WorldWideScience

Sample records for wipp borehole plugging

  1. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    The tests and experiments described attempt to provide a mix of borehole (with limited access) and in-mine (with relatively unlimited access) environments in which assessment of the various issues involved can be undertaken. The Bell Canyon Test provides the opportunity to instrument and analyze a plug in a high pressure region. The Shallow Hole Test permits application of best techniques for plugging and then access to both the top and bottom of the plug for further analysis. The Diagnostic Test Hole permits recovery of bench scale size samples for analysis and establishes an in-borehole laboratory in which to conduct testing and analysis in all strata from the surface into the salt horizon. The additional in mine experiments provide the opportunity to investigate in more detail specific effects on plugs in the salt region and allows evaluation of instrumentation systems

  3. Instrumentation development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program (BHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.

    1979-11-01

    This report discusses the instrumentation development needs of the borehole testing program as it now exists. Although requirements may change as the program progresses, the items indicated are basic to any borehole plugging program. Instrumentation is discussed both for the plug environment and for the plug itself. For the plug environment, a probe for measuring the disturbed region and a coordinate logging tool are required. For the plug itself, instrumentation includes measurements above, within, and below the plug. Instrumentation for most measurements above the plug is currently available; for measurements within and below the plug, however, further development is required. Specifically, resistivity, induction, and acoustic probes; an in situ stressmeter; and a hardwire, feedthrough system need to be developed

  4. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Statler, R.D.; Peterson, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations

  5. Borehole Plugging-Materials Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    This report discusses the background and first year's results of the grouting materials development program for plugging boreholes associated with the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The grouts are to be pumpable, impermeable, and durable for many thousands of years. The work was done at the Concrete Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The workability, strength, porosity, bonding, expansion, and permeability data are summarized and discussed. The work is continuing at WES

  6. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1976-02-28

    Calcium silicate--and aluminosilicate--compositions based on mixtures of fine grained quartz with various cements or calcium silicate compounds have been investigated under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 110-250/sup 0/C and pressure range 1,000-10,000 psi, pressures which are always in excess of that required to maintain liquid H/sub 2/O, and approximate the confining pressures which might be anticipated in deep boreholes. All silicate cement combinations investigated produce materials having adequate strength after reaction times of 1 day or longer. The calcium aluminate cement was also adequate with respect to strength but would need to be investigated more extensively for overall properties because of its highly reactive chemistry. The mini-rock cylinder-cement plug hydrothermal experiments in both limestone and sandstone resulted in reasonable magnitudes of bonding strength. The typical shear strength of a hydrothermally treated cement-sandstone plug is 1030 psi, and the compressive strength of the extruded cement plug is 9550 psi. Reactions having a potential for producing calcium carbonate plugs in holes drilled in carbonate rocks were studied. It should be noted that most cements are calcium silicate systems and are chemically compatible with the CaCO/sub 3/ and CaMg(CO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ in the rock walls of the hole. A side benefit from this research is some insight into the suitability of massive carbonate rocks as disposal sites. Carbonate rocks by themselves are highly impermeable, have low exchange capacity, and a low water content--all properties that are desirable in the storage medium. A major drawback is the presence of secondary permeability in the form of solutionally modified joints, fractures, and bedding planes.

  8. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium silicate--and aluminosilicate--compositions based on mixtures of fine grained quartz with various cements or calcium silicate compounds have been investigated under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 110-250 0 C and pressure range 1,000-10,000 psi, pressures which are always in excess of that required to maintain liquid H 2 O, and approximate the confining pressures which might be anticipated in deep boreholes. All silicate cement combinations investigated produce materials having adequate strength after reaction times of 1 day or longer. The calcium aluminate cement was also adequate with respect to strength but would need to be investigated more extensively for overall properties because of its highly reactive chemistry. The mini-rock cylinder-cement plug hydrothermal experiments in both limestone and sandstone resulted in reasonable magnitudes of bonding strength. The typical shear strength of a hydrothermally treated cement-sandstone plug is 1030 psi, and the compressive strength of the extruded cement plug is 9550 psi. Reactions having a potential for producing calcium carbonate plugs in holes drilled in carbonate rocks were studied. It should be noted that most cements are calcium silicate systems and are chemically compatible with the CaCO 3 and CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 in the rock walls of the hole. A side benefit from this research is some insight into the suitability of massive carbonate rocks as disposal sites. Carbonate rocks by themselves are highly impermeable, have low exchange capacity, and a low water content--all properties that are desirable in the storage medium. A major drawback is the presence of secondary permeability in the form of solutionally modified joints, fractures, and bedding planes

  9. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on borehole and shaft plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Geologic disposal of radioactive waste relies on the capability of many geological formations to provide long-term containment of the waste. The disposal operations could significantly modify the original conditions. In addition to the underground excavations and the thermal input of the waste their is the problem of boreholes and shafts that constitute a potential by-pass of the geological barriers. It is therefore essential to develop techniques and procedures for effective plugging of all penetrations connecting the disposal zone with the surface or with water bearing layers. It will be necessary to produce plugs which effectively restore the original characteristics of the isolating formations. In addition these plugs must be chemically stable in the existing geochemical environment in order to remain effective for very long periods of time and the plugs of disposal holes can be exposed to high temperatures and radiation doses. All countries with geologic disposal programmes will have to face the problem of borehole and shapt plugging

  11. Borehole Plugging Program. Plugging of ERDA No. 10 drill hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    A requirement exists to plug exploratory drill holes located in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area of Southeastern New Mexico. Sandia Laboratories, in cooperation with the US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Concrete Laboratory, developed pumpable and durable cement grouts. These grouts were successfully used to plug an existing drill hole in the area. Results of this project are presented, along with comments and conclusions

  12. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. A feasibility report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of forming borehole plugs by hydrothermal transport was examined with respect to five systems, utilizing available literature data. In general, it would appear possible to create plugs with hydrothermal cements, with hydrothermally transported quartz, and with carbonates precipitated in-situ using carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide and water as reacting fluids. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view using a slurry with a lime-alumina-silica composition carried into the hole in a single pipe at temperatures in the range of 200 0 C and requiring only enough pressure to drive the mixture into the hole. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be most compatible with the wall rock. Deposition is likely to be slow, and there are severe engineering problems associated with a single pipe system carrying silica-rich solutions at temperatures in excess of 500 0 C at pressure of 2000 bars (30,000 psi). Calcite plugs could be formed as compatible plug materials in contact with a limestone or dolomite wall rock. It is not known whether non-porous plugs can be readily formed and there is also a problem of chemical reaction with percolating groundwater. The clay-water and sulfur-water systems do not appear to be viable plug systems. In-situ reconstitution of the wall rock does not appear to be an economically feasible possibility

  13. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  14. Pretest 3D finite element analysis of the WIPP Intermediate Scale Borehole Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguello, J.G.

    1991-11-01

    A three dimensional pretest finite element analysis of the Intermediate Scale Borehole Test has been performed. In the analysis, the 7.7 years simulation period includes the mining of Rooms C1 and C2, and the N1420 cross drift, at time zero; drilling of the borehole between the two rooms at 5.7 years; and 2 years of post-drilling response. An all salt configuration was used in the calculation. The 1984 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) reference elastic-secondary creep law, with reduced elastic moduli, was used to model the creeping response of the salt. Results show that after mining of the rooms and cross drift a relatively high von Mises stress state exists around the perimeter of the pillar. However, by 5.7 years, or immediately prior to drilling of the borehole, the pillar has relaxed to an almost uniform von Mises stress of about 7--8 MPa. After the borehole is drilled, a relatively high von Mises stress field is once again set up in the immediate vicinity of the hole. This drives the creep closure of the borehole. The hole closes more in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, resulting in ovalling of the hole. At the end of the simulation, the von Mises stress around the borehole is still higher than that in the remained of the pillar. Thus, the closure rates are relatively high at the end of the simulation time

  15. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] intermediate scale borehole test: A pretest analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argueello, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element structural analysis of the Intermediate Scale Borehole Test at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been performed. The analysis provides insight into how a relatively new excavation in a creeping medium responds when introduced into an existing pillar which has been undergoing stress redistribution for 5.7 years. The stress field of the volume of material in the immediate vicinity of the borehole changes significantly when the hole is drilled. Closure of the hole is predicted to be larger in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, leading to an ovaling of the hole. The relatively high stresses near the hole persist even at the end of the simulation, 2 years after the hole is drilled. 12 ref., 10 figs

  16. Borehole plugging experiment in OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.

    2006-04-01

    Sealing of investigation boreholes has been studied by Svensk Koernbroenslehantering AB (SKB) and Posiva Oy (Posiva) as a part of final disposal research. The proposed principle is that investigation boreholes drilled at a site must not act as a continuous flow path for groundwater but be sealed to become as tight as the surrounding rock. As a part of the investigations SKB and Posiva started the third phase of the joint project 'Cleaning and sealing of investigation boreholes' in 2005. One of the sub-projects was the plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto. The aim of the experiment was to test all main procedures of borehole sealing concept in practise in a deep borehole. Borehole KR24 was drilled to the depth of 551.11 metres in 2003 and it was located inside the shaft profile in Onkalo. From the surface to the depth of about 120 m the borehole diameter is 98 mm. The rest of the borehole is 75.7 mm in diameter. The borehole is vertical and the inclination is quite accurately 90 degrees. The plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 consisted of four main activities: (1) cleaning of the borehole, (2) characterization of the borehole (3) selective stabilisation of the borehole, and (4) emplacement of plugs. The comprehensive cleaning of the borehole was to be done in the first stage to provide the basis for other activities. The aim of characterization was to study the borehole in order to determine the sections for selective stabilisation and the locations for plugs. The characterization phase consisted of caliper measurements, dummy probing and optical borehole imaging (OBI). The aim of selective stabilisation was to show that selected borehole sections can be stabilised using new techniques and methods. One borehole section was reamed from Ω 76 mm to Ω 98 mm. The reamed borehole section should have been filled with sufficient amount of cement-based material to achieve a stable 'concrete tube' after redrilling, but due to encountered problems and

  17. Cement technology for borehole plugging: an interim report on permeability measurements of cementitious solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of borehole plug solids and plug-wall rock junctions is a property of major interest in the Borehole Plugging Program. This report describes the equipment and techniques used to determine the permeabilities of possible borehole plugging materials and presents results from tests on various cementitious solids and plug-rock combinations. The cementitious solids were made from mixtures of cement, sand, salt, fly ash, and water. Three different types of cement and four different fly ashes were used. Permeabilities ranged from a high value of 3 x 10 -4 darcy for a neat cement paste to a low of 5 x 10 -8 darcy for a saltcrete containing 30 wt % sodium chloride. Miniature boreholes were made in the following four different types of rock: Westerly granite, Dresser basalt, Sioux quartzite, and St. Cloud granodiorite. These small holes were plugged with a mix consisting of 23 wt % Type I Portland cement, 20 wt % bituminous fy ash, 43.2 wt % sand, and 13.8 wt % water. After curing for 91 days at ambient temperature, the permeability of the plug-wall rock junctions ranged from 3 x 10 -5 to -8 darcy. Three of the four miniature plugged boreholes exhibited permeabilities of < 10 microdarcys

  18. Borehole plugging of man-made accesses to a basalt repository: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Niccum, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes the status of work currently in progress for the Basalt Borehole Plugging Program (BBPP). The primary objectives of the BBPP outlined in this report have been met during this first phase of work. These objectives included: (1) the preparation of a preliminary list of candidate plug materials; (2) a description of available machinery capable of placing candidate plug materials; and (3) the development of physical and geochemical testing programs to help evaluate the chemical stability and physical properties of candidate plug materials. The most significant finding from work to date is that given reasonable regulatory criteria, nothing has been identified which would prevent design of a plug system to seal manmade openings leading to a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt for significantly long periods of time (on the order of thousands of years). Work accomplished to date indicates that this plug system can be designed using both natural and manufactured materials and can be emplaced with existing placement machinery and modifications of that machinery. The objectives of Task II are to conduct laboratory tests to evaluate the suitability of preferred candidate materials for plugging boreholes in the proposed repository, select plug system(s), initiate preconceptual machinery design for the placement of materials in plug system(s), and prepare a preliminary Task II report. As with Task I project organization, Task II is divided into subtasks that are identified by written subtask work summaries

  19. Analysis of borehole inclusion stress measurement concepts proposed for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed in southeastern New Mexico by the United States Department of Energy as a research and development (RandD) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal in salt of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities. As part of the WIPP RandD program, a series of in situ tests will be performed to determine the behavior of drifts and storage rooms in the creeping salt medium. Data obtained in these tests will be used to evaluate and improve numerical models used to compute the structural response of these drifts and rooms. Stress has been proposed as one of the parameters to be measured in the tests, and borehole inclusion stressmeters have been included in the instrumentation package

  20. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport: an interim report on experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Five possible systems that might lead to borehole plugs were considered with respect to replacement of the original rock with a material of essentially the same chemical composition and mineralogical makeup or with the introduction of other materials that might be chemically compatible with the surrounding wall rock. The five systems were: Quartz or chalcedony plugs from the SiO 2 -water system, replacement of shale rock by transport in the ''clay''-water system, hydrothermal cement systems, carbonate plugs in limestone and dolomite, and sulfur plugs by transport in the system sulfur-water. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view. Pressures and temperatures for reactions in the systems CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -H 2 O are modest and there is evidence that the plug formed would have a lower porosity and permeability than those derived from more conventional cement systems. Further, the mineral phases, principally tobermorite, are likely to be compatible with expected shale, sandstone, and limestone wall rock materials. Calcite (but not dolomite) plugs could be formed in limestone or dolomite rock. Less is known about carbonate plugs and the porosity, permeability, and possible reactions with circulating groundwater. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be the most compatible with the wall rock but would be extremely difficult to form in place. It was concluded that replacement of shales by clay, mica, or other layer silicate transport in hydrothermal solution was limited by the extremely sluggish kinetics of these reactions and that a practical plug of such materials is not feasible. Likewise, the sulfur-water system was found to be unlikely to yield a plug material

  1. Recommended analysis plan for the borehole plugging program potash core test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    A four-year old plugged potash core hole near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico has been proposed for overcoring, in order to examine the behavior of known grout mix constituents in contact with a variety of rock types during an extended grout-curing interval. This report recommends that various geochemical analyses be applied to the core samples containing both grout and rock and the interface between the two. The methods to be used include optical petrography, electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (TGA, DSC, DTA) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and bulk chemical analysis. These analyses would allow identification of phases which have developed during grout curing, and provide evidence of reactions which may have taken place among constituents in the system grout-rock-groundwater. These reactions, and their sequence of occurrence will be compared with reactions predicted by thermodynamic modeling as the system seeks its lowest Gibbs' free energy. Identification of reactions which have the potential for compromising the integrity of a grout plug will receive special attention. Since not all such detrimental reactions can be observed directly in a human lifetime, due to kinetic inhibitions, and since a capability of time-dependent prediction of their degree of occurrence cannot be developed, thermodynamic modeling is the only known way of evaluating the long-term stability of a grout plug. The analysis of the plug-rock system will give an indication of in situ curing history of grout plug, and will allow an early occurrence of potentially detrimental reactions to be detected. Thus, this activity will be a case-study of suitability of certain grout mixtures for use in evaporites, as an example of evaluation of grouts for long-term compatability with a variety of rock types

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  4. Characterization of samples of a cement-borehole plug in bedded evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.; Roy, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes the laboratory characterization of a section of an eighteen-year-old cement-based plug emplaced to seal a four-inch (ten-centimeter) borehole in the Salado Formation near Carlsbad, NM. The dominantly halite salt strata contain a horizon rich in potassium-bearing minerals such as langbeinite, in the plug region. Other host rock minerals identified include illite, kainite, magnesite, syngenite and polyhalite. Identified in the plug were: the cement phase calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H having an intermediate degree of crystallinity), Friedel's salt, halite, sylvite and portlandite. The plug, though intact, unfractured on a macroscale, and forming an adequate physical bond with the salt formation, was weak and permeable relative to the surrounding bedded salt. Characterization of the plug and rock was carried out by a combination of measurements: compressive strength, permeability, density and porosity, thermal measurements (DTA, TGA), x-ray diffractometry, SEM and optical (including thin section) microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis for chemical composition

  5. Cement technology for plugging boreholes in radioactive-waste-repository sites. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, G.A.

    1980-08-01

    Laboratory evaluations were made of several borehole plug formulations proposed for the Bell Canyon field test. Measurements included compressive strength, permeability, density, and thermal conductivity. A few preliminary tests with saltcrete formulations showed no significant difference in physical properties of the solid as a function of fly ash or cement composition. The saltcrete proposed for the field test gave acceptable pushout strength and permeability values using miniature borehole plugs in anhydrite. Similar laboratory tests made with a freshwater formulation indicated high permeability. Electron micrographs showed dissolution cavities or cracks at the plug-wall interface. These studies showed that the reactions occurring between the borehole plug and the adjacent rock wall are an important factor in obtaining a good seal and that laboratory tests are useful to indicate the possibility of success or failure of field tests

  6. Status of borehole plugging and shaft sealing for geologic isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities in programs devoted to disposal of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations are reported. Research on borehole plugging and shaft sealing is emphasized. Past and current activities related to penetration sealing were assessed through an exhaustive literature review and contacts with industrial, governmental, and research organizations. Cited references are included along with a bibliography assembled for this study. Evaluation of literature reviewed and presentation of information obtained from personal contacts are summarized. Technical considerations for penetration sealing as related to nuclear waste isolation, but which may differ from conventional technology, are presented and research needs are identified

  7. Summary of research and development activities in support of waste acceptance criteria for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-11-01

    The development of waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is summarized. Specifications for acceptable waste forms are included. Nine program areas are discussed. They are: TRU characterization, HLW interactions, thermal/structural interactions, nuclide migration, permeability, brine migration, borehole plugging, operation/design support, and instrumentation development. Recommendations are included

  8. Expansive stresses of a grout plug on the walls of borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licastro, P.H.; Malek, R.I.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The primary function of a concrete plug in a repository seal system is to provide a viable seal at the interface with the host rock by developing and maintaining a positive normal stress across the interface. While standards do exist for unrestrained and restrained expansion of mortar and concrete there are few systems that permit calculation of stress for a stimulated borehole geometry. A system was designed to determine the radial stresses introduced by expansive, cementitious grout on the borehole. It consists of a strain gage instrumented cell and its associated signal conditioner/amplifier. Cell material and thickness can be varied to simulate restraining conditions at given depths. Prior to sample emplacement the cell/system is calibrated by fluid pressurization. Special cell design eliminates the effects of longitudinal stresses during calibration. An analog output as a function of time is recorded, in conjunction with surface temperature of the cylinder. The cell containing grout is maintained under controlled temperature conditions which can be varied from 25 0 C to 90 0 C. Pressure can be applied to the grout column to simulate hydrostatic/geostatic load conditions. Using the equipment described, several expansive grout formulations were studied at 38 0 C. Results obtained for expansive stresses as a function of time are presented together with implications on repository-seal durability

  9. Basic data report for borehole Cabin Baby-1 deepening and hydrologic testing. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Hassinger, B.W.; Klaiber, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    Borehole Cabin Baby-1 was originally drilled to a depth of 4159.0 feet below kelly bushing (8.0 feet above ground surface) in 1974 and 1975 as a ''wildcat'' hydrocarbon exploratory well. Control of the borehole was given to the US Department of Energy (DOE) after it was found to be a ''dry hole''. Cabin Baby-1 was reentered, deepened, and hydrologically tested in August and September 1983. The well is located in Section 5, T23S, R31E, just outside the limit of WIPP Zone III, approximately 2.5 miles south of the WIPP exploratory shaft. The deepening and testing of Cabin Baby-1 was undertaken for several reasons: to provide data on the hydrologic properties, including hydrostatic head potential of selected permeable zones in the Bell Canyon Formation; to provide representative fluid samples from selected permeable zones in the Bell Canyon Formation for determination of fluid composition and density; and to define further the stratigraphy of the upper Bell Canyon Formation at the Cabin Baby-1 location. The borehole was deepened from the previous total depth to a new depth of 4298.6 feet below kelly bushing by continuous coring. Field operations related to deepening and logging of the borehole began August 12, 1983 and were completed August 30, 1983. Hydrologic testing activities began August 30, 1983 and were completed September 29, 1983. Drill-stem tests were conducted in four zones in the Bell Canyon Formation, and one test of the Salado Formation was performed. Fluid samples were collected from the Hays and Olds sandstones of the Bell Canyon Formation

  10. Borehole Plugging Program. Status report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Cook, C.W.; Gulick, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    This program is in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) proposed for southeastern New Mexico. Current-year activities cover management, materials, instrumentation, and field tests. Proposed FY 80 activities are also outlined

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Backfill and Plug test. Hydraulic testing of core drilled boreholes in the ZEDEX drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Nordqvist, Rune; Ekman, Lennart; Hansson, Kent (GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The present report documents the performance and results of hydraulic testing in selected core boreholes in the Zedex drift. The holes will be used as rock instrumentation boreholes during the Backfill and Plug Test at Aespoe HRL. The testing involves both 1 m long boreholes with 56 mm diameter as well as longer boreholes c. 5 m, 8 m and 25 m long with 56 mm or 76 mm diameter. Only single-hole tests were performed. The tests were carried out as short-time constant head injection tests since all boreholes tested (except one) were non-flowing before tests. The injection phase was followed by a pressure recovery phase. Furthermore, the tests were carried out as single-packer tests. A specially designed test system was used for the tests. The main evaluation of the tests was performed on data from the recovery phase by a new approach based on a non-linear regression technique combined with a flow simulation model (SUTRA). The tests in the 1 m-holes (testing the interval c. 0.3-0.7 m in the rock perpendicular to the tunnel face) show that the hydraulic conductivity of the superficial rock around the Zedex drift in general is low. However, during testing in some boreholes, visible leakage in the rock occurred through superficial fractures into the tunnel. These fractures were mainly located in the floor of the Zedex drift and are probably blast-induced. These fractures have a high hydraulic conductivity. The tests in the longer boreholes show that the hydraulic conductivity further into the rock in general is below c. 1x10-10 m/s. Increased hydraulic conductivity (c.1.5x10-8 m/s) was only observed in the flowing borehole KXZSD8HL.

  12. Field-test programs of borehole plugs in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the repository-sealing field test effort being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeast New Mexico. Summary descriptions of supporting activities, such as performance assessment and plugging materials development, are included to create the connection between modeling and laboratory activities as they relate to field results. Results of tests on a portion of a 17-year-old plug (Plug 217) recovered from a mine horizon and the Bell Canyon Test, in which a cement plug was emplaced to isolate a naturally pressurized aquifer, are given. Conclusions from these field plugging tests are included

  13. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included

  14. Basic data report for Drillhole AEC 7 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    AEC 7 is a borehole drilled in western Lea County, New Mexico, in section 31, T.21S.,R.32E. AEC 7 was drilled to 3918 feet in 1974 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sandia deepened the hole to 4732 ft in 1979. The borehole provided stratigraphic and lithologic information in the initial and final drilling. The borehole was used extensively for tests of borehole plugs and plugging operations. AEC 7 penetrated, in descending order, Holocene sands and Mescalero caliche (8 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (109 ft), Dewey Lake Red Beds (542 ft), Rustler Formation (325 ft), Salado Formation (2014 ft), Castile Formation (1521 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (197 ft). Cores were obtained from much of the borehole. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on stratigraphy, lithology, and structure. Beds were in normal stratigraphic sequence and without structural deformation except in the lower Castile. Anhydrite II and Halite II appear to be repeated in the borehole. This section was penetrated during deepening by Sandia; the structural complication is consistent with deformation found nearby in ERDA 6. The potential site on which AEC 7 is located was abandoned in 1976 after ERDA 6 was drilled. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  15. Interpretation of wireline geophysical logs. ERDA No. 9 stratigraphic test borehole, DOE WIPP Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.; McWhirter, V.C.

    1981-02-01

    A stratigraphic core hole known as ERDA No. 9 was drilled at the approximate center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site located east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The hole was continuously cored from 1090 to 2887 feet, the total depth of the hole. A suite of 20 wireline geophysical logs were made under open hole conditions over the cored interval. Recording in the field was by analog strip charts. The records were subsequently digitized at 0.5 foot intervals with the data placed on magnetic tape. A simple computer program was devised to interpret rock type and calculate elastic properties based on the digital data. All of the data is available in convenient digital form, and additional computer-assisted analysis is now possible to describe the detailed stratigraphy of the evaporites penetrated in ERDA No. 9. The analysis performed thus far is in excellent agreement with physical examination of the core. The main advantage of correlating the wireline geophysical logs with core is to provide a better basis for using wireline logs to describe rock conditions either in future holes drilled by the simpler rotary method or where core has been lost in cored holes

  16. Basic data report for deepening of drillhole WIPP 13 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    WIPP 13 is a borehole drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, in section 17, T22S,R31E, in order to investigate a subsurface seismic disturbed zone. The first 1035 ft of the borehole were drilled in July and August 1978. The deepening of WIPP 13 was performed in 1979 between August and October. This report documents the deepening of WIPP 13 to 3861.8 ft. Only rocks of the Permian, Salado and Castile Formations were penetrated in the deepening. Cores were obtained for some portions of the hole and cuttings were collected from some of the sections which were not cored (see Table 1). A suite of geophysical logs was run to provide information on lithology, structure and geochemistry. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  17. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 11 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    Seismic reflection data from petroleum industry sources showed anomalous reflectors in the Castile Formation over a small area about 3 miles north of the center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Additional corroborative seismic reflection data were collected as part of WIPP investigations, and WIPP 11 was drilled to investigate the anomaly. WIPP 11 was drilled near the northwest corner of Section 9, T.22.S., R.31E. it penetrated, in descending order, sand dune deposits and the Gatuna Formation (29'), Santa Rosa Sandstone (132'), Dewey Lake Red Beds (502'), Rustler Formation (288'), Salado Formation (1379'), and most of the Castile Formation (1240'). Beds within the lower part of the Salado, and the upper anhydrite of the Castile, are thinner than normal; these beds are displaced upward structurally by the upper Castile halite which is highly thickened (about 968'). The lowest halite is thin (51') and the basal anhydrite was not completely penetrated. Subsequent seismic and borehole data has shown WIPP 11 to be in a structural complex now identified as the disturbed zone. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level waste, though there are no plans at this time to dispose of high level waste or spent fuel at WIPP

  18. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 12 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    WIPP 12 is a borehole drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate the stratigraphy, structure and lithology in the WIPP area. WIPP 12 was drilled in section 17, T22S,R31E, between November 9 and December 7, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 2785.8 ft. It encountered from top to bottom, 16.2 ft of sand, 3 ft of Mescalero Caliche and 9.6 ft of the Gatuna Formation, all of Quaternary age; 138.2 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation, 483 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 326 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1771.5 ft of the Salado Formation, and 48.3 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or cuttings were obtained for the entire hole. A suite of geophysical logs, including neutron gamma and density curves, was run to the full depth of WIPP 12. The borehole demonstrated that the elevation of the top of the Castile is about 160' above the same horizon in ERDA 9. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  19. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 32 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    WIPP 32 is an exploratory borehole drilled to examine the subsurface at a small topographic high in Nash Draw. The borehole is located in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NE 1/4 SE 1/4 Sec. 33, T.22S., R.29E. and was drilled in August, 1979. The hole was drilled to a depth of 390 feet, and encountered, from top to bottom, the Rustler Formation (166') and the upper Salado Formation (224'). Core was taken from 4 to 353 feet. Geophysical logs were run the full length of the hole to measure formation properties. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  20. The WIPP research and development test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) is a DOE RandD Facility for the purpose of developing the technology needed for the safe disposal of the United States defense-related radioactive waste. The in-situ test program is defined for the thermal-structural interactions, plugging and sealing, and waste package interactions in a salt environment. An integrated series of large-scale underground tests address the issues of both systems and long-term isolation performance of a repository

  1. WIPP Pecos Management Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reviews and evaluations compiled by Pecos Management Services, Inc. encompass the current and future WIPP activities in the program areas of TRU waste characterization, transportation, and disposal.

  2. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 28 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 28 was drilled in Nash Draw (NE 1/4, sec. 18, T.21S., R.31E.) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Mescalero caliche (12 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (203 ft), Rustler Formation (316 ft), and the upper 270 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 58 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (801 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  3. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 19 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 19 is an exploratory borehole whose objective was to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between April 6 and May 4, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1038.2 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (7', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (82'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (494'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (143'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 19 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  4. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 21 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 21 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between May 24 and 26, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1046 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (6'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (34'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (487'), the Rustler Formation (308'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (178'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of goephysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 21 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  5. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 18 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 18 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1060 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (5', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (4'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (129'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (475'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (132'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 18 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  6. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 25 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    WIPP 25 was drilled on the eastern edge of Nash Draw (SW 1/4, Sec. 15, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Pleistocene sediments (17 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (215 ft, Rustler Formation (333 ft, and 90 ft of the upper Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 37 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (655 ft, geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  7. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 22 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 22 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1448 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (68'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (492'), the Rustler Formation (311'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (565'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 22 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  8. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 26 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 26 was drilled in Nash Draw (SE 1/4 NE 1/4, sec. 29, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, surficial deposits (10 ft with full materials for pad), Rustler Formation (299 ft), and the upper 194 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 11 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (503 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  9. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 14 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Borehole WIPP 14 is an exploratory well drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, in section 9, T22S,R31E. The borehole was drilled to a depth of 1000.0 ft measured from ground level. It penetrated, from top to bottom, 15.4 ft of Quaternary sands, 125.6 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and in the Permian strata, 497.7 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 312.9 ft of the Rustler Formation and 48.4 ft of the Upper Salado Formation. Seven hundred feet of the well were cored, at consecutive and nonconsecutive 10-ft intervals to a depth of 925.5 ft. Cuttings were collected where core was not taken. Density, gamma ray neutron and caliper logs were run the full depth of the hole. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  10. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by 14 C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well

  11. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by /sup 14/C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well.

  12. WIPP Salado hydrology program data report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Domski, P.S.; Palmer, J.B.; Roberts, R.M.; Stensrud, W.A.; Jensen, A.L.

    1991-05-01

    WIPP Salado Hydrology Program Data Report number-sign 1 presents hydrologic data collected during permeability tests of the Salado Formation performed from August 1988 through December 1989. Analysis and interpretation of the test data are presented in a separate report. The report presents the results of the drilling and testing of six boreholes drilled from the WIPP underground facility 655 m below ground surface in the Salado Formation. Permeability tests were conducted using multipacker test tools with inflatable packers to isolate borehole intervals to allow formation pore-pressure buildup and subsequent pulse-withdrawal tests. Test data include pressures and temperatures in brine-filled, packer-isolated test intervals and borehole-closure and axial test-tool-movement measurements. Permeability tests were performed after installing multipacker test tools in test boreholes, inflating the packers, and allowing pressures to build up in the isolated intervals. Pulse-withdrawal tests were performed after buildup pressures approached the apparent formation pore pressure. Pulse injections were sometimes performed to increase the fluid pressures in isolated intervals. Compliance tests were conducted in lengths of steel and stainless-steel casing to evaluate the mechanical performance of the multipacker test tools. The stainless-steel compliance-test chamber was installed with externally mounted thermocouples in a downward-angled borehole in Experimental Room 4. Compliance tests included leak tests and simulated pulse-injection and pulse-withdrawal sequences. 9 refs., 143 figs., 2 tabs

  13. WIPP documentation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plung, D.L.; Montgomery, T.T.; Glasstetter, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Publications and Procedures Section developed a documentation plan that provides an integrated document hierarchy; further, this plan affords several unique features: 1) the format for procedures minimizes the writing responsibilities of the technical staff and maximizes use of the writing and editing staff; 2) review cycles have been structured to expedite the processing of documents; and 3) the numbers of documents needed to support the program have been appreciably reduced

  14. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 13 (Waste isolation pilot plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The borehole WIPP-13 was drilled in the SW 1/4 section 17, T22S, R31E of eastern Eddy County during July and August, 1978, to investigate the nature of a resistivity anomaly. The stratigraphic section was normal, consisting of 13 feet of Quaternary deposits (including artificial fill for drill pad), 53 feet of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 451 feet of Dewey Lake Red Beds, 269 feet of the Rustler Formation and 179 feet of the upper member of the Salado Formation. Consecutive cores were taken from 570 to 595, 656 to 729, and 827 to 878 feet. Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals throughout the rest of the hole. Geophysical logs were run to aid in interpretation of the stratigraphy. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic (TRU) defense wastes. Eventual conversion of the facility to a repository for TRU defense wastes is anticipated. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  15. Technical issues for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-01-01

    Emplacement of wastes in the WIPP will include experiments on various waste types which will provide essential data on waste-rock interaction and repository response. These experiments will include evolution of the synergistic effects of both heat production, radiation, and actual waste forms. While these studies will provide essential data on the validity of waste isolation in bedded salt, they will be preceded by a broad-based experimental program which will resolve many of the current technical issues providing not only an assessment of the safety of performing such experiments but also the technical basis for assurance that the appropriate experiments are performed. Data and predictive modeling techniques, which are currently available, can bound the consequences associated with these technical issues. Predictions of the impact on public safety based on these analyses indicate that safe waste disposal in WIPP salt beds is achievable; however, a major use of WIPP will be to conduct realistic experiments with HLW forms to address some of the unresolved details of these waste/salt interactions

  16. Borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous ground water investigations have been accomplished by means of borehole logging. Borehole logging can be applied to establish new water recovery wells, to control the existing water producing wells and source areas and to estimate ground water quality. (EG)

  17. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs

  18. Assessment of near-surface dissolution at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1985-07-01

    The area at and near the WIPP site was examined for evidence of karst development on the geomorphic surface encompassing the site. Certain surficial depressions of initial concern were identified as blowouts in sand dune fields (shallow features unrelated to karstification). An ancient stream system active more than 500,000 yr ago contained more water than any system since. During that time (Gatuna, Middle Pleistocene), many karst features such as Clayton Basin and Nash Draw began to form in the region. Halite was probably dissolved from parts of the Rustler Formation at that time. Dissolution of halite and gypsum from intervals encountered in Borehole WIPP-33 west of the WIPP site occurred during later Pleistocene time (i.e., <450,000 yr ago). However, there is no evidence of active near-surface dissolution within a belt to the east of WIPP-33 in the vicinity of the WIPP shaft. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. WIPP operations planning: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Cossel, S.C.; Plung, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first-of-a-kind facility for emplacement of radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The concern for safe and efficient operations - coupled with the domestic and international significance of this project - necessitates that WIPP be a ''model plant.'' To develop WIPP as a model plant, a unique planning methodology was employed to identify, evaluate, incorporate, and implement these elements that together will form the best possible overall operation. The resulting improvements in communication among project participants and the smooth transition being made from construction are equally attributable to the methodology employed and the operating program plan developed. 1 fig

  20. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging

  1. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  2. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities

  3. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  4. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  5. WIPP Project Records Management Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Records Management Handbook provides the WIPP Project Records Management personnel with a tool to use to fulfill the requirements of the WIPP Records Program and direct their actions in the important area of records management. The handbook describes the various project areas involved in records management, and how they function. The handbook provides the requirements for Record Coordinators and Master Record Center (MRC) personnel to follow in the normal course of file management, records scheduling, records turnover, records disposition, and records retrieval. More importantly, the handbook provides a single reference which encompasses the procedures set fourth in DOE Order 1324.2A, ''Records Disposition'' ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities'' and DOE-AL 5700.6B, ''General Operations Quality Assurance.'' These documents dictate how an efficient system of records management will be achieved on the WIPP Project

  6. Borehole project - Final report of phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Ramqvist, G.

    2008-03-01

    The report describes borehole plugging techniques for use in deep boreholes extending from the ground surface, and construction and placement of plugs in holes of different lengths and orientations bored from the repository rooms. The principle employed is the one proposed in earlier phases of the project, i.e. to tightly seal those parts of boreholes where the rock has few fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity, and filling of those parts that intersect water-bearing fracture zones with physically stable material that does not need to be low-permeable. Four methods for tight plugging have been identified and tested and a technique has been found for filling boreholes that are intersected by fracture zones. The upper end of boreholes extending from the ground surface needs a 'mechanical' seal for which copper metal and concrete work well. The experience from plugging of a 550 m deep borehole at Olkiluoto (OL-KR24) has been compiled and plans worked out for sampling and testing of contacting clay and concrete in this hole and in short holes in the Aespoe URL. (orig.)

  7. WIPP and the local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.L.; Sankey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 26 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico in southeastern New Mexico. Other neighboring communities include Lovington, Hobbs and Loving, New Mexico. In March 1983, the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) phase of the project was completed. Full scale facility construction began in July of that year. Overall site construction is scheduled to be complete in December 1986. Construction completion will be followed by pre-operational and safety check-out in 1987, prior to receiving the first nuclear waste which is targeted for receipt on or after October 1988. WIPP has had a significant impact on the local communities. Many local people have been hired by the Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Electric, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractors, as well as associated sub-contractors. As of December 31, 1985, 64% of the 643 people working at WIPP were hired from an 80-mile or less radius of the WIPP site. The majority of local residents support WIPP. As declining potash and mining industries negatively impacted the economic condition of Southeastern New Mexico, WIPP brought jobs and new business opportunities to the area

  8. Borehole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature derived from boreholes drilled into the Earth crust. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  9. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  10. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  11. Rotary plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Keiji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a rotating plug of a reactor using a liquid metal as a coolant as in the case of a fbr type reactor, to prevent the ingress of Na vapor into the sliding surface of the rotating plug. Constitution: A rotating plug comprising a large disc covering the upper part of a reactor pressure vessel containing therein a liquid metal and forming surfaces for mounting a shielding device and various other devices, and at least one or more of small discs provided rotatably and eccentrically within said large disc, which is characterized in that an elastic member consisting of bellows and a sealing is interposed between said large disc and said small discs. (Nakamura, S.)

  12. WIPP facility representative program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) facility representative (FR) program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It provides the following information: (1) FR and support organization authorities and responsibilities; (2) FR program requirements; and (3) FR training and qualification requirements

  13. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 27 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    WIPP 27 was drilled in Eddy County, New Mexico (NM 1/4 sec. 21, T21S, R30E) to investigate evaporite dissolution features and to determine the stratigraphy of surface and near-surface formations. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 79 feet of Quaternary deposits, 73 feet of the Rustler Formation, and 171 feet of the upper portion of the Salado Formation. Consecutive cores were obtained for the entire depth of WIPP 27. Geophysical logs measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids

  14. WIPP 2004 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States (U.S.). In 2004, 8,839 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were emplaced at WIPP. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2004, 25,809 m3 of TRU waste had been emplaced at WIPP. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of WIPP environmental resources. DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes environmental data from 2004 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2004 (DOE, 2005). The order and the guidance require that DOE facilities submit an annual SER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) further requires that the SER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  15. WIPP 2004 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-09-30

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States (U.S.). In 2004, 8,839 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were emplaced at WIPP. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2004, 25,809 m3 of TRU waste had been emplaced at WIPP. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of WIPP environmental resources. DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes environmental data from 2004 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2004 (DOE, 2005). The order and the guidance require that DOE facilities submit an annual SER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) further requires that the SER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  16. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  17. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Ams, David A.; Norden, Diana; Simmons, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    these were most likely introduced into the WIPP as contaminants from above-ground, their survival and potential role in the WIPP (e.g., cellulose degradation) is under investigation. WIPP groundwaters comprise the far-field microbial environment. Bacteria cultivated and identified from the overlying Culebra and nearby borehole groundwater are capable of aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation, metal reduction, and sulfate reduction and are distributed across many different phyla. Two of the Bacteria found in groundwater were also found in WIPP halite (Chromohalobacter sp. and Virgibacillus sp.). Archaea identified in groundwater include Halococcus saccharolyticus, Haloferax sp., and Natrinema sp. The differences in the microbial communities detected thus far in halite and groundwater suggest that there will be significant differences in the associated metabolic potential of the near- and far-field environments. Whereas the near-field is dominated by Archaea with more limited metabolic capabilities, the far-field is dominated by Bacteria with extremely broad capabilities. Because the majority of the repository's lifetime will be anoxic, ongoing and future work focuses on the presence and role of anaerobic organisms in WIPP. Further tasks on biosorption, cellulose degradation, and bioreduction are being performed using organisms obtained from this characterization work.

  18. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    these were most likely introduced into the WIPP as contaminants from above-ground, their survival and potential role in the WIPP (e.g., cellulose degradation) is under investigation. WIPP groundwaters comprise the far-field microbial environment. Bacteria cultivated and identified from the overlying Culebra and nearby borehole groundwater are capable of aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation, metal reduction, and sulfate reduction and are distributed across many different phyla. Two of the Bacteria found in groundwater were also found in WIPP halite (Chromohalobacter sp. and Virgibacillus sp.). Archaea identified in groundwater include Halococcus saccharolyticus, Haloferax sp., and Natrinema sp. The differences in the microbial communities detected thus far in halite and groundwater suggest that there will be significant differences in the associated metabolic potential of the near- and far-field environments. Whereas the near-field is dominated by Archaea with more limited metabolic capabilities, the far-field is dominated by Bacteria with extremely broad capabilities. Because the majority of the repository's lifetime will be anoxic, ongoing and future work focuses on the presence and role of anaerobic organisms in WIPP. Further tasks on biosorption, cellulose degradation, and bioreduction are being performed using organisms obtained from this characterization work.

  19. Plug Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, A. [Plug Power Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described Plug Power's GenDrive hydrogen fuel cell unit that supplies the power needs for folk lift trucks used in high-throughput distribution and high-volume manufacturing operations. The system offers an alternative to lead acid batteries, providing maximum performance at all times during use. The system is particularly useful in the material handling industry, where the revenue generated is based on operator uptime and lift truck productivity. The use of the system allows customers to reduce operational costs and expand valuable floor space by eliminating batteries and associated recharging infrastructure. Fuel cell units also reduce the wear on truck motors. Truck operators can easily and safely refuel at hydrogen fueling stations in 1-5 minutes. GenDrive works with all major OEM lift trucks, making the transition seamless. Commercial customers are investing in this solution to improve their current operations. In 2008, Plug Power sold to Wal-Mart, Bridgestone Firestone and Nestle. Most notably, Central Grocers purchased 220 fuel cell units for a new greenfield distribution center. Plug Power currently has more than 380 systems in operation.

  20. Shielding plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishima, Kenji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: In shielding plugs of an LMFBR type reactor, to restrain natural convection of heat in an annular space between a thermal shield layer and a shield shell, to prevent the lowering of heat-insulation performance, and to alleviate a thermal stress in a reactor container and the shield shell. Constitution: A ring-like leaf spring split in the direction of height is disposed in an annular space between a thermal shield layer and a shield shell. In consequence, the space is partitioned in the direction of height and, therefore, if axial temperature conditions and space width are the same and the space is low, the natural convection is hard to occur. Thus the rise of upper surface temperature of the shielding plugs can prevent the lowering of the heat insulation performance which will result in the increment of shielding plug cooling capacity, thereby improving reliability. In the meantime, since there is mounted an earthquake-resisting support, the thermal shield layer will move for a slight gap in case of an earthquake, being supported by the earthquake-resisting support, and the movement of the thermal shield layer is restricted, thereby maintaining integrity without increasing the stroke of the ring-like spring. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. WIPP: why are we waiting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rooms cut into salt almost half a mile below the state of New Mexico could become the United States' first underground repository for defence generated transuranic waste. The Department of Energy (DoE) was hoping to ship the first waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) this August, but the $800 million project has faced bureaucratic delays and a definite date has yet to be set. The state of New Mexico established the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) to perform an independent technical evaluation of the project with respect to potential radiation exposure for people or environmental degradation in the area around the WIPP site. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has two objectives: to perform scientific investigations into the behaviour of salt rock and its interactions with transuranic and mixed waste under a variety of conditions; and to demonstrate that transuranic waste can be safely handled, transported and stored in a geologic repository. The EEG is unhappy about proposed in-repository tests to assess the long term performance of WIPP. (author)

  2. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  3. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  4. Successes and Experiences of the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Weart, Wendell D.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with all of the applicable regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, and transuranic radioactive waste. The WIPP, a transuranic waste repository, is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal regulations and be certified to receive wastes. Many lessons were learned throughout the 25-year history of the WIPP--from site selection to the ultimate successful certification. The experiences and lessons learned from the WIPP may be of general interest to other repository programs in the world. The lessons learned include all facets of a repository program: programmatic, managerial, regulatory, technical, and social. This paper addresses critical issues that arose during the 25 years of WIPP history and how they influenced the program

  5. Experimental research on sealing of boreholes, shafts and ramps in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and in-situ experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical and hydraulic performance of cement borehole seals in densely welded Apache Leap tuff. Test results indicate that under saturated conditions, commercial expansive cement can provide good bond strength and adequate hydraulic performance for borehole seal under changing stress conditions. The cement seal should be installed at the intact portion of the opening, and should have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than four. Drying increases borehole plug permeability and decreases mechanical and hydraulic bonds at the plug-rock interface. In-situ testing indicates that installation procedure may significantly affect the cement plug performance

  6. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, C L [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. V.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Beauheim, R. L.; Roberts, R. M.

    1997-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  7. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  8. The integrated in situ testing program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.

    1987-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project in southeastern New Mexico as a research and development (R and D) facility for examining the response of bedded (layered) salt to the emplacement of radioactive wastes generated from defense programs. The WIPP Experimental Program consists of a technology development program, including laboratory testing and theoretical analysis activities, and an in situ testing program that is being done 659 m underground at the project site. This experimental program addresses three major technical areas that concern (1) thermal/structural interactions, (2) plugging and sealing, and (3) waste package performance. To ensure that the technical issues involved in these areas are investigated with appropriate emphasis and timing, an in situ testing plan was developed to integrate the many activities and tasks associated with the technical issues of waste disposal. 5 refs., 4 figs

  9. Basic data report for drillhole AEC 8 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    AEC 8 was originally drilled in 1974 to a depth of 3028 ft by Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the initial investigations of a site for radioactive waste disposal. In 1976, Sandia National Laboratories deepened the borehole from the top of the Castile Formation into the Bell Canyon Formation to test the hydraulic properties of the Bell Canyon. The borehole encountered in descending order Holocene sands (20 ft), Mescalero caliche (6 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (143 ft), Dewey Lake Redbeds (491 ft), Rustler Formation (322 ft), Salado Formation (1990 ft), Castile Formation (1335 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (603 ft). The borehole stratigraphy is in normal order and there is no significant deformation. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on the lithology and stratigraphy. The potentiometric surfaces of Bell Canyon fluid-bearing zones are 550 ft (for the zone at 4821 ft to 4827 ft) and 565 ft below land surface (for the zone at 4844 to 4860 ft). The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  10. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  11. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  12. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  13. Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10 -21 to 10 -20 m 2 (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Laboratory studies of fluid flow through borehole seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Boreholes in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository must be reliably sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide contaminated water from the vicinity of the repository to the accessible environment. Few data currently exist regarding the effectiveness of borehole sealing. The objective of this research was to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. The approach used to evaluate borehole seals was to compare flow through a sealed borehole with flow through intact rock. Granite, basalt, and tuff were tested, using either cement or bentonite as the seal material. The main conclusions reached as a result of the experiments is that currently existing materials are capable of forming high quality seals when placed under laboratory conditions. Variation of triaxial stress state about a borehole does not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal material. Temperature/moisture variations (drying) degraded the quality of cement seals significantly. Performance partially recovered upon resaturation. Significant remaining questions include field emplacement techniques; field vertification of plug quality; plug performance over long time periods, particularly with respect to temperature/moisture variations and chemical stability; and radionuclide sorption capabilities. Scale effects are also important, as shafts and drifts must be sealed as well as larger diameter boreholes

  15. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  16. Radiation borehole logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  17. Shielding plug device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Makishima, Kenji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the size of and extend the life of a revolving bearing and facilitate the laying of driving cables and duct lines, this being accomplished by providing plug raising means of a fast breeder on a stationary plug mounting base so as to prevent the shearing force of sodium from acting upon the revolving bearing. Structure: The shield plug means comprises a stationary plug secured to the open end of the reactor container, a rotary plug rotatable with respect to the stationary plug, an annular base formed on top of the stationary plug so as to cover the rotary plug, a bearing secured to the rotary plug edge lower face and upper and lower locking plates. At the time of the rotation of the rotary plug, the upper locking plate is withdrawn, the stationary plug is raised to release the seal structure, and the lower locking plate is inserted between the bearing and stationary plug. In this way, smooth rotation of the rotary plug can be obtained. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

  19. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  20. WIPP Recertification - An Environmental Evaluation Group Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L. E.; Silva, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for defense transuranic (TRU) waste, was built and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) required initial certification of compliance of the WIPP by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, a recertification decision is required by the LWA every five years, dated from the initial receipt of TRU waste. The first TRU waste shipment arrived at the WIPP on March 26, 1999, and therefore the first recertification application is due from DOE to EPA by March 25, 2004. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) provides technical oversight of the WIPP project on behalf of the State of New Mexico. The EEG considers the first recertification as a precedent setting event. Therefore, the EEG began the identification of recertification issues immediately following the initial certification decision. These issues have evolved since that time, based on discussions with the DOE and EEG's understanding of DOE's ongoing research. Performance assessment is required by the EPA certification and its results are needed to determine whether the facility remains in compliance at the time of the recertification application. The DOE must submit periodic change reports to the EPA which summarize activities and conditions that differ from the compliance application. Also, the EPA may request additional information from the DOE that may pertain to continued compliance. These changes and new information must be considered for recertification performance assessment

  1. Pretest characterization of WIPP experimental waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.; Davis, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is an underground repository designed for the storage and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country. The Performance Assessment (PA) studies for WIPP address compliance of the repository with applicable regulations, and include full-scale experiments to be performed at the WIPP site. These experiments are the bin-scale and alcove tests to be conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Prior to conducting these experiments, the waste to be used in these tests needs to be characterized to provide data on the initial conditions for these experiments. This characterization is referred to as the Pretest Characterization of WIPP Experimental Waste, and is also expected to provide input to other programmatic efforts related to waste characterization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pretest waste characterization activities currently in progress for the WIPP bin-scale waste, and to discuss the program plan and specific analytical protocols being developed for this characterization. The relationship between different programs and documents related to waste characterization efforts is also highlighted in this paper

  2. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  3. The WIPP journey to waste receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.J.; Whatley, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1970s the federal government selected an area in southeastern New Mexico containing large underground salt beds as potentially suitable for radioactive waste disposal. An extensive site characterization program was initiated by the federal government. This site became the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, better known as WIPP. It is now 1997, over two decades after the initial selection of the New Mexico site as a potential radioactive waste repository. Numerous scientific studies, construction activities, and environmental compliance documents have been completed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has addressed all relevant issues regarding the safety of WIPP and its ability to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Throughout the last two decades up to the present time, DOE has negotiated through a political, regulatory, and legal maze with regard to WIPP. New regulations have been issued, litigation initiated, and public involvement brought to the forefront of the DOE decision-making process. All of these factors combined to bring WIPP to its present status--at the final stages of working through the licensing requirements for receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal. Throughout its history, the DOE has stayed true to Congress' mandates regarding WIPP. Steps taken have been necessary to demonstrate to Congress, the State of New Mexico, and the public in general, that the nation's first radioactive waste repository will be safe and environmentally sound. DOE's compliance demonstrations are presently under consideration by the cognizant regulatory agencies and DOE is closer than ever to waste receipt. This paper explores the DOE's journey towards implementing a permanent disposal solution for defense-related TRU waste, including major Congressional mandates and other factors that contributed to program changes regarding the WIPP project

  4. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  5. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  6. Summary of 1988 WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] Facility horizon gas flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    Numerous gas flow measurements have been made at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Facility horizon during 1988. All tests have been pressure decay or constant pressure tests from single boreholes drilled from the underground excavations. The test fluid has been nitrogen. The data have been interpreted as permeabilities and porosities by means of a transient numerical solution method. A closed-form steady-state approximation provides a reasonable order-of-magnitude permeability estimate. The effective resolution of the measurement system is less than 10 -20 m 2 . Results indicate that beyond 1 to 5 m from an excavation, the gas flow is very small and the corresponding permeability is below the system resolution. Within the first meter of an excavation, the interpreted permeabilities can be 5 orders of magnitude greater than the undisturbed or far-field permeability. The interpreted permeabilities in the region between the undisturbed region and the first meter from an excavation are in the range of 10 -16 to 10 -20 m 2 . Measurable gas flow occurs to a greater depth into the roof above WIPP excavations of different sizes and ages than into the ribs and floor. The gas flows into the formation surrounding the smallest excavation tested are consistently lower than those at similar locations surrounding larger excavations of comparable age. Gas flow measured in the interbed layers near the WIPP excavations is highly variable. Generally, immediately above and below excavations, relatively large gas flow is measured in the interbed layers. These results are consistent with previous measurements and indicate a limited disturbed zone surrounding WIPP excavations. 31 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs

  7. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included

  8. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. 9+ years of disposal experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, Norbert T.; Nelson, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    With almost a decade of operating experience, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has established an enviable record by clearly demonstrating that a deep geologic repository for unconditioned radioactive waste in rock salt can be operated safely and in compliance with very complex regulations. WIPP has disposed of contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999 and remote-handled TRU waste since 2007. Emplacement methods range from directly stacking unshielded 0.21-4.5 m 3 containers inside disposal rooms to remotely inserting highly radioactive 0.89 m 3 canisters into horizontally drilled holes (shield plugs placed in front of canisters protect workers inside active disposal rooms). More than 100 000 waste containers have been emplaced, and one-third of WIPP's authorized repository capacity of 175,000 m 3 has already been consumed. Principal surface operations are conducted in the waste handling building, which is divided into CH and RH waste handling areas. Four vertical shafts extend from the surface to the disposal horizon, 655 m below the surface in a 1000 m thick sequence of Permian bedded salt. The waste disposal area of about 0.5 km 2 is divided into ten panels, each consisting of seven rooms. Vertical closure (creep) rates in disposal rooms range up to 10 cm per year. While one panel is being filled with waste, the next one is being mined. Mined salt is raised to the surface in the salt shaft, and waste is lowered down the waste shaft. Both of these shafts also serve as principal access for personnel and materials. Underground ventilation is divided into separate flow paths, allowing simultaneous mining and disposal. A filter building near the exhaust shaft provides the capability to filter the exhaust air (in reduced ventilation mode) through HEPA filters before release to the atmosphere. WIPP operations have not exposed employees or the public to radiation doses beyond natural background variability. They consistently meet or exceed regulatory

  10. WIPP waste package testing on simulated DHLW: emplacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several series of simulated (nonradioactive) defense high-level waste (DHLW) package tests have been emplaced in the WIPP, a research and development facility authorized to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-related wastes. The primary purpose of these 3-to-7 year duration tests is to evaluate the in situ materials performance of waste package barriers (canisters, overpacks, backfills, and nonradioactive DHLW glass waste form) for possible future application to a licensed waste repository in salt. This paper describes all test materials, instrumentation, and emplacement and testing techniques, and discusses progress of the various tests. These tests are intended to provide information on materials behavior (i.e., corrosion, metallurgical and geochemical alterations, waste form durability, surface interactions, etc.), as well as comparison between several waste package designs, fabrications details, and actual costs. These experiments involve 18 full-size simulated DHLW packages (approximately 3.0 m x 0.6 m diameter) emplaced in vertical boreholes in the salt drift floor. Six of the test packages contain internal electrical heaters (470 W/canister), and were emplace under approximately reference DHLW repository conditions. Twelve other simulated DHLW packages were emplaced under accelerated-aging or overtest conditions, including the artificial introduction of brine, and a thermal loading approximately three to four times higher than reference. Eight of these 12 test packages contain 1500 W/canister electrical heaters; the other four are filled with DHLW glass. 9 refs., 1 fig

  11. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, titled Geotechnical Considerations for Radiological Hazard Assessment of WIPP on January 17-18, 1980. During this conference, it was realized that a field trip to the site would further clarify the different views on the geological processes active at the site. The field trip of June 16-18, 1980 was organized for this purpose. This report provides a summary of the field trip activities along with the participants post field trip comments. Important field stops are briefly described, followed by a more detailed discussion of critical geological issues. The report concludes with EEG's summary and recommendations to the US Department of Energy for further information needed to more adequately resolve concerns for the geologic and hydrologic integrity of the site

  12. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  13. Borehole sealing literature review of performance requirements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinin, D.; Hooton, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    To ensure the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, all potential pathways for radionuclide release to the biosphere must be effectively sealed. This report presents a summary of the literature up to August 1982 and outlines the placement, mechanical property and durability-stability requirements for borehole sealing. An outline of the materials that have been considered for possible use in borehole sealing is also included. Cement grouts are recommended for further study since it is indicated in the literature that cement grouts offer the best opportunity of effectively sealing boreholes employing present technology. However, new and less well known materials should also be researched to ensure that the best possible borehole plugging system is developed. 78 refs

  14. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  15. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 9 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 9 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate and test salt beds for the disposal of nuclear wastes. The hole was placed near the SE corner of section 20, T22S,R31E. It was drilled between April 28 and June 4, 1976, to a depth of 2889 ft (measured from a kelly bushing altitude of 3,420.4 ft MSL). The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Holocene deposits (including artificial fill) of 22 ft, the Pleistocene Mescalero Caliche (5 ft) and Gatuna Formation (27 ft), 9 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and 487 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 290 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1976 ft of the Salado Formation and 53 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cuttings were collected at 5-ft intervals for the land surface to a depth of 1090 ft, and consecutive cores were taken to a depth of 2876.6 ft. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run the full length of the borehole to measure distribution of radioactive elements and hydrogen, and variations in rock density and elastic velocity. On the basis of the borehole findings and related hydrological and geophysical programs, the site was judged suitable to pursue the extensive geological characterization program which followed. The core from ERDA 9 provided a suite of samples extensively tested for rock mechanics, physical properties, and mineralogy. Drill-stem tests in ERDA 9 indicated no significant fluids or permeability in the Salado beds of interest. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  16. WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Renewal Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most, W.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous waste permits issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) have a maximum term of 10-years from the permit's effective date. The permit condition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) governing renewal applications, directs the Permittees to submit a permit application 180 days prior to expiration of the Permit. On October 27, 1999, the Secretary of the NMED issued to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the owner and operator of WIPP, and to Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), the Management and Operating Contractor and the cooperator of WIPP, a HWFP to manage, store, and dispose hazardous waste at WIPP. The DOE and WTS are collectively known as the Permittees. The HWFP is effective for a fixed term not to exceed ten years from the effective date of the Permit. The Permittees may renew the HWFP by submitting a new permit application at least 180 calendar days before the expiration date, of the HWFP. The Permittees are not proposing any substantial changes in the Renewal Application. First, the Permittees are seeking the authority to dispose of Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled TRU mixed waste in Panel 8. Panels 4 through 7 have been approved in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit as it currently exists. No other change to the facility or to the manner in which hazardous waste is characterized, managed, stored, or disposed is being requested. Second, the Permittees also seek to include the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan, as Attachment Q in the HWFP. This Plan has existed as a separate document since May 2000. The NMED has requested that the Plan be submitted as part of the Renewal Application. The Permittees have been operating to the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan since the Plan was submitted. Third, some information submitted in the original WIPP RCRA Part B Application has been updated, such as demographic information. The Permittees will submit this information in the

  17. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Luleaa Technical University, Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekman, Lennart [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding

  18. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar; Bockgaard, Niclas; Ekman, Lennart

    2011-09-01

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding investigation of the plugs

  19. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  20. Retained Herrick Plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Hellman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old female with a history of keratoconjunctivitis sicca presented with several years of epiphora of both eyes. Thirteen years earlier, intracanalicular Herrick lacrimal plugs (Lacrimedics, Eastsound, WA, USA had been placed in both eyes to treat her dry eye syndrome. After 13 years the patient felt the epiphora was intolerable and underwent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR of the left, then the right side. Intraoperatively, during the right endoscopic DCR, a Herrick lacrimal plug was found in the common canaliculus into the lacrimal sac. Postoperatively, the patient did well with improved epiphora. The Herrick plug is designed to be intracanalicular, and this case illustrates that the plug can migrate and be retained for many years. Collared punctal plugs have a lower risk of this type of complication.

  1. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  2. WIPP Status and Plans - 2013 - 13379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A.; Franco, J. [U.S. Department of Energy, PO Box 3090, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An up-to-date look at the many aspects of America's only deep geologic long-lived radioactive waste repository is presented in this paper. WIPP's mission includes coordination of all Department of Energy (DOE) sites to prepare, package and characterize defense transuranic waste for final shipment and emplacement in WIPP. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is completing its 14. year of operations. Five of the ten planned disposal panels have been filled and sealed from ventilation, with about half of the legislated volume capacity consumed. About 11,000 shipments have been made successfully, traveling more than 40 million kilometers across the nation's highways. A fleet of new Type B shipping packages, the TRUPACT-III, has been added to the transportation capability, with an ongoing campaign to de-inventory large waste items from the Savannah River Site, while minimizing size reduction and repackaging. A new shipping and emplacement method for remote handled waste in shielded containers has been approved for disposal, and will significantly improve operational efficiency. Remote handled waste packaged in these shielded containers will be shipped, handled and emplaced as contact handled waste. Also described is a new criticality control over-pack container, which will improve efficiency when shipping high fissile-content waste streams consisting of Special Nuclear Material declared as waste from nuclear weapons sites. The paper describes the importance of the infrastructure at WIPP to ensure disposal site availability for defense transuranic waste sites across the weapons complex. With the facility reaching its original design lifetime, there are many infrastructure maintenance and improvements being planned and performed. (authors)

  3. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  4. Design approaches for access plugs in a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes research, laboratory testing, and analytical approaches taken toward the development of designs for sealing boreholes, shafts, and tunnels penetrating from ground surface to a deep, mined nuclear waste repository in basalt. A material selection process leading to identification of preferred sealing materials is discussed, and the laboratory testing program to define the geochemical and geotechnical performance of these materials is described. Analysis of the environmental conditions in the Columbia Plateau basalt flows leads to identification of tentative design criteria for plug systems. These design criteria include performance of the plug as a hydraulic barrier and as a radionuclide barrier. An important problem for effective performance of a plug system as a hydraulic barrier is shown to be a potentially disturbed zone surrounding the excavation in the stressed and jointed host rock. An idealized one-dimensional numerical model is described for analyzing the performance of the plug as a barrier to radionuclide transport. The preliminary analyses led to the conclusion that the composition and dimensions of practical candidate plugs can satisfy both hydraulic and radionuclide barrier criteria. Examples of candidate designs are shown for boreholes, shafts, and tunnels. 9 references, 6 figures, 6 tables

  5. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially- designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that is was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 20 states through which it would travel

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) startup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    To allow the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to transition from a Major System Acquisition to an operating demonstration facility, the Acquisition Executive and the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) must concur in the facility's readiness to receive waste. This action, designated in DOE Order 4700.1 as Key Decision Four, concludes with the Chairman of the ESAAB issuing a Record of Decision. Since the meeting leading to the Record of Decision is scheduled for August 1988, plans must be made to ensure all activities contributing to that decision are completed in a clear and well-coordinated process. To support that effort, this Start-Up Plan was prepared to identify and track key events necessary to verify WIPP's readiness to receive waste; this provides a management/scheduling/tracking tool for the DOE WIPP Project Office (WPO) and a tracking mechanism for the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) and for DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ); and describe the process to ensure readiness is documented by providing relevant data and reports to the cognizant decision makers. The methods by which these two purposes are achieved are discussed in further detail in the remainder of this plan

  7. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially-designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracing system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels.'' The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that it was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 23 states through which it traveled

  8. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum L. Mine safety code review for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    An initial review of New Mexico and Federal mining standards and regulations has been made to determine their applicability to the WIPP conceptual design. These standards and regulations are reviewed point by point and the enclosed listing includes comments and recommendations for those which will affect the design and/or eventual operations of WIPP. The majority of the standards, both federal and state, are standard safe mining practices. Those standards are listed which are thought should be emphasized for development of the design; also those that would increase the hazard risk by strict compliance. Because the WIPP facility is different in many respects from mines for which the regulations were intended, strict compliance in some respects would provide an increased hazard, while in other instances the regulations are less strict than is desirable. These are noted in the attached review

  9. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report

  10. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  11. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.L.; Howard, C.L.; Jones, R.L.; Peterson, T.P.

    1993-03-01

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations

  12. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  13. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum A. Design calculations for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The design calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. The following categories are discussed: general nuclear calculations; radwaste calculations; structural calculations; mechanical calculations; civil calculations; electrical calculations; TRU waste surface facility time and motion analysis; shaft sinking procedures; hoist time and motion studies; mining system analysis; mine ventilation calculations; mine structural analysis; and miscellaneous underground calculations

  14. Petrographic study of evaporite deformation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico contains about 1000 m of layered evaporites. Areas in the northern Delaware Basin, bordering the Capitan reef, have anomalous seismic reflection characteristics, such as loss in reflector continuity. Core from holes within this zone exhibits complex mesoscopic folds and extension structures. On a larger scale, anticlines and synclines are indicated by structure contours based on boreholes. The deformation is probably gravity-driven. Such a process is initiated by basin tilting during either a Mesozoic or Cenozoic period of uplift. Small-scale structures suggest that deformation was episodic with an early, syndepositional stage of isoclinal folding. Later, open-to-tight asymmetric folding is more penetrative and exhibits a sense of asymmetry opposite to that of the earlier isoclinal folding. The younger folds are associated with development of zonal crenulation cleavage and microboundinage of more competent carbonate layers. At the same time, halite beds developed dimensional fabrics and convolute folds in anhydrite stringers. Late-stage, near-vertical fractures formed in competent anhydrite layers. Microscopic textures exhibit rotated anhydrite porphyroblasts, stress shadow growth, and microboundinage. Except during late-stage deformation, anhydrite and halite recrystallized synkinematically. Drastic strength reduction in anhydrites through dynamic recrystallization occurs experimentally near 200 0 C. However, evaporites of the WIPP site never experienced temperatures > 40 0 C. Microscopic fabrics and P, T history of the evaporites suggest that pressure solution was the active mechanism during deformation of evaporites at the WIPP site

  15. Conclusions from working group 2 - the analyses of the WIPP-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The INTRAVAL WIPP-2 test case is based on data from site investigations carried out at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. The site has been chosen as a potential location for a radioactive waste repository. Extensive investigations have been carried out, focused mainly on groundwater flow and transport in the Culebra Dolomite, the main pathway for transport of radionuclides off the site by groundwater in the case of an accidental borehole intrusion into the repository. Five teams studied the test case. Two teams addressed issues involved in the treatment of heterogeneity. Stochastic models and a Monte Carlo approach were used. One team quantified the increased uncertainty resulting from fewer data and explored the issues involved in validation of stochastic models. A second team developed a new method for conditioning stochastic models on head data. Two other teams examined issues relating to the choice of conceptual models. Two-dimensional vertical cross-section models were used to explore the importance of vertical flow. The fifth team advocate the use of a variety of models to highlight the most important processes and parameters. Conclusions from each team experiment are analysed. (J.S.). 4 refs., 11 figs

  16. WIPP: construction and progress on a successful nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.R.; Sankey, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is constructing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. The facility will retrievably store transuranic waste from defense activities of the United States and conduct experiments with Defense high-level waste which will be retrieved at the end of the experiments. This paper describes the progress and the present status of activities at WIPP. 4 refs

  17. WIPP Magnesium Oxide (MgO) - Planned Change Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 10, 2006, the DOE submitted a planned change request pertaining to the amount of MgO emplaced in the WIPP repository. MgO is an engineered barrier that DOE included as part of the original WIPP Certification Decision.

  18. The WIPP research and development program: providing the technical basis for defense waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Th.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes from the defense programs of the United States. Underground workings are at a depth of 660 in a bedded-salt formation. Site investigations began in the early 1970s and are culminating with the completion of the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) program in 1983 in which two shafts and several thousand feet of underground drifts are being constructed. The underground facility will be used for in situ tests and demonstrations that address technical issues associated with the disposal of transuranic and defense high-level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. These tests are based on several years of laboratory tests, field tests in mines, and analytical modeling studies. They primarily address repository development in bedded salt, including thermal-structural interactions plugging and sealing, and facility operations; and waste package interactions, including the effects of the waste on local rock salt and the evaluation of waste package materials. In situ testing began in the WIPP with the initiation of the SPDV program in 1981. In 1983, a major series of tests will begin to investigate the response of the rock salt without the use of any radioactivity

  19. Achieving WIPP certification for software. A white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.D.; Adams, K.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    The NMT-1 and NMT-3 organizations within the Chemical and Metallurgical Research (CMR) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is working to achieve Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) certification to enable them to transport their TRU waste to WIPP. In particular, the NMT-1 management is requesting support from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to assist them in making the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) software WIPP certifiable. Thus, LIMS must be compliant with the recognized software quality assurance (SQA) requirements stated within the QAPD. Since the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has achieved WIPP certification, INEEL personnel can provide valuable assistance to LANL by sharing lessons learned and recommendations. Thus, this white paper delineates the particular software quality assurance requirements required for WIPP certification

  20. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  1. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  2. Summary report for the WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] technology development program for isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.; Matalucci, R.V.; Molecke, M.A.; Munson, D.E.; Nowak, E.J.; Stormont, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    The technology experiments have been managed in three broad categories: Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI), Plugging and Sealing Performance and Design (PandS), and Waste Package Performance (WPP). The history and major progress in each of these areas is summarized in this report. The TSI program has established the fact that the WIPP salt creep rate, and therefore closure of WIPP rooms, is about three times more rapid than our best models predicted prior to the tests. Studies to resolve this discrepancy are well advanced; in the interim, good agreement between predicitions and observation is obtained by empirical adjustment of the elastic constants. The closure of backfilled waste room to about five percent void volume is predicted to take less than 100 years, the time during which active controls may be assumed to prevent human intrusion. The waste package program has revealed that migration of interstitial brine to excavations in the WIPP salt occurs at a significantly greater rate than assumed by earlier investigations. A satisfactory model to explain the data utilizes darcy flow in very low permeability salt which is driven by a pore pressure gradient caused when the excavation creates an atmospheric pressure boundary. This model, coupled with room closure predictions and backfill design using a salt/bentonite clay mixture, indicates that the rate of brine seepage will not result in a fluid or slurry state in the room, but rather in a compacted solid. 373 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Science to compliance: The WIPP success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Chu, M.S.; Shephard, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed to provide in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. The success of the program, however, is defined by the regulator in the context of compliance with performance criteria, rather than by the in-depth technical understanding typical of most scientific programs. The WIPP project was successful in making a transformation from science to compliance by refocusing and redirecting programmatic efforts toward the singular goal of meeting regulatory compliance requirements while accelerating the submittal of the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by two months from the April 1994 Disposal Decision Plan (DDP) date of December 1996, and by reducing projected characterization costs by more than 40%. This experience is unparalleled within the radioactive waste management community and has contributed to numerous lessons learned from which the entire community can benefit

  4. Borehole television survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer

  5. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  6. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  7. Rotary plug seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Abiko, Yoshihiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fuel exchange even upon failure of regular seals and also to enable safety seal exchange by the detection of the reduction in the contact pressure of a rotary plug seal. Constitution: If one of a pair of regular tube seals for the rotary plug is failed during ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, the reduction in the contact pressure of the seal to the plug gibbousness is detected by a pressure gauge and a solenoid valve is thereby closed. Thus, a back-up-tube seal provided above or below the tube seal is press-contacted by way of argon gas to the gibbousness to enter into operation state and lubricants are supplied from an oil tank. In such a structure, the back-up-tube seal is operated before the failure of the tube seal to enable to continue the fuel exchange work, as well as safety exchange for the tube seal. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  9. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system

  10. Core barrel plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolino, R.W.; Hopkins, R.J.; Congleton, R.L.; Popalis, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A plug is described for preventing flow through a port in a core barrel of a pressurized water nuclear reactor which consists of: a substantially cylindrical body formed with a cylindrical portion and a flange and defining a tapered leading open end with the other end being closed by an end plug attached to the flange, the body defining a bore therein extending from the open end to the end plug with the bore having a smaller diameter near the open end than near the end plug, the cylindrical portion having a lip near the open end and being formed with longitudinal slots extending from the open end toward the flange and extending entirely through the thickness of the cylindrical portion, the cylindrical portion having a circumferential first groove on the outer surface thereof located near the forwardmost portion of the cylindrical portion but not in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, and a plurality of circumferential second grooves on the outer surface thereof located in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, the first and second grooves establishing a seal between the cylindrical portion and the inside surface of the port when the cylindrical portion is expanded, and the flange and the end plug having a passageway defined therein for introducing a fluid into the body; a metal ring disposed in each of the second grooves; a mandrel slidably disposed and captured in the body and capable of being moved toward the open end of the body when the fluid is introduced through the passageway, thereby causing the cylindrical portion to be expanded into contact with the inside surface of the port; and a locking mechanism disposed in the end plug for preventing inadvertent movement of the mandrel

  11. Borehole DC-12 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-12. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  12. Borehole DC-14 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-14. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  13. Borehole DC-15 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-15. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  14. Borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A radioactive borehole logging tool employs an epithermal neutron detector having a neutron counter surrounded by an inner thermal neutron filter and an outer thermal neutron filter. Located between the inner and outer filters is a neutron moderating material for extending the lifetime of epithermal neutrons to enhance the counting rate of such epithermal neutrons by the neutron counter

  15. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  16. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose

  17. Interaction of clay and concrete plugs - Plugging of 5 m deep hole KA1621G01 at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of deep boreholes in repository rock is planned to be made by installing dense smectite clay plugs where the rock is low-permeable and casting concrete where the holes intersect water-bearing fracture zones. Such zones have to be stabilized before sealing starts because fragments of rock can otherwise fall off and make it difficult to bring equipment for concrete casting and clay plug units down. These parts of the holes are filled with concrete and clay plugs are then inserted up to the nearest fracture zone where concrete is filled to the required level etc. The role of the concrete in the hole and in the closest part of the surrounding fracture zone is to provide stable parts that are sufficiently fine-porous to prevent clay particles from contacting clay plugs to migrate into the fractures and be lost by erosion. While the larger parts of long clay plugs are believed to stay largely intact chemically for hundreds of thousands of years, the parts adjacent to concrete plugs may undergo changes and so can the concrete plugs themselves. The objective of the presently reported project was to identify the detailed processes and quantify associated changes in physical properties by investigating samples of clay and concrete from a 2.5 m long plug of clay over which an equally long concrete plug had been cast and left to rest for 3 years. The outcome of the investigations was that significant chemically induced changes in mineralogy and physical performance had occurred within a few centimetres distance from the clay/concrete contact but that virtually no changes had taken place at larger distance. A comprehensive laboratory study including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) on the sample material was performed including also dual beam (combined ion and electron) microscopy. It was found that the clay had infiltrated the contacting concrete plug after filling of the borehole since clay was detected both

  18. Interaction of clay and concrete plugs - Plugging of 5 m deep hole KA1621G01 at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar

    2011-11-01

    Sealing of deep boreholes in repository rock is planned to be made by installing dense smectite clay plugs where the rock is low-permeable and casting concrete where the holes intersect water-bearing fracture zones. Such zones have to be stabilized before sealing starts because fragments of rock can otherwise fall off and make it difficult to bring equipment for concrete casting and clay plug units down. These parts of the holes are filled with concrete and clay plugs are then inserted up to the nearest fracture zone where concrete is filled to the required level etc. The role of the concrete in the hole and in the closest part of the surrounding fracture zone is to provide stable parts that are sufficiently fine-porous to prevent clay particles from contacting clay plugs to migrate into the fractures and be lost by erosion. While the larger parts of long clay plugs are believed to stay largely intact chemically for hundreds of thousands of years, the parts adjacent to concrete plugs may undergo changes and so can the concrete plugs themselves. The objective of the presently reported project was to identify the detailed processes and quantify associated changes in physical properties by investigating samples of clay and concrete from a 2.5 m long plug of clay over which an equally long concrete plug had been cast and left to rest for 3 years. The outcome of the investigations was that significant chemically induced changes in mineralogy and physical performance had occurred within a few centimetres distance from the clay/concrete contact but that virtually no changes had taken place at larger distance. A comprehensive laboratory study including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) on the sample material was performed including also dual beam (combined ion and electron) microscopy. It was found that the clay had infiltrated the contacting concrete plug after filling of the borehole since clay was detected both

  19. Final report of the borehole, shaft and tunnel sealing test. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Ramqvist, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Borehole Plugging Experiment comprised field tests of the sealing function and the practicality in handling and application of plugs consisting of segments of perforated metal casings filled with cylindrical blocks of highly compacted sodium bentonite. Preparative tests had shown that the clay swells out through the perforation and embeds the casings. The field tests demonstrated that even very long holes can be effectively sealed by such plugs and that the clay becomes very homogeneous and forms a tight contact with the rock in a relatively short time. By that the plugs become practically impervious and the flow along the clay/rock contact will be insignificant. The longevity of such plugs extends over several thousand years under the conditions that usually prevail in crystalline rock. (authors)

  20. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covington, J.A.; Wicks, G.G.; Molecke, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of 'pineapple slices', polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90 degrees C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants

  1. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  2. Fuel rod end plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeary, R.K.; Bucher, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an end plug for welded disposition within the end of a tube. It comprises a circumferentially extending, axially oriented land surface, having a radial extent defined by means of a first predetermined dimension, for disposition within the end of the tube; a circumferentially extending, axially oriented land surface, having a radial extent defined by means of a second predetermined dimension which is greater than the first predetermined dimension, for disposition outside of the end of the tube. The second land surface being disposed upstream of the first land surface; an annularly extending, radially oriented shoulder portion, defined at the downstream end of the second land surface and having a radially inward depth which is greater than the difference defined between the first and second radial dimensions of the first and second land surfaces, for engaging the end of the tube in a butt contact fashion; and annular groove means defined between the upstream end of the first land surface and the shoulder portion of the end plug, for eliminating porosity defects normally developed within a weldment defined between the tube end and the end plug when the end plug is welded within the tube end, and including a conical surface which extends radially outwardly from the innermost radial depth extent of the shoulder portion to the upstream end of the first land surface

  3. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-01-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  4. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  5. Second reference calculation for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branstetter, L.J.

    1985-03-01

    Results of the second reference calculation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project using the dynamic relaxation finite element code SANCHO are presented. This reference calculation is intended to predict the response of a typical panel of excavated rooms designed for storage of nonheat-producing nuclear waste. Results are presented that include relevant deformations, relative clay seam displacements, and stress and strain profiles. This calculation is a particular solution obtained by a computer code, which has proven analytic capabilities when compared with other structural finite element codes. It is hoped that the results presented here will be useful in providing scoping values for defining experiments and for developing instrumentation. It is also hoped that the calculation will be useful as part of an exercise in developing a methodology for performing important design calculations by more than one analyst using more than one computer code, and for defining internal Quality Assurance (QA) procedures for such calculations. 27 refs., 15 figs

  6. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  7. Second benchmark problem for WIPP structural computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.D.; Morgan, H.S.; Hunter, T.O.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the second benchmark problem for comparison of the structural codes used in the WIPP project. The first benchmark problem consisted of heated and unheated drifts at a depth of 790 m, whereas this problem considers a shallower level (650 m) more typical of the repository horizon. But more important, the first problem considered a homogeneous salt configuration, whereas this problem considers a configuration with 27 distinct geologic layers, including 10 clay layers - 4 of which are to be modeled as possible slip planes. The inclusion of layering introduces complications in structural and thermal calculations that were not present in the first benchmark problem. These additional complications will be handled differently by the various codes used to compute drift closure rates. This second benchmark problem will assess these codes by evaluating the treatment of these complications

  8. Borehole sealing with highly compactd Na bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the use of highly compacted Na bentonite for borehole plugging. Bentonites have an extremely low permeability and a low diffusivity, and a swelling ability which produces a nonleaching boundary between clay and rock if the initial bulk density of the bentonite is sufficiently high. The suggested technique, which is applicable to long vertical, and inclined, as well as horizontal boreholes, is based on the use of perforated copper pipes to insert elements of compacted bentonite. Such pipe segments are connected at the rock surface and successively inserted in the hole. When the hole is equipped, the clay takes up water spontaneously and swells through the perforation, and ultimately forms an almost completely homogenous clay core. It embeds the pipe which is left in the hole. Several tests were conducted in the laboratory and one field test was run in Stripa. They all showed that a gel soon fills the slot between the pipe and the confinement which had the form of metal pipes in the laboratory investigations. Subsequently, more clay migrates through the perforation and produces a stiff clay filling in the slot. The redistribution of minerals, leading ultimately to a high degree of homogeneity, can be described as a diffusion process. The rate of redistribution depends on the joint geometry and water flow pattern in the rock. In the rock with an average joint frequence of one per meter or higher, very good homogeneity and sealing ability of the clay are expected within a few months after the application of the plug. (author)

  9. Neutron borehole logging correction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for logging earth formations traversed by a borehole in which an earth formation is irradiated with neutrons and gamma radiation produced thereby in the formation and in the borehole is detected. A sleeve or shield for capturing neutrons from the borehole and producing gamma radiation characteristic of that capture is provided to give an indication of the contribution of borehole capture events to the total detected gamma radiation. It is then possible to correct from those borehole effects the total detected gamma radiation and any earth formation parameters determined therefrom

  10. WIPP R and D in situ test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) RandD Facility for the purpose of developing the technology needed for the safe disposal of the United States' defense-related radioactive waste. The in situ test program focus is to provide the models and data to demonstrate the facility performance for isolation of waste at WIPP. The program is defined for the WIPP sealing system, thermal-structural interactions and waste package performance. A number of integrated large-scale underground tests have been operational since 1983 and are ongoing. The tests address the issues of both systems design and long-term isolation performance of the WIPP repository

  11. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] test phase plan: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing the disposition of transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from nuclear weapons production activities of the United States. These wastes are currently stored nationwide at several of the DOE's waste generating/storage sites. The goal is to eliminate interim waste storage and achieve environmentally and institutionally acceptable permanent disposal of these TRU wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being considered as a disposal facility for these TRU wastes. This document describes the first of the following two major programs planned for the Test Phase of WIPP: Performance Assessment -- determination of the long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system in accordance with the requirements of the EPA Standard; and Operations Demonstration -- evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the DOE TRU waste management system's ability to emplace design throughput quantities of TRU waste in the WIPP underground facility. 120 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Environmental Impact Statement: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the environmental impact statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the WIPP was published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1979. This document was reviewed and commented on by members of the general public, private organizations, and governmental agencies. The Final Environmental Impact Statement was subsequently published in October, 1980. This summary is designed to assist decision-maker and interested individuals in reviewing the material presented in the environmental impact statement for the WIPP project. To make this material widely available, this summary is published in both Spanish and English. Additional, more detailed information concerning the environmental and safety consequences of the WIPP project is available in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. Written comments and public hearing comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement are available for review. 27 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert

  14. Conclusions regarding geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was authorized by Congress in 1980 as an unlicensed research and development (R and D) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes arising from the defense activities and programs of the United States. WIPP is now being constructed in southeast New Mexico, using salt beds about 655 m below the surface of the ground. Construction of the full WIPP facility will not commence until a preliminary underground excavation phase, called Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV), is satisfactorily concluded in the summer of 1983. This SPDV program permits confirmation of subsurface geology, in drifts at planned facility depth that extend for 1555 m in a north-south direction, and in the two vertical shafts that provide access to these drifts. The subsurface studies are nearing completion, and it is therefore appropriate to draw conclusions regarding the geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site. Four geotechnical elements are discussed: dissolution, deformation, hydrologic regime, and natural resources

  15. Vascular plugs - A key companion to Interventionists - 'Just Plug it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Vascular plugs are ideally suited to close extra-cardiac, high flowing vascular communications. The family of vascular plugs has expanded. Vascular plugs in general have a lower profile and the newer variants can be delivered even through a diagnostic catheter. These features make them versatile and easy to use. The Amplatzer vascular plugs are also used for closing intracardiac defects including coronary arterio-venous fistula and paravalvular leakage in an off-label fashion. In this review, the features of currently available vascular plugs are reviewed along with tips and tricks of using them in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs

  17. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1992-02-01

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  18. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  19. Borehole disposal design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANDRIAMAROLAHY, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In Madagascar, the sealed radioactive sources are used in several socioeconomic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. This work entitled 'Borehole disposal design concept' consists in putting in place a site of sure storage of the radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. This type of storage is favorable for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The cost of construction depends on the volume of waste to store and the depth of the Borehole. The Borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid the human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the radiations ionizing is then assured. [fr

  20. Borehole sealing. Final report, March 1, 1973--October 31, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    A program to evaluate existing materials and techniques to permanently plug boreholes penetrating salt strata near prospective radioactive waste depository sites is described. A new subcontract No. 78X-33542C has been issued to seal a borehole near Lyons, Kansas, using the materials and techniques recommended in this report. It is recommended that the well be thoroughly cleaned including removing any casing penetrating the critical salt strata. Following this, any fluid-bearing zones should be grouted using the best grout available. Silica gel was recommended for porous zones backed up by Portland cement to seal fractures and vugs. Recommendations were made to use sulfate resistant Chem Comp or sulfate resistant regular Portland (Type V) as the primary sealing material in the areas where anhydrite strata are present such as the existing wells at Lyons, Kansas, or the prospective wells near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This would be modified to meet existing conditions such as salt saturated slurry through the salt strata or added powdered silica in the zones which might exceed 230/sup 0/F at any time. A short epoxy plug was recommended at the top and bottom of the salt strata and a short Seal Ring plug at the base of any extensive water zones. Extensive water zones are not expected in the New Mexico area, however.

  1. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) research and development program: in situ testing plan, March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.; Molecke, M.A.; Munson, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The WIPP in southeast New Mexico is being developed as an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive defense wastes in bedded salt. The tests are done first without radioactive materials and then with transuranic (TRU) waste and Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW). The thermal/structural itneraction experiments include (a) geomechanical evaluations of access drifts, vertical shafts, and isothermal TRU disposal rooms during the Site and Preliminary Validation Program, (b) tests that represent the reference DHLW room configuraton (5.5 m x 5.5 m) and areal thermal loading of 12 W/m 2 , (c) an overtest of the DHLW congfiguration heated to about four times the reference thermal loading; (d) geomechanical evaluations of various room widths up to 9.1 m, variable pillar widths, and a long-drift intersection, (e) an 11-m-dia axisymmetric heated pillar test, and (f) miscellaneous tests to determine stress field and clay seam sliding resistance. The plugging and sealing experiments include (a) salt permeability tests, (b) tests to determine effects of size and scale on behavior of plugs and to determine backfill material behavior and emplacement techniques, and (c) a plug test matrix to evaluate candidate sealing materials. Waste package interaction experiments include (a) simulated-waste package tests that use several design options and engineered barrier materials under reference and accelerated DHLW environments, (b) confirmatory brine migration tests, (c) TRU drum durability tests in dry and wet conditions, (d) options for radiation-source tests using cesium capsules, and (e) actual DHLW tests using up to 40 canisters for technical demonstrations and for addressing concerns of wasteform chemistry, leaching, and near-field radionuclide migration

  3. WIPP/SRL Program - characterization of samples for burial in WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzscheiter, R.C.; Wicks, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The laboratory studies described in this report characterize the performance and homogeneity of waste glass from a 2-ft-dia glass slice taken from a full-scale 2 ft by 10 ft canister filled with glass at TNX. The leaching performance of glass samples extracted from the slice was determined as a function of radial position and will be used in support of existing programs. The waste glass produced at TNX and used for the burial tests in WIPP was very homogeneous. The extent of glass leaching in brine (using standard MCC-1 leach tests and based on boron extraction) was 15X less than that of leaching in deionized water

  4. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  5. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  6. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993

  8. The WIPP institutional program for states' involvement in WIPP transportation planning, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Supplemental Stipulated Agreement of 1982 between the state of New Mexico and the Department of Energy (DOE) committed the DOE to emergency response training in New Mexico. In 1988, the state of New Mexico and the DOE entered into a two-year agreement providing $203,017 for financial assistance and $67,000 for equipment to enhance the state's emergency response capability. In 1990, this agreement was extended for an additional two years providing $226,088 for financial assistance and $39,000 for emergency response equipment. Also, in 1988 an agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the United States Department of Transportation provided $1.0 million to seven western states (Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) to identify and implement programs to help ensure the safe transportation of transuranic waste from western points of origin to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As part of this process, the Western Governors' Association and the seven states prepared the Report to Congress, Transport of Transuranic Wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: State Concerns and Proposed Solutions. In July 1990, a five-year cooperative agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the DOE was signed providing $1.515 million in funding to seven states along the Hanford/WIPP route. This continued the work started under the Department of Transportation's cooperative agreement

  9. Rock-welding materials for deep borehole nuclear waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The concept of deep borehole nuclear waste disposal has recently been proposed. Effective sealing of a borehole after waste emplacement is generally required. In a high temperature disposal mode, the sealing function will be fulfilled by melting the ambient granitic rock with waste decay heat or an external heating source, creating a melt that will encapsulate waste containers or plug a portion of the borehole above a stack of the containers. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with natural materials, such as high melting temperatures, slow crystallization kinetics, the resulting sealing materials generally being porous with low mechanical strength, insufficient adhesion to waste container surface, and lack of flexibility for engineering controls. Here we show that natural granitic materials can be purposefully engineered through chemical modifications to enhance the sealing capability of the materials for deep borehole disposal. This work systematically explores the effect of chemical modification and crystallinity (amorphous vs. crystalline) on the melting and crystallization processes of a granitic rock system. A number of engineered granitic materials have been obtained that have decreased melting points, enhanced viscous densification, and accelerated recrystallization rates without compromising the mechanical integrity of the materials.

  10. A plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gen, O P; Azhigaliyev, G K; Dodonova, S Ye; Dyaltlova, N M; Novokhatskaya, I D; Ryabova, L I

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the durability of cement stone at 150 to 200C. The patent covers a plugging solution which consists of Portlandcement, sand and water. It additionally contains metal organic complexes of nitrylotrimethylphosphonic acid and organosiliconates of alkali or alkaline earth metals with the following component relationship in percent by mass: Portland cement, 42 to 43; sand, 27 to 28; metal organic complexes of nitrylotrimethylphosphonic acid, 0.01 to 1.5; organosiliconates of alkaline or alkaline earthmetals, 0.0025 to 0.375 and water, the remainder.

  11. Concentration of uranium in the drinking and surface water around the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaing, H.; Lemons, B.G.; Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    Activity concentration of uranium isotopes ( 238 U, 234 U and 235 U) were analyzed in drinking and surface water samples collected in the vicinity of the WIPP site using alpha spectroscopy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in uranium concentrations (if any) in the vicinity of the WIPP site and whether the February 14, 2014 radiation release event at the WIPP had any detectable impact on the water bodies around the WIPP. (author)

  12. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024

  13. Double-plug seismic connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annoot, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The double-plug seismic electric connector comprises an elongated insulating body. A male connector plug is at one end of the body and a female connector plug is at the opposite end of the body. Each plug has a pair of male and female contacts. A pair of spaced axial conductors is embedded within the insulating body for interconnecting the opposite male and female contacts. The inner end of a double-wire cable is embedded within the insulating body and each wire inner end is connected to one of the conductors

  14. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  15. Borehole DC-6 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart for Borehole DC-6 identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic test results. This borehole was cored for obtaining stratigraphic data and only that portion within the Grande Ronde formation remains open for hydrologic testing. The upper two formations were cased and cemented off

  16. WIPP - Pre-Licensing and Operations: Developer and Regulator Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, Tom; Patterson, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for defense-related transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), WIPP is located in Southeastern New Mexico: radioactive waste is disposed of 2,150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt with a total capacity of 6.2 million cubic feet of waste. Congress authorized the development and construction of WIPP in 1980 for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States. This paper makes a historical review of the site development, site operations (waste disposal operations started in 1999), communications between US EPA and DOE, the chronology of pre-licensing and pre-operations, the operational phase and the regulatory challenges, and the lessons learned after 12 years of operations

  17. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) integrated project management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olona, D.; Sala, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project of the Department of Energy (DOE), tasked with the mission of demonstrating the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes. This unique project was authorized by Congress in 1979 in response to the national need for long-term, safe methods for disposing of radioactive by-products from our national defense programs. The WIPP was originally established in December of 1979, by Public Law 96-164, DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980. Since the inception of the WIPP Project, work has continued to prepare the facility to receive TRU wastes. Studies continue to be conducted to demonstrate the safety of the WIPP facility in accordance with federal and state laws, state agreements, environmental regulations, and DOE Orders. The objectives of implementing an integrated project management system are to assure compliance with all regulatory and federal regulations, identify areas of concern, provide justification for funding, provide a management tool for control of program workscope, and establish a project baseline from which accountability and performance will be assessed. Program management and project controls are essential for the success of the WIPP Project. The WIPP has developed an integrated project management system to establish the process for the control of the program which has an expected total dollar value of $2B over the ten-year period from 1990-2000. The implementation of this project management system was motivated by the regulatory requirements of the project, the highly public environment in which the project takes place, limited funding and resources, and the dynamic nature of the project. Specific areas to be addressed in this paper include strategic planning, project organization, planning and scheduling, fiscal planning, and project monitoring and reporting

  18. Status and Growth of Underground Science at WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Norbert T.

    2008-10-01

    The science community is increasingly taking advantage of research opportunities in the government-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 655m underground near Carlsbad, NM. Discoveries so far include viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in 250 million-year old salt, preserved in an ultra-low background-radiation setting. Supplementing the overburden's shielding against cosmic radiation, terrestrial background from the host formation is less than five percent that of average crustal rock. In the past, WIPP accommodated development and testing of neutral current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and dark matter research, and it currently hosts two experiments pursuing neutrino-less double-beta decay. That scientists can listen to whispers from the universe in proximity to megacuries of radioactive waste lends, of course, credibility to the argument that WIPP itself is very safe. Almost a century of regional petroleum and potash extraction history and more than three decades of WIPP studies have generated a comprehensive body of knowledge on geology, mining technology, rock mechanics, geochemistry, and other disciplines relevant to underground science. Existing infrastructure is being used and can be expanded to fit experimental needs. WIPP's exemplary safety and regulatory compliance culture, low excavating and operating cost, and the high probability of the repository operating at least another 40 years make its available underground space attractive for future research and development. Recent proposals include low-photon energy counting to study internal dose received decades ago, investigations into ultra-low radiation dose response in cell cultures and laboratory animals (e.g., hormesis vs. linear no-threshold) and detectors for dark matter, solar and supernova neutrinos, and proton decay. Additional proposals compatible with WIPP's primary mission are welcome.

  19. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  20. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  1. Mechanics Model of Plug Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Q. K.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed for the mechanics of friction plug welding. The model accounts for coupling of plastic deformation (material flow) and thermal response (plastic heating). The model predictions of the torque, energy, and pull force on the plug were compared to the data of a recent experiment, and the agreements between predictions and data are encouraging.

  2. A strategy for evaluating the long-term stability of hole-plugging materials in their geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Material used to plug boreholes will not in general be in chemical equilibrium with its host rock. Adverse long-term performance of a plug can involve changes in phase assemblage in the plug/rock system which are difficult to observe at low temperatures in real time. The thermodynamics of multiphase equilibria provides a technique of predicting what phase changes might occur. The thermodynamic treatment of plug/rock systems utilizes (1) a formulation of possible chemical reactions among phases in the system and (2) determinations of changes in values of Gibbs' free energies for the hypothetical reactions, to identify the theoretically-permitted reactions which could degrade plug performance. Time-dependent prediction of phase changes requires a knowledge of rate laws and constants for specific reactions whose mechanisms are well known

  3. Strategy for evaluating the long-term stability of hole-plugging materials in their geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Material used to plug boreholes will not in general be in chemical equilibrium with its host rock. Adverse long-term performance of a plug can involve changes in phase assemblage in the plug/rock system which are difficult to observe at low temperatures in real time. The thermodynamics of multiphase equilibria provides a technique of predicting what phase changes might occur. The thermodynamic treatment of plug/rock systems utilizes (1) a formulation of possible chemical reactions among phases in the system and (2) determinations of changes in values of Gibbs' free energies for the hypothetical reactions, to identify the theoretically-permitted reactions which could degrade plug performance. Time-dependent prediction of phase changes requires a knowledge of rate laws and constants for specific reactions whose mechanisms are well known

  4. INTRAVAL Phase 2 WIPP 1 test case report: Modeling of brine flow through halite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the WIPP 1 test case studied as part of INTRAVAL, an international project to study validation of geosphere transport models. The WIPP 1 test case involved simulation of measured brine-inflow rates to boreholes drilled into the halite strata surrounding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. The goal of the test case was to evaluate the use of Darcy's law to describe brine flow through halite. The general approach taken was to try to obtain values of permeability and specific capacitance that would be: (1) consistent with other available data and (2) able to provide reasonable simulations of all of the brine-inflow experiments performed in the Salado Formation. All of the teams concluded that the average permeability of the halite strata penetrated by the holes was between approximately 10 -22 and 10 -21 m 2 . Specific capacitances greater than 10 -10 Pa -1 are inconsistent with the known constitutive properties of halite and are attributed to deformation, possibly ongoing, of the halite around the WIPP excavations. All project teams found that Darcy-flow models could replicate the experimental data in a consistent and reasonable manner. Discrepancies between the data and simulations are attributed to inadequate representation in the models of processes modifying the pore-pressure field in addition to the experiments themselves, such as ongoing deformation of the rock around the excavations. Therefore, the conclusion from the test case is that Darcy-flow models can reliably be used to predict brine flow to WIPP excavations, provided that the flow modeling is coupled with measurement and realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field around the excavations. This realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field would probably require coupling to a geomechanical model of the stress evolution around the repository

  5. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (@@@ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste's decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  6. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  7. Evaluation of geophysical borehole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    Four studies concerning geophysical investigations and TV inspection in boreholes in connection with KBS studies at Finnsjoe, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala and Stripa and PRAV's studies at Studsvik have been evaluated. This has led to proposals concerning the choice of instruments and methods for future studies and a review of future work required. The evaluation has shown that the following borehole measurements are of primary interest in the continued work: Determinations of temperature and resistivity of the borehole liquid, resistance and resistivity measurements, SP, Sonic, Caliper and VLF. TV inspection, IP and gamma-gamma should also be included in the arsenal of available test methods.(author)

  8. Borehole Seismology: Fundamentals and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Because boring in itself is very expensive and instrumentation is required to endure high temperatures and pressures, deep borehole observation was accompanied by an economic risk. However, it has great advantages with respect to micro-earthquake observation, which is enriched with a short period vibration signal, because deep borehole observation greatly reduces short period noise. These kind advantages were explained by referring to the relationship between earthquake size and frequency range. Examples of seismic observation in a borehole in a geothermal field in El Salvador and a CO 2 confinement project in the western part of Canada were introduced. (authors)

  9. Review of the scientific and technical criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The panel has evaluated the scientific and technical adequacy of work being done on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project to satisfy the charge to the panel set out in Chapter 1. The panel concluded that the scientific work has been carried out with a high degree of professional competence. The panel notes that the geology revealed by shaft sinking and excavation of drifts and the preliminary measurements generally confirm the geologic expectations derived from surface explorations and boreholes. The purity and volume of the salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt indicate that a repository can be constructed that will meet the geologic criteria for site selection. Thus, the important issues about the geology at the site have been resolved, but there remain some issues about the hydrology and design of the facility that should be resolved before large-scale transuranic (TRU) waste emplacement begins. The panel's conclusions and recommendations regarding the following studies are presented: site selection and characterization; in-situ tests and experiments; waste acceptance criteria; design and construction of underground facilities; and performance assessment. 65 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  10. Site evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary site selection activities for the WIPP are complete now; these consisted primarily of national and regional studies over the past fifteen years, and resulted in selection of the WIPP study area for geological characterization. The work of geological characterization should be considered to have begun with the drilling of ERDA 9 at the center of the WIPP study area and the initiation of seismic reflection work on the site. That geological characterization, which is primarily oriented to provide specific data concerning the present geology of the site, was virtually complete in December, 1978, when the Geological Characterization Report was submitted to the Department of Energy; much basic information has been gathered indicating no major technical problems with the site as it is now understood. Studies of long-term processes which might affect a repository or have an effect on safety analyses will now be the major geotechnical activity for the WIPP site evaluation team, some of these activities are already underway. These studies will deal with the age of significant features and the rates and processes which produce those features. The information so gained will be useful in increasing the confidence in evaluation of the safety of a repository

  11. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository

  12. WIPP: Lessons learned for state/DOE consultation and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    WIPP is intended to be a repository for permanent disposal of 6,200,000 cu ft of transuranic waste generated from the nation's defense programs. The waste is not fixed, up to 1% can be respirable and it is stored in conventional 17-C Type A Carbon steel drums with a design life of 20 years. (Storage began in 1970). The waste form is not fused in an insoluble glass matrix and there is no commitment by DOE for getters. The question arises of the need and desirability to perform experiments with high level wastes at WIPP. The original purpose in the Oct 1980 WIPP FIES stated ''...the experiments are not so much concerned with the WIPP itself, as they are with planning future high level waste repositories. They are to answer technical questions about the disposal of high level waste in bedded salt and to provide a valid demonstration of the concepts involved.'' The purpose of this paper is to provide information for RH TRU disposal and to generate scientific knowledge that may be helpful to others and not to demonstrate high level waste disposal

  13. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository.

  14. The legal, regulatory and safety basis for opening WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dials, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Current laws in the United States of America direct the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to site, design, operate, and decommission a deep geological repository for safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. In 1993, the DOE established the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate the nation's management of TRUW and to open the WIPP site for safe disposal of TRUW in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The CAO submitted the final Compliance Certification Application (CCA) in 1996, and is on schedule to open WIPP in November 1997, about three years earlier than scheduled before the establishment of the CAO. The performance assessment (PA) embodied in the CCA demonstrates that WIPP meets the EPA's regulatory requirements for radioactive releases for the 10,000 year regulatory period in both the undisturbed and disturbed (human intrusion) scenarios. Detailed planning, compliance-based research and development (R and D), teamwork among project participants and early and open iterative interactions with the regulators, oversight groups and other interested parties in the certification/permitting process are key components of the progress in the safe disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. (author)

  15. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  16. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  17. Deep Borehole Disposal Concept: Development of Universal Canister Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research; Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research

    2016-08-01

    This report documents key elements of the conceptual design for deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste to support the development of a universal canister concept of operations. A universal canister is a canister that is designed to be able to store, transport, and dispose of radioactive waste without the canister having to be reopened to treat or repackage the waste. This report focuses on the conceptual design for disposal of radioactive waste contained in a universal canister in a deep borehole. The general deep borehole disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rock to a depth of about 5 km, emplacing WPs in the lower 2 km of the borehole, and sealing and plugging the upper 3 km. Research and development programs for deep borehole disposal have been ongoing for several years in the United States and the United Kingdom; these studies have shown that deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste could be safe, cost effective, and technically feasible. The design concepts described in this report are workable solutions based on expert judgment, and are intended to guide follow-on design activities. Both preclosure and postclosure safety were considered in the development of the reference design concept. The requirements and assumptions that form the basis for the deep borehole disposal concept include WP performance requirements, radiological protection requirements, surface handling and transport requirements, and emplacement requirements. The key features of the reference disposal concept include borehole drilling and construction concepts, WP designs, and waste handling and emplacement concepts. These features are supported by engineering analyses.

  18. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  19. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists

  20. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  1. Plug testing and removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baric, T.J.; Kauric, C.E.; Garcia, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for testing and removing a plug from an aperture in the cylindrical core barrel wall of a nuclear reactor. The plug has an enlarged head disposed along the wall in a narrow annular access space between the wall and a surrounding cylindrical thermal neutron shield. The apparatus comprises: fixed jaw means; movable jaw means pivotally connected to the fixed jaw means for movement with respect thereto between an open position accommodating reception of the plug head between the fixed and movable jaw means and a closed position for securely gripping the plug head between the fixed and movable jaw means; drive means carried by the fixed jaw means and coupled to the movable jaw means for effecting movement thereof between the open and closed positions thereof; and tensioning means carried by the jaw means for engagement with the core barrel when the jaw means are disposed in gripping engagement with the plug head for exerting on the jaw means and the gripped plug a predetermined force in a direction radially outwardly of the wall. The jaw means and the drive means and the tensioning means all have dimensions radially of the wall substantially less than the radial thickness of the access space to permit insertion into, movement within and removal from the access space

  2. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    2013-07-01

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO 2 matrix. The

  3. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO{sub 2} matrix

  4. Borehole logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of exploration by drilling as far as Atomic Minerals Division is concerned is to locate the ore zone in the subsurface, draw samples and analyze them for their metal content. The presence of the ore zone is also indicated by gamma-ray logging of the borehole. A gamma-ray detector is lowered in the borehole and precise depth and grade of the ore zone is established. This helps the geologist in correlating the ore horizon with the surface outcrop or the ore zone intercepted in adjoining boreholes and in deciding about further drilling and location of boreholes. Most commonly, total gamma measurements are made although some units capable of measuring the gamma-ray spectrum are also in use. It is possible to know if the mineralization is due to uranium without waiting for the laboratory results. The present write up gives a brief account of the principles, equipment and methods of borehole gamma-ray logging including density and self-potential logging. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.W.; Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report

  6. Grouts and concretes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Structures Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station has conducted research on cement-based composites for the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) since 1977, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories. Field testing requirements guided initial development of grouts. Concurrent and later laboratory studies explored the chemical stability and probable durability of these mixtures. Beginning in 1985, a series of small-scale seal performance tests at the WIPP prompted development of an expansive salt-saturated concrete. Important lessons learned from this ongoing work include: (1) carefully tailored mixtures can tolerate phase changes involving Ca, Al, and SO 4 , without loss of structural integrity; (2) handling and placement properties are probably more crucial to the mixtures than is exact phase composition; and (3) for the environment of a geologic repository, demonstrated chemical durability will be the best indicator of long-term performance

  7. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing

  8. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  9. New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group - experience in reviewing WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from WIPP--a radioactive waste facility intended to permanently dispose transuranic radioactive waste generated from the nation's nuclear weapons program. The concept of a State review of a proposed radioactive waste facility has been endorsed by both Federal and State legislative and executive agencies, and the experiences and interactions of the past four years to solve problems of this first-of-a-kind radioactive waste facility has led to many innovations in conflict resolution. The multidisciplinary Group's position is neither pro nor anti-WIPP and results are published and given broad dissemination to insure technical and public scrutiny of its work

  10. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs

  11. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP): Technical Assistance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollander, A.

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of low-income residences without the utilization of additional taxpayer funding. Sixteen WIPP grantees were awarded a total of $30 million in Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds in September 2010. These projects focused on: including nontraditional partners in weatherization service delivery; leveraging significant non-federal funding; and improving the effectiveness of low-income weatherization through the use of new materials, technologies, behavior-change models, and processes.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory Develops ''Quick to WIPP'' Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Allen, G.; Kosiewicz, S.; Martin, B.; LANL; Nunz, J.; Biedscheid, J.; Sellmer, T.; Willis, J.; Orban, J.; Liekhus, K.; Djordjevic, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Cerro Grande forest fire in May of 2000 and the terrorist events of September 11, 2001 precipitated concerns of the vulnerability of legacy contact-handled (CH), high-wattage transuranic (TRU) waste stored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An analysis of the 9,100 cubic meters of stored CH-TRU waste revealed that 400 cubic meters or 4.5% of the inventory represented 61% of the risk. The analysis further showed that this 400 cubic meters was contained in only 2,000 drums. These facts and the question ''How can the disposition of this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) be accelerated?'' formed the genesis of LANL's Quick to WIPP initiative

  13. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  14. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  15. Stratigraphy of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, R.W.; Worssam, B.C.

    1983-12-01

    Seven boreholes, five of them partially cored, were drilled at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as part of a general investigation to assess the feasibility of storing low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in underground cavities. Two of the deeper boreholes were almost wholly cored to provide samples for hydrogeological, hydrochemical, mineralogical, geochemical, geotechnical, sedimentological and stratigraphical studies to enable variations in lithology and rock properties to be assessed, both vertically and laterally, and related to their regional geological setting. This report describes the lithologies, main faunal elements and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and Carboniferous sequences proved in the boreholes. More detailed stratigraphical accounts of the late Jurassic and Cretaceous sequences will be prepared when current studies of the faunal assemblages are complete. (author)

  16. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BODNER, SOL R.; CHAN, KWAI S.; MUNSON, DARRELL E.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area

  18. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  19. WIPP: a perspective from ten years of operating success - 16189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 35 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA is the first and, to the author's knowledge, only facility in the world for the permanent disposal of defense related transuranic (TRU) waste. Soon after plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team of scientists at the University of California Berkeley Laboratory, the need to find a permanent repository for plutonium contaminated waste was recognized due to the more than 24,000 year half-life of Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu). In 1957 the National Academy of Sciences published a report recommending deep geological burial in bedded salt as a possible solution. However, more than 50 years passed before the solution was achieved when in 1999 WIPP received the first shipment of TRU waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ten years later, more than 7,600 shipments of TRU waste have been disposed of in rooms mined in an ancient salt bed more than 2,000 feet underground. This paper provides a brief history of WIPP with an overview of the technical, regulatory, and political hurdles that had to be overcome before the idea of a permanent disposal facility became reality. The paper focuses primarily on the safe, uneventful transportation program that has moved 100,000- plus containers of TRU waste from various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generator and/or storage sites across the Unites States to southeastern New Mexico. (author)

  20. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP [PowerPoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Donald T.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  1. A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehgartner, B.

    1991-06-01

    Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. WIPP gets thumbs up; Ward Valley time runs out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Legislation passed in late September clears the way for the Department of Energy to begin shipment of national defense transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, NM, as early as November 1997. On September 23, President Clinton signed the Fiscal Year 1997 Defense Authorization Bill, which contained amendments to the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The implementation of the law will help the DOE in its cleanup sites nationwide, and will enhance public health and safety by providing for the disposal of the waste in a 2150-ft underground salt formation, far away from population centers. Key components of the legislation include the following: (1) The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will continue as primary regulator of WIPP. (2) The EPA will have one year to review the Compliance Certification Application, which the DOE was to submit by October 31, 1996. Upon EPA certification (expected in October 1997), the DOE will begin shipping transuranic waste in November 1997. (3) A six-month waiting period for waste shipments has been removed (previously, the DOE was required to wait 180 days after the Energy Secretary's decision to begin disposal operations). (4) New Mexico will receive $20 million immediately, and annually for 14 years, with the funds to be used for infrastructure and road improvements in the state

  3. The WIPP transportation system -- ''Safer than any other''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ''the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety

  4. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Radiometric calipers for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Wylie, A.W.; Jarrett, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two versions of a radiometric-type caliper for measuring borehole diameter are described. One, based on the bow-spring principle, is suitable for percussion (exploration) drill holes. The other, which utilizes hemispherical wall contactors actuated by springs, is suitable for blast holes. Both utilize low-power radioactive sources and employ a scintillation detector to measure the 'inverse-square law' response of the device to changes in borehole radius. The performance of the device is examined and examples of its use are illustrated. (author)

  6. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA. A

  7. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-02-25

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA

  8. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum M. Computer system and data processing requirements for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.

    1977-06-01

    Data-processing requirements for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) dictate a computing system that can provide a wide spectrum of data-processing needs on a 24-hour-day basis over an indeterminate time. A computer system is defined as a computer or computers complete with all peripheral equipment and extensive software and communications capabilities, including an operating system, compilers, assemblers, loaders, etc., all applicable to real-world problems. The computing system must be extremely reliable and easily expandable in both hardware and software to provide for future capabilities with a minimum impact on the existing applications software and operating system. The computer manufacturer or WIPP operating contractor must provide continuous on-site computer maintenance (maintain an adequate inventory of spare components and parts to guarantee a minimum mean-time-to-repair of any portion of the computer system). The computer operating system or monitor must process a wide mix of application programs and languages, yet be readily changeable to obtain maximum computer usage. The WIPP computing system must handle three general types of data processing requirements: batch, interactive, and real-time. These are discussed. Data bases, data collection systems, scientific and business systems, building and facilities, remote terminals and locations, and cables are also discussed

  9. Leveraging Radioactive Waste Disposal at WIPP for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Salt mines are radiologically much quieter than other underground environments because of ultra-low concentrations of natural radionuclides (U, Th, and K) in the host rock; therefore, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a government-owned, 655m deep geologic repository that disposes of radioactive waste in thick salt near Carlsbad, New Mexico, has for the last 15 years hosted highly radiation-sensitive experiments. Incidentally, Nature started her own low background experiment 250ma ago, preserving viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in WIPP salt. The Department of Energy continues to make areas of the WIPP underground available for experiments, freely offering its infrastructure and access to this unique environment. Even before WIPP started disposing of waste in 1999, the Room-Q alcove (25m x 10m x 4m) housed a succession of small experiments. They included development and calibration of neutral-current detectors by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a proof-of-concept by Ohio State University of a flavor-sensitive neutrino detector for supernovae, and research by LANL on small solid- state dark matter detectors. Two currently active experiments support the search for neutrino-less double beta decay as a tool to better define the nature and mass of the neutrino. That these delicate experiments are conducted in close vicinity to, but not at all affected by, megacuries of radioactive waste reinforces the safety argument for the repository. Since 2003, the Majorana collaboration is developing and testing various detector designs inside a custom- built clean room in the Room-Q alcove. Already low natural background readings are reduced further by segmenting the germanium detectors, which spatially and temporally discriminates background radiation. The collaboration also demonstrated safe copper electro-forming underground, which minimizes cosmogenic background in detector assemblies. The largest currently used experimental

  10. Origin of the brines near WIPP from the drill holes ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 based on stable isotope concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.; Updegraff, D.

    1983-03-01

    Pathways which might alter the isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 meteoric water, seawaters, and in hydration waters in gypsum to the isotopic compositions of brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are discussed. Present geologic conditions do not favor the alteration of the isotopic compositions of waters that exist near the WIPP site to those of the brines by these pathways. It is concluded that the brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are probably derived from ancient ocean waters that have been isotopically enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange interaction with rock. The dehydration of gypsum as a process of origin of these brines cannot be ruled out

  11. Direct drilling related releases from the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is that due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid. The second concerns the borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Available literature concerning both processes and a quantitative model for erosion are presented. Calculations are shown that confirm the importance of gas-induced spall but no definitive model is developed. It is concluded that constitutive data for decomposed waste must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess the full significance of this latter mechanism

  12. Hydraulic effects of unsealed boreholes. Numerical groundwater flow modelling of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockgaard, Niclas

    2011-06-01

    numerical groundwater modelling code DarcyTools was used for the simulations. Continuum hydraulic property fields for the flow simulations were generated from the deterministic deformation zones and the modelled DFN. DarcyTools has a special routine for simulation of open boreholes. A reference borehole plugging scheme and a simplified version were applied for the reference boreholes. The concept for borehole sealing included alternating sections of silica-concrete and bentonite along the borehole. In the models, appropriate values of hydraulic conductivity were assigned to the grid cells representing the studied boreholes to accommodate simulation of the borehole sealing. The hydraulic impacts on the groundwater flow conditions of the open (unsealed) and poorly sealed boreholes were investigated by steady-state simulations. No salinity and no density effects were included in the simulations. The variables that were investigated were changes in the hydraulic head and flow fields around the boreholes at repository depth, the total flow through a defined rock volume surrounding the boreholes, and the flow along the boreholes. Also, in order to study the impact on advective travel time for water and solutes between repository depth and surface, particle tracking was performed between a horizontal plane at -600 m and the -50 m level. The simulations indicated that the open boreholes have a considerable hydraulic influence, especially on hydraulic heads at large depths. There was a difference in the hydraulic function of the open boreholes when comparing the two sites studied for the present-day hydraulic boundary conditions. In Forsmark, as a discharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as easy path ways for groundwater from repository depth to surface. In Laxemar, on the other hand, being in part a recharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as paths from surface to depth. The open boreholes increased the groundwater turnover in the borehole site

  13. Hydraulic effects of unsealed boreholes. Numerical groundwater flow modelling of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    numerical groundwater modelling code DarcyTools was used for the simulations. Continuum hydraulic property fields for the flow simulations were generated from the deterministic deformation zones and the modelled DFN. DarcyTools has a special routine for simulation of open boreholes. A reference borehole plugging scheme and a simplified version were applied for the reference boreholes. The concept for borehole sealing included alternating sections of silica-concrete and bentonite along the borehole. In the models, appropriate values of hydraulic conductivity were assigned to the grid cells representing the studied boreholes to accommodate simulation of the borehole sealing. The hydraulic impacts on the groundwater flow conditions of the open (unsealed) and poorly sealed boreholes were investigated by steady-state simulations. No salinity and no density effects were included in the simulations. The variables that were investigated were changes in the hydraulic head and flow fields around the boreholes at repository depth, the total flow through a defined rock volume surrounding the boreholes, and the flow along the boreholes. Also, in order to study the impact on advective travel time for water and solutes between repository depth and surface, particle tracking was performed between a horizontal plane at -600 m and the -50 m level. The simulations indicated that the open boreholes have a considerable hydraulic influence, especially on hydraulic heads at large depths. There was a difference in the hydraulic function of the open boreholes when comparing the two sites studied for the present-day hydraulic boundary conditions. In Forsmark, as a discharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as easy path ways for groundwater from repository depth to surface. In Laxemar, on the other hand, being in part a recharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as paths from surface to depth. The open boreholes increased the groundwater turnover in the borehole site

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-01-01

    Punctal plugs are used in patients with dry eye syndrome to preserve the tears. In this report, I present two cases of Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs. Observational series of two cases. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board. Two men aged 29 and 31 years developed black spots inside the hole of punctal plug, which looked like eyeliner deposits. The deposits inside the hole of the plug in each patient were removed and cultured. Cultures of the two punctal plugs black deposits grew A fumigatus. Bacterial cultures were negative. Colonization of the punctal plug hole with A fumigatus was observed in two cases. It is recommended that punctal plugs be removed in patients undergoing refractive or intraocular procedures or in patients who are receiving topical corticosteroids. Current punctal plugs should be redesigned to avoid the presence of an inserter hole.

  15. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  16. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  17. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  18. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume I contains the following attachments for Module II: waste analysis plan; quality assurance program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experiment Waste Characterization Program(QAPP); WIPP Characterization Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Plan)(SAP); and no migration Determination Requirement Summary (NMD)

  19. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  20. Evaluation of the suitability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Little, M.S.; Rehfeldt, K.; Spiegler, P.

    1983-05-01

    Determination of the suitability of the site for WIPP is only the first major phase in the evaluation of the radiological impact of the repository on the public health and safety. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) will continue to independently review the design of the facility, the operational procedures, the criteria for packaging and shipment of the waste, the plans, procedures and results of the WIPP experiments, emergency preparedness, adherence to EPA and pertinent NRC regulations, and other important features of the project. EEG has concluded from existing evidence that the Los Medanos site for the WIPP project has been characterized in sufficient detail to warrant confidence in the validation of the site for the permanent emplacement of approximately 6 million cubic feet of defense transuranic waste. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the maximum surface dose rate for the unshielded remote-handled transuranic waste canisters will be 100 rem/hr with a maximum radionuclide concentration of 23 Ci/liter. The Site and Preliminary Design Validation program, through the drilling of two shafts to the selected repository level at 2160 ft below the surface and excavation of about 9000 ft of tunnels, has confirmed the interpretations made about the subsurface geological conditions at the site. For an assessment of the potential radiation effects of the nuclear waste repository on the public health and safety, it is necessary to understand the regional geological and hydrological setting. Much work has been done to understand these conditions and to address several specific issues which have arisen as a result of such studies. However, it is almost inevitable that some questions remain unanswered at a given time in the decision-making process. EEG has identified work which still needs to be done at the Los Medanos site in order to improve confidence in the worst case scenario models of possible breaches of the repository

  1. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Environmental monitoring at the WIPP site CY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, L.W.; Metcalf, J.H.

    1977-08-01

    Measurements made in the WIPP study area indicate background exposure levels of 8-9 μR/hr. These measured data are in good agreement with calculated exposure rates (7.5-9.6 μrad/hr). Airborne gross beta concentrations, which were low (0.02 pCi/m 3 ), confirmed the presence of global fallout from the Chinese nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere during the fall. The air-quality measurements, except for a few unexplained excursions, were less than State and/or Federal air-quality standards

  3. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 x 10 -21 m 2 was less than 3.0 m

  4. Designing a database for performance assessment: Lessons learned from WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Schenker, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) used a relational database that was originally designed only to supply the input parameters required for implementation of the PA codes. Reviewers used the database as a point of entry to audit quality assurance measures for control, traceability, and retrievability of input information used for analysis, and output/work products. During these audits it became apparent that modifications to the architecture and scope of the database would benefit the EPA regulator and other stakeholders when reviewing the recertification application. This paper contains a discussion of the WPP PA CCA database and lessons learned for designing a database

  5. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug

  6. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  7. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  8. Exploratory boreholes Juchlistock-Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Keusen, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of the investigation was the completion of missing geological, hydrogeological and rock-mechanical data about a suitable site for the intended Nagra rock laboratory at Grimsel. To this aim, 6 horizontal boreholes of 100 m length and 86 mm diameter were drilled. The cores, extracted practically without loss, and mechanical data for the main investigation was an extensive evaluation of the lithographic discontinuities and anisotropies, because they are the main determinant of the hydrogeological conditions of the locality. The area is dominated by granites and granodiorite which are of variable biotite content, lamprophyres and aplites. The largest part of the investigated mountain region consists of compact unclefted rock. 478 of the 600 bore meters, i.e. about 80 % of the drilled mountain, have no open clefts. Only 22 of the 600 bore meters (3.6 %0 contain more than five clefts per meter, at which the open clefts in the boreholes SB1 and SB5 appear more frequently. At the remaining exploratory boreholes in 90 % of the mountain ther are no open clefts. 15 refs., 52 figs., 15 tabs

  9. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring

  10. Shielding plug for LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Ko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable effective removal of liquid metals deposited, if any, in the gaps between a rotary plug and a fixed plug in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A plate incorporated with a heater and capable of projecting in a gap between a rotary plug and a fixed plug, and a scraper connected in perpendicular to it are provided to the rotary plug. Solidified liquid metals such as sodium deposited in the gap are effectively removed by the heating with the heater and the scraping action due to the rotation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Analysis of borehole inclusion stress measurement concepts proposed for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The calculations presented in this paper were performed as part of an investigation of inclusion stressmeter performance in salt. They focus on the strain gaged stressmeter (SGS) and on a hypothetical solid cylindrical inclusion with variable stiffness. issues addressed include the effects of creep and the effects of gage stiffness on stressmeter output for various loading conditions. The computational procedures used to calculate gage response are described first and are followed by a presentation of the computed responses of the inclusions to several loading conditions. The results presented clearly indicate the problems involved in relating inclusion stressmeter readings to actual stress fields in salt. Readings change with time due to creep, and the nature of the changes is related to gage stiffness. Creep seems to affect matching inclusion response the least and soft inclusion response the most. In fact, the soft inclusion fails to distinguish small sudden changes in applied load and changes due to creep. The calculations also indicate that inclusion stressmeter performance in salt needs to be evaluated in even greater detail before stress measurements can be used for verifying computational models. The gage installation process needs to be included in this analysis. Field evaluations of several inclusion stressmeters are currently underway to meet these needs. 8 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  12. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  13. WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems

  14. PASS: a component of Desk Top PA for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.; Fewell, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing recognition internationally of the need to demonstrate comprehensiveness in order to build confidence in performance assessments (PAs) for radioactive waste disposal projects. This has resulted in a number of methodologies being developed to formalize the process of defining and documenting the decision basis that underlies a PA. Such methodologies include process influence diagrams and the rock engineering system (RES) matrix. However, these methodologies focus mainly on the conceptualization of the disposal system and do not provide a ready framework to document the decisions behind the model development and parameterization of the PA system. The Performance Assessment Support System (PASS) is a flexible electronic tool designed to increase the transparency and traceability of decision making in the entire PA process. An application of PASS has been developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) where it forms an important component of Desk Top PA, a PC-based PA computational environment under development at Sandia National Laboratories to document, plan, and support management decisions and to assess performance for the WIPP recertification process. This desk-top PA environment is also aimed at providing scientifically-based decision support for assessing the performance of nuclear and hazardous waste management and environmental clean-up systems

  15. Effects of clay-seam behavior on WIPP repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Krieg, R.D.; Branstetter, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The geology at the southeastern New Mexico WIPP site consists of bedded layers of rock salt, anhydrite, polyhalite, mixtures of those materials, and thin clay seams. In spite of their very small (0.005 m to 0.05 m) thickness, clay seams are important to structural characterization of the WIPP stratigraphy since slip might possibly take place across them. Results of a study to determine the effects of clay seam frictional slip on the closure of a well-defined drift configuration are described. A Mohr-Coulomb dry friction model was used to model the active clay seams. The main thrust of the study was to determine the effects of friction coefficient variability on drift closure. Results show that the drift closure varies by a factor of 3.0 over the range of friction coefficients studied. The maximum slip observed along any clay seam was 0.12 m. For values of μ > .7, virtually no slip occurs along any clay seam

  16. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  17. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  18. Prospects for regional groundwater contamination due to karst landforms in Mescalero caliche at the WIPP site near Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from nuclear weapons production will be permanently buried in Permian salt beds at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in the Nash Draw watershed. Overlying the salt beds are cavernous Rustler dolomite aquifers, the most likely flow paths for contaminated water from WIPP to the biosphere. Overlying the Rustler are sandstones, siltstones, Mescalero caliche, and windblown sand. The WIPP site contains thousands of closed topographic depressions. If some are karst features, the ability of WIPP to isolate nuclear waste cannot be demonstrated. A water balance and geochemical analysis of the Nash Draw watershed and nearby brine springs were undertaken to determine: (1) which Rustler aquifers discharge where, and in what quantities; (2) the rates of evapotranspiration and natural groundwater recharge; (3) the most likely discharge point for contaminated water from WIPP. Laguna Grande, a natural salt lake in Nash Draw, is the outlet for the Rustler dolomite aquifers and for plutonium contaminations from WIPP. The recharge time for the Rustler may be only 6 to 8 years. WIPP is unsuitable for nuclear waste isolation because: (1) Rustler groundwater flow paths and travel times are inherently unpredictable; (2) caliche and sandstones allow rainwater recharge of the Rustler; (3) pressurized brine underneath WIPP can carry dissolved waste up the WIPP shafts to the Rustler; (4) geologic barriers between the brine and WIPP are unreliable; and (5) WIPP is vulnerable to human intrusion

  19. New experiences in borehole dilution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesh Chandra

    1977-01-01

    A study of filtration rate and direction of groundwater flow was made at various depths in borehole using bromine-82 as groundwater tracer. The filtration rates were found to vary along the depth of borehole. Vertical flow in the borehole was observed in an alluvial aquifer even after sealing the borehole by rubber packers. The filtration rates, obtained without the packer at various depths, were much less than those obtained with packer. Microscopic hydrological information was obtained around the borehole which was useful in planning a drainage system in the area. A depth was located in the borehole where vertical flow was in opposite directions. At another depth a zone of horizontal flow was observed where vertical flow was in opposite directions. The improved instrumentation used rendered the field work extremely easy quick and readily reproducible. (author)

  20. Refueling system with small diameter rotatable plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a liquid-metal fastbreeder nuclear reactor comprising a reactor pressure vessel and closure head therefor, a reactor core barrel disposed within the reactor vessel and enclosing a reactor core having therein a large number of closely spaced fuel assemblies, and the reactor core barrel and the reactor core having an approximately concentric circular cross-sectional configuration with a geometric center in predetermined location within the reactor vessel. The improved refueling system described here comprises: a large controllably rotatable plug means comprising the substantial portion of the closure head, a reactor upper internals structure mounted from the large rotatable plug means. The large rotatable plug means has an approximately circular configuration which approximates the cross-sectional configuration of the reactor core barrel with a center of rotation positioned a first predetermined distance from the geometric center of the reactor core barrel so that the large rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the reactor core barrel; a small controllably rotatable plug means affixed to the large rotatable plug means and rotatable with respect thereto. The small rotatable plug means has a center of rotation which is offset a second predetermined distance from the rotational center of the large rotatable plug means so that the small rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the large rotatable plug means

  1. Exploratory borehole Leuggern. Working program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and complement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from a production tests of the Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein aquifers to labelled slug-tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the subsurface. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  2. Cement thickness measurements in cased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, J.S.; Schuster, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for logging a borehole having solid matter along at least a portion of the wall thereof. Gamma radiation is emitted from the borehole into the surrounding media, and the amount of radiation which returns to the borehole is measured by three detectors located at different distances from the source of radiation, so as to be primarily sensitive to radiation which has respectively penetrated to three different depths in the surrounding media. The thickness of the solid matter on the borehole wall is then determined from the three gamma radiation measurements

  3. The sonic borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the sonic borehole tool. First a review of the various elastic wave types is given and velocity values of compressional waves in various materials listed. Next follows a discussion of 3 models for the relation between transit time and porosity, and a comparison between the 3 models is made. The design of sonic tools is described including their geometry. The path of the sonic signals is discussed. Also the effect of environmental factors on the results of the tools are considered. Finally a number of applications are described. In two appendices the mechanics of deformable bodies and formulas for the velocity of sound are reviewed. (author)

  4. Borehole Plugging Program (Waste Disposal). Report 1. Initial Investigations and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    on current technology, they are believed to be capable of being developed to have physical and chemical properties compatible with the various earth...attack, low permeability to both water and gas, and controlled expansive characteristics along with the normal properties of hardened and unhardened...American Admixtures Co. Sika Chemical Corp. Diamond Shamrock Chemical Co. Halliburton Co. * Natural pozzolans: Filter-Cel is uncalcined diatomite

  5. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  6. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  7. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  8. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of ancient cement based building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements in plasters, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of an examination of selected ancient building materials and provides insights into the durability of certain ancient structures. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehold environment. Analyses were conducted by petrographic, SEM, chemical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  9. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  10. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  11. QA lessons learned for parameter control from the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of lessons learned from experiences on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) Project in implementation of quality assurance controls surrounding inputs for performance assessment analysis. Since the performance assessment (PA) process is inherent in compliance determination for any waste repository, these lessons-learned are intended to be useful to investigators, analysts, and Quality Assurance (QA) practitioners working on high level waste disposal projects. On the WIPP Project, PA analyses for regulatory-compliance determination utilized several inter-related computer programs (codes) that mathematically modeled phenomena such as radionuclide release, retardation, and transport. The input information for those codes are the parameters that are the subject of this paper. Parameters were maintained in a computer database, which was then queried electronically by the PA codes whenever input was needed as the analyses were run

  12. Final report of the borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing test. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Ramqvist, G.

    1987-02-01

    Like the borehole and shaft plugging tests, the tunnel test gave evidence of the very effective sealing power of Na betonite. The test arrangement consisted of a 9 m long 1.5 m diameter steel tube surrounded by sand and cast in concrete plugs at each end. These plugs contained bentonite forming 'O-ring' sealings at the concrete/rock interface. The test had the form of injecting water into the sand and measuring the leakage that took place through the adjacent rock and along the plug. It was concluded that the drop in leakage from more than 200 l at 100 kPa water pressure early in the test to 75 l at 3 MPa pressure at the end was due partly to the swelling pressure exerted by the bentonite on the rock and by penetration of bentonite into water-bearing rock fractures. The major sealing process appears to be the establishment of a very tight bentonite/rock interface. (orig./HP)

  13. Nuclear fuel rod end plug weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M. A.; Patrick, S. S.; Rice, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for testing TIG (tungsten inert gas) welds of end plugs on a sealed nuclear reactor fuel rod. An X-ray fluorescent spectrograph testing unit detects tungsten inclusion weld defects in the top end plug's seal weld. Separate ultrasonic weld inspection system testing units test the top end plug's seal and girth welds and test the bottom end plug's girth weld for penetration, porosity and wall thinning defects. The nuclear fuel rod is automatically moved into and out from each testing unit and is automatically transported between the testing units by rod handling devices. A controller supervises the operation of the testing units and the rod handling devices

  14. Multimeediaetendus : Opera Gets Plugged / Eve Arpo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arpo, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lühiooperite õhtul "Opera Gets Plugged" etendunud lavastustest - Monika Mattieseni "DMeeter" ja Age Hirve "Tuleloitsija": Mõlema lavastaja ja projektijuht Liis Kolle

  15. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  16. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-02-25

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  17. Friction Pull Plug and Material Configuration for Anti-Chatter Friction Pull Plug Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin Anderson (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A friction pull plug is provided for use in forming a plug weld in a hole in a material. The friction pull plug includes a shank and a series of three frustoconical sections. The relative sizes of the sections assure that a central one of the sections defines the initial contact point between the hole's sides. The angle defined by the central one of the sections reduces or eliminates chatter as the plug is pulled into the hole.

  18. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-9 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drellack, S.L.; Wells, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The H-9 complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 5.5 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-9a (total depth 559 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9b (total depth 708 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9c (total depth 816 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-9c are eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Gatuna Formation of Pleistocene age; (5-25 feet); and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (25-455 feet), the Rustler Formation (455.791 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (791-816 feet), all of Permian age. Three sections (494-501 feet, 615-625 feet, 692-712 feet) in the Rustler Formation penetrated by borehole H-9c are composed of remnant anhydrite (locally altered to gypsum) and clay and silt residue from the dissolution of much thicker seams of argillaceous and silty halite. This indicates that the eastward-moving dissolution within the Rustler Formation, found just to the west of the WIPP site, is present at the H-9 site. (USGS)

  19. Mineralogy in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility stratigraphic horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    Forty-six samples were selected for this study from two cores, one extending 50 ft up through the roof of the WIPP facility and the other penetrating 50 ft below the facility floor. These samples, selected from approximately every other foot of core length, represent the major lithologies present in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP facility horizon: ''clean'' halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, and mixed polyhalitic-argillaceous halite. Samples were analyzed for non-NaCl mineralogy by determining weight percents of water- and EDTA-insoluble residues, which were then identified by x-ray diffraction. In general, WIPP halite contains at most 5 wt % non-NaCl residue. The major mineral constituents are quartz, magnesite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, and clays. Results of this study confirm that, in previous descriptions of WIPP core, trace mineral quantities have been visually overestimated by approximately an order of magnitude. 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP's environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence

  1. Geotechnical evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been developed; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geological and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. Geotechnical aspects of site characterization are examined. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP

  2. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  3. Performance assessment in support of compliance certification application for the WIPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, H.N.; Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.; Helton, J.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the US Department of Energy for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP (1) for such disposal was submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, and is currently under review, with a decision anticipated in late 1997. An important component of the CCA is a performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP carried out by Sandia National Laboratories. The final outcome of the PA is a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for radionuclide releases from the WIPP to the accessible environment and an assessment of the confidence with which this CCDF can be estimated. This paper describes the computational process used to develop the CCDF. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are also presented

  4. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum G. Accident analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Metcalf, J.H.

    1977-06-01

    The types of accidents or risks pertinent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. Design features addressing these risks are discussed. Also discussed are design features that protect the public

  5. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protect persons shall be done in the working place or other area where blasting is to be performed. (c) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1318 Loading boreholes. (a...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a... deep shall be stemmed for at least half the depth of the borehole. (f) When blasting off the solid in... water stemming bag shall be within 1/4 of an inch of the diameter of the drill bit used to drill the...

  7. Use of Performance Assessment in Support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Programmatic Activity Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BASABILVAZO, GEORGE; JOW, HONG-NIAN; LARSON, KURT W.; MARIETTA, MELVIN G.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP for such disposal was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and was approved by EPA in May 1998. In June 1998, two separate, but related, lawsuits were filed, one against DOE and one against EPA. On March 22, 1999, the court ruled in favor of DOE, and on March 26, 1999, DOE formally began disposal operations at the WIPP for non-mixed (non-hazardous) TRU waste. Before the WIPP can begin receiving mixed (hazardous) TRU waste, a permit from the State of New Mexico for hazardous waste disposal needs to be issued. It is anticipated that the State of New Mexico will issue a hazardous waste permit by November 1999. It is further anticipated that the EPA lawsuit will be resolved by July 1999. Congress (Public Law 102-579, Section 8(f)) requires the WIPP project to be recertified by the EPA at least as frequently as once every five years from the first receipt of TRU waste at the WIPP site. As part of the DOE's WIPP project recertification strategy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has used systems analysis and performance assessment to prioritize its scientific and engineering research activities. Two 1998 analyses, the near-field systems analysis and the annual sensitivity analysis, are discussed here. Independently, the two analyses arrived at similar conclusions regarding important scientific activities associated with the WIPP. The use of these techniques for the recent funding allocations at SNL's WIPP project had several beneficial effects. It increased the level of acceptance among project scientists that management had fairly and credibly compared alternatives when making prioritization decisions. It improved the ability of SNL and its project sponsor, the Carlsbad Area Office of the DOE, to

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  9. Borehole imaging tool detects well bore fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.A.; Bigelow, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on borehole imaging data which can provide high quality geological and petrophysical information to improve fracture identification, dip computations, and lithology determinations in a well bore. The ability to visually quantify the area of a borehole wall occupied by fractures and vugs enhances reservoir characterization and well completion operations. The circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL) instrument is an acoustic logging device designed to produce a map of the entire borehole wall. The visual images can confirm computed dips and the geological features related to dip. Borehole geometry, including breakout, are accurately described by complete circumferential caliper measurements, which is important information for drilling and completion engineers. In may reservoirs, the images can identify porosity type, bedding characteristics, and petrophysical parameters

  10. Recent developments in the conceptual geologic and hydrologic understanding of the WIPP site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the WIPP site has progressed significantly since the 1980 WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement. In 1980, the entire Rustler Formation was modeled as a single hydrologic unit, assumed to be isotropic, single-porosity, and completely confined. Variability within the Rustler was evaluated only on the basis of testing at individual wells. In the 1983 WIPP Site and Preliminary Design Validation effort, the Salado Formation, in which the WIPP facility is being constructed, was assumed to be anhydrous, except for fluid inclusions and mineralogically bound water. Recent hydrologic and tracer testing at the WIPP indicates: 1) The local importance of dual-porosity behavior in hydraulic response and transport in parts of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; 2) the presence of distinct high- and low-transmissivity regions within the Culebra; and 3) the possible importance of vertical fluid flow within the Rustler. Recent analyses indicate that fluids encountered in the WIPP facility and in experimental brine-migration studies are grain-boundary fluids, chemically distinct from fluid inclusions. Fluid-inclination compositions appear to have been determined shortly after the halite deposition. Because of the times required for diagenetic reactions controlling their compositions, the grain-boundary fluids within the Salado probably have a residence time of several million years

  11. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  12. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media

  13. Principle plug design for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaramo, M.; Lehtonen, A.

    2009-06-01

    This report examines the plug structures to be built in the deposition tunnels of the repository. The deposition tunnels located below the depth of 400 metres have been used as input data. Each plug consists of a massive concrete structure. The planned maximum pressure acting on the plug is 7.5 MPa. It consists of 4.5 MPa of groundwater pressure and 3 MPa of swelling pressure of the backfill. Five different plug types have been examined. Two of them (butt and irregular plug) turned out to be difficult from the point of view of other works in the central and deposition tunnels. One type (straight plug) requires a lot of construction material. Wedge-shaped and dome plugs have been examined more carefully. The wedge shaped plug has advantageous properties in comparison with the dome plug, such as a three dimensional state of stress, the wedging effect which increases strength as pressure increases and larger tolerances for the excavation of the slot. Leakage water has a longer path through the wedge shaped plug than through the dome plug. Pressure load affects the wedge shaped plug, creating normal stresses, which are compressive along each coordinate axis. The long-term rise in temperature in the deposition tunnels can produce high extra stresses in all the plug alternatives. These stresses make it necessary to increase the strength of the concrete or the distance between the plug and the nearest deposition hole. The stability effects of different plug distances and deposition tunnel orientations have been examined. The plug does not significantly affect stresses in the surrounding bedrock or the stability of the bedrock. Stresses caused by excavation and temperature rise are decisive factors. A groundwater chloride content of 0-3% in the environment of the repository is used as input data. It affects the tightness of the concrete and the quality of the cement. Cement has to be sulphate resistant with a low pH value. Low pH results in the weakening of the corrosion

  14. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  15. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  16. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  17. Plugging regime in the pump limiter throat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The plugging regime -with no outstreaming neutral flux- is studied for a closed configuration pump limiter (throat). We derive the plugging length and the neutral density build-up at the neutralizer plate. The analytical expressions are supported by numerical evidence. We find an improved efficiency related to the throat effect mainly due to neutral-sidewall interactions

  18. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…

  19. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  20. Explosive plugging of nuclear heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, B.; Bahrani, A.S.; Townsley, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Explosive welding is a well established process for cladding one metal on another or for welding tubes to tubeplates or lap welding, etc. Recently, the process has been adapted to plugging of heat exchangers in conventional and nuclear power plant, where it has already been accepted especially in situations where the access is difficult and remote from the site of plugging. The paper describes the explosive plugging techniques developed in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of The Queen's University of Belfast for the reheater and superheater of the PFR, and for the reheater of the AGR. For the PFR a point charge system has been used which causes a spherical expansion of the plug, which gives two zones of welding. Initially for the much larger plug required for the AGR it was proposed to use a parallel stand-off welding set-up, but it proved difficult or impossible to avoid a crevice. Consequently, a rim charge set-up has been developed which gives a circular ring expansion of the plug with two zones of welding. Besides the problem of the design of the plug and explosive charge geometry it has also been necessary to consider the distortion of holes adjoining the hole in which a plug is welded. Bunging of adjoining holes in order to reduce the distortion has also been investigated

  1. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  2. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems

  4. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Friction Pull Plug Welding in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Shane A.; Bradford, Vann

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently invested much time and effort into the process development of Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW). FPPW, is a welding process similar to Friction Push Plug Welding in that, there is a small rotating part (plug) being spun and simultaneously pulled (forged) into a larger part. These two processes differ, in that push plug welding requires an internal reaction support, while pull plug welding reacts to the load externally. FPPW was originally conceived as a post proof repair technique for the Space Shuttle fs External Tank. FPPW was easily selected as the primary weld process used to close out the termination hole on the Constellation Program's ARES I Upper Stage circumferential Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds (SR-FSW). The versatility of FPPW allows it to also be used as a repair technique for both SR-FSW and Conventional Friction Stir Welds. To date, all MSFC led development has been concentrated on aluminum alloys (2195, 2219, and 2014). Much work has been done to fully understand and characterize the process's limitations. A heavy emphasis has been spent on plug design, to match the various weldland thicknesses and alloy combinations. This presentation will summarize these development efforts including weld parameter development, process control, parameter sensitivity studies, plug repair techniques, material properties including tensile, fracture and failure analysis.

  6. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  7. Performance in the WIPP nondestructive assay performance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, C.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Connolly, M.J.; Becker, G.K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Measurement facilities performing nondestructive assay (NDA) of wastes intended for disposal at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are required to demonstrate their ability to meet specific Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). This demonstration is performed, in part, by participation in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP is funded and managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and is conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It tests the characteristics of precision, system bias and/or total uncertainty through the measurement of variable, blind combinations of simulated waste drums and certified radioactive standards. Each facility must successfully participate in the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP was completed in July 1996 and the second is scheduled for completion by December 1996. Seven sites reported data in cycle 1 for 11 different measurement systems. This paper describes the design and operation of the PDP and provides the performance data from cycle 1. It also describes the preliminary results from cycle 2 and updates the status and future plans for the NDA PDP. 4 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Geomechanical applications for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Hunter, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility in bedded salt addressing the technical issues associated with the demonstration of disposal of radioactive waste from the defense programs of the USA. The geomechanical program includes laboratory experimentation, constitutive model and computer code development, and in-situ experimentation. Various material models, including creep for salt, and techniques for predicting room response under thermal and mechanical loads have been developed and are being applied to experiment and facility designs. A Benchmark II study has been conducted to compare the capabilities of nine structural codes to predict response of underground configuration under ambient temperature and with a thermal load of 7.5 W/m 2 . Parametric studies are being conducted to evaluate optimum room configurations. A series of in situ experiments is the next step towards validating models and predictive techniques. These experiments will be conducted in a facility in southeastern New Mexico mined at a depth of 659 m

  9. Crosshole investigations - results from borehole radar investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.

    1987-05-01

    A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The system can be used both in singlehole and crosshole modes and probing ranges of 115 m and 300 m, respectively, have been obtained at Stripa. The borehole radar is a short pulse system which uses center frequencies in the range 20 to 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and to determine their position and orientation. The travel time and amplitude of the first arrival measured in a crosshole experiment can be used as input data in a tomographic analysis. (orig./DG)

  10. EBR-II rotating plug seal maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The EBR-II rotating plug seals require frequent cleaning and maintenance to keep the plugs from sticking during fuel handling. Time consuming cleaning on the cover gas and air sides of the dip ring seal is required to remove oxidation and sodium reaction products that accumulate and stop plug rotation. Despite severely limited access, effective seal cleaning techniques have removed 11 800 lb (5 352 kg) of deposits from the seals since 1964. Temperature control modifications and repairs have also required major maintenance work. Suggested seal design recommendations could significantly reduce maintenance on future similar seals

  11. Dimensioning of Boreholes for Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryška Jiøí

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of borehole depths for geothermal heat pumps. Basic formulae are stated for heat convection in rocks. Software EED 2.0 was used for calculation of borehole depth depending on different entering parameters. The crucial parameter is thermal conductivity of rocks. The thermal conductivity could be very variable for the same kind of rock. Therefore its in-situ determination by means of formation thermal conductivity testing is briefly described.

  12. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  13. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  14. Borehole disposal design concept in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamarolahy, J.N.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Madagascar, sealed radioactive sources are used in several socio-economic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become ionizing radiations waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. 'Borehole disposal design concept' is needed for sitting up a safe site for storage of radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Borehole disposal is an option for long-term management of small quantities of radioactive waste in compliance with the internationally accepted principles for radioactive waste management. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeology, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. Two sites are most acceptable in Madagascar such as Ankazobe and Fanjakana. A Borehole will be drilled and constructed using standard techniques developed for water abstraction, oil exploration. At the Borehole, the sealed radioactive sources are encapsulated. The capsule is inserted in a container. This type of storage is benefit for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The construction cost depends on the volume of waste to store and the Borehole depth. The borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the ionizing radiations is then assured. (author)

  15. Acoustic and Optical Televiewer Borehole Logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Zaidi Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; Azmi Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This review paper is focused on Borehole Televiewer. Borehole Televiewer or (BHTV) was used to obtain high-resolution acoustical images from the borehole wall. A probe with a high resolution downward looking camera is used. The camera has specific optics (a conical mirror with a ring of bulbs) with just one shot needed to capture the entire borehole circumference as a 360 panoramic view. Settings similar to traditional cameras (exposure, quality, light, frame rate and resolution) make it effective in almost any type of borehole fluid. After each shot, a series of horizontal pixel strings are acquired, giving a rasterized RGB picture in real-time which is transmitted to the console and finally to a monitor. The orientation device embedded in the tool, which is made of 3 inclinometers and 3 magnetometers, allows the inclination and azimuth of the probe to be computed in real-time, correctly orienting the borehole images. Besides, Acoustic and Optical Televiewer has been introduced as its advanced in technological research. Its logging has been successfully applied to geotechnical investigations and mineral exploration (Schepers et al., 2001) due to advances in beam focusing, increased dynamic range, digital recording techniques, and digital data processing (Schepers, 1991). Thus, this paper will go through to the basic principle of (BHTV) as one type of data collection today. (author)

  16. Experiments on stress dependent borehole acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Kane, Michael R; Winkler, Kenneth; Wang, Canyun; Johnson, David Linton

    2011-10-01

    In the laboratory setup, a borehole traverses a dry sandstone formation, which is subjected to a controlled uniaxial stress in the direction perpendicular to the borehole axis. Measurements are made in a single loading-unloading stress cycle from zero to 10 MPa and then back down to zero stress. The applied stress and the presence of the borehole induce anisotropy in the bulk of the material and stress concentration around the borehole, both azimuthally and radially. Acoustic waves are generated and detected in the water-filled borehole, including compressional and shear headwaves, as well as modes of monopole, dipole, quadrupole, and higher order azimuthal symmetries. The linear and non-linear elastic parameters of the formation material are independently quantified, and utilized in conjunction with elastic theories to predict the characteristics of various borehole waves at zero and finite stress conditions. For example, an analytic theory is developed which is successfully used to estimate the changes of monopole tube mode at low frequency resulted from uniaxial stress, utilizing the measured material third order elasticity parameters. Comparisons between various measurements as well as that between experiments and theories are also presented. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  17. The Wipp Disposal Decision Plan: the Successful Road Map for Transparent and Credible Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    2001-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository for long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) opened on the 26th of March 1999. Beginning on the 4th of April 1994, the United States Department of Energy (DOE), implemented the WIPP Disposal Decision Plan (DDP), which embodied the five-year vision and intents of the then DOE Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), presently the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The successful design and implementation of the DDP ensured good science, enhanced regulator and stake holder (affected and interested parties) interactions and acceptance of programmatic decisions, which resulted in the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the 18th of May 1998, almost three years earlier than projected in November 1993. The present paper contains three sections: A concise background information on the CBFO's TRUW disposal program, incl. the legal framework, current status, and author-envisioned challenges and solutions; A description of the main components and attributes of the WIPP DDP. A summary of the lessons learned during and after the 1994 through 1998 implementation of the WIPP DDP

  18. History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have supported characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical studies have provided significant understanding of the nature of site deformation, tectonics and stability. Geophysical methods have delineated possible brine reservoirs beneath the underground facility and have defined the disturbed rock zone that forms around underground excavations. The role of geophysics in the WIPP project has evolved with the project. The early uses were for site characterization to satisfy site selection criteria or factors. As the regulatory framework for WIPP grew since 1980, the geophysics program supported experimental and field programs such as Salado hydrogeology and underground room systems and excavations. In summary, the major types of issues that geophysical studies addressed for WIPP are: Site Characterization; Castile Brine Reservoirs; Rustler/Dewey Lake Hydrogeology; Salado Hydrogeology; and Excavation Effects. The nature of geophysics programs for WIPP has been to support investigation rather than being the principal investigation itself. The geophysics program has been used to define conceptual models (e.g., the Disturbed Rock Zone-DRZ) or to test conceptual models (e.g., high transmissivity zones in the Rustler Formation). The geophysics program primarily supported larger characterization and experimental programs. Funding was not available for the complete documentation and interpretation. Therefore, a great deal of the geophysics survey information resides in contractor reports

  19. Preliminary identification of interfaces for certification and transfer of TRU waste to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1982-02-01

    This study complements the national program to certify that newly generated and stored, unclassified defense transuranic (TRU) wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The objectives of this study were to identify (1) the existing organizational structure at each of the major waste-generating and shipping sites and (2) the necessary interfaces between the waste shippers and WIPP. The interface investigations considered existing waste management organizations at the shipping sites and the proposed WIPP organization. An effort was made to identify the potential waste-certifying authorities and the lines of communication within these organizations. The long-range goal of this effort is to develop practicable interfaces between waste shippers and WIPP to enable the continued generation, interim storage, and eventual shipment of certified TRU wastes to WIPP. Some specific needs identified in this study include: organizational responsibility for certification procedures and quality assurance (QA) program; simple QA procedures; and specification and standardization of reporting forms and procedures, waste containers, and container labeling, color coding, and code location

  20. The Wipp Disposal Decision Plan: the Successful Road Map for Transparent and Credible Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository for long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) opened on the 26th of March 1999. Beginning on the 4th of April 1994, the United States Department of Energy (DOE), implemented the WIPP Disposal Decision Plan (DDP), which embodied the five-year vision and intents of the then DOE Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), presently the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The successful design and implementation of the DDP ensured good science, enhanced regulator and stake holder (affected and interested parties) interactions and acceptance of programmatic decisions, which resulted in the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the 18th of May 1998, almost three years earlier than projected in November 1993. The present paper contains three sections: A concise background information on the CBFO's TRUW disposal program, incl. the legal framework, current status, and author-envisioned challenges and solutions; A description of the main components and attributes of the WIPP DDP. A summary of the lessons learned during and after the 1994 through 1998 implementation of the WIPP DDP.

  1. Implications of the presence of petroleum resources on the integrity of the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the US Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves of potash, crude oil, and natural gas. These are attractive targets for exploratory drilling which could disrupt the integrity of the transuranic waste repository. The performance assessment calculations published to date have identified future drilling for oil and gas reserves as an event that may disrupt the repository and may release radionuclides in excess of the standards. Therefore, the probability of inadvertent human intrusion into the repository by drilling and its impact on the integrity of the repository must be carefully assessed. This report evaluates: (1) the studies funded by the DOE to examine the crude oil potential in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP; (2) the use of an elicitation exercise to predict future drilling rates for use in the calculation of the repository performance; and (3) the observed limitations of institutional controls. This report identifies the following issues that remain to be resolved: (1) the limited performance of blowout preventers after drilling into high pressure zones immediately adjacent to the WIPP Site Boundary; (2) reported problems with waterflooding operations in southeastern New Mexico; (3) reported water level rises in several wells completed in the Rustler Formation, south of the WIPP Site, possibly due to oil and gas wells or leaking injection wells; and (4) reports of inadequate well abandonment practices on BLM leases and the continued absence of enforceable regulations

  2. Sealing of 300 mm boreholes KXTT3 and KXTT4 at Aespoe HRL. Report of Subproject 3 of Borehole sealing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of two moderately dipping 300 mm diameter holes that had been bored from a niche adjacent to the ramp in the Aespoe URL in conjunction with earlier geohydrological investigations (TRUE Project, Winberg et al. 2000) was successfully completed in early 2010. The work was preceded by a pilot test on the ground surface for investigating if a simple version of sealing by pressing down clay pellets into clay mud is feasible. The borehole was simulated by a steel tube that was filled with smectite mud in which a cage filled with clay pellets was moved down. The experience from this experiment was that the mud used was somewhat too stiff and that strong vibration significantly reduced its viscosity but not sufficiently much. The predicted average density at water saturation was 1,780 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,240 kg/m{sup 3}). The finally selected sealing method comprised casting of concrete plugs where the inflow of water was significant (up to 30 l/min), and to install precompacted blocks of smectite-rich clay where the rock was 'dry'. The finally matured clay plugs will have a density of around 2,000 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,580 kg/m{sup 3}) and a hydraulic conductivity of less than E-12 m/s, which is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the bulk conductivity of the surrounding rock mass (Pusch 2008). This provides excellent sealing of all parts of the holes deeper than about 1-2 m below the tunnel floor. Groundwater flow in the rock around the clay plugs can cause some minor erosion but this effect is deemed negligible considering the coagulating effect on released clay particles by the brackish Aespoe water. Inspection of the closed upper borehole ends showed accumulation of some very dilute mineral suspension after a few days. A careful analysis of the mineral content showed that it did not contain smectite particles, hence certifying that erosion of the clay plugs in the holes had not taken place. The particles were

  3. Sealing of 300 mm boreholes KXTT3 and KXTT4 at Aespoe HRL. Report of Subproject 3 of Borehole sealing Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar

    2011-11-01

    Sealing of two moderately dipping 300 mm diameter holes that had been bored from a niche adjacent to the ramp in the Aespoe URL in conjunction with earlier geohydrological investigations (TRUE Project, Winberg et al. 2000) was successfully completed in early 2010. The work was preceded by a pilot test on the ground surface for investigating if a simple version of sealing by pressing down clay pellets into clay mud is feasible. The borehole was simulated by a steel tube that was filled with smectite mud in which a cage filled with clay pellets was moved down. The experience from this experiment was that the mud used was somewhat too stiff and that strong vibration significantly reduced its viscosity but not sufficiently much. The predicted average density at water saturation was 1,780 kg/m 3 (dry density 1,240 kg/m 3 ). The finally selected sealing method comprised casting of concrete plugs where the inflow of water was significant (up to 30 l/min), and to install precompacted blocks of smectite-rich clay where the rock was 'dry'. The finally matured clay plugs will have a density of around 2,000 kg/m 3 (dry density 1,580 kg/m 3 ) and a hydraulic conductivity of less than E-12 m/s, which is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the bulk conductivity of the surrounding rock mass (Pusch 2008). This provides excellent sealing of all parts of the holes deeper than about 1-2 m below the tunnel floor. Groundwater flow in the rock around the clay plugs can cause some minor erosion but this effect is deemed negligible considering the coagulating effect on released clay particles by the brackish Aespoe water. Inspection of the closed upper borehole ends showed accumulation of some very dilute mineral suspension after a few days. A careful analysis of the mineral content showed that it did not contain smectite particles, hence certifying that erosion of the clay plugs in the holes had not taken place. The particles were concluded to represent fracture

  4. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  5. PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions

  6. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ''area characterization'' phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ''Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.''

  7. DOE responses to the State of New Mexico's comments on ''summary of the results of the evaluation of the WIPP site and preliminary design validation program'' (WIPP-DOE-161)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    During the 60-day period provided for comments on the ''Summary of the Results of the Evaluation of the WIPP Site and Preliminary Design Validation Program'' (WIPP-DOE-161), written submittals and hearing testimony from about 133 individuals, 7 citizens groups and 6 state agencies were received by the Department of Energy (DOE). Approximately 25% of the public comment submittals were positive statements supporting the WIPP, with the remaining 75% reflecting concern with one or more aspects of the project. A portion of the state's comment package (submitted by the Governor of New Mexico) contained concerns relevant to WIPP which were unrelated to site suitability. Supportive comments formed the majority of the submittals from the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) which ''...is charged with the responsibility of evaluating the suitability of the site for carrying out the mission of WIPP by analyzing all the reports and other information which form the background to the DOE evaluation of the site''

  8. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  9. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Underground and MGO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ajo, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ekechukwu, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Gregory, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Jones, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); White, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Analysis of the recent WIPP samples are summarized in this report; WIPP Cam Filters 4, 6, 9 (3, 7, 11 were analyzed with FAS-118 in a separate campaign); WIPP Drum Lip R16 C4; WIPP Standard Waste Box R15 C5; WIPP MgO R16 C2; WIPP MgO R16 C4; WIPP MgO R16 C6; LANL swipes of parent drum; LANL parent drum debris; LANL parent drum; IAEA Swipe; Unused “undeployed” Swheat; Unused “undeployed” MgO; and Masselin cloth “smears”. Analysis showed that the MgO samples were very pure with low carbonate and water content. Other samples showed the expected dominant presence of Mg, Na and Pb. Parent drum debris sample was mildly acidic. Interpretation of results is not provided in this document, but rather to present and preserve the analytical work that was performed. The WIPP Technical Analysis Team is responsible for result interpretation which will be written separately.

  10. Salt impact studies at WIPP effects of surface storage of salt on microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) currently under construction in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic waste in a deep geological formation (bedded salt). The Ecological Monitoring Program at WIPP is designed to detect and measure changes in the local ecosystem which may be the result of WIPP construction activities. The primary factor which may affect the system prior to waste emplacement is windblown salt from discrete stockpiles. Both vegetation and soil microbial processes should reflect changes in soil chemistry due to salt importation. Control and experimental (potentially affected) plots have been established at the site, and several parameters are measured quarterly in each plot as part of the soil microbial sampling subprogram. This subprogram was designed to monitor a portion of the biological community which can be affected by changes in the chemical properties at the soil surface

  11. Modification of the ventilation system at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Project near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project sponsored by the US Department of Energy, designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste. A mine (repository) is being developed 2,150 feet below the surface in a thick salt bed, which will serve as the disposal medium. The underground ventilation system for the WIPP project was originally designed based on a fixed project scope. The design criteria and ventilation requirements were developed for the performance of various activities as then envisioned towards the achievement of this goal. However, in light of new information and actual site-specific experience at WIPP leading to a clearer definition of the scope-related programs and activities, it was realized that the existing ventilation system may need to be modified

  12. An evaluation of the proposed tests with radioactive waste at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) a planned repository for permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radiative waste that has resulted from the defense activities of the U.S. Government over the past 50 years. Only the waste that is currently stored in an easily retrievable mode at ten U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories around the country will be shipped to WIPP. The waste consists of various kinds of trash including paper, rubber, rags and metal that is contaminated with radionuclides with very long half-lives. The decision to dispose of the waste permanently will be made based on projections of the behavior of the waste and the repository of 10,000 years or more. DOE has proposed shipping a limited amount of waste to WIPP for a five year Test Phase to demonstrating compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Standard for long-term isolation

  13. Rationale for the H-19 and H-11 tracer tests at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Meigs, L.C.; Davies, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository for transuranic wastes constructed in bedded Permian-age halite in the Delaware Basin, a sedimentary basin in southeastern New Mexico, USA. A drilling scenario has been identified during performance assessment (PA) that could lead to the release of radionuclides to the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, the most transmissive water-saturated unit above the repository horizon. Were this to occur, the radionuclides would need to be largely contained within the Culebra (or neighboring strata) within the WIPP-site boundary through the period lasting for 10,000 years after repository closure for WIPP to remain in compliance with applicable regulations on allowable releases. Thus, processes affecting transport of radionuclides within the Culebra are of importance to PA

  14. Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

  15. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  16. Hanford to WIPP - What a Trip: The Road from Hanford is now Open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The road leading from Hanford's Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) in New Mexico developed a few bumps and detours over the past year, but it has now been successfully traversed. There were challenges obtaining Carlsbad Area Office and New Mexico Department of Ecology certification of the Hanford characterization program. After months of work, when initial certification appeared imminent, the issuance of the WIPP Hazardous Waste Permit changed the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) required for characterizing waste for acceptance at WIPP. After a ceremony dedicating the ''Washington'' room at WIPP, the inaugural shipment from WRAP to WIPP was scheduled for June 2000. This first shipment was planned based on shipping a number of containers that had been characterized before the issuance of the WIPP Mixed Waste Permit. However, the New Mexico Department of Ecology initially declined to accept the characterization data generated before the permit was issued, necessitating revision to the planned shipment. Because of the difficulties inherent in scheduling the TRUPACT-II transport and coordination with all of the states through which the shipment would pass, it was decided to proceed with the first shipment in early July with only the drums that had been characterized after Hanford compliance with the new WIPP WAP requirements had been certified. Following the initial shipment, previously certified containers were recertified using a process approved through negotiation with the New Mexico Environment Department, and additional full shipments have been successfully completed. This paper will present an overview of the challenges overcome and lessons learned in obtaining certification, coordination with the involved states, and eventual successful1 implementation of a routine shipping program

  17. WIPP Regulatory Compliance Strategy and Management Plan for demonstrating compliance to long-term disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to provide a strategy by which the WIPP will demonstrate its ability to perform as a deep geologic repository. The document communicates the DOE's understanding of the regulations related to long-term repository performance; and provides the most efficient strategy that intergrates WIPP Project elements, ensures the sufficiency of information, and provides flexibility for changes in the TRU waste generation system to facilitate the disposal of defense-generated TRU wastes. In addition, this document forms a focal point between the DOE and its various external regulators as well as other stakeholders for the purpose of arriving at compliance decisions that consider all relevant input

  18. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum F. HVAC systems energy analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facilities proposed to be constructed in southeastern New Mexico. This report analyzes a total of ten WIPP structures to determine the most energy and economic efficient means of providing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning services. Additional analyses were performed to determine the merits of centralized versus dispersed refrigeration and heating facilities, and of performing supplemental domestic hot water heating with solar panels

  19. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.; Hassinen, P.; Front, K.

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurements devices. This report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consists of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogenous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment. (orig.). (21 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.)

  20. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱泽华; 石耀霖

    2004-01-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It hasbeen used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse andso on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included inone probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake,earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years,borehole strain observation is going to become one major geodetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  1. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  2. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  3. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  4. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack

    2014-01-01

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  5. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking.

  6. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking

  7. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  8. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-10 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The H-10 borehole complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 3 1/2 miles southeast of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in west-central Lea County, New Mexico. The geological data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Each borehole was designated to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-10a (total depth 1 ,318 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian age; H-10b (total depth 1 ,398 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-10c (total depth 1,538 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-10c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Mescalero caliche (5-9 feet) and the Gatuna Formation (9-90 feet) of Pleistocene age; formation in the Dockum Group (Chinle Formation, 90-482 feet and Santa Rosa Sandstone, 482-658 feet) of Late Triassic age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (658-1,204 feet), the Rustler Formation (1,204-1,501 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (1,501-1,538 feet), all of Permian age. The sections of the Rustler and Salado Formations penetrated by borehole H-10c are complete and contain little or no evidence of dissolution of halite and associated rocks, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has not reached the H-10 site. (USGS)

  9. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  10. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  11. Compilation of historical radiological data collected in the vicinity of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, P.L.; Louderbough, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Radiological Baseline Program (RBP) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been implemented to characterize the radiological conditions at the site prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. Because southeastern New Mexico was the site of an underground nuclear test in 1961, various sampling programs have intermittently monitored background and elevated radiation levels in the vicinity of the WIPP. In addition, radiological characterization of the site region was performed during the 1970's in support of the WIPP Environmental Impact Statement. The historical data are drawn primarily from monitoring activities of the US Public Health Service (PHS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey (USGS) and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA). Information on air and water quality, meat, milk, biota and vegetation is included in the report. This survey is intended to provide a source of reference for historical data on radiological conditions in the vicinity of the WIPP site prior to the establishment of a systematic Radiological Baseline Program. 31 refs., 1 fig

  12. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations

  13. Construction quality assurance program plan for the WIPP project, Carlsbad, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA) Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Major Project Participants: the Architect-Engineer (Bechtel), the Construction Manager (US Army Corps of Engineers), the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory), and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the construction, including site evaluation, design, and turnover phases of WIPP. Other work in progress during the same period is controlled by DOE documents applicable to that work effort. The prime responsibility for ensuring the quality of construction rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Construction Manager, the Construction Contractors, the Management and Operating Contractor, and the Architect-Engineer. Inspection and burden of proof of acceptability rests with the Construction Contractor as defined by the technical provisions of the contract and as otherwise specified by the DOE WIPP Project Office on an individual work-package basis. To the maximum extent possible, acceptance of work will be based upon first-hand witnessing by the Construction Manager and other representatives of the DOE organization

  14. The development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project's public affairs program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a perspective on the value of designing flexibility into a public affairs program to enable it to grow with and complement a project's evolution from construction through to operations. This paper discusses how the WIPP public affairs program progressed through several stages to its present scope. During the WIPP construction phase, the public affairs program laid a foundation for Project acceptance in the community. A speaker's bureau, a visitors program, and various community outreach and support programs emphasized the educational and socioeconomic benefits of having this controversial project in Carlsbad. Then, in this past year as the project entered a preoperational status, the public affairs program emphasis shifted to broaden the positive image that had been created locally. In this stage, the program promoted the project's positive elements with the various state agencies, government officials, and federal organizations involved in our country's radioactive waste management and transportation program. Currently, an even broader, more aggressive public affairs program is planned. During this stage public affairs will be engaged in a comprehensive institutional and outreach program, explaining and supporting WIPP's mission in each of the communities and agencies affected by the operation of the country's first geologic repository

  15. comparison of performance of public and private boreholes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    comparison of the performance of three categories of boreholes namely: public operated boreholes ... Port Harcourt in River State of Nigeria is a fast developing state. ..... World. Bank. Dujam, Consultants (1988). Nation-wide water. Supply and.

  16. Hydrological and hydrogeochemical investigations in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.

    1985-07-01

    Underground investigations in boreholes are presumed to be an important investigation technique for the detailed design of a final repository for nuclear waste. The siting of the repository will be based on surface investigations, but for detailed investigations when the access shafts are sunk, investigations in underground boreholes from the initial shafts and tunnels will be of importance. The hydrogeological investigations in boreholes aimed at testing and developing of hydrogeological techniques and instruments for use in an underground environment in order to reflect actual working and testing conditions. This report is the final report from the hydrogeological investigations in boreholes, and it summarizes the different activities carried out during the course of the program. Most of the included activities are reported in separate internal reports, and therefore only the most important results are included, together with the experiences and conclusions gained during the investigations. The hydrogeochemical part of the program is in a separate final report, consequently no hydrogeochemical information is in the current report. (Author)

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF BOREHOLES IN RESIDENTIAL LAYOUTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPPIS NAU

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Lack of adequate public water supply to the inhabitants of Awka urban area since the urban water supply scheme at Imo ... investigate the distribution pattern of boreholes in some new settlements within the urban area to see whether their ..... The urban sprawl has resulted in the conversion of hitherto rural ...

  18. Method for orienting a borehole core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, W.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for longitudinally orienting a borehold core with respect to the longitudinal axis of the drill string which drilled said borehold core in such a manner that the original longitudinal attitude of said borehold core within the earth may be determined. At least a portion of said borehold core is partialy demagnetized in steps to thereby at least partially remove in steps the artificial remanent magnetism imparted to said borehole core by said drill string. The artifical remanent magnetism is oriented substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of said drill string. The direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehold core is measured at desired intervals during the partial demagnetizing procedure. An artificial remanent magnetism vector is established which extends from the final measurement of the direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehole core taken during said partial demagnetizing procedure towards the initial measurement of the direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehold core taken during said partial demagnetizing procedure. The borehold core is oriented in such a manner that said artificial remanent magnetism vector points at least substantially downwardly towards the bottom of said borehold core for a borehold in the northern hemisphere and points at least substantailly upwardly towards the top of said borehole core for a borehole in the southern hemisphere

  19. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Three seismic reflection (Vibroseis) surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described. Volume I describes the purpose, field parameters, and data processing parameters. Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps. Data interpretations will be the subject of the subsequent reports. The data collected during these three surveys total 77 line miles; 72 line miles of this are on or very near the WIPP site. The first of the surveys (1976 SAN) covered 25 line miles and was conducted similarly to previous petroleum industry surveys in the area. 1976 SAN supplemented existing petroleum industry data. The two subsequent surveys (1977 X and 1978 Y) used shorter geophone spacings (110'), higher signal frequencies (up to 100 Hz), and higher data sampling rates (2 ms.) to better define the shallow zone (less than 4000') of primary interest. 1977 X contained 47 line miles on or near the WIPP site and over several structural features northwest of the site. 1978 Y contains 5 line miles over a one square mile area near the center of the WIPP site. These data show increasing discrimination of shallow reflectors as data collection parameters were modified. Data tables of recording and processing parameters are included. A fourth Vibroseis survey was conducted at the WIPP site in 1978 by Grant Geophysical Company for Bechtel; the data are not in final form and are not included. Petroleum industry data and an inconclusive weight-drop survey, conducted in 1976, are also not included in this report

  20. History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have used support characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical studies have provided significant understanding of the nature of site deformation, tectonics and stability. Geophysical methods have delineated possible brine reservoirs beneath the underground facility and have defined the disturbed rock zone that forms around underground excavations. The role of geophysics in the WIPP project has evolved with the project. The early uses were for site characterization to satisfy site selection criteria or factors. As the regulatory framework for WIPP grew since 1980, the geophysics program was focused on support of experimental and field programs such as Salado hydrogeology and underground room systems and excavations. In summary, the major types of issues that geophysical studies addressed for WIPP are: Issue 1: Site Characterization; Issue 2: Castile Brine Reservoirs; Issue 3: Rustler /Dewey Lake Hydrogeology; Issue 4: Salado Hydrogeology; and Issue 5: Excavation Effects. The nature of geophysics program for WIPP has been to support investigation rather than being the principal investigation itself. The geophysics program has been used to define conceptual models (e.g., the Disturbed Rock Zone-DRZ) or to test conceptual models (e.g., high transmissivity zones in the Rustler Formation). An effect of being a support program is that as new project priorities arose the funding for the geophysics program was limited and withdrawn. An outcome is that much of the geophysics survey information resides in contractor reports since final interpretation reports were not funded

  1. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  2. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition's (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  3. An optimization procedure for borehole emplacement in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, D.; Guerin, F.

    1998-01-01

    Specifying the position and orientation of the 'next borehole(s)' in a fractured medium, from prior incomplete knowledge of the fracture field and depending on the objectives assigned to this new borehole(s), is a crucial point in the iterative process of site characterization. The work described here explicitly includes site knowledge and specific objectives in a tractable procedure that checks possible borehole characteristics, and rates all trial boreholes according to their compliance with objectives. The procedure is based on the following ideas : Firstly, the optimization problem is strongly constrained, since feasible borehole head locations and borehole dips are generally limited. Secondly, a borehole is an 'access point' to the fracture network. Finally, when performing a flow or tracer test, the information obtained through the monitoring system will be best if this system detects the largest possible share of the flow induced by the test, and if it cuts the most 'interesting' flow paths. The optimization is carried out in four steps. 1) All possible borehole configurations are defined and stored. Typically, several hundred possible boreholes are created. Existing boreholes are also specified. 2) Stochastic fracture networks reproducing known site characteristics are generated. 3) A purely geometrical rating of all boreholes is used to select the 'geometrically best' boreholes or groups of boreholes. 4) Among the boreholes selected by the geometrical rating, the best one(s) is chosen by simulating the experiment for which it will be used and checking flowrates through possible boreholes. This method is applied to study the emplacement of a set of five monitoring boreholes prior to the sinking of a shaft for a planned underground laboratory in a granite massif in France (Vienne site). Twelve geometrical parameters are considered for each possible borehole. A detailed statistical study helps decide on the shape of a minimization function. This is then used

  4. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  5. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  6. Analyses of the deep borehole drilling status for a deep borehole disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of disposal for radioactive wastes is not only to isolate them from humans, but also to inhibit leakage of any radioactive materials into the accessible environment. Because of the extremely high level and long-time scale radioactivity of HLW(High-level radioactive waste), a mined deep geological disposal concept, the disposal depth is about 500 m below ground, is considered as the safest method to isolate the spent fuels or high-level radioactive waste from the human environment with the best available technology at present time. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general status of deep drilling technologies was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal analyzed. In this paper, as one of key technologies of deep borehole disposal system, the general status of deep drilling technologies in oil industry, geothermal industry and geo scientific field was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, the very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal such as relation between depth and diameter, drilling time and feasibility classification was analyzed.

  7. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  8. FY-1979 progress report. Hydrotransport plugging study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, L.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Hydrotransport Plugging Study is to investigate phenomena associated with predicting the onset and occurrence of plugging in pipeline transport of coal. This study addresses large particle transport plugging phenomena that may be encountered in run-of-mine operations. The project is being conducted in four tasks: review and analysis of current capabilities and available data, analytical modeling, experimental investigations, and unplugging and static start-up. This report documents work completed in FY-1979 as well as work currently in progress. A review of currently available prediction methods was completed. Applicability of the methods to large particle hydrotransport and the prediction of plugging was evaluated. It was determined that available models were inadequate, either because they are empirical and tuned to a given solid or because they are simplified analytical models incapable of accounting for a wide range of parameters. Complicated regression curve fit models lacking a physical basis cannot be extrapolated with confidence. Several specific conclusions were reached: Recent developments in mechanistic modeling, describing flow conditions at the limit of stationary deposition, provide the best basis for prediction and extrapolation of large particle flow. Certain modeled phenomena require further analytical and experimental investigation to improve confidence levels. Experimental work needs to be performed to support modeling and to provide an adequate data base for comparison purposes. No available model permits treatment of solids mixtures such as coal and rock.

  9. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Yonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking connectivity. Moreover, HomePlug AV2 guarantees backward interoperability with other HomePlug systems. In this paper, the HomePlug AV2 system architecture is introduced and the technical details of the key features at both the PHY and MAC layers are described. The HomePlug AV2 performance is assessed, through simulations reproducing real home scenarios.

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  11. An optimal design for millimeter-wide facture plugging zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation control in millimeter-wide fractures has been a challenge in well drilling all the time. Low pressure-bearing capacity of a plugging zone will result in excessive consumption of lost circulation materials (LCMs and extra down time. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted on the plugging of millimeter-wide fractures to evaluate the plugging effects of different types of LCM including rigid granules, elastic particles and fiber. Maximum plugging pressure, total loss volume before sealing and plugging time were taken as the evaluation index of the LCM plugging effect. According to the experimental results, the synergistic plugging mechanisms of different LCM combinations were also analyzed. Experimental results showed that the total loss volume of the plugging zone formed by rigid and elastic particle combination was generally greater than 400 mL, and the maximum plugging pressure of the plugging zone formed by elastic particle and fiber combination was generally less than 6 MPa. In contrast, the plugging zone formed by the combination of the three types of LCMs has the maximum plugging pressure of up to 13 MPa and total loss volume before sealing of 75 mL. In the synergistic plugging process, rigid granules form a frame with high pressure-bearing capacity in the narrower parts of the fractures; elastic particles generate elastic force through elastic deformation to increase the friction between a fracture and a plugging zone to make the plugging zone more stable; fibers filling in the pore space between the particles increase the tightness and integrity of the plugging zone. The experimental results can provide guidance for the optimal design of LCMs used in the field.

  12. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  13. Installation of the backfill and plug test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, D.; Borgesson, L.; Hokmark, H.; Hohannesson, L.E.; Sanden, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Backfill and Plug Test is a full scale test of backfill material, backfilling technique and a tunnel plug. The main objectives of the Backfill and Plug Test are: - to develop and test different materials and compaction techniques for backfilling of tunnels excavated by blasting; - to test the function of the backfill and its interaction with the surrounding rock in a tunnel excavated by blasting; - to develop technique for building tunnel plugs and to test the function. The installation was made in the Swedish underground laboratory, Aspo HRL, during 1999. The inner part of the tunnel is not used for the test but was filled with drainage material. The test volume, which is about 28 m long, can be divided into the following three parts: - the inner part filled with backfill containing 30% bentonite; - the outer part filled with backfill without bentonite and bentonite blocks and pellets at the roof; - the plug. Permeable layers divide the test volume into 11 test sections. The permeable layers are used for increasing the water saturation rate in the backfill and for applying hydraulic gradients between the layers for studying the flow of water in the backfill and in the near field rock. The permeable layers were installed every 2.2 m and each layer is divided into three units in order to separately measure the flow close to the roof, in the central areas of the tunnel and close to the floor. The outer part ends with a wall of prefabricated concrete beams that were used for temporary support of the backfill during the casting of the plug. The upper volume close to the plug is filled with bentonite pellets and blocks consisting of 20% bentonite and 80% sand. The backfill is instrumented with 34 pore water pressure cells, 21 total pressure cells, 57 sensors for monitoring the water saturation and 13 gauges for measuring the local hydraulic conductivity. The water pressures in the permeable mats are measured in all sections. Four pressure cylinders, 2 in the roof

  14. Recent developments in plugging of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, S.; Abucay, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical Plugging capability has been developed for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (BNGS) steam generator (SG) tubes and Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) SG tubes and tubesheet holes. The plug concept was a modified ABB/Combustion Engineering Inconel 690 plug with a nickel band, rolled into the tube or tubesheet hole from the primary side of the tubesheet. The qualification program included analytical justification of the plug body and experimental testing to verify the leak tightness of the rolled joint under conditions which meet or exceed all service or design requirements. Tools and procedures were developed and tested for manual and remote/robotic installation and removal of the mechanical plugs. Additionally, tools and procedures were developed to plug tubes/tubesheet holes at DNGS in the event the steam generator is recalled to service to act as a heat sink. A crew of Ontario Hydro personnel were trained and qualified for the installation of mechanical plugs for permanent and recall applications. During the DNGS Unit 4 spring 1995 outage, 6 tubes were plugged and the 'Recall Plugging Capability' was deployed and ready for use during a primary side SG tube removal. The mechanical plugs were installed manually with a typical 3 minute/plug in-bowl duration time with an average radiation dose of 12.5 mrem per plug. This compares favourably with manual plug welding during the same outage in the same SG bowl at approximately 15-30 minutes/plug in-bowl duration with an average radiation dose of 117 mrem/plug. (author)

  15. Borehole stoneley waves and permeability: Laboratory results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.W.; Plona, T.J.; Froelich, B.; Liu, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent interest in full waveform sonic logging has created the need for full waveform laboratory experiments on model boreholes. Of particular interest is the investigation of Stoneley waves and their interaction with permeable formations. The authors describe experimental results that show how Stoneley wave slowness and attenuation are affected by formation permeability. Both slowness and attenuation (1/Q) are observed to increase with formation permeability. This increase is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. The presence of simulated mudcakes on the borehole wall reduces the permeability effect on Stoneley waves, but does not eliminate it. The mudcake effect is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. In our experiments on rocks, the laboratory data is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. In a very well characterized synthetic porous material, theory and experiment are in good quantitative agreement

  16. Borehole instrument for scintillation gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, A.Ya.; Gabitov, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Described are a schematic diagram and main specifications of a borehole instrument with autostabilization of energy scale measure by gamma bench-mark of 137 Cs, intended for the application in a logging gamma spectrometer to determine separately the concentrations of nature radioactive elements. The instrument may be connected to the KOBDFM-2 cable of 600 m length. It contains a scintillation counter for gamma quanta consisting of 30x70 mm NaI(Tl) crystal and a FEU-85 photoamplifier, an input conforming stage, a diagram of threshold pulse formation and regulating high-voltage generator. The borehole instrument has been proved under laboratory and field conditions at 10-40 deg C

  17. Plugging of feed inlet tube upstands with Ni/Ti shape memory alloy plugs - Heysham 1 power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper contains a description of a new approach for Plugging feed inlet tubes of Gas-Cooled Reactors. Instead of utilizing the original explosive method plugging by fitting a shape memory alloy plug into the upstand is being described. (author)

  18. A methodology of uncertainty/sensitivity analysis for PA of HLW repository learned from 1996 WIPP performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kang, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) is a mined repository constructed by the US DOE for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by activities related to defence of the US since 1970. Its historical disposal operation began in March 1999 following receipt of a final permit from the State of NM after a positive certification decision for the WIPP was issued by the EPA in 1998, as the first licensed facility in the US for the deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The CCA (Compliance Certification Application) for the WIPP that the DOE submitted to the EPA in 1966 was supported by an extensive Performance Assessment (PA) carried out by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with so-called 1996 PA. Even though such PA methodologies could be greatly different from the way we consider for HLW disposal in Korea largely due to quite different geologic formations in which repository are likely to be located, a review on lots of works done through the WIPP PA studies could be the most important lessons that we can learn from in view of current situation in Korea where an initial phase of conceptual studies on HLW disposal has been just started. The objective of this work is an overview of the methodology used in the recent WIPP PA to support the US DOE WIPP CCA ans a proposal for Korean case

  19. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone

  20. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone

  1. Nuclear borehole logging for oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor physics can be applied to the logging of boreholes for the exploration of oil and gas and the results obtained can be interpreted more correctly by use of reactor physics models, e.g. one-dimensional multi-group diffusion theory adapted for gamma quanta. The standard nuclear logging tools are: natural gamma, gamma density, neutron porosity and the pulsed-neutron tool. The models and interpretation procedures are discussed. 1 fig

  2. Strategic decision analysis applied to borehole seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, M.M.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic Decision Analysis (SDA) is the evolving body of knowledge on how to achieve high quality in the decision that shapes an organization's future. SDA comprises philosophy, process concepts, methodology, and tools for making good decisions. It specifically incorporates many concepts and tools from economic evaluation and risk analysis. Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (CPTC) has applied SDA to evaluate and prioritize a number of its most important and most uncertain R and D projects, including borehole seismology. Before SDA, there were significant issues and concerns about the value to CPTC of continuing to work on borehole seismology. The SDA process created a cross-functional team of experts to structure and evaluate this project. A credible economic model was developed, discrete risks and continuous uncertainties were assessed, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results, even applied to a very restricted drilling program for a few years, were good enough to demonstrate the value of continuing the project. This paper explains the SDA philosophy concepts, and process and demonstrates the methodology and tools using the borehole seismology project example. SDA is useful in the upstream industry not just in the R and D/technology decisions, but also in major exploration and production decisions. Since a major challenge for upstream companies today is to create and realize value, the SDA approach should have a very broad applicability

  3. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  4. Geophysical borehole logging in Lavia borehole - results and interpretation of sonic and tube wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Stenberg, L.

    1985-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB has been contracted by Industrial Power Company LTD, TVO to perform geophysical logging in a borehole at Lavia in Western Finland. The logging has been conducted by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB in accordance with an agreement for cooperation with SKB. The depth of the borehole is 1001 m, diameter 56 mm and inclination 10-20 degrees to the vertical. The aim of the logging was to determine the various geophysical parameters in the borehole in order to interpret and understand the rock mass properties in the vicinity of the borehole. According to the contract the report covers the following main objectives: a technical description of the field work and the equipment used; a review of the theoretical base for the sonic and tube wave methods; an interpretation and presentation of the results obtained by sonic and tube wave mesurements. The evaluation of the sonic and tube wave measurements shows good correlation. On a qualitative basis there seems to be a correlation between tube wave generating points, the relative tube wave amplitudes and the hydraulic conductivity measurements performed as hydraulical tests between packers in the borehole. The low velocity anamalies in the sonic log are mainly caused by tectonic features like fractures and fracture zones but to some extent also by contacts between granite and diorite. The estimation of elastic properties of the rock mass from observation of tube wave velocity are in accordance with laboratory determinations made on core samples. (author)

  5. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-8 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The H-8 complex, a group of three closely-spaced boreholes, is located 9 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September of 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible disposal of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-8a (total depth 505 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian Age; H-8b (total depth 624 feet) was completed just belows the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-8c (total depth 808 feet) was completed just below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-8c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-4 feet); the Mescalero caliche (4-10 feet) and Gatuna Formation (10-153 feet) , both of Pleistocene age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (153-399 feet), the Rustler Formation (399-733 feet), and part of the Salado Formation penetrated by borehole H-8c is composed of residue from dissolution of halite and associated rocks, and the hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution front on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has reached the H-8 site. (USGS)

  6. Comparison between disign criteria and observed structural performance of underground openings at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.F.; Francke, C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the observed structural performance of the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in relation to design criteria. The criteria were established at an early stage of the project to define the functional and structural requirements that were to be addressed in the design of the facility. For the underground structural response, the criteria defined the requirements for the shaft and shaft liner design, mine design, waste emplacement, retrievability and instrumentation. The observed structural performance of the underground is determined by the field data that have been collected since excavations were started at the WIPP site. The observations include field measurements of rock and water conditions, as well as maintenance records. The data provide input to design confirmation, performance assessment and form the basis for the design of new underground structures. For this paper, the field data have been compared with the design criteria applicable to ground control to demonstrate that the requirements of the design are met

  7. Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W.; Pickering, Susan Y.; Swift, Peter N.

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review and expert judgment? Other

  8. Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl

    2014-03-01

    An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.

  9. Plutonium interaction with a bacterial strain isolated from the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strietelmeier, B.A.; Kraus, S.M.; Leonard, P.A.; Triay, I.R.

    1996-01-01

    This work was conducted as part of a series of experiments to determine the association and interaction of various actinides with bacteria isolated from the WIPP site. The majority of bacteria that exist at the site are expected to be halophiles, or extreme halophiles, due to the high concentration of salt minerals at the location. Experiments were conducted to determine the toxicity of plutonium-n-239, neptunium-237 and americium-243 to several species of these halophiles and the results were reported elsewhere. As an extension of these experiments, we report an investigation of the type of association that occurs between 239 Pu and the isolate WIPP-1A, isolated by staff at Brookhaven National Laboratory, when grown in a high-salt, defined medium. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, we demonstrate a surface association of the 239 Pu with the bacterial cells

  10. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program is designed to ensure that compliance with the Quality Assurance Objective, identified in the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (QAPP), is achieved. This Program Plan is intended for use by the WPO to assess the laboratory support provided for the characterization of WIPP TRU waste by the storage/generator sites. Phase 0 of the Performance Demonstration Program encompasses the analysis of headspace gas samples for inorganic and organic components. The WPO will ensure the implementation of this plan by designating an independent organization to coordinate and provide technical oversight for the program (Program Coordinator). Initial program support, regarding the technical oversight and coordination functions, shall be provided by the USEPA-ORP. This plan identifies the criteria that will be used for the evaluation of laboratory performance, the responsibilities of the Program Coordinator, and the responsibilities of the participating laboratories. 5 tabs

  11. Comparative analysis of nine structural codes used in the second WIPP benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1981-11-01

    In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Benchmark II study, various computer codes were compared on the basis of their capabilities for calculating the response of hypothetical drift configurations for nuclear waste experiments and storage demonstration. The codes used by participants in the study were ANSALT, DAPROK, JAC, REM, SANCHO, SPECTROM, STEALTH, and two different implementations of MARC. Errors were found in the preliminary results, and several calculations were revised. Revised solutions were in reasonable agreement except for the REM solution. The Benchmark II study allowed significant advances in understanding the relative behavior of computer codes available for WIPP calculations. The study also pointed out the possible need for performing critical design calculations with more than one code. Lastly, it indicated the magnitude of the code-to-code spread in results which is to be expected even when a model has been explicitly defined

  12. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described

  14. Industry perspectives on Plug-& -Play Spacecraft Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, R.; Graven, P.; Liptak, L.

    This paper describes the methodologies and findings from an industry survey of awareness and utility of Spacecraft Plug-& -Play Avionics (SPA). The survey was conducted via interviews, in-person and teleconference, with spacecraft prime contractors and suppliers. It focuses primarily on AFRL's SPA technology development activities but also explores the broader applicability and utility of Plug-& -Play (PnP) architectures for spacecraft. Interviews include large and small suppliers as well as large and small spacecraft prime contractors. Through these “ product marketing” interviews, awareness and attitudes can be assessed, key technical and market barriers can be identified, and opportunities for improvement can be uncovered. Although this effort focuses on a high-level assessment, similar processes can be used to develop business cases and economic models which may be necessary to support investment decisions.

  15. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R ampersand D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R ampersand D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, γ and π 0 has been designed. Its performance requirements, R ampersand D results and mechanical design are discussed

  16. Joint state of Colorado-US Department of Energy WIPP Shipment Exercise Program: TRANSAX '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In July 1990, the United States Secretary of Energy requested the DOE conduct a transportation emergency exercise before the end of CY 1990. The tasking was subsequently directed to the Director of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to plan and conduct an exercise, based on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipment scenario. The state of Colorado was asked to participate. Colorado, in turn, invited the DOE to integrate the exercise into its own series of WIPP-related tabletop and field exercises for which the state had already begun planning. The result was a joint USDOE/Colorado full-scale (orientation) exercise called Transportation Accident Exercise 1990 (TRANSAX '90). The state of Colorado's exercise program was a follow-on to previously conducted classroom training. The program would serve to identify and resolve outstanding issues concerning inspections of the WIPP shipment transporter as it entered and passed through the state on the designated Interstate 25 transportation corridor; criteria for movement under various adverse weather and road conditions; and emergency response to accidents occurring in an urban or rural environment. The USDOE designed its participation in the exercise program to test selected aspects of the DOE Emergency Management System relating to response to and management of DOE off-site transportation emergencies involving assistance to state and local emergency response personnel. While a number of issues remain under study for ultimate resolution, others have been resolved and will become the basis for emergency operations plans, SOPs, mutual aid agreements, and checklist upgrades. Concurrently, the concentrated efforts at local, state, and federal levels in dealing with WIPP- related activities during this exercise program development have given renewed impetus to all parties as the beginning of actual shipments draws nearer. Three tabletop scenarios are discussed in this report

  17. Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    Monitoring of volcanoes using various physical techniques has the potential to provide important information about the shape, size and location of the underlying magma bodies. Volcanoes erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber some kilometers below the surface overcomes the strength of the intervening rock, resulting in detectable deformations of the surrounding crust. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions and, from the patterns of earthquake locations, inferences may be made about the location of magma and its movement. Ground deformation near volcanoes provides more direct evidence on these, but continuous monitoring of such deformation is necessary for all the important aspects of an eruption to be recorded. Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have recorded strain changes associated with eruptions of Hekla, Iceland and Izu-Oshima, Japan. Those data have made possible well-constrained models of the geometry of the magma reservoirs and of the changes in their geometry during the eruption. The Hekla eruption produced clear changes in strain at the nearest instrument (15 km from the volcano) starting about 30 minutes before the surface breakout. The borehole instrument on Oshima showed an unequivocal increase in the amplitude of the solid earth tides beginning some years before the eruption. Deformational changes, detected by a borehole strainmeter and a very long baseline tiltmeter, and corresponding to the remote triggered seismicity at Long Valley, California in the several days immediately following the Landers earthquake are indicative of pressure changes in the magma body under Long Valley, raising the question of whether such transients are of more general importance in the eruption process. We extrapolate the experience with borehole strainmeters to estimate what could be learned from an installation of a small network of such instruments on Mauna Loa. Since the process of conduit formation from the magma sources in Mauna Loa and other

  18. Cost estimate for electrostatically plugged cusp reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor was presented in (UCRL-52142(1976)). The capital costs of the various components of this reactor are estimated and totaled for two different blanket configurations: one having an energy multiplication factor M = 1.2, and the other having M = 1.68. The unoptimized direct capital costs for these cases are found to be about 1400 and 950 $/kWe, respectively

  19. Plug and abandonment operations and tool positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Idrees

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering With aging oil fields, the Norwegian petroleum authorities are focusing on Plug and Abandonment (P&A) plans. Therefore efforts are being made, by relevant authorities, to improve standards and procedures for the P&A operations. Regulations for UK part of the North Sea define the P&A operation plans and execution phases in a way that may help improve the standards on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Halliburton like its competitors is focusing on ...

  20. Development of simplified rotating plug seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, M.; Ichimiya, M.; Kanaoka, T.; Sekiya, H.; Ueda, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a compact and simplified rotating plug seal structure and conducted experiments for key elements of the concept such us the mechanical seal structure and sodium deposit prevention system. Good characteristics were confirmed for the mechanical seal structure, which utilizes an elastomer seal and thin lathe bearing. Applicability of the density barrier concept was also confirmed as the sodium deposit prevention system. This concept can be applied to actual plants. (author)

  1. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  2. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs

  3. Champion for radioactive waste disposal host of the WIPP: Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    The city of Carlsbad, New Mexico, volunteered to host the United States' first final repository for radioactive waste. Carlsbad citizens and their leaders understood that after decades of accumulating waste, the time had come to close the nuclear cycle. They therefore agreed to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), provided the project would not endanger its neighbors or the environment. The southeastern New Mexico area offers several advantages for deep geologic waste disposal: The regional geology is well understood. Massive salt beds are an excellent repository medium. Decades of potash mining experience inspired confidence in that concept. In underground nuclear test in the salt had caused no harm. And the city was seeking opportunities to diversify its economic base. Through the growth of the project, beginning in 1971, Carlsbad has demonstrated unwavering commitment, patience, and persistence. Without these attitudes, the WIPP would certainly not be where it is today and most likely would not exist at all. Civic leaders made the critical difference as the project weathered repeated challenges. With the support of their constituents, they foiled anti-nuclear obstructionism and advanced the project at every turn, frequently on their own time and at their own expense. The WIPP is now scheduled to start disposal in 1998, after a ten-year delay from its originally intended opening date. If it still has a realistic chance to start operations before the end of the century, the credit must in no small measure go to the city and the citizens of Carlsbad, New Mexico

  4. Position paper on flammability concerns associated with TRU waste destined for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in southeastern New Mexico,is an underground repository, designed for the safe geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated from defense-related activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP storage rooms are mined in a bedded salt (halite) formation, and are located 2150 feet below the surface. After the disposal of waste in the storage rooms, closure of the repository is expected to occur by creep (plastic flow) of the salt formation, with the waste being permanently isolated from the surrounding environment. This paper has evaluated the issue of flammability concerns associated with TRU waste to be shipped to WIPP, including a review of possible scenarios that can potentially contribute to the flammability. The paper discusses existing regulations that address potential flammability concerns, presents an analysis of previous flammability-related incidents at DOE sites with respect to the current regulations, and finally, examines the degree of assurance these regulations provide in safeguarding against flammability concerns during transportation and waste handling. 50 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Technical evaluation of WIPP by the New Mexico environmental evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository under construction in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of 14.1 million curies of defense transuranic (TRU) waste. The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to start storing waste in the underground facility in October 1988 for a 5-yr research and demonstration period. Since the State of New Mexico had a number of concerns in 1978 regarding the impact on health and safety of the proposed WIPP facility for disposal of radioactive waste, the DOE agreed to fund an independent technical review and evaluation of the planned repository, resulting in the creation of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG). This full-time multidisciplinary group has published 39 major reports to date, testified before the New Mexico Legislature and the US Congress, and has disseminated the results of analyses to DOE, the governor, the legislature, the Congress, the scientific community, and the general public. While the disposal of radioactive defense mill tailings and defense high-level wastes are both subject to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing, Congress specifically chose not to have defense TRU waste disposal licensed by the NRC. This has placed a heavy burden on EEG as the only full-time technical review agency on WIPP, but without regulatory authority

  6. Politics and technology in repository siting: military versus commercial nuclear wastes at WIPP 1972-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1970s, attempts by the federal government to develop a comprehensive system for disposing of nuclear wastes in geologic repositories were plagued by two related political problems; (1) whether or not military and commercial wastes should be buried together in the same repository, and (2) how to define the host state's role in the repository siting mechanism. This article explains why these two problems were connected by showing how they proved to be of decisive importance in the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Although WIPP was initially conceived as a wholly military facility, The Department of Energy triggered a three-year dispute over the project's scope by proposing in 1978 to include commercial wastes in the repository. The key issue in the dispute concerned the political legitimacy of decision-making mechanisms for repository siting, which depend upon the extent to which they both adequately represent the interests of affected groups and meet an indistinct technical/political criterion of acceptable safety. DOE's ill-fated proposal to mix military and commercial disposal at WIPP demonstrated that the two rely on somewhat different conditions for their legitimacy. The agency overlapped the legitimate authorities of the federal and state governments and gave itself the hopeless task of negotiating a new boundary between them. 50 references, 3 figures

  7. Analysis of the potential formation of a Breccia chimney beneath the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1982-05-01

    This report evaluates the potential formation of a Breccia pipe beginning at the Bell Canyon aquifer beneath the WIPP repository and the resulting release of radioactivity to the surface. Rock mechanics considerations indicate that the formation of a Breccia pipe by collapse of a cavern is not reasonable. Even if rock mechanics is ignored, the overlying strata act as a barrier and would prevent the release of radioactivity to the biosphere. Gradual formation of a Breccia pipe is so slow that the plutonium-239 in the waste (one of the most important long-lived components) would decay during formation. If Bell Lake and San Simon Sinks are the surface manifestation of a regional deep dissolution wedge, such a wedge is too far removed to represent pipe forming activity near the WIPP site. The formation of a Breccia pipe under the WIPP repository is highly unlikely. If it did occur, the concentration of plutonium-239 in brine reaching the surface would be less than the maximum permissible concentration in water specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 10, part 20

  8. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn's Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements

  9. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn`s Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements.

  10. Conceptual Design and Requirements for Characterization and Field Test Boreholes: Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test, introduced herein, is a demonstration of the DBD concept and these advances.

  11. Remote Handling behind port plug in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, O.; Neuberger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Different Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be used in succession in the same equatorial ports of ITER. The remote handling operations for connection/disconnection of an interface between the port plug of the EU-HCPB-TBM and the port cell equipment are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. This paper describes the operations and systems which are required for connection of the TBM to its supply lines at this interface. The interface is located inside the free space of the port plug flange between the port plug shield and the bioshield of the port cell behind. The approach of the operation place is only available through a narrow gate in the bioshield opened temporarily during maintenance periods. This gate limits the dimensions of the whole system and its tools. The current design of the EU-HCPB-TBM foresees up to 9 supply lines which have to be connected inside the free space of one half of the port plug flange. The connection operations require positioning and adjustment of the tools for each pipe separately. Despite the strict circumstances it is still possible to find such an industrial jointed-arm robot with sufficient payload, which can penetrate into the working area. A mechanical system is necessary to move the robot from its storing place in the hot cell to the port plug on 6 m distance. Each operation requires different end-of-arm tools. The most special one is a pipe positioner tool, which can position and pull the pipe ends to each other and align the tool before welding and hold them in proper position during the welding process. Weld seams can be made by orbital welding tool. The pipe positioner tool has to provide place for welding tool. Using of inbore tool is impossible because pipes have no open ends where the tool could leave it. Orbital tool must be modified to meet requirements of remote handling because it is designed for human handling. The coolant is helium, so for eliminating the leak of helium it is

  12. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Mechanism of Randall’s Plugs Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of formation and development of intraluminal concretion, also called Randall's plug, extracted from a female patient forming calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD calculi was examined. Some of these calculi were connected to the papillary tip, and had connections with the interior of the papilla with finger-like extensions in the collecting duct (CD. The intraluminal concretion consisted of inter-grown COD crystals of irregular size (30–100 μm, approximately 5% of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAP and an organic matter. Urine of the patient was moderately supersaturated with respect to COD and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP. Model of kidney, recently refined by Robertson, was used in calculations. Calculated Reynolds number indicated that the flow of liquid through tubules was purely laminar with parabolic velocity profile. COD crystals formed at the beginning of ascending loop of Henle by heterogeneous nucleation. Concentration of COD crystals in urine was limited and considered equal to concentration of crystals during crystaluria. The free particle and the fixed particle mechanisms were considered. The free particle mechanism assumes formation of a single crystal or agglomerate of crystals blocking the CD by virtue of size. The growth of COD crystals at concrete urinary supersaturation was too slow for a single crystal to attain size with settling velocity faster than the translation flow rate of liquid. Hydrodynamic shear caused aggregation of COD solid particles dispersed in a liquid flowing in the nephron. Number of COD crystals present in urine was not sufficient for formation of fractal agglomerate blocking the Bellini duct. Similarly, a fractal agglomerate of urinary phosphate present in the form of Posner's clusters was not large enough to obstruct the Bellini duct. The opening of the CD could not be obstructed by a single crystal of COD or fractal agglomerate composed of either COD crystals or calcium phosphate clusters, formed

  14. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  15. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed

  16. The Revised WIPP Passive Institutional Controls Program - A Conceptual Plan - 13145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Russ; Klein, Thomas; Van Luik, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) is responsible for managing all activities related to the disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed waste in the geologic repository, 650 m below the land surface, at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The main function of the Passive Institutional Controls (PIC's) program is to inform future generations of the long-lived radioactive wastes buried beneath their feet in the desert. For the first 100 years after cessation of disposal operations, the rooms are closed and the shafts leading underground sealed, WIPP is mandated by law to institute Active Institutional Controls (AIC's) with fences, gates, and armed guards on patrol. At this same time a plan must be in place of how to warn/inform the future, after the AIC's are gone, of the consequences of intrusion into the geologic repository disposal area. A plan was put into place during the 1990's with records management and storage, awareness triggers, permanent marker design concepts and testing schedules. This work included the thoughts of expert panels and individuals. The plan held up under peer review and met the requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Today the NEA is coordinating a study called the 'Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations' to provide the international nuclear waste repository community with a guide on how a nuclear record archive programs should be approached and developed. CBFO is cooperating and participating in this project and will take what knowledge is gained and apply that to the WIPP program. At the same time CBFO is well aware that the EPA and others are expecting DOE to move forward with planning for the future WIPP PIC's program; so a plan will be in place in time for WIPP's closure slated for the early 2030's. The DOE/CBFO WIPP PIC's program in place today meets the regulatory criteria, but complete feasibility of implementation is questionable, and may not be in conformance

  17. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  18. Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  20. Bench top and portable mineral analysers, borehole core analysers and in situ borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench top and portable mineral analysers are usually based on balanced filter techniques using scintillation detectors or on low resolution proportional detectors. The application of radioisotope x-ray techniques to in situ borehole logging is increasing, and is particularly suited for logging for tin and higher atomic number elements

  1. Cement technology for plugging boreholes in radioactive waste repository sites. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Experiments are in progress using 34 batches of cements from 13 different locales, representing 11 types of cement, and 17 batches of fly ash from 14 suppliers. Data are being obtained from physical and chemical test methods and from measurements made in parametric studies involving cement--fly-ash concretes and saltcretes. Addition of 10 wt % salt to a standard mortar will double the initial and final set times. The set time of the saltcrete can be increased or decreased by a lignite fly ash or bituminous fly ash respectively. The compressive strengths of mortars were measured at 7, 28, and 91 days. The compressive strengths of cement--fly-ash concretes were found to vary with curing time and the fly ash composition. The strengths of saltcretes decreased with increasing salt concentration but increased with the addition of fly ash; the effect of the fly ash composition was apparently negligible. The thermal conductivities of cementitious solids, were found to increase with density and with sand and/or salt concentration. Thermal conductivities of saltcretes decreased with increasing temperature but remained almost constant in neat cement pastes. The conductivity values ranged from 0.4 W/m.K for a neat cement paste to 1.8 W/m.K for a salcrete. Results for a number of saltcretes under the same drying conditions showed that the apparent liquid permeability decreased with increasing salt content. Shrinkage of neat pastes and saltcretes varied approximately linearly with time, while cement--fly-ash solids showed a high rate in the first few weeks followed by a lower rate for a longer time period

  2. Estimated radiation doses resulting if an exploratory borehole penetrates a pressurized brine reservoir assumed to exist below the WIPP repository horizon: a single hole scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, S.T.

    1982-03-01

    A radiation dose consequence analysis has been performed for a postulated scenario in which an exploratory gas or oil well-bore penetrates the repository and intercepts a brine reservoir in the Castile formation. The brine, corings and drilling mud are contained in a one acre holding pond on the surface. Upon the completion of drilling activities the dried holding pond area is reclaimed with a bulldozer to its original topographic conformation. The estimated radiation bone dose commitments to (1) a bulldozer operator, and (2) a member of a farm family 500 meters down wind are summarized for three penetration event times. The highest estimated 50 year bone dose commitment to an individual reclaiming the contaminated holding pond area was determined to be 590 mrem from the inhalation of CH-TRU wastes resuspended into the atmosphere at an event time of 100 years post-closure. A second dose model using a specific activity approach is developed in Appendix C for this same individual where an upper 50 year dose commitment of 450 mrem is calculated. Both of these derived estimates may be compared to the 5800 mrem to bone surfaces which may be expected from natural background radiation to an individual in the United States over a fifty year period

  3. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m 3 for 241 Am and 10.2 μBq/m 3 for 239+240 Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m 3 of 241 Am and 5.8 μBq/m 3 of 239+240 Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  4. Sealing of exploratory boreholes in clay reactivity of ordinary portland cement (OPC) grouts and various lithologies from the Harwell research site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; George, I.A.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Robins, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a research programme on the disposal of radioactive wastes in clay, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been used in the completion of boreholes on the Harwell Research Site, AERE, Oxfordshire. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of OPC and the alkaline pore fluids generated during its setting on the various lithological types encountered in the boreholes. To facilitate this, samples of core representing the various rock types were selected and cement-rock composites were prepared from these in the laboratory to simulate the borehole cements. After a curing period of 15 months the cores and associated cement plugs were examined for any signs of reactivity or bonding. The best cement-rock bonding was shown by naturally well-cemented sandstone and limestone lithologies. Although no significant chemical reaction was seen to have occurred between OPC and rock, the OPC appears able to bind onto the rock surface because of the rigidity of the rock surface. Therefore, the best cement rock bonding and seal with OPC may be expected in the limestones of the Great Oolite Group, Inferior Oolite Group and parts of the Corallian beds. Because of the reactivity of OPC towards certain lithologies a better borehole seal in such a sedimentary sequence might be achieved using a bentonite backfill in those parts of the sequence which either react with or bond only weakly to OPC

  5. A study on stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Seiichi; Fujii, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Koosuke; Hibi, Seiji; Morimoto, Hiroyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part are conducted. SUS 304 stainless steel is used as testing material. The distribution of residual stress in plug and tube plate after plugging is obtained. The effect of residual stress on the stress corrosion cracking is studied. Residual stress in tube plate near the plug is compressive and stress corrosion cracking dose not occur in the tube plate there, and it occurs on the inner surface of plug because of residual tensile stress in axial direction of the plug. Stress corrosion test in MgCl 2 solution under constant load is conducted. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of the explosive bonded boundary is lower than that of base metal because of greater resistance to plastic deformation. Stress corrosion test in high temperature and high pressure pure water is also conducted by means of static type of autoclave but stress corrosion cracking does not occur under the testing condition used. (author)

  6. Analysis of pumping tests of the Culebra dolomite conducted at the H-11 hydropad at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation was hydrologically evaluated in a series of pumping tests conducted at the H-11 hydropad at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. At H-11, the Culebra dolomite is a 25-ft thick argillaceous dolomite with 0.1- to 0.5-foot thick layers with a high density of vugs. The vugs range in size from 0.1 to 0.5 inches in diameter; most are 0.1 to 0.2 inches in diameter. The thin vuggy layers alternate with thicker, more competent layers which have few vugs, but which do contain high-angle fractures. Some of the vugs and fractures are gypsum-filled. Three pumping tests consisted of 12- to 21-hour pumping periods at each of the three wells, while using the other two wells at the hydropad as observation wells. An additional pumping test was conducted at H-11b3 with H-11b1 and H-11b2 as observation wells. The test was a 32-day multirate test with four pumping and recovery periods. The original tests were conducted by lowering a submersible pump and pressure transducers in the boreholes. The additional test added a downhole packer with feed-through assembly designed to isolate the test interval and reduce or minimize the effect of wellbore storage. The data from all tests were recorded and stored on floppy disks. The pumping tests at the H-11 hydropad were analyzed with the INTERPRET reservoir-analysis software. 46 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Systems analysis, long-term radionuclide transport, and dose assessments, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico, September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Davies, P.B.; Borns, D.J.; Reeves, M.; Pickens, J.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1990-12-01

    This study supports the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and has two main objectives. First, it describes current ideas about the characteristics and potential impacts of the disturbed-rock zone (DRZ) known to develop with time around excavations at the WIPP horizon. Second, it presents new calculations of radionuclide migration within and from the WIPP repository for steady-state undisturbed conditions and for two cases that consider human intrusion into the repository. At the WIPP, the presence of a DRZ has been confirmed by geophysical studies, gas-flow tests, and direct observations. The DRZ will allow gas or brine from waste-emplacement panels to bypass panel seals and flow into adjacent portions of the underground workings unless preventive measures are taken. Revised calculations of the undisturbed performance of the repository indicate that no radionuclides will be released into the Culebra Dolomite within the regulatory period of 10,000 years. The human-intrusion calculations included here assume a connection between the WIPP repository, an occurrence of pressurized brine within the underlying Castile Formation, and the overlying Culebra Dolomite. 61 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Mucous plug syndrome. A pulmonary embolism mimic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, S.T.; Johnstone, W.H.; Dee, P.M.; Pope, T.L. Jr.; Teates, C.D.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Reported are ten instances of major bronchial obstruction by mucous plugs in eight patients during which the clinical features resembled pulmonary embolism. Perfusion lung studies showed significantly diminished perfusion of the involved portions of the lungs. The chest radiographs generally did not, however, reflect the severity of the airway obstruction and in some instances were completely normal. The ventilation studies indicated the extent and severity of the obstruction and matched with the perfusion scans. Pulmonary arteriograms were performed in three patients and gave direct evidence of focally diminished lung perfusion without embolism. The physiologic mechanisms underlying the condition are discussed

  9. Plug ‘n’ Play with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Andreasen, Elisa W.; Korgaard, Jaide V.

    Synthetic biology has evolved dramatically within the past decade, which calls for a revolution of the Standard Assembly method that makes the foundation of BioBricks. We believe that iGEM should be about fast assembly of BioBricks, where any thinkable part, device or existing BioBrick can be com...... be combined for any type of organism within one day. Therefore, we have designed a new BioBrick Kit based on a novel assembly standard; called “Plug 'n' Play with DNA”....

  10. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  11. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  12. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m 3 (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment

  13. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  14. Bhtv looks right down the borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-04-01

    A borehole televiewer uses acoustic pulses to produce a camera-like picture of downhole conditions. A block diagram shows the borehole televiewer logging system. The diameter of the tool is 3-3/8 in., but slimmer tools can be built. The nominal logging speed is 15 ft per min. Vertical fractures will show on the log as double vertical lines, horizontal fractures as single horizontal lines, and dipping fractures as curves that are roughly symmetrical. The orientation of the minimum of the curve is the dip direction of the fracture. The original idea was to find a tool to give guidance in fracturing jobs, and so far the tool has been primarily used for that purpose. It will also be a tremendous help for geologists and engineers on wildcate wells who have to make the agonizing decision to complete or abandon. It will show fracture porosity that no other currently available tool will show. It also will be a very useful supplement for the dipmeter. It can accurately locate vugs and washouts, and show changes in porosity and lithology. Mobil Oil is now using the tool as a standard log on all its wildcat wells.

  15. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  16. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative perameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape

  17. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative parameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape. Digital data are subsequently computer processed and plotted to scales that enhance the stratigraphic data being correlated. Retention of the data in analog format permits rapid review, whereas computer plotting allows playback and detailed examination of log sections and sequences that may be attenuated on hard copy because of the logarithmic nature of the response to the physical property being examined

  18. Knowledge-Based System to Support Plug Load Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hadryś D.

    2016-01-01

    New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF) in weld metal deposit...

  20. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yonge, Larry; Abad, Jose; Afkhamie, Kaywan; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Katar, Srinivas; Lioe, Hidayat; Pagani, Pascal; Riva, Raffaele; Schneider, Daniel M.; Schwager, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking co...

  1. Summary of site-characterization studies conducted from 1983 through 1987 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites. Site-characterization activities at the WIPP site began in 1976. Characterization activities since 1983 have had the objective of updating the conceptual model for the geologic and hydrologic behavior of the WIPP site and vicinity. This paper discusses aspects of the general conceptual model significant to both site characterization and performance assessment. The geological and hydrologic behavior of the WIPP site and vicinity is transient, and has been transient since at least deposition of the Permian Salado Formation containing the underground workings of the WIPP facility. The Salado Formation deforms regionally in response to gravity, but is very low in permeability, except within approximately two meters of the WIPP facility. The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation dominates the hydrology at the WIPP site. Hydrologic measurements, geologic studies, major-element and minor-element distributions in Culebra fluids, and the results of isotopic studies (stable-isotope, radiocarbon, uranium-disequilibrium, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) are consistent with the interpretations that, although the Culebra dominates flow within the Rustler at the WIPP site and Rustler karst is not present, there has been limited vertical fluid movement within the Rustler and between the Rustler and the overlying Dewey Lake Red Beds

  2. Ford C-Max plug-in hybrid; Ford C-Max mit Plug-in-Hybridtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Andreas; D' Annunzio, Julie; Iorio, Rob [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford-Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Ford provides consumers a broad choice of electrified vehicles globally, including full hybrids, plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles. The all-new 2013 model year C-Max Energi Plug-in Hybrid utilises the third generation of Ford hybrid technology. This article discusses the hybrid powersplit architecture and components, as well as the charging capability and human-machine interfaces, used in the C-Max Energi Plug-In Hybrid. (orig.)

  3. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  4. Comparative study of coliform contamination of public boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.

  5. Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the oil industry, acoustic borehole logging is commonly practiced. A borehole is drilled in a potential hydro-carbon reservoir and then probed with an acoustic ...... The non-dimensional phase velocity c/Vmin, Vmin = min(V1,V2,V3,V4) is computed at different values of non-dimensional wavenumber ka varying from 0 to 85.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL STATUS OF BOREHOLES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-02-13

    Feb 13, 2012 ... monitoring and assessment of boreholes mostly the indiscriminate sinking of boreholes in the ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 5 No.1 2012 ... may enter a water supply by industrial and ... issues of present day research on risk .... and pigments for paints, cement, paper,.

  7. Performance of MarSite Multi parameter Borehole Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present two year results obtained from the integrated multiparameter borehole system at Marsite. The very broad band (VBB) system have been operating since installation in November 2014; one year in a water filled borehole and one year in a dry Borehole. from January 2016. The real time data has been available to the community. The two Borehole environments are compared showing the superior performance of dry borehole environ- ment compared to water filled for a very broad band (VBB) seismometer. The practical considerations applied in both borehole installations are compared and the best borehole practical installation techniques are presented and discussed. The data is also compared with a surface 120 second broad band sensor and the seismic arrays with in MarSite region. The very long term performance, (one year data in a dry hole) of the VBB Borehole seismometer and the Dilatometer will be presented The high frequency performance of the VBB seismometer which extends to 150 Hz and the dilatometer are compared characterizing the results from the dilatometer.

  8. Comparison of Performance of Public and Private Boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last fifteen years, a remarkable increase in the number of privately owned. There has been an increase in the individually owned and operated boreholes within the state because it is claimed that government owned boreholes breakdown too often. Hence, this study is aimed at comparison of the performance of three ...

  9. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine— (1...

  10. Occurrence of a Severe Acute Livestock Poisoning by Borehole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an outbreak of acute livestock poisoning by borehole water that occurred at Kargi in Marsabit District, Kenya in 2000. The borehole had been out of use for 3 years and after its rehabilitation, 7,000 animals died within a day after drinking the water. The most affected were shoats, cattle, camels and dogs ...

  11. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    2001-01-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator

  12. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  13. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests

  14. The WIPP PC based data collection program for real time data capture from the Eberline Alpha Air Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, D.A.; Clayton, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) needed the capability to evaluate the performance of the Eberline Alpha Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs). An additional goal was to characterize and document the Radon background activity at various locations above and below ground at the WIPP. A PC based data collection system was developed to continuously collect information used to evaluate the CAMs' performance and document the operability of the Alpha monitoring program at the WIPP. To accomplish the stated objectives, Westinghouse Radiation Monitoring Systems Engineering modified an existing Eberline CAM supervision and control program to include real time data collection. The paper will address the specific hardware requirements for program usage, the functional structure of the program, and the actions required for an operator to generate graphical output. The utilization of the information generated and the future plans for the expansion and networking of the data collection system also be presented

  15. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator.

  16. Department of Energy Operation Quality Assurance Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project (Carlsbad, New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA)reverse arrow Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Project Participants: the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory) and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the Pre-Operational and Operational phases of the WIPP Project not addressed under the construction phase. This plan also requires the QA Programs for DOE and Project Participants to be structured so as to comply with this plan and ANSI-ASME NQA-1. The prime responsibility for Operational Quality Assurance rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Scientific Advisor and the Management and Operating Contractor. Overviews of selected operational and testing activities will be are conducted in accordance with prescribed requirements and that adequate documentation of these activities is maintained. 4 figs

  17. Analytical technology in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villareal, R.

    1994-01-01

    The need for long-term disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) wastes became apparent as the DOE recognized the environmental consequences of maintaining waste storage facilities designed for short or interim storage periods, not long-term storage. In 1979, Congress authorized the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a research and development facility and full-scale pilot plant, to demonstrate the safe management, storage, and disposal of TRU wastes. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations governing disposal of TRU wastes in 40 CFR 191 require that TRU waste disposal systems be designed to limit migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years based on performance assessment results. The actinide source-term waste test program (STTP) is an experiment designed to quantitatively measure the time-dependent concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, thorium, and americium in TRU wastes immersed in brines that simulate the chemistry that may occur in WIPP disposal rooms, partially or completely contacted with brines. The total concentration of each actinide in brine is the sum of its dissolved and colloidally suspended components, as determined by variables including pcH, oxidation-reduction potential (Eh), chelating and complexing agents, sorption capacity, and colloidal suspension capabilities. To determine the effect of influencing variables on the concentration of actinides in WIPP brines, several TRU waste types will be characterized and loaded into specially designed noncorrosive test containers filled with brine containing additives to enhance the action of each influencing variable. The test container brine and headspace gases will be analyzed

  18. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  19. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites' compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site

  20. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi 2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 10 4 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi 2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study

  1. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  2. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  3. The assessment of the geophysical investigations of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.-Aa.

    1980-02-01

    Four geophysical investigations and a televiewer inspection of boreholes have been evaluated in connection with the examinations at Finnsjoen, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala, Stripa and Studsvik. A cooperative assessment of the systems for the measurement of boreholes by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and the Geological Survey of Sweden has been made at Stripa. The following methods should be selected for future measurements: determination of the resistivity and temperature of the fluid in the borehole, determination of the resistivity and temperature of the fluid in the borehole, determination of the self-potential, resistivity and resistance of the rock as well as the measurement of sonar waves, the diameter of the borehole and the very low frequency effects. (G.B.)

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  6. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  7. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  8. Biomass plug development and propagation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T L; Fogler, H S

    2001-02-05

    Exopolymer-producing bacteria can be used to modify soil profiles for enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. Understanding the mechanisms associated with biomass plug development and propagation is needed for successful application of this technology. These mechanisms were determined from packed-bed and micromodel experiments that simulate plugging in porous media. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was used, because production of dextran, a water-insoluble exopolymer, can be controlled by using different carbon sources. As dextran was produced, the pressure drop across the porous media increased and began to oscillate. Three pressure phases were identified under exopolymer-producing conditions: the exopolymer-induction phase, the plugging phase, and the plug-propagation phase. The exopolymer-induction phase extended from the time that exopolymer-producing conditions were induced until there was a measurable increase in pressure drop across the porous media. The plugging phase extended from the first increase in pressure drop until a maximum pressure drop was reached. Changes in pressure drop in these two phases were directly related to biomass distribution. Specifically, flow channels within the porous media filled with biomass creating a plugged region where convective flow occurred only in water channels within the biofilm. These water channels were more restrictive to flow causing the pressure drop to increase. At a maximum pressure drop across the porous media, the biomass yielded much like a Bingham plastic, and a flow channel was formed. This behavior marked the onset of the plug-propagation phase which was characterized by sequential development and breakthrough of biomass plugs. This development and breakthrough propagated the biomass plug in the direction of nutrient flow. The dominant mechanism associated with all three phases of plugging in porous media was exopolymer production; yield stress is an additional mechanism in the plug-propagation phase. Copyright

  9. In-Situ Testing and Performance Assessment of a Redesigned WIPP Panel Closure - 13192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Thomas [URS-Professional Solutions, 4021 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Patterson, Russell [Department of Energy-Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Camphouse, Chris; Herrick, Courtney; Kirchner, Thomas; Malama, Bwalya; Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories-Carlsbad, 4100 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Kicker, Dwayne [SM Stoller Corporation-Carlsbad, 4100 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There are two primary regulatory requirements for Panel Closures at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the nation's only deep geologic repository for defense related Transuranic (TRU) and Mixed TRU waste. The Federal requirement is through 40 CFR 191 and 194, promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The state requirement is regulated through the authority of the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) under the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (HWA), New Mexico Statutes Annotated (NMSA) 1978, chap. 74-4-1 through 74-4-14, in accordance with the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR), 20.4.1 New Mexico Annotated Code (NMAC). The state regulations are implemented for the operational period of waste emplacement plus 30 years whereas the federal requirements are implemented from the operational period through 10,000 years. The 10,000 year federal requirement is related to the adequate representation of the panel closures in determining long-term performance of the repository. In Condition 1 of the Final Certification Rulemaking for 40 CFR Part 194, the EPA required a specific design for the panel closure system. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has requested, through the Planned Change Request (PCR) process, that the EPA modify Condition 1 via its rulemaking process. The DOE has also requested, through the Permit Modification Request (PMR) process, that the NMED modify the approved panel closure system specified in Permit Attachment G1. The WIPP facility is carved out of a bedded salt formation 655 meters below the surface of southeast New Mexico. Condition 1 of the Final Certification Rulemaking specifies that the waste panels be closed using Option D which is a combination of a Salado mass concrete (SMC) monolith and an isolation/explosion block wall. The Option D design was also accepted as the panel closure of choice by the NMED. After twelve years of waste handling

  10. NMT-7 plan for producing certifiable TRU debris waste for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, A.J.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of waste characterization data for debris items generated during a recent six month period indicates that the certifiability of TRUPACT II payload containers packaged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) can be increased from approximately 52% of solid waste payload containers to 78% by applying the simple strategies of screening out high decay heat items and sorting remaining items to maintain nuclear material loading at levels below WIPP waste acceptance limits. Implementation of these strategies will have negative impacts on waste minimization and waste management operations that must also be considered

  11. Basic data report for drillhole H-12 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Snyder, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Drillhole H-12 was drilled where hydraulic data were needed to better establish flow characteristics existing south-southeast of the WIPP site. The fluid-bearing zones of interest are the Magenta and Culebra dolomite units of the Rustler Formation. Dissolution of halite in the Rustler Formation has occurred in the uppermost member, but has not yet begun in the lower halite-bearing members. Cuttings and cores were taken at selected intervals and geophysical logs were run over the entire depth of the hole. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  13. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  14. Potential problems from shipment of high-curie content contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    There are about 1000 drums of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes containing more than 100 Ci/drum of Pu-238 that are stored at the Savannah River Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Studies performed at DOE laboratories have shown that large quantities of gases are generated in stored drums containing 100 Ci of 238 Pu. Concentrations of hydrogen gas in the void space of the drums are often found to be high enough to be explosive. None of the analyses in the DOE WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement, Safety Analysis Report, and Preliminary Transportation Analysis have considered the possibility that the generation of hydrogen gas by radiolysis may create an explosive or flammable hazard that could increase the frequency and severity of accidental releases of radionuclides during transportation or handling. These high 238 Pu concentration containers would also increase the estimated doses received by individuals and populations from transportation, WIPP site operations, and human intrusion scenarios even if the possibility of gas-enhanced releases is ignored. The WIPP Project Office has evaluated this effect on WIPP site operations and is suggesting a maximum limit of 140 239 Pu equivalent curies (P-Ci) per drum so that postulated accidental off-site doses will not be larger than those listed in the FEIS. The TRUPACT container, which is being designed for the transportation of CH-TRU wastes to WIPP, does not appear to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations requiring double containment for the transportation of plutonium in quantities >20 Ci. A 20 alpha Ci/shipment limit would require about 200,000 shipments for the 4 million curies of alpha emitters slated for WIPP

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1993-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is designed for receipt, handling, storage, and permanent isolation of defense-generated transuranic wastes, is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites of the Permian Salado Formation of southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterization activities at the present WIPP site began in 1976. Full construction of the facility began in 1983, after completion of ``Site and Preliminary Design Validation`` (SPDV) activities and reporting. Site-characterization activities since 1983 have had the objectives of updating or refining the overall conceptual model of the geologic, hydrologic, and structural behavior of the WIPP site and providing data adequate for use in WIPP performance assessment. This report has four main objectives: 1. Summarize the results of WIPP site-characterization studies carried out since the spring of 1983 as a result of specific agreements between the US Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico. 2. Summarize the results and status of site-characterization and facility-characterization studies carried out since 1983, but not specifically included in mandated agreements. 3. Compile the results of WIPP site-characterization studies into an internally consistent conceptual model for the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and structural behavior of the WIPP site. This model includes some consideration of the effects of the WIPP facility and shafts on the local characteristics of the Salado and Rustler Formations. 4. Discuss the present limitations and/or uncertainties in the conceptual geologic model of the WIPP site and facility. The objectives of this report are limited in scope, and do not include determination of whether or not the WIPP Project will comply with repository-performance criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40CFR191).

  16. Groundwater flow in the Rustler Formation, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeast New Mexico (SENM). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.D.

    1983-03-01

    In hypothetical breach scenarios for the WIPP, the Culebra Dolomite in the Rustler Formation has historically been considered the aquifer most likely to play a significant role in transporting radioisotopes to the biosphere. Recently, it was determined that breach scenarios involving connection of aquifers above and below the Salado Formation where waste emplacement is planned would not result in an upward flow of water into the Rustler aquifers. Considerable hydrologic investigation has focused on the Culebra, since some scenarios might result in contamination of this aquifer. In such events the Culebra would provide more rapid transport of radioisotopes from the WIPP than any of the other aquifers in the WIPP area. Hydrologic tests conducted in three-well arrays at four different locations near the WIPP are described. Tracer tests at the H-6 wells northwest of the WIPP indicated an effective porosity of 0.007 in the principal direction of flow and a dispersivity of 33 ft. At the H-2 wells, 1-1/4 mi W-SW of the center of the WIPP site, the effective porosity in the principal flow direction is 0.18 and the dispersivity is 17 ft. Anisotropy of transmissivity was determined from pumping tests at the H-4, H-5, and H-6 wells. The principal direction of transmissivity is roughly NW-SE at all three locations. The ratio of the major-to-minor transmissivity components varies only from 2.1 to 2.7, even though the transmissivity itself varies three orders of magnitude among the three locations. This information, coupled with transmissivity and head potential data, indicates that flow patterns near the WIPP site are toward the southeast. Present estimates for flow rates are 1 to 10 ft/y. Values of transmissivity for the Culebra vary six orders of magnitude over the extent of the study area, decreasing monotonically from 10 3 ft 2 /d in Nash Draw to 10 - 3 ft 2 /d on the east side of the WIPP site

  17. Filling bore-holes with explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfredsson, S H

    1965-03-02

    In this device for filling boreholes formed in a rock formation with particulate explosive, the explosive is conveyed into the hole by means of a pressure fluid through a tube which has a lesser diameter than the hole. The tube is characterized by a lattice work arranged externally on it, and having a structure adapted to allow passage of a pressure fluid returning between the tube and the wall of the hole, but retaining particles of explosive entrained by the returning pressure fluid. In another arrangement of the device, the lattice work has the form of a brush, including filaments or bristles which are dimensioned to bridge the spacing between the tube and the wall of the hole. (12 claims)

  18. Temperature profiles in the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1983-03-01

    Heat flow at Harwell is estimated at 45 mWm -2 (milli Watt per metre squared is the unit of heat flow). Thermal conductivity values for the formations penetrated range from 1.0 to 4.6 Wm -1 K -1 . The temperature profiles recorded in the boreholes enable the vertical groundwater flow patterns within two poorly permeable mudrock units to be evaluated. The two mudrock units act as leaky barriers each separating a pair of aquifer units which induce a vertical hydraulic gradient across the mudrocks. The flow velocity results for the upper mudrock units derived from the temperature profile are compatible with values for groundwater potential derived from hydraulic data (10 -9 ms -1 from the temperature profile and 10 -12 ms -1 from the hydraulic observations). The results from the lower mudrock sequence are incompatible and this may be due to some other overiding influence upon the temperature profile. (author)

  19. Multiple position borehole extensometer procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometer Procedure is to provide detailed information for MPBXs installed at the salt Deaf Smith County ESF. This procedure includes design of equipment, installation, instructions, instrument locations, measurement requirements, support requirements, quality assurance procedures, and data acquisition requirements. Data reduction procedures are also discussed; however, the relevance of the data is discussed elsewhere in the appropriate test plans. Sufficient detail is provided in this procedure to allow for integrating the requirements of this procedure into both the facility construction and overall underground testing programs; identifying necessary equipment for procurement; determining data acquisition requirements as input to Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) design; providing step-by-step procedures for training personnel as well as for directing field operations; establishing quality assurance (QA) checkpoints and implementation methods; and defining data reduction methods and providing the anticipated accuracy of the system. 11 refs., 14 figs

  20. Waste package emplacement borehole option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluates the cost and thermal effects of various waste package emplacement configurations that differ in emplacement orientation, number of containers per borehole, and standoff distance at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In this study, eight additional alternatives to the vertical and horizontal orientation options presented in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report are considered. Typical panel layout configurations based on thermal analysis of the waste and cost estimates for design and construction, operations, and closure and decommissioning were made for each emplacement option. For the thermal analysis average waste 10 years out of reactor and the SIM code were used to determine whether the various configurations temperatures would exceed the design criteria for temperature. This study does not make a recommendation for emplacement configuration, but does provide information for comparison of alternatives