantity of ATP (in relative luminescence units [RLUs]). ATP levels correlate with microbial cell counts and are used by institutions to assess hospital equipment and cleanliness. A prospective, randomized trial was initiated with approval from the institutional review board. Verbal consent was obtained from the parents/guardians for each patient. Trained nurses performed ATP swabs on the right and left upper ECG cables on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. This study enrolled 51 patients. The disposable ECG lead wire ATP count on postoperative day 1 (median, 157 RLUs) was significantly lower (P disposable ECG lead wires (median, 200 RLUs) was also lower (P = .06) than the count for the nondisposable ECG lead wires (median, 453 RLUs). Results of this study support the use of disposable ECG lead wires in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients for at least the first 48 hours as a direct strategy to reduce the ATP counts on ECG lead wires. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  4. Spatio-temporal characteristics of large scale motions in a turbulent boundary layer from direct wall shear stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  5. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  7. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  8. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  9. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  10. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  11. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  12. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires......, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 ℃ (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large....... For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology....

  13. ONLINE TECHNOLOGICAL MONITORING OF INSULATION DEFECTS IN ENAMELED WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zolotaryov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors used non-destructive technological monitoring of defects insulation enameled wire with poliimid polymer. The paper is devoted to the statistical method for processing, comparison and analysis of results of measurements of parameters of insulation of enameled wire because of mathematical model of trend for application in active technological monitoring is developed; the recommendations for parameters of such monitoring are used. It is theoretically justified and the possibility of determination of dependence of the error on the velocity of movement of a wire for want of quantifying of defects in enameled insulation by non-destructive tests by high voltage. The dependence of average value of amount of defects for enameled wire with two-sheeted poliimid insulation in a range of nominal diameter 0.56 mm is experimentally determined. The technological monitoring purpose is to reduce the quantifying defects of enameled insulation.

  14. Torsion-induced magnetoimpedance in nanocrystalline Fe-based wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.D.; Olivera, J.; Alvarez, P.; Sanchez, T.; Perez, M.J.; Sanchez, M.L.; Gorria, P.; Hernando, B.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic field influence on the real and imaginary parts of axial-diagonal (ζ zz ) and off-diagonal (ζ φz ) components of the surface magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor has been studied in amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe 73.5 Si 13.5 B 9 Cu 1 Nb 3 wires. Twisted and untwisted wires were annealed at a temperature near to that of primary crystallization. The MI response has been measured at 1MHz and 5mA rms drive current in all the samples. Even though the higher values for both components of the MI tensor are achieved for the untwisted annealed wire, the most interesting features are observed in the torsion annealed wire

  15. Researching on Control Device of Prestressing Wire Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhui; Guo, Yangbo; Liu, Maoshe

    2017-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device for controlling prestress and its related research methods, the advantage of this method is that the reinforcement process is easy to operate and control the prestress of wire rope accurately. The relationship between the stress and strain of the steel wire rope is monitored during the experiment, and the one - to - one relationship between the controllable position and the pretightening force of the steel wire rope is confirmed by the 5mm steel wire rope, and the results are analyzed theoretically by the measured elastic modulus. The results show that the method can effectively control the prestressing force, and the result provides a reference method for strengthening the concrete column with prestressed steel strand.

  16. Combined free-stream disturbance measurements and receptivity studies in hypersonic wind tunnels by means of a slender wedge probe and direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Alexander; Schülein, Erich; Petervari, René; Hannemann, Klaus; Ali, Syed R. C.; Cerminara, Adriano; Sandham, Neil D.

    2018-05-01

    Combined free-stream disturbance measurements and receptivity studies in hypersonic wind tunnels were conducted by means of a slender wedge probe and direct numerical simulation. The study comprises comparative tunnel noise measurements at Mach 3, 6 and 7.4 in two Ludwieg tube facilities and a shock tunnel. Surface pressure fluctuations were measured over a wide range of frequencies and test conditions including harsh test environments not accessible to measurement techniques such as pitot probes and hot-wire anemometry. Quantitative results of the tunnel noise are provided in frequency ranges relevant for hypersonic boundary layer transition. In combination with the experimental studies, direct numerical simulations of the leading-edge receptivity to fast and slow acoustic waves were performed for the slender wedge probe at conditions corresponding to the experimental free-stream conditions. The receptivity to fast acoustic waves was found to be characterized by an early amplification of the induced fast mode. For slow acoustic waves an initial decay was found close to the leading edge. At all Mach numbers, and for all considered frequencies, the leading-edge receptivity to fast acoustic waves was found to be higher than the receptivity to slow acoustic waves. Further, the effect of inclination angles of the acoustic wave with respect to the flow direction was investigated. The combined numerical and experimental approach in the present study confirmed the previous suggestion that the slow acoustic wave is the dominant acoustic mode in noisy hypersonic wind tunnels.

  17. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another

  18. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  19. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  20. Pollutant Plume Dispersion over Hypothetical Urban Areas based on Wind Tunnel Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Gaussian plume model is commonly adopted for pollutant concentration prediction in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). However, it has a number of limitations being applied to pollutant dispersion over complex land-surface morphology. In this study, the friction factor (f), as a measure of aerodynamic resistance induced by rough surfaces in the engineering community, was proposed to parameterize the vertical dispersion coefficient (σz) in the Gaussian model. A series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to verify the mathematical hypothesis and to characterize plume dispersion as a function of surface roughness as well. Hypothetical urban areas, which were assembled in the form of idealized street canyons of different aspect (building-height-to-street-width) ratios (AR = 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/12), were fabricated by aligning identical square aluminum bars at different separation apart in cross flows. Pollutant emitted from a ground-level line source into the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) was simulated using water vapour generated by ultrasonic atomizer. The humidity and the velocity (mean and fluctuating components) were measured, respectively, by humidity sensors and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) with X-wire probes in streamwise and vertical directions. Wind tunnel results showed that the pollutant concentration exhibits the conventional Gaussian distribution, suggesting the feasibility of using water vapour as a passive scalar in wind tunnel experiments. The friction factor increased with decreasing aspect ratios (widening the building separation). It was peaked at AR = 1/8 and decreased thereafter. Besides, a positive correlation between σz/xn (x is the distance from the pollutant source) and f1/4 (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.61) was observed, formulating the basic parameterization of plume dispersion over urban areas.

  1. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  2. A 4-spot time-of-flight anemometer for small centrifugal compressor velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    The application of laser anemometry techniques in turbomachinery facilities is a challenging dilemma requiring an anemometer system with special qualities. Here, we describe the use of a novel laser anemometry technique applied to a small 4.5 kg/s, 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor. Sample velocity profiles across the blade pitch are presented for a single location along the rotor. The results of the intra-blade passage velocity measurements will ultimately be used to verify CFD 3-D viscous code predictions.

  3. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  4. Transport properties of different BSCCO wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metra, P.; Gherardi, L.; Vellego, G.; Masini, R.; Zannella, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on two classes of solver sheathed BSCCO wires and laminates were prepared from 2223 (Pb substituted) and 2212 powders, respectively, by the powder in tube method. By suitable heat treatments (sintering and annealing below the melting temperature for 2223, melting + annealing for 2212), we obtained sample wires with Tc of ∼110 and ∼85 K respectively, comparable Jc at 77 K (∼10 3 A/cm 2 ), and dramatically different transport behavior. Measurements of critical current at different temperatures and as a function of applied magnetic field were carried out, to characterize the two classes of samples, together with other electrical testing (e.g. d.c. susceptibility) and structural analyses. The granular nature of the higher Tc BSCCO, qualitatively similar to the one of YBCO, was well documented. The melt-processed material showed no apparent granularity, but very strong field dependence of Jc at high temperature. The effect of mechanical deformation on Jc was also investigated by bending samples on different diameters before and after heat treatment. Wires and tapes with 2212 were found to be bendable on very small diameters before treatment, but also the 2223 filled samples were shown to accept significant deformation before sintering

  5. Spin-charge separation in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoby, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Using momentum resolved tunneling between two clean parallel quantum wires in a AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure we directly measure the dispersion of the quantum many-body modes in ballistic wires and follow their dependence on Coulomb interactions by varying the electron density. We find clear signatures of three excitation modes in the data: The anti-symmetric charge mode of the coupled wire system and two spin modes. The density dependence of the anti-symmetric charge mode agrees well with Luttinger-liquid theory. As the density of electrons is lowered, the Coulomb interaction is seen to become increasingly dominant leading to excitation velocities that are up to 2.5 times faster than the bare Fermi velocity, determined experimentally from the carrier density. The symmetric charge excitation, also expected from theory, is, however, not visible in the data. The observed spin velocities are found to be 25% slower than the bare Fermi velocities and depend linearly on carrier density. The dispersions are mapped down to a critical density at which spontaneous localization is observed. Some of the experimental findings concerning this phase will be discussed

  6. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  7. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  8. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  9. Progress in electrical and mechanical properties of rectangular MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P; Melisek, T; Kopera, L; Husek, I; Polak, M; Kulich, M

    2009-01-01

    Critical current densities and mechanical resistance of MgB 2 wires made by the rectangular wire-in-tube technique (RWIT) have been studied. Wires prepared from different precursor powders and variable sheath materials are compared. The best electrical performance (10 4 A cm -2 at 11.3 T) was measured for the wire with mechanically alloyed powder doped by SiC. While the critical current densities, J c , at 4.2 K are considerably influenced by the powder used, the differences at 20 K are much smaller. Flattened wires show different levels of critical current anisotropy influenced by the precursor powder used. Stress-strain characteristics and critical current degradation are strongly affected by the applied metallic materials and also by the filament's strength. The highest irreversible strain ε irr = 0.55% was measured for Ti/Cu/Monel sheathed wire with filaments from mechanically alloyed powder.

  10. Towards a wire-mediated coupling of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Lee, Tony; Daniilidis, Nikos; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Häffner, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Most schemes for ion trap quantum computation rely upon the exchange of information between ion-qubits in the same trap region, mediated by their shared vibrational mode. An alternative way to achieve this coupling is via the image charges induced in a conducting wire that connects different traps. This was shown to be theoretically possible by Heinzen and Wineland in 1990, but some important practical questions have remained unaddressed. Among these are how the presence of such a wire modifies the motional frequencies and heating rates of trapped ions. We thus have realized this system as a 1 mm-scale planar segmented rf ion trap combined with an electrically floating gold wire of 25 microns diameter and length 1 cm. This wire is placed close to trapped ions using a set of piezoelectric nanopositioners. We present here experimental measurements of the motional frequencies and heating rates of a single trapped calcium ion as the wire is moved from 3.0 mm to 0.2 mm away from the ion. We discuss the implications of these results for achieving wire-mediated coupling in the present apparatus, as well as in future improved setups.

  11. Faraday and Kerr Effects Diagnostics for Underwater Exploding Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-10-01

    Two-channel laser polarimeter was used to measure magnetic and electric fields in vicinity of underwater exploding wire. Nd:YAG Q-switch laser with 532nm wavelength, 100mJ energy and 5ns pulse width was used for probing. Single wire, parallel wires and X and V- shaped wires was used in experiments. Electric and magnetic field induced birefringes in the water results in changing of polarization stage of probing beam after propagation through this anisotropic medium. Magnetic field results in circular anisotropy of the water, while electric field creates linear anisotropy. Magnetic field results in rotation of polarization plan of linear-polarized probing beam. Electric field effect is more complicated- polarization plan of the laser beam subjected to pulsation and changing of ellipticity. Effect of electric field depends on initial probing geometry- angle between electrical field vector E and polarization plane of probing wave. In our exploding wire experiments we found influence of both Faraday and Kerr effects. It was demonstrated existence of Kerr effect inside bubbles at high voltage electrode. Effect of magnetic fields interaction for multi-wire loads was observed.

  12. Laser Indirect Shock Welding of Fine Wire to Metal Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Tao; Luo, Yapeng; Liu, Huixia

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced method for welding fine wire to metal sheet, namely laser indirect shock welding (LISW). This process uses silica gel as driver sheet to accelerate the metal sheet toward the wire to obtain metallurgical bonding. A series of experiments were implemented to validate the welding ability of Al sheet/Cu wire and Al sheet/Ag wire. It was found that the use of a driver sheet can maintain high surface quality of the metal sheet. With the increase of laser pulse energy, the bonding area of the sheet/wire increased and the welding interfaces were nearly flat. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that the intermetallic phases were absent and a short element diffusion layer which would limit the formation of the intermetallic phases emerging at the welding interface. A tensile shear test was used to measure the mechanical strength of the welding joints. The influence of laser pulse energy on the tensile failure modes was investigated, and two failure modes, including interfacial failure and failure through the wire, were observed. The nanoindentation test results indicate that as the distance to the welding interface decreased, the microhardness increased due to the plastic deformation becoming more violent.

  13. Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Muhammad Ovais; Ramadan, Salwa; Al-Adwani, Muneera

    2012-01-01

    To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.

  14. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  15. Mechanical behavior of M-Wire and conventional NiTi wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erika S J; Gomes, Renata O; Leroy, Agnès M F; Singh, Rupinderpal; Peters, Ove A; Bahia, Maria G A; Buono, Vicente T L

    2013-12-01

    Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and a new NiTi wire, which had received an additional thermomechanical treatment. Specimens of both conventional (NiTi) and the new type of wire, called M-Wire (MW), were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests, Vickers microhardness measurements, and to rotating-bending fatigue tests at a strain-controlled level of 6%. Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the non-deformed microstructures by transmission electron microscopy. The thermomechanical treatment applied to produce the M-Wire apparently increased the tensile strength and Vickers microhardness of the material, but its apparent Young modulus was smaller than that of conventionally treated NiTi. The three-point bending tests showed a higher flexibility for MW which also exhibited a significantly higher number of cycles to failure. M-Wire presented mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulated Wire Fed Floating Monopole Antenna for Coastal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Loni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A thin, flexible, insulated wire submerged in seawater forms a coaxial cable which has attenuation at ultra-high frequency (UHF dependent on the operating frequency, the diameter of the insulating material and the diameter of the inner conductor. An extension of the insulated wire above the surface through a spherical float forms a monopole antenna. Attenuation through the wire depends on the conductivity and temperature of seawater. This paper reports the effect of electromagnetic (EM wave propagation at 433 MHz through insulated wires with different radii of the insulating material and inner conductor. The attenuation was calculated and measured in the range of 32-47 dB/m. The propagation from the monopole antenna to a fixed shore based receiver was measured to be approximately equal to 1 dB/m. The propagation measurements were compared with a shielded coaxial cable. Results show that the propagation range depends on the ratio of the insulation radius to conductor radius for insulated wire, however, a shielded coaxial cable showed no significant attenuation. The technique has applications in coastal wireless sensor networks where the water depth changes continually due to tide and wave motion.

  17. Development of Fe-based superconducting wires for liquid-hydrogen level sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, S.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Mawatari, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Nakano, A.; Yoshida, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We developed liquid-hydrogen (LH2) level sensors with Ba(Fe1-x Co x )2As2 superconducting wires (Co-Ba122 wires) as their detection elements. We fabricated Co-Ba122 wires with different Co concentrations x by using the powder-in-tube method. The superconducting transition temperatures of the wires were successfully controlled in the range of 20-25 K by changing x from 0.06 to 0.10. The resistance-temperature curves of the wires exhibited sharp superconducting transitions with widths of 0.5-1.0 K. In addition, we performed an operation test of the Co-Ba122 level sensors with LH2. Close correspondence between the output resistance and the actual LH2 level was observed for a sensor equipped with x = 0.09 wire, demonstrating that this sensor can accurately measure LH2 levels.

  18. The influence of the manufacturing method on the microstructure and drawing properties of copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Jeglitsch, F.

    1982-01-01

    Copper is the third most important common metal from production figures after iron and aluminium and is largely used as pure metal in the electroindustry mainly here in the form of wires of different sizes due to its excellent electrical properties. Therefore all factors influencing the drawing ability are very important. The following work deals with the influence of impurity measurements as well as of the microstructure on the deformation or recrystallization behaviour in manufacturing continuous casting and rolling wire and dip-forming wire, and gives a rupture cause specific to each manufacturing method in the wire drawing process. (orig.) [de

  19. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  20. High conductivity carbon nanotube wires from radial densification and ionic doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Jack; Jarosz, Paul R.; Schauerman, Chris M.; Moses, Brian T.; Landi, Brian J.; Cress, Cory D.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2010-11-01

    Application of drawing dies to radially densify sheets of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into bulk wires has shown the ability to control electrical conductivity and wire density. Simultaneous use of KAuBr4 doping solution, during wire drawing, has led to an electrical conductivity in the CNT wire of 1.3×106 S/m. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements show that conduction is dominated by fluctuation-assisted tunneling, and introduction of KAuBr4 significantly reduces the tunneling barrier between individual nanotubes. Ultimately, the concomitant doping and densification process leads to closer packed CNTs and a reduced charge transfer barrier, resulting in enhanced bulk electrical conductivity.

  1. A high resolution wire scanner beam profile monitor with a microprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.I.; Mohr, D.L.; Whittaker, J.K.; Yoder, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    A beam profile monitor has been constructed for the NBS-LANL Racetrack Microtron. The monitor consists of two perpendicular 30 μm diameter carbon wires that are driven through an electron beam by a pneumatic actuator. A long-lifetime, electroformed nickel bellows is used for the linear-motion vacuum feedthrough. Secondary emission current from the wires and a signal from a transducer measuring the position of the wires are simultaneously digitized by a microprocessor to yield beam current density profiles in two dimensions. The wire scanner is designed for use with both pulsed and cw beams

  2. Design of a wire imaging synchrotron radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hogan, A.; King, M.; Rowe, W.; Watson, S.; Von Zanthier, C.; Briggs, D.D.; Levi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper documents the design of a detector invented to measure the positions of synchrotron radiation beams for the precision energy spectrometers of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The energy measurements involve the determination, on a pulse-by-pulse basis, of the separation of pairs of intense beams of synchrotron photons in the MeV energy range. The detector intercepts the beams with arrays of fine wires. The ejection of Compton recoil electrons results in charges being developed in the wires, thus enabling a determination of beam positions. 10 refs., 4 figs

  3. Shape of a clamped stiff harpsichord wire driven at a resonant frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, Hilliard Kent; Boucher, Mathew A.

    2002-05-01

    A wire transversely driven by a sinusoidal force at the resonant frequency of a vibrational mode vibrates at the driving frequency and at harmonics generated by nonlinear processes in the wire. If the amplitude of a harmonic is measured as a function of position along the wire, its shape is revealed. It differs significantly from a sinusoid in the vicinity of either end of the wire because the ends are clamped and the wire has significant stiffness. The shapes of various harmonics have been determined for a brass harpsichord wire, 70 cm long, from optical detector measurements made at different distances from a clamped end. Knowledge of shape facilitates the determination of antinode amplitudes of harmonics when the gross motion of the wire is so large that the detectors must be positioned near an end of the wire because of their very limited dynamic range. Some observations of harmonics and related phenomena were reported previously [Hanson et al., J. Acoust Soc. Am. 108, 2592 (2000); 106, 2141 (1999)]. The shape information is also needed to help separate nonlinear effects possibly occurring in the detectors from those of interest, occurring in the wire itself.

  4. Alignment tools used to locate a wire and a laser beam in the VISA undulator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Z.; Ruland, R.; Dix, B.; Arnett, D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source), a small experiment VISA (Visual to Infrared SASE (Self Amplified Stimulated Emission) Amplifier) is being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. VISA consists of four wiggler segments, each 0.99 m long. The four segments are required to be aligned to the beam axis with an rms error less than 50 {mu}m. This very demanding alignment is carried out in two steps. First the segments are fiducialized using a pulsed wire system. Then the wiggler segments are placed along a reference laser beam which coincides with the electron beam axis. In the wiggler segment fiducialization, a wire is stretched through a wiggler segment and a current pulse is sent down the wire. The deflection of the wire is monitored. The deflection gives information about the electron beam trajectory. The wire is moved until its x position, the coordinate without wire sag, is on the ideal beam trajectory. (The y position is obtained by rotating the wiggler 90 deg C.) Once the wire is on the ideal beam trajectory, the wire's location is measured relative to tooling balls on the wiggler segment. To locate the wire, a device was constructed which measures the wire position relative to tooling balls on the device. The device is called the wire finder. It will be discussed in this paper. To place the magnets along the reference laser beam, the position of the laser beam must be determined. A device which can locate the laser beam relative to tooling balls was constructed and is also discussed in this paper. This device is called the laser finder. With a total alignment error budget less than 50 {mu}m, both the fiducialization and magnet placement must be performed with errors much smaller than 50 {mu}m. It is desired to keep the errors from the wire finder and laser finder at the few {mu}m level. (authors)

  5. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  6. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  7. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading

  8. Scalable Nernst thermoelectric power using a coiled galfenol wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zihao; Codecido, Emilio A.; Marquez, Jason; Zheng, Yuanhua; Heremans, Joseph P.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2017-09-01

    The Nernst thermopower usually is considered far too weak in most metals for waste heat recovery. However, its transverse orientation gives it an advantage over the Seebeck effect on non-flat surfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the scalable generation of a Nernst voltage in an air-cooled metal wire coiled around a hot cylinder. In this geometry, a radial temperature gradient generates an azimuthal electric field in the coil. A Galfenol (Fe0.85Ga0.15) wire is wrapped around a cartridge heater, and the voltage drop across the wire is measured as a function of axial magnetic field. As expected, the Nernst voltage scales linearly with the length of the wire. Based on heat conduction and fluid dynamic equations, finite-element method is used to calculate the temperature gradient across the Galfenol wire and determine the Nernst coefficient. A giant Nernst coefficient of -2.6 μV/KT at room temperature is estimated, in agreement with measurements on bulk Galfenol. We expect that the giant Nernst effect in Galfenol arises from its magnetostriction, presumably through enhanced magnon-phonon coupling. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a transverse thermoelectric generator capable of scalable output power from non-flat heat sources.

  9. Multifilamentary Cu-Nb3Sn superconductor wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on one of the main technological problems concerning Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires production which is the optimization of heat treatments for the formation of the A-15 intermetallic compound. At the present work, Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire is produced by solid-liquid diffusion method which increases considerably the critical current values of the superconductor. Through this method, niobium, copper and Sn 7% wt Cu alloy are kept in the pure state. Thus, the method dispenses intermediate heat treatments of recrystallization during the manufacturing process of the wire. After the wire was ready, optimization work of heat treatments was accomplished aiming to obtain its best superconducting characteristics, Measurement of critical temperature, critical current versus magnetic field, normal and at room temperature resistivity were performed, as well as scanning electron microscopy for determination of Nb 3 Sn layers and transmission electron microscopy measurements of redetermining the grain sizes in Nb 3 Sn formed in each treatment. It was obtained critical current densities of 1.8 x 10 6 A/cm 2 in the Nb 3 Sn layer, at 10 Teslas and 4.2 K. The samples were analyzed by employing the superconducting collective flux pinning theories and a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical data was attained. The production process and the small size of the filaments used made a successful optimization of the wire possible

  10. Radius scaling of titanium wire arrays on the Z accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdale, C.A.; Denney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The 20 MA Z accelerator has made possible the generation of substantial radiation (> 100 kJ) at higher photon energies (4.8 keV) through the use of titanium wire arrays. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load radius variations of nickel-clad titanium wire arrays will be presented. The load radius was varied from 17.5 mm to 25 mm and titanium K-shell (4.8 keV) yields of greater than 100 kJ were measured. The inclusion of the nickel cladding on the titanium wires allows for higher wire number loads and increases the spectral broadness of the source; kilovolt emissions (nickel plus titanium L-shell) of 400 kJ were measured in these experiments. Comparisons of the data to calculations will be made to estimate pinched plasma parameters such as temperature and participating mass fraction. These results will also be compared with previous pure titanium wire array results

  11. Hot fuel examination facility element spacer wire-wrap machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, D.A.; Sherman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive examinations of irradiated experimental fuel elements conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North (HFEF/N) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory include laser and contact profilometry (element diameter measurements), electrical eddy-current testing for cladding and thermal bond defects, bow and length measurements, neutron radiography, gamma scanning, remote visual exam, and photography. Profilometry was previously restricted to spiral profilometry of the element to prevent interference with the element spacer wire wrapped in a helix about the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)-type fuel element from end to end. By removing the spacer wire prior to conducting profilometry examination, axial profilometry techniques may be used, which are considerably faster than spiral techniques and often result in data acquisition more important to experiment sponsors. Because the element must often be reinserted into the nuclear reactor (EBR-II) for additional irradiation, however, the spacer wire must be reinstalled on the highly irradiated fuel element by remote means after profilometry of the wireless elements. The element spacer wire-wrap machine developed at HFEF is capable of helically wrapping fuel elements with diameters up to 1.68 cm (0.660 in.) and 2.44-m (96-in.) lengths. The machine can accommodate almost any desired wire pitch length by simply inserting a new wrapper gear module

  12. Scalable Nernst thermoelectric power using a coiled galfenol wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nernst thermopower usually is considered far too weak in most metals for waste heat recovery. However, its transverse orientation gives it an advantage over the Seebeck effect on non-flat surfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the scalable generation of a Nernst voltage in an air-cooled metal wire coiled around a hot cylinder. In this geometry, a radial temperature gradient generates an azimuthal electric field in the coil. A Galfenol (Fe0.85Ga0.15 wire is wrapped around a cartridge heater, and the voltage drop across the wire is measured as a function of axial magnetic field. As expected, the Nernst voltage scales linearly with the length of the wire. Based on heat conduction and fluid dynamic equations, finite-element method is used to calculate the temperature gradient across the Galfenol wire and determine the Nernst coefficient. A giant Nernst coefficient of -2.6 μV/KT at room temperature is estimated, in agreement with measurements on bulk Galfenol. We expect that the giant Nernst effect in Galfenol arises from its magnetostriction, presumably through enhanced magnon-phonon coupling. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a transverse thermoelectric generator capable of scalable output power from non-flat heat sources.

  13. Characterization of NbTi multifilamentary superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellego, G.

    1988-01-01

    Pirelli is developing superconducting mulfilamentary NbTi wires, with current carrying capacities of up to 500 A, for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and in small research magnets. Pirelli and IFUSP have developed a system for assessing wire performance, whose quality is comparable to the equivalent systems at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). In particular, a high sensitivity is required for critical current measurements, so that the modern criteria for definition of critical current can be used. These involve conductor resistivities of the order of 10 -12 ohm-cm. The methods of measurements of critical current in applied magnetic fields, of residual resistance ratio and of copper to superconductor ratio are described. The results of the first tests performed in Pirelli wires and in wires of other manufacturers are described. These include tests on a NBS standard reference material. These results are of the same quality as results obtained at BNL or NBS on the same wires. So this system can be very useful throughout the Pirelli program. (author) [pt

  14. [Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi

    2003-03-01

    Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.

  15. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The...

  16. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical...

  17. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  18. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly

  19. Measurement of turbulent spatial structure and kinetic energy spectrum by exact temporal-to-spatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a method for converting a time record of turbulent velocity measured at a point in a flow to a spatial velocity record consisting of consecutive convection elements. The spatial record allows computation of dynamic statistical moments such as turbulent kinetic wavenumber spectra and spatial structure functions in a way that completely bypasses the need for Taylor's hypothesis. The spatial statistics agree with the classical counterparts, such as the total kinetic energy spectrum, at least for spatial extents up to the Taylor microscale. The requirements for applying the method are access to the instantaneous velocity magnitude, in addition to the desired flow quantity, and a high temporal resolution in comparison to the relevant time scales of the flow. We map, without distortion and bias, notoriously difficult developing turbulent high intensity flows using three main aspects that distinguish these measurements from previous work in the field: (1) The measurements are conducted using laser Doppler anemometry and are therefore not contaminated by directional ambiguity (in contrast to, e.g., frequently employed hot-wire anemometers); (2) the measurement data are extracted using a correctly and transparently functioning processor and are analysed using methods derived from first principles to provide unbiased estimates of the velocity statistics; (3) the exact mapping proposed herein has been applied to the high turbulence intensity flows investigated to avoid the significant distortions caused by Taylor's hypothesis. The method is first confirmed to produce the correct statistics using computer simulations and later applied to measurements in some of the most difficult regions of a round turbulent jet—the non-equilibrium developing region and the outermost parts of the developed jet. The proposed mapping is successfully validated using corresponding directly measured spatial statistics in the fully developed jet, even in the difficult outer regions of

  20. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  1. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  2. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  3. Field ion emission from tungsten wires covered with organic micro needles of benzyl nitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    Benzyl nitrile micro needles are grown on the surface of a 10 um tungsten wire. The activated wires are used as field anodes in field ionization source. The activation time using benzyl nitrile as an activator is much shorter than the corresponding time required for benzo nitrile activation. Field ionization mass spectra of benzo- and benzyl-nitriles are measured by the new emitters

  4. Analysis of the evolvement of contact wire wear irregularity in railway catenary based on historical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Liu, Zhigang; Song, Yang; Duan, Fuchuan; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the evolvement of the wear irregularity of contact wire using wire thickness data measured yearly from a section of railway catenary. The power spectral density and time–frequency representation based on the wavelet transform are employed for data analysis, with an emphasis on

  5. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 ± 0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured. (author). 5 figs., 16 refs

  6. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array z-pinch implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1996-08-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4+1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 {+-}0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured.

  7. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-08-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4+1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 ±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured

  8. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array Z-pinch implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T W.L.; Allshouse, G O; Marder, B M [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured. (author). 5 figs., 16 refs.

  9. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.

    2009-01-01

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 (Omega) striplines spaced 90 o apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 (Omega) striplines spaced 90 o apart. An FPGA based digitizer

  10. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dario T; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-06-01

    Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics. Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain, braided, coaxial, or chain) and dimensions were selected for this study. For a torquing angle of 16.2° in the 3-teeth setup torsion moments can vary between 390 cNmm and 3299 cNmm depending on the retainer wire. For the 2-teeth setup the torsion moments are much smaller. Exposure to the flame of a butane-gas torch for 10 seconds to anneal the wire reduces the stiffness of the retainer wire. Clinicians must select wires for fixed retainers very carefully since the difference in resistance to torque is large. A high level of torque control can be achieved with a plain 0.016 × 0.016-inch or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non-uniform and non-reproducible effect.

  11. The effect of surface treatment and clinical use on friction in NiTi orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Andrea; Geserick, Marc; Hibst, Raimund; Sander, Franz G

    2005-10-01

    Since the low friction of NiTi wires allows a rapid and efficient orthodontic tooth movement, the aim of this research was to investigate the friction and surface roughness of different commercially available superelastic NiTi wires before and after clinical use. The surface of all of the wires had been pre-treated by the manufacturer. Forty superelastic wires (Titanol Low Force, Titanol Low Force River Finish Gold, Neo Sentalloy, Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) of diameter 0.016 x 0.022 in. were tested. The friction for each type of NiTi archwire ligated into a commercial stainless steel bracket was determined with a universal testing machine. Having ligated the wire into the bracket, it could then be moved forward and backwards along a fixed archwire whilst a torquing moment was applied. The surface roughness was investigated using a profilometric measuring device on defined areas of the wire. Statistical data analysis was conducted by means of the Wilcoxon test. The results showed that initially, the surface treated wires demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) less friction than the non-treated wires. The surface roughness showed no significant difference between the treated and the non-treated surfaces of the wires. All 40 wires however showed a significant increase in friction and surface roughness during clinical use. Whilst the Titanol Low Force River Finish Gold (Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany) wires showed the least friction of all the samples and consequently should be more conservative on anchorage, the increase in friction of all the surface treated wires during orthodontic treatment almost cancels out this initial effect on friction. It is therefore recommended that surface treated NiTi orthodontic archwires should only be used once.

  12. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Methods Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.2. Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. Results The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Conclusions Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  13. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  14. Stress effects on multifilamentary Nb3Sn wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Taylor, R.D.; Thompson, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Critical current I/sub c/ measurements were obtained on highly stabilized mf Nb 3 Sn wires as a function of heat treatment, stress, temperature, and applied magnetic field. The ratio of the area of the copper to bronze core-niobium tube is about 8, and the filaments are concentrated in the inner 30% of the wire cross section. Values of I/sub c/ and T/sub c/ were determined for samples subjected to a wide range of heat treatments. Diffusion reaction times and temperatures in the ranges 16 to 128 hr and 700 to 750 0 C provided a number of mf Nb 3 Sn wires having similar I/sub c/ characteristics. To some extent the residual compressive loading on the Nb 3 Sn wires varied with the particular heat treatment. This loading arises primarily from the differential contraction of the remaining bronze and the Nb 3 Sn layer when cooled from the reaction temperature to the operating temperature. It was found that, by controlled bending or stretching of the wires, whereby some of the strain in the Nb 3 Sn is relieved, the I/sub c/ at 14 K is increased by as much as 30% and the critical temperature is increased by up to 1 K

  15. The magnetoresistance of sub-micron Fe wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, S. J.; Shearwood, C.; Gester, M.; Baird, M. J.; Bland, J. A. C.; Ahmed, H.

    1994-07-01

    A novel combination of electron- and ion-beam lithography has been used to prepare Fe gratings with wire widths of 0.5 μm and wire separations in the range 0.5-4 μm from an Fe/GaAs (001) film of thickness 25 nm. With an in-plane magnetic field applied perpendicular to the length of the wires, a harder magnetisation loop is observed using the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE), compared with that observed in the unprocessed film. We observe a strong effect in the magnetoresistance (MR) when the magnetic field is applied transverse to the wires. It is believed that this effect originates from the highly non-uniform demagnetising field in each wire of the grating. These results demonstrate that the combination of MOKE and MR measurements can provide important information about the magnetisation reversal processes in magnetic gratings and can be used to understand the effect of shape anisotropy on magnetic properties.

  16. Synthesise of Zn O nano wires by direct oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Ahangarpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zn O is a semiconductor which has a direct and wide energy band which is about 3.37 eV at room temperature. It has various applications from UV lasers, sensitive sensors, solar cells to photo catalysis applications. Zn O has different nano structures such as nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes and nano belts. The one dimensional Zn O nano structures such as nano wires are very important because of their applications in nano electronics and nano photonics so different methods have been proposed to synthesize them. In this work large scale of Zn O nano wires are produced by direct oxidation a Zn substrate (which was cleaned by chemical methods) in air or oxygen atmosphere at 400 d eg C . Nano wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray measurements. Their diameter is about 30-150 nanometer and their length is about several micrometer. This method which acts without any catalyst is a convenient method to synthesis semiconductor nano wires.

  17. Si, Ge and SiGe wires for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinin, A.A.; Khoverko, Yu.M.; Ostrovskii, I.P.; Nichkalo, S.I.; Nikolaeva, A.A.; Konopko, L.A.; Stich, I.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance and magnetoresistance of Si, Ge and Si-Ge micro- and nanowires were studied in temperature range 4,2-300 K at magnetic fields up to 14 T. The wires diameters range from 200 nm to 20 μm. Ga-In gates were created to wires and ohmic I-U characteristics were observed in all temperature range. It was found high elastic strain for Ge nanowires (of about 0,7%) as well as high magnitude of magnetoresistance (of about 250% at 14 T), which was used to design multifunctional sensor of simultaneous measurements of strain and magnetic field intensity. (authors)

  18. The effect of electrostatic and gravity force on offset wire inside tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. H.; Hazineh, D.; Wang, C.

    2018-04-01

    In a straw-tube detector, a wire that is offset with respect to the tube axis experiences a Coulomb force when high voltage is applied between the anode wire and the tube. This force results in a shifting of the wire and straw, in addition to the gravitational sag, and is a function of the tube and wire radius, initial offset, high voltage, tension and length. The presence of such effects is well known, but the precise magnitude of the shift for the anode wires under conditions of detector operation have not been previously documented with measurable confidence. In this work, we provide the first systematic measurements for the wire shift in straw-tube detectors due to gravity and the electrostatic force using an x-ray scanner developed for the Mu2e experiment. The data are compared to the solutions of the differential equations governing the system, and we find a good match between the two. The solutions can predict the final wire and straw positions from the initial positions measured without the high voltage, and the final wire and straw positions can then be used as an input to the track reconstruction software to improve the track position resolution.

  19. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  20. Aerosols produced by evaporation of a uranium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, C.

    1968-03-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the aerosols formed when an uranium wire is evaporated in a normal or rarefied atmosphere, either with or without a drying agent. The heating of the wire can be either fast or slow. The first part is a study of aerosol production apparatus and of methods of measuring the aerosol. The second part presents the results obtained with various aerosols: the particles produced by the wire are less than one micron; during rapid heating, the granulometric distribution of the aerosol obeys a log-normal law; during slow heating, the distribution has two modes: one near 0.05 micron, the other close to 0.01 micron. (author) [fr

  1. High-speed railway lines. Fatigue of contact wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avronsart, Stephane; Kalsbeek, Guido van [SNCF, La Plaine St. Denis (France); Mai, Si Hai; Massat, Jean Pierre; Nguyen-Tajan, Thi Mac-Lan [SNCF, Paris (France)

    2013-06-15

    With more than 30 years of operation of High-Speed Lines, SNCF has a large feedback on behaviour of components. Regarding the contact wire, the only operation of maintenance consists in measuring the thickness in order to estimate the remaining lifetime which in total is around 50 years. With such a long period of operation the question was raised on fatigue phenomena. The research project launched by SNCF on this topic in 2011 includes tests on copper material characteristics, modelling of the crack initiation and propagation and detection of cracks on the contact wire. The result of this research project could lead to request for changes in EN 50149 by introducing new material characteristic parameters for contact wire related to fatigue. (orig.)

  2. Magnetoresistance peculiarities of bismuth wires in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condrea, E., E-mail: condrea@nano.asm.md [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Science of Moldova, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 51-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Gilewski, A. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 51-421 Wroclaw (Poland); MagNet, 50-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Nicorici, A. [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Science of Moldova, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2016-03-11

    Magnetoresistance measurements of Bi wires performed in the magnetic field oriented along the bisector axis revealed unexpected anomalous peaks in a high magnetic field far above the quantum limit of the electrons. By combining a magnetic field and an uniaxial strain, we obtained a modification of the electronic structure; as a result, the quantum limit for light and heavy electrons is changed in a different way. For the case where heavy electrons are in the quantum limit, a correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of light electrons and the Lifshitz transition was found. - Highlights: • Glass-coated single-crystalline Bi wires attain high limit of elastic strain of up to 3.0%. • Selective modification of the electronic structure of Bi wires is obtained by combining a high magnetic field and uniaxial strain. • The correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of electrons and Lifshitz transition was found.

  3. Magnetoresistance peculiarities of bismuth wires in high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, E.; Gilewski, A.; Nicorici, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of Bi wires performed in the magnetic field oriented along the bisector axis revealed unexpected anomalous peaks in a high magnetic field far above the quantum limit of the electrons. By combining a magnetic field and an uniaxial strain, we obtained a modification of the electronic structure; as a result, the quantum limit for light and heavy electrons is changed in a different way. For the case where heavy electrons are in the quantum limit, a correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of light electrons and the Lifshitz transition was found. - Highlights: • Glass-coated single-crystalline Bi wires attain high limit of elastic strain of up to 3.0%. • Selective modification of the electronic structure of Bi wires is obtained by combining a high magnetic field and uniaxial strain. • The correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of electrons and Lifshitz transition was found.

  4. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  5. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  6. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  7. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina ARGALJI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p < 0.0001. In average, the most recently launched wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346 when the latest launched wire (13.27% was compared to the control (29.63%. In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  8. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argalji, Nina; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana; Mattos, Claudia Trindade

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure) were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346) when the latest launched wire (13.27%) was compared to the control (29.63%). In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  9. Optimization of electron beam crosslinking of wire and cable insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Przybytniak, G.; Nowicki, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The computer simulations based on Monte Carlo method and the ModeCEB software program were carried out in connection with EB radiation set-up for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable insulation, located at the Center for Radiation Research and Technology of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The theoretical predictions for absorbed dose distribution in irradiated electrical wire and cable insulation caused by scanned EB were compared to the experimental results of irradiation which were carried out in the experimental set-up based on ILU 6 electron accelerator, which is characterized by the following parameters: Electron energy 0.5-2.0 MeV; Average beam current 40-10 mA, pulse duration 400 μs; Width of scanning up to 80 cm; Scan frequency up to 50 Hz. The computer simulation of the dose distributions in two-sided irradiation system by a scanned electron beam in multilayer circular objects was performed for different process parameters; electrical wire and cable geometry (thickness of insulation layers and cupper wire diameter), type of polymer isolation, electron energy, energy spread, geometry of electron beam and electrical wire and cable distribution at irradiation zone. The geometry of electron beam distribution in irradiation zone was measured using TVA and PVC foil dosimeters for electron energy range available in ILU 6 accelerator. The temperature rise of irradiated electrical wire and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated for different experimental conditions to optimize process parameters. The obtained results of computer simulation were supported by experimental data of dose distribution based on gel-fraction measurements. Such agreement indicates that computer simulation ModeCEB is correct and sufficient for modelling of absorbed dose distribution in multi-layer circular objects irradiated with scanned electron beams. Acknowledgement: The R and D activities are supported by the European

  10. Optimization of electron beam crosslinking of wire and cable insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew; Przybytniak, Grażyna; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The computer simulations based on Monte Carlo (MC) method and the ModeCEB software were carried out in connection with electron beam (EB) radiation set-up for crosslinking of electric wire and cable insulation. The theoretical predictions for absorbed dose distribution in irradiated electric insulation induced by scanned EB were compared to the experimental results of irradiation that was carried out in the experimental set-up based on ILU 6 electron accelerator with electron energy 0.5–2.0 MeV. The computer simulation of the dose distributions in two-sided irradiation system by a scanned electron beam in multilayer circular objects was performed for various process parameters, namely electric wire and cable geometry (thickness of insulation layers and copper wire diameter), type of polymer insulation, electron energy, energy spread and geometry of electron beam, electric wire and cable layout in irradiation zone. The geometry of electron beam distribution in the irradiation zone was measured using CTA and PVC foil dosimeters for available electron energy range. The temperature rise of the irradiated electric wire and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated for different experimental conditions to optimize technological process parameters. The results of computer simulation are consistent with the experimental data of dose distribution evaluated by gel-fraction measurements. Such conformity indicates that ModeCEB computer simulation is reliable and sufficient for optimization absorbed dose distribution in the multi-layer circular objects irradiated with scanned electron beams. - Highlights: ► We model wire and cables irradiation process by Monte Carlo simulations. ► We optimize irradiation configuration for various process parameters. ► Temperature rise and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated. ► Calculation (dose) and experimental (gel-fraction) results were compared. ► Computer simulation was found reliable and sufficient for process optimization.

  11. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  12. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  13. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  14. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires

  15. Investigation of surface treatment of conductive wire in cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Rubin; Kagohashi, Tsutomu; Zheng Wei

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene insulated electric wire was treated in He and Ar dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric pressure plasmas generated in a quartz tube wound with tubular electrodes. The wire was put penetrating through the high voltage and the grounded electrodes, improving the discharge and facilitating uniform surface treatment. In this work, the influences of conductivity of the wire on the effects of surface treatment and discharge behavior were investigated. Surface properties of the wire samples were analyzed by means of surface energy measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to reveal the mechanism for treating the conductive wire, I-V discharge waveforms were measured and time-resolved plasma images were taken. It was demonstrated that the conductive wire was involved in the discharge process, reducing the breakdown voltage significantly and enhancing the discharge. It shows that the discharge mode was strongly dependent on the conductivity of a wire. Intensive surface discharges developed along the conductive wire were found to be mainly responsible for noticeable improvement in the treatment effect.

  16. Particle image velocimetry measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.

    2018-05-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers (TBL) have been performed under low Reynolds number conditions, Re_τ =200{-}1000, typical of direct numerical simulations (DNS). Three reservoir pressures and three measurement locations create an overlap in parameter space at one research facility. This allows us to assess the effects of Reynolds number, particle response and boundary layer thickness separate from facility specific experimental apparatus or methods. The Morkovin-scaled streamwise fluctuating velocity profiles agree well with published experimental and numerical data and show a small standard deviation among the nine test conditions. The wall-normal fluctuating velocity profiles show larger variations which appears to be due to particle lag. Prior to the current study, no detailed experimental study characterizing the effect of Stokes number on attenuating wall-normal fluctuating velocities has been performed. A linear variation is found between the Stokes number ( St) and the relative error in wall-normal fluctuating velocity magnitude (compared to hot wire anemometry data from Klebanoff, Characteristics of Turbulence in a Boundary Layer with Zero Pressure Gradient. Tech. Rep. NACA-TR-1247, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Springfield, Virginia, 1955). The relative error ranges from about 10% for St=0.26 to over 50% for St=1.06. Particle lag and spatial resolution are shown to act as low-pass filters on the fluctuating velocity power spectral densities which limit the measurable energy content. The wall-normal component appears more susceptible to these effects due to the flatter spectrum profile which indicates that there is additional energy at higher wave numbers not measured by PIV. The upstream inclination and spatial correlation extent of coherent turbulent structures agree well with published data including those using krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) performed at the same facility.

  17. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators; Durchfuehrbarkeitsstudien zur direkten Drahtauslese an Wirescannern in Elektronen-Beschleunigern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, Michael

    2010-10-15

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  18. Scanning the melting curve of tungsten by a submicrosecond wire-explosion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloss, A.; Hess, H.; Schneidenbach, H.; Grossjohann, R.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and density during a wire-explosion experiment at atmospheric pressure are described. The measurements encompass a parameter range from the solid to near the critical point. The influence of a polytetra-fluoroethylene coating of the wire, necessary to prevent surface discharges, on the temperature and density measurements is investigated. The melting curve of tungsten up to 4,000 K is determined

  19. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  20. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  1. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  2. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  3. Quantum wire spectroscopy and epitaxial growth velocities in InGaAs-InP heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlock, J.M.; Peeters, F.M.; Cox, H.M.; Morais, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    We study excitons bound to quantum wires of InGaAs embedded in an InP matrix, where the wires vary from 2.93A angstrom to a.1172A angstrom (one to four monolayers) thick and from 25A angstrom to 250A angstrom wide. We combine spectroscopic data from measurements of photoluminescence with variational calculations of the binding energies of excitons to the wires to deduce the wire widths and thickness. The widths are then related to the growth times to deduce lateral growth velocities in the vapor levitation epitaxial technique. Monolayer growth rates, at ∼ 80A angstrom/sec, are significantly faster than growth rates for the multilayer wires. (author)

  4. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  5. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P. [and others

    1998-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  6. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  7. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  8. A thermo-electro-mechanical simulation model for hot wire cutting of EPS foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Kiril; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermo-electro-mechanical mathematical model describing the effects taking place within a Ni-Cr20% wire used in a hot-wire cutting process for free forming and rapid prototyping of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is investigated and simulated. The model implements and solves three semi...... cutting of EPS in contact with a cutting tool made of an electrically heated metal wire attached to a robot device. The finite difference method is used to solve the coupled equations in the two environments (domains) in which the hot-wire operates, namely air and EPS. The model is calibrated against...... experimentally obtained data. Novel findings are a transient temperature-dependent kerfwidth prediction and a relation between kerfwidth and the cutting angle as measured from the horizontal direction. These are important relations in the aim for higher geometrical accuracy of the hot-wire cutting process. (C...

  9. The influence of drawing speed on structure changes in high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of the drawing speed on structure changes has been assessed. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigation confirmed that for wires drawn with high total draft, exceeding 80 %, makes it impossible to clearly assess the impact of drawing technology on structural changes in the drawn wires. Thus, to assess the structural changes necessary to apply quantitative methods. On the basis of examination of the wire structure by measuring of electrical resistance, the structure changes in drawn wires has been determined. It has been shown that the increase of drawing speed, especially above 15 m/s, causes an increase in structure defect, with a decline in platelet orientation of cementite in drawn wires.

  10. The mechatronic design of a fast wire scanner in IHEP U-70 accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, V.T. [Institute for High Energy Physics in National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Protvino 142281 (Russian Federation); Makhov, S.S. [Microprivod Ltd., Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation); Savin, D.A.; Terekhov, V.I. [Institute for High Energy Physics in National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Protvino 142281 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-11

    This paper presents the mechatronic design of a fast wire scanner based on a servomotor. The design of the wire scanner is motivated by the need to measure the transverse profile of the high power proton and carbon beams at the IHEP U-70 accelerator. This paper formulates the requirements to the fast wire scanner system for the high intensity proton beam at the U-70 accelerator. The results on the design of electro-mechanical device for the wire scanner with a wire traveling speed 10–20 m/s are presented. The solution consists in a brushless servomotor and standard motor control electronics. High radiation levels in the accelerator enclosure dictate the use of a resolver as the position feedback element.

  11. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  12. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  13. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  14. Plasma dynamics in aluminium wire array Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    The wire array Z-pinch is the world's most powerful laboratory X-ray source. An achieved power of ∼280TW has generated great interest in the use of these devices as a source of hohlraum heating for inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, the physics underlying how wire array Z-pinches implode is not well understood. This thesis presents the first detailed measurements of plasma dynamics in wire array experiments. The MAGPIE generator, with currents of up to 1.4MA, 150ns 10-90% rise-time, was used to implode arrays of 16mm diameter typically containing between 8 and 64 15μm aluminium wires. Diagnostics included: end and side-on laser probing with interferometry, schlieren and shadowgraphy channels; radial and axial streak photography; gated X-ray imaging; XUV and hard X-ray spectrometry; filtered XRDs and diamond PCDs; and a novel X-ray backlighting system to probe high density plasma. It was found that the plasma formed from the wires consisted of cold, dense cores, which ablated producing hot, low density coronal plasma. After an initial acceleration around the cores, coronal plasma streams flowed force-free towards the axis, with an instability wavelength determined by the core size. At ∼50% of the implosion time, the streams collided on axis forming a precursor plasma which appeared to be uniform, stable, and inertially confined. The existence of core-corona structure significantly affected implosion dynamics. For arrays with <64 wires, the wire cores remained in their original positions until ∼80% of the implosion time before accelerating rapidly. At 64 wires a transition in implosion trajectories to 0-D like occurred indicating a possible merger of current carrying plasma close to the cores - the cores themselves did not merge. During implosion, the cores initially developed uncorrelated instabilities that then transformed into a longer wavelength global mode of instability. The study of nested arrays (2 concentric arrays, one inside the other

  15. Tensile stress dependence of the magnetostatic interaction between Fe-rich wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawronski, P.; Zhukov, A.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; KuIakowski, K.

    2005-01-01

    We study the influence of the applied tensile stress on the magnetostatic interaction between two amorphous Fe-rich wires. The hysteresis loop is measured for: (i) conventional wires produced by in-rotation-water method, with diameter of 125μm (ii) cold-drawn wires with diameter of 50μm. The stress dependence of the interaction field is evaluated from the shape of the hysteresis loops, which show characteristic two-step behaviour. These steps mark the values of the switching field of the wires. For the conventional wires the tensile stress dependence of the interaction field can be explained as a result of the tensile stress dependence of the magnetization. For the cold-drawn wires, the interaction field shows a maximum with the applied stress. This behaviour is interpreted as a consequence of a local variation of the domain structure at the wire ends. It modifies the stray field, and-as a consequence-the switching field of the neighbouring wire

  16. Comparing the thermal stability of NbTi and Nb3Sn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breschi, M; Trevisani, L; Bottura, L; Devred, A; Trillaud, F

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of quenching in low temperature superconducting wires is of great relevance for a proper design of superconductive cables and magnets. This paper reports the experimental results of a vast measurement campaign of quench induced by laser pulses on NbTi and Nb 3 Sn wires in pool boiling helium I. A comparison of the quench behavior of two typical NbTi and Nb 3 Sn wires is shown from different standpoints. Different qualitative behaviors of the voltage traces recorded during quenches and recoveries on NbTi and Nb 3 Sn wires are reported and analyzed. It is shown that the Nb 3 Sn wire exhibits a quench or no-quench behavior, whereas quenches and recoveries are exhibited by the NbTi wire. The two wires are also compared by considering the behaviors of the two main parameters describing quench, i.e. quench energies and quench velocities, with respect to operating current, pulse duration, and magnetic field. It is shown that the Nb 3 Sn wire exhibits a 'kink' of the quench energy versus current curve that makes the quench energy of Nb 3 Sn lower than that of NbTi at some intermediate current levels. Both the qualitative differences of the voltage traces and the different behaviors of quench energies and velocities are interpreted through a coupled electromagnetic-thermal model, with special emphasis on the detailed description of heat exchange with liquid helium.

  17. Development of (Nb,Ta3Sn multifilamentary superconductor wire for high current applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Rodrigues Jr.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the energy generated by a MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD channel using a superconducting magnet demands the optimization of the magnetic field of the system and of the critical points on the magnet winding. This work must include the development of a high performance superconductor wire suitable for this system. Aiming to the construction of improved performance MHD channel, it was developed a low cost superconductor wire, with the required characteristics. The wire was made using a technology compatible with the assembling steps and heat treatment conditions of the MHD superconducting magnets fabrication. It was used the internal Sn method in Nb-7.5wt%Ta tube to fabricate a 271-filament wire with a diameter of 0.81 mm and a Cu/nonCu ratio of 2.3. The wire was heat treated at 200 °C to diffuse the Sn into the Cu shell, producing bronze, followed by the final reaction at temperatures ranging from 670 °C to 730 °C during 25 to 150 h, to produce (Nb,Ta3Sn. The superconducting wire characterization was made measuring the critical current Ic versus the applied magnetic field in the range of 5 to 20 T, the critical temperature Tc and the residual resistivity ratio (RRR. The wire transported critical currents above those available in commercial superconducting wires. These values of Ic are higher than the expected values for the optimization of the MHD channel.

  18. Comparing Thermal Stability of NbTi and Nb$_3$Sn Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Breschi, M; Bottura, L; Devred, A; Trillaud, F

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of quenching in low temperature superconducting wires is of great relevance for a proper design of superconductive cables and magnets. This paper reports the experimental results of a vast measurement campaign of quench induced by laser pulses on NbTi and Nb$_{3}$Sn wires in pool boiling Helium I. A comparison of the quench behavior of two typical NbTi and Nb$_{3}$Sn wires is shown from different standpoints. Different qualitative behaviors of the voltage traces recorded during quenches and recoveries on NbTi and Nb$_{3}$Sn wires are reported and analyzed. It is shown that the Nb$_{3}$Sn wire exhibits a quench or no-quench behavior, whereas quenches and recoveries are exhibited by the NbTi wire. The two wires are also compared considering the behaviors of the two main parameters describing quench, i.e. quench energies and quench velocities, with respect to operation current and pulse duration and magnetic field. It is shown that the Nb$_{3}$Sn wire exhibits a ‘kink’ of the quench energy ...

  19. DETECTORS: Vienna - beyond the wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred; Regler, Meinhard

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, at the fourth Vienna Wire Chamber Conference, Georges Charpak, the inventor of the multiwire proportional chamber, had confidently announced ''Les funérailles des chambres à fils''. Was this the writing on the wall for the conference series as well as this type of detector technology? The demand for detector innovation, coupled with imaginative thinking on the part of the organizers, have kept the Vienna venue at the forefront of the physics calendar. An additional boost to the success of the series was certainly the Nobel Prize awarded to Georges Charpak in 1992. While the major topic naturally is still wire chambers, alternative technologies are also covered. However in fields like calorimetry or ring imaging Cherenkovs, a sample of only a few prominent detectors were presented, giving some participants the impression of a biased selection. The fact that silicon detectors, electronics and track reconstruction strategies were, with the exception of the invited talks, restricted to poster presentations led to the same conclusion. As a result the organizing committee saw that it will have to revise its brief for the next conference. The conference opened with philosophical thoughts by Nobel Prizewinner Georges Charpak. The first day at Vienna is traditionally devoted to applications of gaseous detectors outside high energy physics. L. Shektman gave an overview of wire chambers for medical imaging. Further applications in medicine and in other fields like biology and space science were described by subsequent speakers. The exciting idea of flying a spectrometer on a balloon to study the fraction of electrons and positrons in cosmic rays attracted a lot of attention. The next day covered wire chambers in general. V. Polychronakos presented applications of cathode strip chambers in muon spectrometers for experiments at CERN's LHC proton-proton detector. Certainly the challenges of LHC for detector development dominated many

  20. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  1. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  2. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  3. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  4. Improved Symmetry Greatly Increases X-Ray Power from Wire-Array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B.; Seamen, J.F.; McGurn, J.S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K.W.; Stygar, W.A.; Douglas, M.R.; Matzen, M.K.; Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Eddleman, J.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P.; Maron, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire Z-pinches on a 20-TW electrical generator shows that the measured spatial characteristics and emitted x-ray power agree more closely with rad-hydro simulations when large numbers of wires are used. The measured x-ray power increases first slowly and then rapidly with decreasing interwire gap spacing. Simulations suggested that this increase reflects the transition from implosion of individual wire plasmas to one of an azimuthally symmetric plasma shell. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers of 40TW are achieved. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Band structure dynamics in indium wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Krause, R.; Aeschlimann, S.; Gierz, I.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional indium wires grown on Si(111) substrates, which are metallic at high temperatures, become insulating below ˜100 K due to the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). The physics of this transition is not conventional and involves a multiband Peierls instability with strong interband coupling. This CDW ground state is readily destroyed with femtosecond laser pulses resulting in a light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition. The current understanding of this transition remains incomplete, requiring measurements of the transient electronic structure to complement previous investigations of the lattice dynamics. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with extreme ultraviolet radiation is applied to this end. We find that the transition from the insulating to the metallic band structure occurs within ˜660 fs, which is a fraction of the amplitude mode period. The long lifetime of the transient state (>100 ps) is attributed to trapping in a metastable state in accordance with previous work.

  6. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  7. Mechanical properties and formation mechanisms of a wire of single gold atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Bollinger, G.; Bahn, Sune Rastad; Agrait, N.

    2001-01-01

    initio calculations of the force at chain fracture and compare quantitatively with experimental measurements. The observed mechanical failure and nanoelastic processes involved during atomic wire fabrication are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations, and we find that the total effective...

  8. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  9. Spin correlations in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2015-04-01

    We consider theoretically spin correlations in a one-dimensional quantum wire with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (RDI). The correlations of noninteracting electrons display electron spin resonance at a frequency proportional to the RDI coupling. Interacting electrons, upon varying the direction of the external magnetic field, transit from the state of Luttinger liquid (LL) to the spin-density wave (SDW) state. We show that the two-time total-spin correlations of these states are significantly different. In the LL, the projection of total spin to the direction of the RDI-induced field is conserved and the corresponding correlator is equal to zero. The correlators of two components perpendicular to the RDI field display a sharp electron-spin resonance driven by the RDI-induced intrinsic field. In contrast, in the SDW state, the longitudinal projection of spin dominates, whereas the transverse components are suppressed. This prediction indicates a simple way for an experimental diagnostic of the SDW in a quantum wire. We point out that the Luttinger model does not respect the spin conservation since it assumes the infinite Fermi sea. We propose a proper cutoff to correct this failure.

  10. Stress distribution and lattice distortions in Nb3Sn multifilament wires under uniaxial tensile loading at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerlein, C; Flükiger, R; Kadar, J; Bordini, B; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Di Michiel, M; Buta, F; Seeber, B; Senatore, C; Siegrist, T; Besara, T

    2014-01-01

    The lattice parameter changes in three types of Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires during uniaxial stress–strain measurements at 4.2 K have been measured by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The nearly-stress-free Nb 3 Sn lattice parameter has been determined using extracted filaments, and the elastic strain in the axial and transverse wire directions in the different wire phases has been calculated. The mechanical properties of the PIT and RRP wire are mainly determined by the properties of Nb 3 Sn and unreacted Nb. This is in contrast to the bronze route wire, where the matrix can carry substantial loads. In straight wires the axial Nb 3 Sn pre-strain is strongest in the bronze route wire, its value being smaller in the PIT and RRP wires. A strong reduction of the non-Cu elastic modulus of about 30% is observed during cool-down from ambient temperature to 4.2 K. The Nb 3 Sn Poisson ratio at 4.2 K measured in the untwisted bronze route wire is 0.35. The present study also shows that the process route has a strong influence on the Nb 3 Sn texture. (paper)

  11. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. [Institutt for energiteknikk (Norway); Nordlund, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report describes a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, which is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry. This method resulted in the development of a system called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. LIRA is composed of a signal generator, a signal analyser and a simulator that can be used to simulate several failure/degradation scenarios and assess the accuracy and sensitivity of the LIRA system. Chapter 5 of this report describes an complementary approach based on positron measurement techniques, used widely in defect physics due to the high sensitivity to micro defects, in particular open volume defects. This report describes in details these methodologies, the results of field experiments and the proposed future work. (au)

  12. Magnesium diboride(MgB2) wires for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Dipak; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped MgB 2 /Nb/Monel wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the MgB 2 structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be 25,000 - 25,300 Acm -2 for the wire sintered at 600 degrees C for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, Birr, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds 10 5 Acm -2 at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires

  13. Magnesium diboride(MgB{sub 2}) wires for applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Dipak; Kim, Jung Ho [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped MgB{sub 2}/Nb/Monel wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the MgB{sub 2} structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be 25,000 - 25,300 Acm{sup -2} for the wire sintered at 600 degrees C for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, Birr, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds 10{sup 5} Acm{sup -2} at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires.

  14. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, P.F.; Nordlund, A.

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report describes a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, which is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry. This method resulted in the development of a system called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. LIRA is composed of a signal generator, a signal analyser and a simulator that can be used to simulate several failure/degradation scenarios and assess the accuracy and sensitivity of the LIRA system. Chapter 5 of this report describes an complementary approach based on positron measurement techniques, used widely in defect physics due to the high sensitivity to micro defects, in particular open volume defects. This report describes in details these methodologies, the results of field experiments and the proposed future work. (au)

  15. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Mariantoni, M.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    Quantum computing research has reached a level of maturity where quantum error correction (QEC) codes can be executed on linear arrays of superconducting quantum bits (qubits). A truly scalable quantum computing architecture, however, based on practical QEC algorithms, requires nearest neighbor interaction between qubits on a two-dimensional array. Such an arrangement is not possible with techniques that rely on wire bonding. To address this issue, we have developed the quantum socket, a device based on three-dimensional wires that enables the control of superconducting qubits on a two-dimensional grid. In this talk, we present experimental results characterizing this type of wiring. We will show that the quantum socket performs exceptionally well for the transmission and reflection of microwave signals up to 10 GHz, while minimizing crosstalk between adjacent wires. Under realistic conditions, we measured an S21 of -5 dB at 6 GHz and an average crosstalk of -60 dB. We also describe time domain reflectometry results and arbitrary pulse transmission tests, showing that the quantum socket can be used to control superconducting qubits.

  16. Experimental study on titanium wire drawing with ultrasonic vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Shan, Xiaobiao; Guo, Kai; Yang, Yuancai; Xie, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries, however, they are classified as difficult-to-machine materials. In this paper, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the die to overcome the difficulties during conventional titanium wire drawing processes at the room temperature. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the variation of axial stress within the contacting region and study the change of the drawing stress with several factors in terms of the longitudinal amplitude and frequency of the applied ultrasonic vibration, the diameter reduction ratio, and the drawing force. An experimental testing equipment was established to measure the drawing torque and rotational velocity of the coiler drum during the wire drawing process. The result indicates the drawing force increases with the growth of the drawing velocity and the reduction ratio, whether with or without vibrations. Application of either form of ultrasonic vibrations contributes to the further decrease of the drawing force, especially the longitudinal vibration with larger amplitude. SEM was employed to detect the surface morphology of the processed wires drawn under the three circumstances. The surface quality of the drawn wires with ultrasonic vibrations was apparently improved compared with those using conventional method. In addition, the longitudinal and torsional composite vibration was more effective for surface quality improvement than pure longitudinal vibration, however, at the cost of weakened drawing force reduction effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled

    2014-11-28

    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases.

  18. Flux pinning in bronze-processed Nb3Sn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling law derived by Kramer for magnetic flux pinning in high magnetic fields was examined for its applicability to the magnetic field dependence of critical-current densities in the bronze processed monofilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires. From this it was concluded that: (1) its prediction for the form of the dependence of critical current on magnetic field and grain size [/J vector /sub c/ x H vector/ approx. h/sup 1/2/(1-h) 2 (1-a 0 √rho) -2 ] was found to be very good in most cases including wires with very small Nb 3 Sn grains (approx. 400 A). It was found very useful in comparison of J/sub c/ for different wires and in extrapolating to obtain H/sub c2/ for these wires. (2) However, it could not account consistently for the anisotropy in critical current of a tape which was measured with H applied perpendicular and parallel to the tape face. (3) The values of kappa 1 which were determined with the scaling law were too small by a factor of 2 to 3, and the trend in the variation with heat-treating time was opposite to that which is reasonably to be expected. That the behavior of kappa 1 is thus seriously in contradiction with the expected behavior for Nb 3 Sn suggests basic faults in the derivation of the scaling equation for critical currents at high magnetic fields

  19. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure silver nanoparticles in double distilled water were generated via simple physical method using pure (99.9%) silver wires with 0.2 mm diameter. These wires have been exploded in water by bringing them into sudden contact with pure (99.9%) silver plate when subjected to a potential difference of 36 V DC. High current.

  20. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  1. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585

  2. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F.D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  3. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  4. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  5. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  6. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  7. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  8. Soft X-ray radiation power characteristics of tungsten wire arrays on Yang accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Siqun; Ouyang Kai; Huang Xianbin; Dan Jiakun; Zhou Rongguo; Yang Liang

    2013-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to research the X-ray radiation characteristics of tungsten wire arrays on Yang accelerator. In those experiments, we charged the Marx generator of 60 kV, and the load current of 0.85-1.00 MA, the rise time of 75-90 ns (10%-90%). A soft X-ray scintillator powermeter which responded flatly to 50-1800 eV X-rays was used to measure the power of soft X-ray emitted from implosion plasma. In this paper, we present the measuring results of time-resolved soft X-ray radiation power, and discuss the radiation characteristics of implosion plasma by analyzing the correlations of soft X-ray radiant power and the diameter, length, wire number of the tungsten wire arrays. The optimizing wire array configuration parameters on Yang are as follows: 8 mm array diameter, 15 mm wire length, and 24 wire number. We also present the radiant power difference in radial and axial directions of the wire arrays. (authors)

  9. STRENGTHENING OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL WIRE ROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prestressed steel wire ropes as a way to strengthen a 20-year-old RC T-beam bridge. High strength, low relaxation steel wire ropes with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with prestressed steel wire ropes—including wire rope measuring, extruding anchor heads making, anchorage installing, tensioning steel wire ropes and pouring mortar was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed based on the concrete structure theory. The flexural strength of RC T-beam bridges strengthened with prestressed steel wire ropes was governed by the failure of concrete crushing. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening. The results of concrete strain and deflection show that the flexural strength and stiffness of the strengthened beam are improved. The crack width measurement also indicates that this technique could increase the durability of the bridge. Thus, this strengthened way with prestressed steel wire rope is feasible and effective.

  10. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  11. Second coordinate readout in drift chambers by timing of the electromagnetic wave propagating along the anode wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, R.A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.M.

    1980-11-01

    The feasibility of using an anode wire and surrounding electrodes in drift chambers as a transmission line for second coordinate readout has been studied. The method is based on propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the anode wire is determined by measurement, in an optimized electronic readout system, of the time difference between the arrivals of the signal to the ends of the wire. The resolution obtained on long wires (approx. 2 meters) is about 2 cm FWHM for minimum ionizing particles at a gas gain of approx. = 10 5

  12. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Gibson, E. D.; Ostenson, J. E.; Schmidt, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb 3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb 3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting

  13. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  14. Translating the 2-dimensional mammogram into a 3-dimensional breast: Identifying factors that influence the movement of pre-operatively placed wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ko Un; Nathanson, David

    2017-08-01

    Pre-operative measurements from the skin to a wire-localized breast lesion can differ from operating room measurements. This study was designed to measure the discrepancies and study factors that may contribute to wire movement. Prospective data were collected on patients who underwent wire localization lumpectomy. Clip and hook location, breast size, density, and direction of wire placement were the main focus of the analysis. Wire movement was more likely with longer distance from skin to hook or clip, larger breast size (especially if "fatty"), longer time between wire placement and surgery start time, and medial wire placement in larger breast. Age, body mass index, presence of mass, malignant diagnosis, tumor grade, and clip distance to the chest wall were not associated with wire movement. A longer distance from skin to hook correlated with larger specimen volume. Translation of the lesion location from a 2-dimensional mammogram into 3-dimensional breasts is sometimes discrepant because of movement of the localizing wire. Breast size, distance of skin to clip or hook, and wire exit site in larger breasts have a significant impact on wire movement. This information may guide the surgeon's skin incision and extent of excision. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stiffness and frictional resistance of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire with low-stress hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Yu M; Lai, Yu-Lin; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2007-05-01

    Stress-induced martensite formation with stress hysteresis that changes the elasticity and stiffness of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire influences the sliding mechanics of archwire-guided tooth movement. This in-vitro study investigated the frictional behavior of an improved superelastic Ni-Ti wire with low-stress hysteresis. Improved superelastic Ni-Ti alloy wires (L & H Titan, Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) with low-stress hysteresis were examined by using 3-point bending and frictional resistance tests with a universal test machine at a constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and compared with the former conventional austenitic-active superelastic Ni-Ti wires (Sentalloy, Tomy International). Wire stiffness levels were derived from differentiation of the polynomial regression of the unloading curves, and values for kinetic friction were measured at constant bending deflection distances of 0, 2, 3, and 4 mm, respectively. Compared with conventional Sentalloy wires, the L & H Titan wire had a narrower stress hysteresis including a lower loading plateau and a higher unloading plateau. In addition, L & H Titan wires were less stiff than the Sentalloy wires during most unloading stages. Values of friction measured at deflections of 0, 2, and 3 mm were significantly (P Sentalloy wires at all bending deflections (P <.05). Stress-induced martensite formation significantly reduced the stiffness and thus could be beneficial to decrease the binding friction of superelastic Ni-Ti wires during sliding with large bending deflections. Austenitic-active alloy wires with low-stress hysteresis and lower stiffness and friction offer significant potential for further investigation.

  16. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  17. Effect of transverse compression on I/sub c/ of Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specking, W.; Goldacker, W.; Fluekiger, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of transverse compressive stress on critical current in bronze processed Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary wires was measured at 13.5 T. For the same wire the critical current was more sensitive to this stress than to axial stress. An increase in this stress first caused a slight enhancement of the critical current followed by a drastic decrease of 50 percent at a stress equal to 100 MPa. X-ray diffraction under transverse compression revealed a decrease in the spacing between the lattice planes parallel to the wire axis. This provided a physical basis for the initial enhancement of the critical current under transverse compressive stress

  18. Low-field Instabilities in Nb$_{3}$Sn Multifilamentary Wires the Possible Role of Unreacted Nb

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, A; Celentano, G; Fabbricatore, P; Ferdeghini, C; Greco, M; Gambardella, U

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental study aiming to demonstrate the not negligible role of unreacted Nb on the magnetic instabilities in superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn multifilamentary wires, observable through partial flux jumps at magnetic field values below 0.5 T. The analysed wires were recently developed for use as dipoles required in future high-energy proton accelerators and are based on powder-in-tube technology. We studied both unreacted (only involving Nb filaments) and reacted wires, finding flux jump instabilities in both cases when performing magnetic measurements. The results can be interpreted on the basis of the critical state model and are coherent with the intrinsic stability criterion.

  19. Influence of tensile stress and frequency on the longitudinal magnetic hysteresis of amorphous wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos; Maria Munoz, Jose; Hernandez-Gomez, Pablo; Francisco, Carlos de

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the longitudinal magnetic hysteresis of amorphous wires with different Fe or Co compositions through an external magnetic field in the axial direction. Measurements have been carried out with the help of a digitally processed system in the 50 Hz-1 kHz frequency range. In addition, the influence of different tensile stresses has been also analyzed. The results show that both parameters change considerably the magnetic hysteresis of the wires but in a different way depending on their composition. This behaviour has been interpreted in terms of the different domain distribution associated with the opposite sign of the magnetostriction for Fe and Co-based wires, respectively.

  20. The Installation for Fatigue and Destruction Tests of Thin Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Prosvirin

    2015-01-01

    cycles to failure significantly improves the repeatability of results in fatigue tests.The paper estimates the efficiency of developed new technology as follows: analysis of quality measures allows to state the that the technical level of the new design becomes, on average, by 45% higher as compared to the base case.The paper presents research results of the cyclic strength of a brass-plated wire from steel 80. Comparison of fatigue curves shows that the new installation provides better repeatability of results and 1.5 - 1.6 times reduction of the performance variation.