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  1. WIPP and the local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.L.; Sankey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 26 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico in southeastern New Mexico. Other neighboring communities include Lovington, Hobbs and Loving, New Mexico. In March 1983, the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) phase of the project was completed. Full scale facility construction began in July of that year. Overall site construction is scheduled to be complete in December 1986. Construction completion will be followed by pre-operational and safety check-out in 1987, prior to receiving the first nuclear waste which is targeted for receipt on or after October 1988. WIPP has had a significant impact on the local communities. Many local people have been hired by the Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Electric, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractors, as well as associated sub-contractors. As of December 31, 1985, 64% of the 643 people working at WIPP were hired from an 80-mile or less radius of the WIPP site. The majority of local residents support WIPP. As declining potash and mining industries negatively impacted the economic condition of Southeastern New Mexico, WIPP brought jobs and new business opportunities to the area

  2. Use of Performance Assessment in Support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Programmatic Activity Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BASABILVAZO, GEORGE; JOW, HONG-NIAN; LARSON, KURT W.; MARIETTA, MELVIN G.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP for such disposal was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and was approved by EPA in May 1998. In June 1998, two separate, but related, lawsuits were filed, one against DOE and one against EPA. On March 22, 1999, the court ruled in favor of DOE, and on March 26, 1999, DOE formally began disposal operations at the WIPP for non-mixed (non-hazardous) TRU waste. Before the WIPP can begin receiving mixed (hazardous) TRU waste, a permit from the State of New Mexico for hazardous waste disposal needs to be issued. It is anticipated that the State of New Mexico will issue a hazardous waste permit by November 1999. It is further anticipated that the EPA lawsuit will be resolved by July 1999. Congress (Public Law 102-579, Section 8(f)) requires the WIPP project to be recertified by the EPA at least as frequently as once every five years from the first receipt of TRU waste at the WIPP site. As part of the DOE's WIPP project recertification strategy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has used systems analysis and performance assessment to prioritize its scientific and engineering research activities. Two 1998 analyses, the near-field systems analysis and the annual sensitivity analysis, are discussed here. Independently, the two analyses arrived at similar conclusions regarding important scientific activities associated with the WIPP. The use of these techniques for the recent funding allocations at SNL's WIPP project had several beneficial effects. It increased the level of acceptance among project scientists that management had fairly and credibly compared alternatives when making prioritization decisions. It improved the ability of SNL and its project sponsor, the Carlsbad Area Office of the DOE, to

  3. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  4. Successes and Experiences of the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Weart, Wendell D.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with all of the applicable regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, and transuranic radioactive waste. The WIPP, a transuranic waste repository, is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal regulations and be certified to receive wastes. Many lessons were learned throughout the 25-year history of the WIPP--from site selection to the ultimate successful certification. The experiences and lessons learned from the WIPP may be of general interest to other repository programs in the world. The lessons learned include all facets of a repository program: programmatic, managerial, regulatory, technical, and social. This paper addresses critical issues that arose during the 25 years of WIPP history and how they influenced the program

  5. WIPP Pecos Management Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reviews and evaluations compiled by Pecos Management Services, Inc. encompass the current and future WIPP activities in the program areas of TRU waste characterization, transportation, and disposal.

  6. WIPP Recertification - An Environmental Evaluation Group Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L. E.; Silva, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for defense transuranic (TRU) waste, was built and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) required initial certification of compliance of the WIPP by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, a recertification decision is required by the LWA every five years, dated from the initial receipt of TRU waste. The first TRU waste shipment arrived at the WIPP on March 26, 1999, and therefore the first recertification application is due from DOE to EPA by March 25, 2004. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) provides technical oversight of the WIPP project on behalf of the State of New Mexico. The EEG considers the first recertification as a precedent setting event. Therefore, the EEG began the identification of recertification issues immediately following the initial certification decision. These issues have evolved since that time, based on discussions with the DOE and EEG's understanding of DOE's ongoing research. Performance assessment is required by the EPA certification and its results are needed to determine whether the facility remains in compliance at the time of the recertification application. The DOE must submit periodic change reports to the EPA which summarize activities and conditions that differ from the compliance application. Also, the EPA may request additional information from the DOE that may pertain to continued compliance. These changes and new information must be considered for recertification performance assessment

  7. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA. A

  8. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-02-25

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA

  9. WIPP documentation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plung, D.L.; Montgomery, T.T.; Glasstetter, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Publications and Procedures Section developed a documentation plan that provides an integrated document hierarchy; further, this plan affords several unique features: 1) the format for procedures minimizes the writing responsibilities of the technical staff and maximizes use of the writing and editing staff; 2) review cycles have been structured to expedite the processing of documents; and 3) the numbers of documents needed to support the program have been appreciably reduced

  10. Technical issues for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-01-01

    Emplacement of wastes in the WIPP will include experiments on various waste types which will provide essential data on waste-rock interaction and repository response. These experiments will include evolution of the synergistic effects of both heat production, radiation, and actual waste forms. While these studies will provide essential data on the validity of waste isolation in bedded salt, they will be preceded by a broad-based experimental program which will resolve many of the current technical issues providing not only an assessment of the safety of performing such experiments but also the technical basis for assurance that the appropriate experiments are performed. Data and predictive modeling techniques, which are currently available, can bound the consequences associated with these technical issues. Predictions of the impact on public safety based on these analyses indicate that safe waste disposal in WIPP salt beds is achievable; however, a major use of WIPP will be to conduct realistic experiments with HLW forms to address some of the unresolved details of these waste/salt interactions

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) startup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    To allow the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to transition from a Major System Acquisition to an operating demonstration facility, the Acquisition Executive and the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) must concur in the facility's readiness to receive waste. This action, designated in DOE Order 4700.1 as Key Decision Four, concludes with the Chairman of the ESAAB issuing a Record of Decision. Since the meeting leading to the Record of Decision is scheduled for August 1988, plans must be made to ensure all activities contributing to that decision are completed in a clear and well-coordinated process. To support that effort, this Start-Up Plan was prepared to identify and track key events necessary to verify WIPP's readiness to receive waste; this provides a management/scheduling/tracking tool for the DOE WIPP Project Office (WPO) and a tracking mechanism for the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) and for DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ); and describe the process to ensure readiness is documented by providing relevant data and reports to the cognizant decision makers. The methods by which these two purposes are achieved are discussed in further detail in the remainder of this plan

  12. WIPP operations planning: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Cossel, S.C.; Plung, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first-of-a-kind facility for emplacement of radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The concern for safe and efficient operations - coupled with the domestic and international significance of this project - necessitates that WIPP be a ''model plant.'' To develop WIPP as a model plant, a unique planning methodology was employed to identify, evaluate, incorporate, and implement these elements that together will form the best possible overall operation. The resulting improvements in communication among project participants and the smooth transition being made from construction are equally attributable to the methodology employed and the operating program plan developed. 1 fig

  13. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  14. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities

  15. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  16. WIPP Project Records Management Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Records Management Handbook provides the WIPP Project Records Management personnel with a tool to use to fulfill the requirements of the WIPP Records Program and direct their actions in the important area of records management. The handbook describes the various project areas involved in records management, and how they function. The handbook provides the requirements for Record Coordinators and Master Record Center (MRC) personnel to follow in the normal course of file management, records scheduling, records turnover, records disposition, and records retrieval. More importantly, the handbook provides a single reference which encompasses the procedures set fourth in DOE Order 1324.2A, ''Records Disposition'' ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities'' and DOE-AL 5700.6B, ''General Operations Quality Assurance.'' These documents dictate how an efficient system of records management will be achieved on the WIPP Project

  17. WIPP: Lessons learned for state/DOE consultation and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    WIPP is intended to be a repository for permanent disposal of 6,200,000 cu ft of transuranic waste generated from the nation's defense programs. The waste is not fixed, up to 1% can be respirable and it is stored in conventional 17-C Type A Carbon steel drums with a design life of 20 years. (Storage began in 1970). The waste form is not fused in an insoluble glass matrix and there is no commitment by DOE for getters. The question arises of the need and desirability to perform experiments with high level wastes at WIPP. The original purpose in the Oct 1980 WIPP FIES stated ''...the experiments are not so much concerned with the WIPP itself, as they are with planning future high level waste repositories. They are to answer technical questions about the disposal of high level waste in bedded salt and to provide a valid demonstration of the concepts involved.'' The purpose of this paper is to provide information for RH TRU disposal and to generate scientific knowledge that may be helpful to others and not to demonstrate high level waste disposal

  18. Assessment of near-surface dissolution at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1985-07-01

    The area at and near the WIPP site was examined for evidence of karst development on the geomorphic surface encompassing the site. Certain surficial depressions of initial concern were identified as blowouts in sand dune fields (shallow features unrelated to karstification). An ancient stream system active more than 500,000 yr ago contained more water than any system since. During that time (Gatuna, Middle Pleistocene), many karst features such as Clayton Basin and Nash Draw began to form in the region. Halite was probably dissolved from parts of the Rustler Formation at that time. Dissolution of halite and gypsum from intervals encountered in Borehole WIPP-33 west of the WIPP site occurred during later Pleistocene time (i.e., <450,000 yr ago). However, there is no evidence of active near-surface dissolution within a belt to the east of WIPP-33 in the vicinity of the WIPP shaft. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  20. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) integrated project management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olona, D.; Sala, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project of the Department of Energy (DOE), tasked with the mission of demonstrating the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes. This unique project was authorized by Congress in 1979 in response to the national need for long-term, safe methods for disposing of radioactive by-products from our national defense programs. The WIPP was originally established in December of 1979, by Public Law 96-164, DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980. Since the inception of the WIPP Project, work has continued to prepare the facility to receive TRU wastes. Studies continue to be conducted to demonstrate the safety of the WIPP facility in accordance with federal and state laws, state agreements, environmental regulations, and DOE Orders. The objectives of implementing an integrated project management system are to assure compliance with all regulatory and federal regulations, identify areas of concern, provide justification for funding, provide a management tool for control of program workscope, and establish a project baseline from which accountability and performance will be assessed. Program management and project controls are essential for the success of the WIPP Project. The WIPP has developed an integrated project management system to establish the process for the control of the program which has an expected total dollar value of $2B over the ten-year period from 1990-2000. The implementation of this project management system was motivated by the regulatory requirements of the project, the highly public environment in which the project takes place, limited funding and resources, and the dynamic nature of the project. Specific areas to be addressed in this paper include strategic planning, project organization, planning and scheduling, fiscal planning, and project monitoring and reporting

  1. Status and Growth of Underground Science at WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Norbert T.

    2008-10-01

    The science community is increasingly taking advantage of research opportunities in the government-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 655m underground near Carlsbad, NM. Discoveries so far include viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in 250 million-year old salt, preserved in an ultra-low background-radiation setting. Supplementing the overburden's shielding against cosmic radiation, terrestrial background from the host formation is less than five percent that of average crustal rock. In the past, WIPP accommodated development and testing of neutral current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and dark matter research, and it currently hosts two experiments pursuing neutrino-less double-beta decay. That scientists can listen to whispers from the universe in proximity to megacuries of radioactive waste lends, of course, credibility to the argument that WIPP itself is very safe. Almost a century of regional petroleum and potash extraction history and more than three decades of WIPP studies have generated a comprehensive body of knowledge on geology, mining technology, rock mechanics, geochemistry, and other disciplines relevant to underground science. Existing infrastructure is being used and can be expanded to fit experimental needs. WIPP's exemplary safety and regulatory compliance culture, low excavating and operating cost, and the high probability of the repository operating at least another 40 years make its available underground space attractive for future research and development. Recent proposals include low-photon energy counting to study internal dose received decades ago, investigations into ultra-low radiation dose response in cell cultures and laboratory animals (e.g., hormesis vs. linear no-threshold) and detectors for dark matter, solar and supernova neutrinos, and proton decay. Additional proposals compatible with WIPP's primary mission are welcome.

  2. WIPP facility representative program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) facility representative (FR) program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It provides the following information: (1) FR and support organization authorities and responsibilities; (2) FR program requirements; and (3) FR training and qualification requirements

  3. WIPP 2004 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States (U.S.). In 2004, 8,839 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were emplaced at WIPP. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2004, 25,809 m3 of TRU waste had been emplaced at WIPP. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of WIPP environmental resources. DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes environmental data from 2004 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2004 (DOE, 2005). The order and the guidance require that DOE facilities submit an annual SER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) further requires that the SER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  4. WIPP 2004 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-09-30

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States (U.S.). In 2004, 8,839 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were emplaced at WIPP. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2004, 25,809 m3 of TRU waste had been emplaced at WIPP. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of WIPP environmental resources. DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes environmental data from 2004 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2004 (DOE, 2005). The order and the guidance require that DOE facilities submit an annual SER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) further requires that the SER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  5. WIPP: why are we waiting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rooms cut into salt almost half a mile below the state of New Mexico could become the United States' first underground repository for defence generated transuranic waste. The Department of Energy (DoE) was hoping to ship the first waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) this August, but the $800 million project has faced bureaucratic delays and a definite date has yet to be set. The state of New Mexico established the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) to perform an independent technical evaluation of the project with respect to potential radiation exposure for people or environmental degradation in the area around the WIPP site. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has two objectives: to perform scientific investigations into the behaviour of salt rock and its interactions with transuranic and mixed waste under a variety of conditions; and to demonstrate that transuranic waste can be safely handled, transported and stored in a geologic repository. The EEG is unhappy about proposed in-repository tests to assess the long term performance of WIPP. (author)

  6. Simulations of the pipe overpack to compute constitutive model parameters for use in WIPP room closure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Hansen, Francis D.

    2004-01-01

    The regulatory compliance determination for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant includes the consideration of room closure. Elements of the geomechanical processes include salt creep, gas generation and mechanical deformation of the waste residing in the rooms. The WIPP was certified as complying with regulatory requirements based in part on the implementation of room closure and material models for the waste. Since the WIPP began receiving waste in 1999, waste packages have been identified that are appreciably more robust than the 55-gallon drums characterized for the initial calculations. The pipe overpack comprises one such waste package. This report develops material model parameters for the pipe overpack containers by using axisymmetrical finite element models. Known material properties and structural dimensions allow well constrained models to be completed for uniaxial, triaxial, and hydrostatic compression of the pipe overpack waste package. These analyses show that the pipe overpack waste package is far more rigid than the originally certified drum. The model parameters developed in this report are used subsequently to evaluate the implications to performance assessment calculations

  7. DOE responses to the State of New Mexico's comments on ''summary of the results of the evaluation of the WIPP site and preliminary design validation program'' (WIPP-DOE-161)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    During the 60-day period provided for comments on the ''Summary of the Results of the Evaluation of the WIPP Site and Preliminary Design Validation Program'' (WIPP-DOE-161), written submittals and hearing testimony from about 133 individuals, 7 citizens groups and 6 state agencies were received by the Department of Energy (DOE). Approximately 25% of the public comment submittals were positive statements supporting the WIPP, with the remaining 75% reflecting concern with one or more aspects of the project. A portion of the state's comment package (submitted by the Governor of New Mexico) contained concerns relevant to WIPP which were unrelated to site suitability. Supportive comments formed the majority of the submittals from the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) which ''...is charged with the responsibility of evaluating the suitability of the site for carrying out the mission of WIPP by analyzing all the reports and other information which form the background to the DOE evaluation of the site''

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1993-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is designed for receipt, handling, storage, and permanent isolation of defense-generated transuranic wastes, is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites of the Permian Salado Formation of southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterization activities at the present WIPP site began in 1976. Full construction of the facility began in 1983, after completion of ``Site and Preliminary Design Validation`` (SPDV) activities and reporting. Site-characterization activities since 1983 have had the objectives of updating or refining the overall conceptual model of the geologic, hydrologic, and structural behavior of the WIPP site and providing data adequate for use in WIPP performance assessment. This report has four main objectives: 1. Summarize the results of WIPP site-characterization studies carried out since the spring of 1983 as a result of specific agreements between the US Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico. 2. Summarize the results and status of site-characterization and facility-characterization studies carried out since 1983, but not specifically included in mandated agreements. 3. Compile the results of WIPP site-characterization studies into an internally consistent conceptual model for the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and structural behavior of the WIPP site. This model includes some consideration of the effects of the WIPP facility and shafts on the local characteristics of the Salado and Rustler Formations. 4. Discuss the present limitations and/or uncertainties in the conceptual geologic model of the WIPP site and facility. The objectives of this report are limited in scope, and do not include determination of whether or not the WIPP Project will comply with repository-performance criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40CFR191).

  9. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  10. Summary of site-characterization studies conducted from 1983 through 1987 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites. Site-characterization activities at the WIPP site began in 1976. Characterization activities since 1983 have had the objective of updating the conceptual model for the geologic and hydrologic behavior of the WIPP site and vicinity. This paper discusses aspects of the general conceptual model significant to both site characterization and performance assessment. The geological and hydrologic behavior of the WIPP site and vicinity is transient, and has been transient since at least deposition of the Permian Salado Formation containing the underground workings of the WIPP facility. The Salado Formation deforms regionally in response to gravity, but is very low in permeability, except within approximately two meters of the WIPP facility. The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation dominates the hydrology at the WIPP site. Hydrologic measurements, geologic studies, major-element and minor-element distributions in Culebra fluids, and the results of isotopic studies (stable-isotope, radiocarbon, uranium-disequilibrium, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) are consistent with the interpretations that, although the Culebra dominates flow within the Rustler at the WIPP site and Rustler karst is not present, there has been limited vertical fluid movement within the Rustler and between the Rustler and the overlying Dewey Lake Red Beds

  11. A methodology of uncertainty/sensitivity analysis for PA of HLW repository learned from 1996 WIPP performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kang, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) is a mined repository constructed by the US DOE for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by activities related to defence of the US since 1970. Its historical disposal operation began in March 1999 following receipt of a final permit from the State of NM after a positive certification decision for the WIPP was issued by the EPA in 1998, as the first licensed facility in the US for the deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The CCA (Compliance Certification Application) for the WIPP that the DOE submitted to the EPA in 1966 was supported by an extensive Performance Assessment (PA) carried out by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with so-called 1996 PA. Even though such PA methodologies could be greatly different from the way we consider for HLW disposal in Korea largely due to quite different geologic formations in which repository are likely to be located, a review on lots of works done through the WIPP PA studies could be the most important lessons that we can learn from in view of current situation in Korea where an initial phase of conceptual studies on HLW disposal has been just started. The objective of this work is an overview of the methodology used in the recent WIPP PA to support the US DOE WIPP CCA ans a proposal for Korean case

  12. WIPP: a perspective from ten years of operating success - 16189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 35 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA is the first and, to the author's knowledge, only facility in the world for the permanent disposal of defense related transuranic (TRU) waste. Soon after plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team of scientists at the University of California Berkeley Laboratory, the need to find a permanent repository for plutonium contaminated waste was recognized due to the more than 24,000 year half-life of Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu). In 1957 the National Academy of Sciences published a report recommending deep geological burial in bedded salt as a possible solution. However, more than 50 years passed before the solution was achieved when in 1999 WIPP received the first shipment of TRU waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ten years later, more than 7,600 shipments of TRU waste have been disposed of in rooms mined in an ancient salt bed more than 2,000 feet underground. This paper provides a brief history of WIPP with an overview of the technical, regulatory, and political hurdles that had to be overcome before the idea of a permanent disposal facility became reality. The paper focuses primarily on the safe, uneventful transportation program that has moved 100,000- plus containers of TRU waste from various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generator and/or storage sites across the Unites States to southeastern New Mexico. (author)

  13. WIPP gets thumbs up; Ward Valley time runs out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Legislation passed in late September clears the way for the Department of Energy to begin shipment of national defense transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, NM, as early as November 1997. On September 23, President Clinton signed the Fiscal Year 1997 Defense Authorization Bill, which contained amendments to the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The implementation of the law will help the DOE in its cleanup sites nationwide, and will enhance public health and safety by providing for the disposal of the waste in a 2150-ft underground salt formation, far away from population centers. Key components of the legislation include the following: (1) The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will continue as primary regulator of WIPP. (2) The EPA will have one year to review the Compliance Certification Application, which the DOE was to submit by October 31, 1996. Upon EPA certification (expected in October 1997), the DOE will begin shipping transuranic waste in November 1997. (3) A six-month waiting period for waste shipments has been removed (previously, the DOE was required to wait 180 days after the Energy Secretary's decision to begin disposal operations). (4) New Mexico will receive $20 million immediately, and annually for 14 years, with the funds to be used for infrastructure and road improvements in the state

  14. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  15. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 11 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    Seismic reflection data from petroleum industry sources showed anomalous reflectors in the Castile Formation over a small area about 3 miles north of the center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Additional corroborative seismic reflection data were collected as part of WIPP investigations, and WIPP 11 was drilled to investigate the anomaly. WIPP 11 was drilled near the northwest corner of Section 9, T.22.S., R.31E. it penetrated, in descending order, sand dune deposits and the Gatuna Formation (29'), Santa Rosa Sandstone (132'), Dewey Lake Red Beds (502'), Rustler Formation (288'), Salado Formation (1379'), and most of the Castile Formation (1240'). Beds within the lower part of the Salado, and the upper anhydrite of the Castile, are thinner than normal; these beds are displaced upward structurally by the upper Castile halite which is highly thickened (about 968'). The lowest halite is thin (51') and the basal anhydrite was not completely penetrated. Subsequent seismic and borehole data has shown WIPP 11 to be in a structural complex now identified as the disturbed zone. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level waste, though there are no plans at this time to dispose of high level waste or spent fuel at WIPP

  16. Basic data report for deepening of drillhole WIPP 13 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    WIPP 13 is a borehole drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, in section 17, T22S,R31E, in order to investigate a subsurface seismic disturbed zone. The first 1035 ft of the borehole were drilled in July and August 1978. The deepening of WIPP 13 was performed in 1979 between August and October. This report documents the deepening of WIPP 13 to 3861.8 ft. Only rocks of the Permian, Salado and Castile Formations were penetrated in the deepening. Cores were obtained for some portions of the hole and cuttings were collected from some of the sections which were not cored (see Table 1). A suite of geophysical logs was run to provide information on lithology, structure and geochemistry. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  17. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the Culebra dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site: Second interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVenue, A.M.; Haug, A.; Kelley, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    This hydrogeologic modeling study has been performed as part of the regional hydrologic characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site in southeastern New Mexico. The study resulted in an estimation of the transmissivity distrubution, hydraulic potentials, flow field, and fluid densities in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The three-dimensional finite-difference code SWIFT-II was employed for the numerical modeling, using variable-fluid-density and a single-porosity formulation. The modeled area includes and extends beyond the WIPP controlled zone (Zone 3). The work performed consisted of modeling the hydrogeology of the Culebra using two approaches: (1) steady-state modeling to develop the best estimate of the undisturbed head distribution, i.e., of the situation before sinking if the WIPP shafts, which began in 1981; and (2) superimposed transient modeling of local hydrologic responses to excavation of the three WIPP shafts at the center of the WIPP site, as well as to various well tests. Boundary conditions (prescribed constant fluid pressures and densities) were estimated using hydraulic-head and fluid-density data obtained from about 40 wells at and near the WIPP site. The transient modeling used the calculated steady-state freshwater heads as initial conditions. 107 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs

  18. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the Culebra dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site: Second interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVenue, A.M.; Haug, A.; Kelley, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    This hydrogeologic modeling study has been performed as part of the regional hydrologic characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site in southeastern New Mexico. The study resulted in an estimation of the transmissivity distrubution, hydraulic potentials, flow field, and fluid densities in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The three-dimensional finite-difference code SWIFT-II was employed for the numerical modeling, using variable-fluid-density and a single-porosity formulation. The modeled area includes and extends beyond the WIPP controlled zone (Zone 3). The work performed consisted of modeling the hydrogeology of the Culebra using two approaches: (1) steady-state modeling to develop the best estimate of the undisturbed head distribution, i.e., of the situation before sinking if the WIPP shafts, which began in 1981; and (2) superimposed transient modeling of local hydrologic responses to excavation of the three WIPP shafts at the center of the WIPP site, as well as to various well tests. Boundary conditions (prescribed constant fluid pressures and densities) were estimated using hydraulic-head and fluid-density data obtained from about 40 wells at and near the WIPP site. The transient modeling used the calculated steady-state freshwater heads as initial conditions. 107 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  20. WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

  1. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  2. Pretest characterization of WIPP experimental waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.; Davis, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is an underground repository designed for the storage and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country. The Performance Assessment (PA) studies for WIPP address compliance of the repository with applicable regulations, and include full-scale experiments to be performed at the WIPP site. These experiments are the bin-scale and alcove tests to be conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Prior to conducting these experiments, the waste to be used in these tests needs to be characterized to provide data on the initial conditions for these experiments. This characterization is referred to as the Pretest Characterization of WIPP Experimental Waste, and is also expected to provide input to other programmatic efforts related to waste characterization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pretest waste characterization activities currently in progress for the WIPP bin-scale waste, and to discuss the program plan and specific analytical protocols being developed for this characterization. The relationship between different programs and documents related to waste characterization efforts is also highlighted in this paper

  3. The WIPP journey to waste receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.J.; Whatley, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1970s the federal government selected an area in southeastern New Mexico containing large underground salt beds as potentially suitable for radioactive waste disposal. An extensive site characterization program was initiated by the federal government. This site became the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, better known as WIPP. It is now 1997, over two decades after the initial selection of the New Mexico site as a potential radioactive waste repository. Numerous scientific studies, construction activities, and environmental compliance documents have been completed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has addressed all relevant issues regarding the safety of WIPP and its ability to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Throughout the last two decades up to the present time, DOE has negotiated through a political, regulatory, and legal maze with regard to WIPP. New regulations have been issued, litigation initiated, and public involvement brought to the forefront of the DOE decision-making process. All of these factors combined to bring WIPP to its present status--at the final stages of working through the licensing requirements for receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal. Throughout its history, the DOE has stayed true to Congress' mandates regarding WIPP. Steps taken have been necessary to demonstrate to Congress, the State of New Mexico, and the public in general, that the nation's first radioactive waste repository will be safe and environmentally sound. DOE's compliance demonstrations are presently under consideration by the cognizant regulatory agencies and DOE is closer than ever to waste receipt. This paper explores the DOE's journey towards implementing a permanent disposal solution for defense-related TRU waste, including major Congressional mandates and other factors that contributed to program changes regarding the WIPP project

  4. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included

  5. Hanford to WIPP - What a Trip: The Road from Hanford is now Open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The road leading from Hanford's Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) in New Mexico developed a few bumps and detours over the past year, but it has now been successfully traversed. There were challenges obtaining Carlsbad Area Office and New Mexico Department of Ecology certification of the Hanford characterization program. After months of work, when initial certification appeared imminent, the issuance of the WIPP Hazardous Waste Permit changed the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) required for characterizing waste for acceptance at WIPP. After a ceremony dedicating the ''Washington'' room at WIPP, the inaugural shipment from WRAP to WIPP was scheduled for June 2000. This first shipment was planned based on shipping a number of containers that had been characterized before the issuance of the WIPP Mixed Waste Permit. However, the New Mexico Department of Ecology initially declined to accept the characterization data generated before the permit was issued, necessitating revision to the planned shipment. Because of the difficulties inherent in scheduling the TRUPACT-II transport and coordination with all of the states through which the shipment would pass, it was decided to proceed with the first shipment in early July with only the drums that had been characterized after Hanford compliance with the new WIPP WAP requirements had been certified. Following the initial shipment, previously certified containers were recertified using a process approved through negotiation with the New Mexico Environment Department, and additional full shipments have been successfully completed. This paper will present an overview of the challenges overcome and lessons learned in obtaining certification, coordination with the involved states, and eventual successful1 implementation of a routine shipping program

  6. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 12 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    WIPP 12 is a borehole drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate the stratigraphy, structure and lithology in the WIPP area. WIPP 12 was drilled in section 17, T22S,R31E, between November 9 and December 7, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 2785.8 ft. It encountered from top to bottom, 16.2 ft of sand, 3 ft of Mescalero Caliche and 9.6 ft of the Gatuna Formation, all of Quaternary age; 138.2 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation, 483 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 326 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1771.5 ft of the Salado Formation, and 48.3 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or cuttings were obtained for the entire hole. A suite of geophysical logs, including neutron gamma and density curves, was run to the full depth of WIPP 12. The borehole demonstrated that the elevation of the top of the Castile is about 160' above the same horizon in ERDA 9. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  7. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, titled Geotechnical Considerations for Radiological Hazard Assessment of WIPP on January 17-18, 1980. During this conference, it was realized that a field trip to the site would further clarify the different views on the geological processes active at the site. The field trip of June 16-18, 1980 was organized for this purpose. This report provides a summary of the field trip activities along with the participants post field trip comments. Important field stops are briefly described, followed by a more detailed discussion of critical geological issues. The report concludes with EEG's summary and recommendations to the US Department of Energy for further information needed to more adequately resolve concerns for the geologic and hydrologic integrity of the site

  8. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  9. WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Renewal Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most, W.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous waste permits issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) have a maximum term of 10-years from the permit's effective date. The permit condition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) governing renewal applications, directs the Permittees to submit a permit application 180 days prior to expiration of the Permit. On October 27, 1999, the Secretary of the NMED issued to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the owner and operator of WIPP, and to Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), the Management and Operating Contractor and the cooperator of WIPP, a HWFP to manage, store, and dispose hazardous waste at WIPP. The DOE and WTS are collectively known as the Permittees. The HWFP is effective for a fixed term not to exceed ten years from the effective date of the Permit. The Permittees may renew the HWFP by submitting a new permit application at least 180 calendar days before the expiration date, of the HWFP. The Permittees are not proposing any substantial changes in the Renewal Application. First, the Permittees are seeking the authority to dispose of Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled TRU mixed waste in Panel 8. Panels 4 through 7 have been approved in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit as it currently exists. No other change to the facility or to the manner in which hazardous waste is characterized, managed, stored, or disposed is being requested. Second, the Permittees also seek to include the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan, as Attachment Q in the HWFP. This Plan has existed as a separate document since May 2000. The NMED has requested that the Plan be submitted as part of the Renewal Application. The Permittees have been operating to the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan since the Plan was submitted. Third, some information submitted in the original WIPP RCRA Part B Application has been updated, such as demographic information. The Permittees will submit this information in the

  10. The WIPP research and development test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) is a DOE RandD Facility for the purpose of developing the technology needed for the safe disposal of the United States defense-related radioactive waste. The in-situ test program is defined for the thermal-structural interactions, plugging and sealing, and waste package interactions in a salt environment. An integrated series of large-scale underground tests address the issues of both systems and long-term isolation performance of a repository

  11. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  12. WIPP Status and Plans - 2013 - 13379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A.; Franco, J. [U.S. Department of Energy, PO Box 3090, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An up-to-date look at the many aspects of America's only deep geologic long-lived radioactive waste repository is presented in this paper. WIPP's mission includes coordination of all Department of Energy (DOE) sites to prepare, package and characterize defense transuranic waste for final shipment and emplacement in WIPP. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is completing its 14. year of operations. Five of the ten planned disposal panels have been filled and sealed from ventilation, with about half of the legislated volume capacity consumed. About 11,000 shipments have been made successfully, traveling more than 40 million kilometers across the nation's highways. A fleet of new Type B shipping packages, the TRUPACT-III, has been added to the transportation capability, with an ongoing campaign to de-inventory large waste items from the Savannah River Site, while minimizing size reduction and repackaging. A new shipping and emplacement method for remote handled waste in shielded containers has been approved for disposal, and will significantly improve operational efficiency. Remote handled waste packaged in these shielded containers will be shipped, handled and emplaced as contact handled waste. Also described is a new criticality control over-pack container, which will improve efficiency when shipping high fissile-content waste streams consisting of Special Nuclear Material declared as waste from nuclear weapons sites. The paper describes the importance of the infrastructure at WIPP to ensure disposal site availability for defense transuranic waste sites across the weapons complex. With the facility reaching its original design lifetime, there are many infrastructure maintenance and improvements being planned and performed. (authors)

  13. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  14. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially- designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that is was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 20 states through which it would travel

  15. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially-designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracing system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels.'' The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that it was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 23 states through which it traveled

  16. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 32 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    WIPP 32 is an exploratory borehole drilled to examine the subsurface at a small topographic high in Nash Draw. The borehole is located in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NE 1/4 SE 1/4 Sec. 33, T.22S., R.29E. and was drilled in August, 1979. The hole was drilled to a depth of 390 feet, and encountered, from top to bottom, the Rustler Formation (166') and the upper Salado Formation (224'). Core was taken from 4 to 353 feet. Geophysical logs were run the full length of the hole to measure formation properties. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  17. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum L. Mine safety code review for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    An initial review of New Mexico and Federal mining standards and regulations has been made to determine their applicability to the WIPP conceptual design. These standards and regulations are reviewed point by point and the enclosed listing includes comments and recommendations for those which will affect the design and/or eventual operations of WIPP. The majority of the standards, both federal and state, are standard safe mining practices. Those standards are listed which are thought should be emphasized for development of the design; also those that would increase the hazard risk by strict compliance. Because the WIPP facility is different in many respects from mines for which the regulations were intended, strict compliance in some respects would provide an increased hazard, while in other instances the regulations are less strict than is desirable. These are noted in the attached review

  18. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 28 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 28 was drilled in Nash Draw (NE 1/4, sec. 18, T.21S., R.31E.) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Mescalero caliche (12 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (203 ft), Rustler Formation (316 ft), and the upper 270 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 58 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (801 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  19. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 19 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 19 is an exploratory borehole whose objective was to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between April 6 and May 4, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1038.2 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (7', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (82'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (494'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (143'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 19 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  20. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum A. Design calculations for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The design calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. The following categories are discussed: general nuclear calculations; radwaste calculations; structural calculations; mechanical calculations; civil calculations; electrical calculations; TRU waste surface facility time and motion analysis; shaft sinking procedures; hoist time and motion studies; mining system analysis; mine ventilation calculations; mine structural analysis; and miscellaneous underground calculations

  1. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 21 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 21 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between May 24 and 26, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1046 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (6'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (34'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (487'), the Rustler Formation (308'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (178'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of goephysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 21 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  2. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 18 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 18 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1060 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (5', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (4'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (129'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (475'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (132'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 18 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  3. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 25 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    WIPP 25 was drilled on the eastern edge of Nash Draw (SW 1/4, Sec. 15, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Pleistocene sediments (17 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (215 ft, Rustler Formation (333 ft, and 90 ft of the upper Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 37 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (655 ft, geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  4. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 22 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 22 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1448 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (68'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (492'), the Rustler Formation (311'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (565'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 22 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  5. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 26 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 26 was drilled in Nash Draw (SE 1/4 NE 1/4, sec. 29, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, surficial deposits (10 ft with full materials for pad), Rustler Formation (299 ft), and the upper 194 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 11 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (503 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  6. WIPP: construction and progress on a successful nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.R.; Sankey, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is constructing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. The facility will retrievably store transuranic waste from defense activities of the United States and conduct experiments with Defense high-level waste which will be retrieved at the end of the experiments. This paper describes the progress and the present status of activities at WIPP. 4 refs

  7. WIPP Magnesium Oxide (MgO) - Planned Change Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 10, 2006, the DOE submitted a planned change request pertaining to the amount of MgO emplaced in the WIPP repository. MgO is an engineered barrier that DOE included as part of the original WIPP Certification Decision.

  8. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-02-25

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  9. The WIPP research and development program: providing the technical basis for defense waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Th.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes from the defense programs of the United States. Underground workings are at a depth of 660 in a bedded-salt formation. Site investigations began in the early 1970s and are culminating with the completion of the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) program in 1983 in which two shafts and several thousand feet of underground drifts are being constructed. The underground facility will be used for in situ tests and demonstrations that address technical issues associated with the disposal of transuranic and defense high-level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. These tests are based on several years of laboratory tests, field tests in mines, and analytical modeling studies. They primarily address repository development in bedded salt, including thermal-structural interactions plugging and sealing, and facility operations; and waste package interactions, including the effects of the waste on local rock salt and the evaluation of waste package materials. In situ testing began in the WIPP with the initiation of the SPDV program in 1981. In 1983, a major series of tests will begin to investigate the response of the rock salt without the use of any radioactivity

  10. Achieving WIPP certification for software. A white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.D.; Adams, K.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    The NMT-1 and NMT-3 organizations within the Chemical and Metallurgical Research (CMR) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is working to achieve Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) certification to enable them to transport their TRU waste to WIPP. In particular, the NMT-1 management is requesting support from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to assist them in making the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) software WIPP certifiable. Thus, LIMS must be compliant with the recognized software quality assurance (SQA) requirements stated within the QAPD. Since the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has achieved WIPP certification, INEEL personnel can provide valuable assistance to LANL by sharing lessons learned and recommendations. Thus, this white paper delineates the particular software quality assurance requirements required for WIPP certification

  11. Science to compliance: The WIPP success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Chu, M.S.; Shephard, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed to provide in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. The success of the program, however, is defined by the regulator in the context of compliance with performance criteria, rather than by the in-depth technical understanding typical of most scientific programs. The WIPP project was successful in making a transformation from science to compliance by refocusing and redirecting programmatic efforts toward the singular goal of meeting regulatory compliance requirements while accelerating the submittal of the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by two months from the April 1994 Disposal Decision Plan (DDP) date of December 1996, and by reducing projected characterization costs by more than 40%. This experience is unparalleled within the radioactive waste management community and has contributed to numerous lessons learned from which the entire community can benefit

  12. Potential problems from shipment of high-curie content contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    There are about 1000 drums of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes containing more than 100 Ci/drum of Pu-238 that are stored at the Savannah River Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Studies performed at DOE laboratories have shown that large quantities of gases are generated in stored drums containing 100 Ci of 238 Pu. Concentrations of hydrogen gas in the void space of the drums are often found to be high enough to be explosive. None of the analyses in the DOE WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement, Safety Analysis Report, and Preliminary Transportation Analysis have considered the possibility that the generation of hydrogen gas by radiolysis may create an explosive or flammable hazard that could increase the frequency and severity of accidental releases of radionuclides during transportation or handling. These high 238 Pu concentration containers would also increase the estimated doses received by individuals and populations from transportation, WIPP site operations, and human intrusion scenarios even if the possibility of gas-enhanced releases is ignored. The WIPP Project Office has evaluated this effect on WIPP site operations and is suggesting a maximum limit of 140 239 Pu equivalent curies (P-Ci) per drum so that postulated accidental off-site doses will not be larger than those listed in the FEIS. The TRUPACT container, which is being designed for the transportation of CH-TRU wastes to WIPP, does not appear to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations requiring double containment for the transportation of plutonium in quantities >20 Ci. A 20 alpha Ci/shipment limit would require about 200,000 shipments for the 4 million curies of alpha emitters slated for WIPP

  13. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  14. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system

  15. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose

  16. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 13 (Waste isolation pilot plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The borehole WIPP-13 was drilled in the SW 1/4 section 17, T22S, R31E of eastern Eddy County during July and August, 1978, to investigate the nature of a resistivity anomaly. The stratigraphic section was normal, consisting of 13 feet of Quaternary deposits (including artificial fill for drill pad), 53 feet of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 451 feet of Dewey Lake Red Beds, 269 feet of the Rustler Formation and 179 feet of the upper member of the Salado Formation. Consecutive cores were taken from 570 to 595, 656 to 729, and 827 to 878 feet. Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals throughout the rest of the hole. Geophysical logs were run to aid in interpretation of the stratigraphy. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic (TRU) defense wastes. Eventual conversion of the facility to a repository for TRU defense wastes is anticipated. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  17. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 14 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Borehole WIPP 14 is an exploratory well drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, in section 9, T22S,R31E. The borehole was drilled to a depth of 1000.0 ft measured from ground level. It penetrated, from top to bottom, 15.4 ft of Quaternary sands, 125.6 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and in the Permian strata, 497.7 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 312.9 ft of the Rustler Formation and 48.4 ft of the Upper Salado Formation. Seven hundred feet of the well were cored, at consecutive and nonconsecutive 10-ft intervals to a depth of 925.5 ft. Cuttings were collected where core was not taken. Density, gamma ray neutron and caliper logs were run the full depth of the hole. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  18. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-01-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  19. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  20. Second reference calculation for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branstetter, L.J.

    1985-03-01

    Results of the second reference calculation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project using the dynamic relaxation finite element code SANCHO are presented. This reference calculation is intended to predict the response of a typical panel of excavated rooms designed for storage of nonheat-producing nuclear waste. Results are presented that include relevant deformations, relative clay seam displacements, and stress and strain profiles. This calculation is a particular solution obtained by a computer code, which has proven analytic capabilities when compared with other structural finite element codes. It is hoped that the results presented here will be useful in providing scoping values for defining experiments and for developing instrumentation. It is also hoped that the calculation will be useful as part of an exercise in developing a methodology for performing important design calculations by more than one analyst using more than one computer code, and for defining internal Quality Assurance (QA) procedures for such calculations. 27 refs., 15 figs

  1. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  2. Second benchmark problem for WIPP structural computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.D.; Morgan, H.S.; Hunter, T.O.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the second benchmark problem for comparison of the structural codes used in the WIPP project. The first benchmark problem consisted of heated and unheated drifts at a depth of 790 m, whereas this problem considers a shallower level (650 m) more typical of the repository horizon. But more important, the first problem considered a homogeneous salt configuration, whereas this problem considers a configuration with 27 distinct geologic layers, including 10 clay layers - 4 of which are to be modeled as possible slip planes. The inclusion of layering introduces complications in structural and thermal calculations that were not present in the first benchmark problem. These additional complications will be handled differently by the various codes used to compute drift closure rates. This second benchmark problem will assess these codes by evaluating the treatment of these complications

  3. Before time began the Big Bang and the emerging universe

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

  4. WIPP R and D in situ test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) RandD Facility for the purpose of developing the technology needed for the safe disposal of the United States' defense-related radioactive waste. The in situ test program focus is to provide the models and data to demonstrate the facility performance for isolation of waste at WIPP. The program is defined for the WIPP sealing system, thermal-structural interactions and waste package performance. A number of integrated large-scale underground tests have been operational since 1983 and are ongoing. The tests address the issues of both systems design and long-term isolation performance of the WIPP repository

  5. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] test phase plan: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing the disposition of transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from nuclear weapons production activities of the United States. These wastes are currently stored nationwide at several of the DOE's waste generating/storage sites. The goal is to eliminate interim waste storage and achieve environmentally and institutionally acceptable permanent disposal of these TRU wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being considered as a disposal facility for these TRU wastes. This document describes the first of the following two major programs planned for the Test Phase of WIPP: Performance Assessment -- determination of the long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system in accordance with the requirements of the EPA Standard; and Operations Demonstration -- evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the DOE TRU waste management system's ability to emplace design throughput quantities of TRU waste in the WIPP underground facility. 120 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Environmental Impact Statement: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the environmental impact statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the WIPP was published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1979. This document was reviewed and commented on by members of the general public, private organizations, and governmental agencies. The Final Environmental Impact Statement was subsequently published in October, 1980. This summary is designed to assist decision-maker and interested individuals in reviewing the material presented in the environmental impact statement for the WIPP project. To make this material widely available, this summary is published in both Spanish and English. Additional, more detailed information concerning the environmental and safety consequences of the WIPP project is available in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. Written comments and public hearing comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement are available for review. 27 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert

  8. Conclusions regarding geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was authorized by Congress in 1980 as an unlicensed research and development (R and D) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes arising from the defense activities and programs of the United States. WIPP is now being constructed in southeast New Mexico, using salt beds about 655 m below the surface of the ground. Construction of the full WIPP facility will not commence until a preliminary underground excavation phase, called Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV), is satisfactorily concluded in the summer of 1983. This SPDV program permits confirmation of subsurface geology, in drifts at planned facility depth that extend for 1555 m in a north-south direction, and in the two vertical shafts that provide access to these drifts. The subsurface studies are nearing completion, and it is therefore appropriate to draw conclusions regarding the geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site. Four geotechnical elements are discussed: dissolution, deformation, hydrologic regime, and natural resources

  9. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs

  10. WIPP/SRL Program - characterization of samples for burial in WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzscheiter, R.C.; Wicks, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The laboratory studies described in this report characterize the performance and homogeneity of waste glass from a 2-ft-dia glass slice taken from a full-scale 2 ft by 10 ft canister filled with glass at TNX. The leaching performance of glass samples extracted from the slice was determined as a function of radial position and will be used in support of existing programs. The waste glass produced at TNX and used for the burial tests in WIPP was very homogeneous. The extent of glass leaching in brine (using standard MCC-1 leach tests and based on boron extraction) was 15X less than that of leaching in deionized water

  11. Tracer tests performed in the field for WIPP in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.D.; Hill, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-well recirculating tracer test began in October, 1979, to define as accurately as possible the hydraulic character of a fractured carbonate aquifer, the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site in Eddy and Lee Counties, New Mexico. The Culebra dolomite overlies a zone planned for isolation of transuranic contaminated waste generated by the United States defense programs. The storage zone of the proposed facility is in nearly pure halite and about 1400 feet (427 meters) below the Culebra dolomite, the most likely pathway for the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere in the event the repository is breached by groundwater. Included in the definition of the hydraulic character of the Culebra aquifer are natural groundwater velocities, aquifer porosity and components of dispersivity. The proposed tracer test using sodium benzoate, a homologous series of chlorofluoromethanes and pentafluorobenzoic acid as tracers is described. Results of the test will be reported at a later date

  12. An HVAC [heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning] fault-tree analysis for WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.N.; Iacovino, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk of potential radioactive releases from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a probabilistic risk assessment of waste-handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault-tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, which constitute the final barrier between waste-handling operations and the environment. The WIPP site is designed to receive and store two types of waste: contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) wastes to be shipped in 208-ell drums and remote-handled (RH) TRU wastes to be shipped in shielded casks. The identification of accident sequences for CH waste operations revealed no identified accidents that could release significant radioactive particulates to the environment without a failure in the HVAC systems. When the HVAC fault-tree results were combined with other critical system fault trees and the analysis of waste-handling accident sequences, the approximation of the overall WIPP plant risk due to airborne releases was determined to be 2.6 x 10 -7 fatalities per year for the population within a 50-mile radius of the WIPP site. This risk was demonstrated to be well below the risk of fatality from other voluntary and involuntary activities for the population within the vicinity of the WIPP

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993

  14. The trail to Leduc began in the North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2000-06-01

    A milestone event in the history of the petroleum industry in Canada occurred in 1914 with the expedition down the Mackenzie River by Dr. T. O. Bosworth, a British geologist, which rivals in importance two better known events, namely the Dingman No. 1 discovery which began disgorging wet gas at Turner Valley in 1914, and the beginning of the modern era with the discovery of oil at Leduc, Alberta in 1947. The Bosworth expedition was commissioned by two Calgary businessmen to investigate the petroleum potential of northern Alberta and beyond, and to stake the most promising claims. That Dr. Bosworth did not disappoint his sponsors is evident from his 70-page long report which he produced upon his return, indicating excellent exploration prospects in three general regions, namely the Mackenzie River between Old Fort Good Hope and Fort Norman, the Tar Springs District on the Great Slave Lake, and the Tar Sand District on the Athabasca River. Exploration was postponed by the exigencies of World War I, but Imperial Oil drilled on one of Bosworth's claims after the war ended and oil was found in 1920. Because of lack of infrastructure to get the oil to major markets, development was lagging until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, when Norman Wells was developed with American help, primarily to supply oil to the Pacific Fleet. Imperial drilled, while construction crews built a 1,000-km oil pipeline over the Mackenzie Mountains to a newly constructed refiner in Whitehorse. Despite a total cost to the U.S. taxpayers of $134 million, the Canol project (as it was known) contributed little to the war effort. Total production was 1.98 million barrels of oil, of which 46,000 barrels were spilled along the poorly constructed pipeline. Refined petroleum product output was just 866,670 barrels. The appalling disposal and clean up practices eventually led to having the Whitehorse site declared an environmentally contaminated site in 1998. The Maxwell Tar Pit is

  15. The WIPP institutional program for states' involvement in WIPP transportation planning, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Supplemental Stipulated Agreement of 1982 between the state of New Mexico and the Department of Energy (DOE) committed the DOE to emergency response training in New Mexico. In 1988, the state of New Mexico and the DOE entered into a two-year agreement providing $203,017 for financial assistance and $67,000 for equipment to enhance the state's emergency response capability. In 1990, this agreement was extended for an additional two years providing $226,088 for financial assistance and $39,000 for emergency response equipment. Also, in 1988 an agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the United States Department of Transportation provided $1.0 million to seven western states (Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) to identify and implement programs to help ensure the safe transportation of transuranic waste from western points of origin to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As part of this process, the Western Governors' Association and the seven states prepared the Report to Congress, Transport of Transuranic Wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: State Concerns and Proposed Solutions. In July 1990, a five-year cooperative agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the DOE was signed providing $1.515 million in funding to seven states along the Hanford/WIPP route. This continued the work started under the Department of Transportation's cooperative agreement

  16. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by 14 C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well

  17. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by /sup 14/C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well.

  18. Concentration of uranium in the drinking and surface water around the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaing, H.; Lemons, B.G.; Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    Activity concentration of uranium isotopes ( 238 U, 234 U and 235 U) were analyzed in drinking and surface water samples collected in the vicinity of the WIPP site using alpha spectroscopy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in uranium concentrations (if any) in the vicinity of the WIPP site and whether the February 14, 2014 radiation release event at the WIPP had any detectable impact on the water bodies around the WIPP. (author)

  19. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024

  20. WIPP - Pre-Licensing and Operations: Developer and Regulator Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, Tom; Patterson, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for defense-related transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), WIPP is located in Southeastern New Mexico: radioactive waste is disposed of 2,150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt with a total capacity of 6.2 million cubic feet of waste. Congress authorized the development and construction of WIPP in 1980 for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States. This paper makes a historical review of the site development, site operations (waste disposal operations started in 1999), communications between US EPA and DOE, the chronology of pre-licensing and pre-operations, the operational phase and the regulatory challenges, and the lessons learned after 12 years of operations

  1. MODERN CLINICAL SCIENCE BEGAN WITH SANTORIO SANTORIO (1561-1636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale G. De Santo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Santorio Santorio (1561-1636, born in Capodistria, a Venice Republic territory, (now Koper in Slovenia, student, medical doctor, and professor of theoretical medicine at the university of Padua, marked the beginning of modern medicine. Santorio introduced measurements and mathematics into human experimentation. By means of a weighing machine, over a 30-year period, he investigated on more than ten thousand persons, including Galileo Galilei. He used to measure daily body weight, along with the quantity of ingested food and drink, and the quantity of body discharges (urine and feces so that he could calculate the insensible perspiration which he used as a dual token to characterize health and disease, to cure patients after knowing their physical parameters including the pulse and the temperature. His main work was De statica medicina, a well received book which had more than 40 editions during the 17th and 18th century and was translated into English, Italian, French and German. A book small but praised by Boerhaave, von Haller and Lavoisier which granted to Santorio the definition of Galilean, by many historians of medicine including Salvatore De Renzi, Castiglioni, Pucinotti and Pazzini. Santorio embodied the modern physician-scientist, continually experimenting on humans and immediately transforming into medical devices using the data originating in basic science. So the findings repported in the books were immediately used to help patients. He also introduced self-experimentation in medicine, an important problem even nowadays. Although he was aware that the university took credit for his work, he respected the institution from which he obtained a salary for life even when he stopped the teaching at the University. So he even showed his modernity: pioneer in granting to the University of Padua, through his last will, money for yearly scholarships.

  2. Site evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary site selection activities for the WIPP are complete now; these consisted primarily of national and regional studies over the past fifteen years, and resulted in selection of the WIPP study area for geological characterization. The work of geological characterization should be considered to have begun with the drilling of ERDA 9 at the center of the WIPP study area and the initiation of seismic reflection work on the site. That geological characterization, which is primarily oriented to provide specific data concerning the present geology of the site, was virtually complete in December, 1978, when the Geological Characterization Report was submitted to the Department of Energy; much basic information has been gathered indicating no major technical problems with the site as it is now understood. Studies of long-term processes which might affect a repository or have an effect on safety analyses will now be the major geotechnical activity for the WIPP site evaluation team, some of these activities are already underway. These studies will deal with the age of significant features and the rates and processes which produce those features. The information so gained will be useful in increasing the confidence in evaluation of the safety of a repository

  3. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository

  4. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository.

  5. The legal, regulatory and safety basis for opening WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dials, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Current laws in the United States of America direct the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to site, design, operate, and decommission a deep geological repository for safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. In 1993, the DOE established the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate the nation's management of TRUW and to open the WIPP site for safe disposal of TRUW in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The CAO submitted the final Compliance Certification Application (CCA) in 1996, and is on schedule to open WIPP in November 1997, about three years earlier than scheduled before the establishment of the CAO. The performance assessment (PA) embodied in the CCA demonstrates that WIPP meets the EPA's regulatory requirements for radioactive releases for the 10,000 year regulatory period in both the undisturbed and disturbed (human intrusion) scenarios. Detailed planning, compliance-based research and development (R and D), teamwork among project participants and early and open iterative interactions with the regulators, oversight groups and other interested parties in the certification/permitting process are key components of the progress in the safe disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. (author)

  6. The WIPP decision plan: Charting the course for openness in the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagers, J.

    1992-01-01

    In June of 1989, the Secretary of Energy requested that a plan be developed that would clearly outline the prerequisites to opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It was to provide the basis for a decision making process that was not only visible to the public, but one which included public participation. It must also be dynamic enough to effectively deal with the changing legislative, regulatory, and technical environments. Based on a recognized need for openness, the Secretary's Draft Decision Plan was developed. The plan charted the course for ultimately making the decision to declare WIPP ready to receive waste for the start of test phase operations. It outlined to critics and supporters alike the rigorous and thorough process by which the internal decisions were made. The plan identified all internal prerequisites to the decision; charted the review cycles, and targeted the completion dates. It also outlined the processes outside the control of the Department, institutional issues, such as legislative land withdrawal, issuance of permits, and designation of transportation routes

  7. In-Situ Testing and Performance Assessment of a Redesigned WIPP Panel Closure - 13192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Thomas [URS-Professional Solutions, 4021 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Patterson, Russell [Department of Energy-Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Camphouse, Chris; Herrick, Courtney; Kirchner, Thomas; Malama, Bwalya; Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories-Carlsbad, 4100 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Kicker, Dwayne [SM Stoller Corporation-Carlsbad, 4100 National Parks Highway Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2013-07-01

    operations and a greater understanding of the waste and the behavior of the underground salt formation, the DOE has established a revised panel closure design. This revised design meets both the short-term NMED Permit requirements for the operational period, and also the Federal requirements for long-term repository performance. This new design is simpler, easier to construct and has less of an adverse impact on waste disposal operations than the originally approved Option D design. The Panel Closure Redesign is based on: (1) the results of in-situ constructability testing performed to determine run-of-mine salt reconsolidation parameters and how the characteristics of the bedded salt formation affect these parameters and, (2) the results of air flow analysis of the new design to determine that the limit for the migration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) will be met at the compliance point. Waste panel closures comprise a repository feature that has been represented in WIPP performance assessment (PA) since the original Compliance Certification Application of 1996. Panel closures are included in WIPP PA models principally because they are a part of the disposal system, not because they play a substantive role in inhibiting the release of radionuclides to the outside environment. The 1998 rulemaking that certified WIPP to receive transuranic waste placed conditions on the panel closure design to be implemented in the repository. The revised panel closure design, termed the Run-of-Mine (ROM) Panel Closure System (ROMPCS), is comprised of 30.48 meters of ROM salt with barriers at each end. The ROM salt is generated from ongoing mining operations at the WIPP and may be compacted and/or moistened as it is emplaced in a panel entry. The barriers consist of bulkheads, similar to those currently used in the panels as room closures. A WIPP performance assessment has been completed that incorporates the ROMPCS design into the representation of the repository, and compares

  8. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.W.; Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report

  9. Grouts and concretes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Structures Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station has conducted research on cement-based composites for the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) since 1977, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories. Field testing requirements guided initial development of grouts. Concurrent and later laboratory studies explored the chemical stability and probable durability of these mixtures. Beginning in 1985, a series of small-scale seal performance tests at the WIPP prompted development of an expansive salt-saturated concrete. Important lessons learned from this ongoing work include: (1) carefully tailored mixtures can tolerate phase changes involving Ca, Al, and SO 4 , without loss of structural integrity; (2) handling and placement properties are probably more crucial to the mixtures than is exact phase composition; and (3) for the environment of a geologic repository, demonstrated chemical durability will be the best indicator of long-term performance

  10. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing

  11. New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group - experience in reviewing WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from WIPP--a radioactive waste facility intended to permanently dispose transuranic radioactive waste generated from the nation's nuclear weapons program. The concept of a State review of a proposed radioactive waste facility has been endorsed by both Federal and State legislative and executive agencies, and the experiences and interactions of the past four years to solve problems of this first-of-a-kind radioactive waste facility has led to many innovations in conflict resolution. The multidisciplinary Group's position is neither pro nor anti-WIPP and results are published and given broad dissemination to insure technical and public scrutiny of its work

  12. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs

  13. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP): Technical Assistance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollander, A.

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of low-income residences without the utilization of additional taxpayer funding. Sixteen WIPP grantees were awarded a total of $30 million in Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds in September 2010. These projects focused on: including nontraditional partners in weatherization service delivery; leveraging significant non-federal funding; and improving the effectiveness of low-income weatherization through the use of new materials, technologies, behavior-change models, and processes.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Develops ''Quick to WIPP'' Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Allen, G.; Kosiewicz, S.; Martin, B.; LANL; Nunz, J.; Biedscheid, J.; Sellmer, T.; Willis, J.; Orban, J.; Liekhus, K.; Djordjevic, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Cerro Grande forest fire in May of 2000 and the terrorist events of September 11, 2001 precipitated concerns of the vulnerability of legacy contact-handled (CH), high-wattage transuranic (TRU) waste stored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An analysis of the 9,100 cubic meters of stored CH-TRU waste revealed that 400 cubic meters or 4.5% of the inventory represented 61% of the risk. The analysis further showed that this 400 cubic meters was contained in only 2,000 drums. These facts and the question ''How can the disposition of this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) be accelerated?'' formed the genesis of LANL's Quick to WIPP initiative

  15. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  16. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  17. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  18. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BODNER, SOL R.; CHAN, KWAI S.; MUNSON, DARRELL E.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area

  20. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  1. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP [PowerPoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Donald T.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  2. A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehgartner, B.

    1991-06-01

    Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. The WIPP transportation system -- ''Safer than any other''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ''the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety

  4. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum M. Computer system and data processing requirements for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.

    1977-06-01

    Data-processing requirements for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) dictate a computing system that can provide a wide spectrum of data-processing needs on a 24-hour-day basis over an indeterminate time. A computer system is defined as a computer or computers complete with all peripheral equipment and extensive software and communications capabilities, including an operating system, compilers, assemblers, loaders, etc., all applicable to real-world problems. The computing system must be extremely reliable and easily expandable in both hardware and software to provide for future capabilities with a minimum impact on the existing applications software and operating system. The computer manufacturer or WIPP operating contractor must provide continuous on-site computer maintenance (maintain an adequate inventory of spare components and parts to guarantee a minimum mean-time-to-repair of any portion of the computer system). The computer operating system or monitor must process a wide mix of application programs and languages, yet be readily changeable to obtain maximum computer usage. The WIPP computing system must handle three general types of data processing requirements: batch, interactive, and real-time. These are discussed. Data bases, data collection systems, scientific and business systems, building and facilities, remote terminals and locations, and cables are also discussed

  5. Leveraging Radioactive Waste Disposal at WIPP for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Salt mines are radiologically much quieter than other underground environments because of ultra-low concentrations of natural radionuclides (U, Th, and K) in the host rock; therefore, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a government-owned, 655m deep geologic repository that disposes of radioactive waste in thick salt near Carlsbad, New Mexico, has for the last 15 years hosted highly radiation-sensitive experiments. Incidentally, Nature started her own low background experiment 250ma ago, preserving viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in WIPP salt. The Department of Energy continues to make areas of the WIPP underground available for experiments, freely offering its infrastructure and access to this unique environment. Even before WIPP started disposing of waste in 1999, the Room-Q alcove (25m x 10m x 4m) housed a succession of small experiments. They included development and calibration of neutral-current detectors by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a proof-of-concept by Ohio State University of a flavor-sensitive neutrino detector for supernovae, and research by LANL on small solid- state dark matter detectors. Two currently active experiments support the search for neutrino-less double beta decay as a tool to better define the nature and mass of the neutrino. That these delicate experiments are conducted in close vicinity to, but not at all affected by, megacuries of radioactive waste reinforces the safety argument for the repository. Since 2003, the Majorana collaboration is developing and testing various detector designs inside a custom- built clean room in the Room-Q alcove. Already low natural background readings are reduced further by segmenting the germanium detectors, which spatially and temporally discriminates background radiation. The collaboration also demonstrated safe copper electro-forming underground, which minimizes cosmogenic background in detector assemblies. The largest currently used experimental

  6. Origin of the brines near WIPP from the drill holes ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 based on stable isotope concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.; Updegraff, D.

    1983-03-01

    Pathways which might alter the isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 meteoric water, seawaters, and in hydration waters in gypsum to the isotopic compositions of brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are discussed. Present geologic conditions do not favor the alteration of the isotopic compositions of waters that exist near the WIPP site to those of the brines by these pathways. It is concluded that the brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are probably derived from ancient ocean waters that have been isotopically enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange interaction with rock. The dehydration of gypsum as a process of origin of these brines cannot be ruled out

  7. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  8. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume I contains the following attachments for Module II: waste analysis plan; quality assurance program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experiment Waste Characterization Program(QAPP); WIPP Characterization Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Plan)(SAP); and no migration Determination Requirement Summary (NMD)

  9. Preoperational radiation surveillance of the WIPP project by EEG during 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the EEG preoperational monitoring program is to document the existing concentrations of selected radionuclides in various environmental media collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site to provide a basis of comparison of any effects of future WT-PP operations. The basic methodology for conducting environmental surveillance both on-site and off-site was outlined by Spiegler (1984). This report represents a continuation of the EEG baseline data beginning in 1985, previously reported in EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51. Such radionuclide baseline data are important in order to determine whether future WIPP operations with radioactive waste have affected concentrations of these radionuclides in the environment. EEG data are consistent with similar environmental measurements obtained by DOE beginning in 1985. Since late 1985, the EEG has collected or received as split samples 2 443 air filters with particulates, 202 water samples, 16 biota samples and 13 soil/sediment samples. A total of 5,946 specific radionuclide analyses have been performed on these samples. As reported previously by EEG (EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51), observed concentrations of U-238 daughter radionuclides were not in equilibrium with the parent radionuclide in water samples. This observation is consistent with different radionuclide mobility in the environment. In a notice of proposed rule making for 40 CFR 141 (US EPA 1991), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations reflect this in the calculated activity-to-mass ratio of 1.3 pCi/μg of uranium using a geometric mean of the U-234:U-238 ratio in water supplies of 2.7. Ra-226 and Ra- 228 were reported in a number of water samples in concentrations similar to those previously published by EEG and DOE

  10. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  11. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  12. Evaluation of the suitability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Little, M.S.; Rehfeldt, K.; Spiegler, P.

    1983-05-01

    Determination of the suitability of the site for WIPP is only the first major phase in the evaluation of the radiological impact of the repository on the public health and safety. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) will continue to independently review the design of the facility, the operational procedures, the criteria for packaging and shipment of the waste, the plans, procedures and results of the WIPP experiments, emergency preparedness, adherence to EPA and pertinent NRC regulations, and other important features of the project. EEG has concluded from existing evidence that the Los Medanos site for the WIPP project has been characterized in sufficient detail to warrant confidence in the validation of the site for the permanent emplacement of approximately 6 million cubic feet of defense transuranic waste. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the maximum surface dose rate for the unshielded remote-handled transuranic waste canisters will be 100 rem/hr with a maximum radionuclide concentration of 23 Ci/liter. The Site and Preliminary Design Validation program, through the drilling of two shafts to the selected repository level at 2160 ft below the surface and excavation of about 9000 ft of tunnels, has confirmed the interpretations made about the subsurface geological conditions at the site. For an assessment of the potential radiation effects of the nuclear waste repository on the public health and safety, it is necessary to understand the regional geological and hydrological setting. Much work has been done to understand these conditions and to address several specific issues which have arisen as a result of such studies. However, it is almost inevitable that some questions remain unanswered at a given time in the decision-making process. EEG has identified work which still needs to be done at the Los Medanos site in order to improve confidence in the worst case scenario models of possible breaches of the repository

  13. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Environmental monitoring at the WIPP site CY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, L.W.; Metcalf, J.H.

    1977-08-01

    Measurements made in the WIPP study area indicate background exposure levels of 8-9 μR/hr. These measured data are in good agreement with calculated exposure rates (7.5-9.6 μrad/hr). Airborne gross beta concentrations, which were low (0.02 pCi/m 3 ), confirmed the presence of global fallout from the Chinese nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere during the fall. The air-quality measurements, except for a few unexplained excursions, were less than State and/or Federal air-quality standards

  15. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 x 10 -21 m 2 was less than 3.0 m

  16. Designing a database for performance assessment: Lessons learned from WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Schenker, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) used a relational database that was originally designed only to supply the input parameters required for implementation of the PA codes. Reviewers used the database as a point of entry to audit quality assurance measures for control, traceability, and retrievability of input information used for analysis, and output/work products. During these audits it became apparent that modifications to the architecture and scope of the database would benefit the EPA regulator and other stakeholders when reviewing the recertification application. This paper contains a discussion of the WPP PA CCA database and lessons learned for designing a database

  17. WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems

  18. WIPP Salado hydrology program data report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Domski, P.S.; Palmer, J.B.; Roberts, R.M.; Stensrud, W.A.; Jensen, A.L.

    1991-05-01

    WIPP Salado Hydrology Program Data Report number-sign 1 presents hydrologic data collected during permeability tests of the Salado Formation performed from August 1988 through December 1989. Analysis and interpretation of the test data are presented in a separate report. The report presents the results of the drilling and testing of six boreholes drilled from the WIPP underground facility 655 m below ground surface in the Salado Formation. Permeability tests were conducted using multipacker test tools with inflatable packers to isolate borehole intervals to allow formation pore-pressure buildup and subsequent pulse-withdrawal tests. Test data include pressures and temperatures in brine-filled, packer-isolated test intervals and borehole-closure and axial test-tool-movement measurements. Permeability tests were performed after installing multipacker test tools in test boreholes, inflating the packers, and allowing pressures to build up in the isolated intervals. Pulse-withdrawal tests were performed after buildup pressures approached the apparent formation pore pressure. Pulse injections were sometimes performed to increase the fluid pressures in isolated intervals. Compliance tests were conducted in lengths of steel and stainless-steel casing to evaluate the mechanical performance of the multipacker test tools. The stainless-steel compliance-test chamber was installed with externally mounted thermocouples in a downward-angled borehole in Experimental Room 4. Compliance tests included leak tests and simulated pulse-injection and pulse-withdrawal sequences. 9 refs., 143 figs., 2 tabs

  19. PASS: a component of Desk Top PA for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.; Fewell, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing recognition internationally of the need to demonstrate comprehensiveness in order to build confidence in performance assessments (PAs) for radioactive waste disposal projects. This has resulted in a number of methodologies being developed to formalize the process of defining and documenting the decision basis that underlies a PA. Such methodologies include process influence diagrams and the rock engineering system (RES) matrix. However, these methodologies focus mainly on the conceptualization of the disposal system and do not provide a ready framework to document the decisions behind the model development and parameterization of the PA system. The Performance Assessment Support System (PASS) is a flexible electronic tool designed to increase the transparency and traceability of decision making in the entire PA process. An application of PASS has been developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) where it forms an important component of Desk Top PA, a PC-based PA computational environment under development at Sandia National Laboratories to document, plan, and support management decisions and to assess performance for the WIPP recertification process. This desk-top PA environment is also aimed at providing scientifically-based decision support for assessing the performance of nuclear and hazardous waste management and environmental clean-up systems

  20. Effects of clay-seam behavior on WIPP repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Krieg, R.D.; Branstetter, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The geology at the southeastern New Mexico WIPP site consists of bedded layers of rock salt, anhydrite, polyhalite, mixtures of those materials, and thin clay seams. In spite of their very small (0.005 m to 0.05 m) thickness, clay seams are important to structural characterization of the WIPP stratigraphy since slip might possibly take place across them. Results of a study to determine the effects of clay seam frictional slip on the closure of a well-defined drift configuration are described. A Mohr-Coulomb dry friction model was used to model the active clay seams. The main thrust of the study was to determine the effects of friction coefficient variability on drift closure. Results show that the drift closure varies by a factor of 3.0 over the range of friction coefficients studied. The maximum slip observed along any clay seam was 0.12 m. For values of μ > .7, virtually no slip occurs along any clay seam

  1. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  2. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  3. Prospects for regional groundwater contamination due to karst landforms in Mescalero caliche at the WIPP site near Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from nuclear weapons production will be permanently buried in Permian salt beds at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in the Nash Draw watershed. Overlying the salt beds are cavernous Rustler dolomite aquifers, the most likely flow paths for contaminated water from WIPP to the biosphere. Overlying the Rustler are sandstones, siltstones, Mescalero caliche, and windblown sand. The WIPP site contains thousands of closed topographic depressions. If some are karst features, the ability of WIPP to isolate nuclear waste cannot be demonstrated. A water balance and geochemical analysis of the Nash Draw watershed and nearby brine springs were undertaken to determine: (1) which Rustler aquifers discharge where, and in what quantities; (2) the rates of evapotranspiration and natural groundwater recharge; (3) the most likely discharge point for contaminated water from WIPP. Laguna Grande, a natural salt lake in Nash Draw, is the outlet for the Rustler dolomite aquifers and for plutonium contaminations from WIPP. The recharge time for the Rustler may be only 6 to 8 years. WIPP is unsuitable for nuclear waste isolation because: (1) Rustler groundwater flow paths and travel times are inherently unpredictable; (2) caliche and sandstones allow rainwater recharge of the Rustler; (3) pressurized brine underneath WIPP can carry dissolved waste up the WIPP shafts to the Rustler; (4) geologic barriers between the brine and WIPP are unreliable; and (5) WIPP is vulnerable to human intrusion

  4. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  5. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  6. QA lessons learned for parameter control from the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of lessons learned from experiences on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) Project in implementation of quality assurance controls surrounding inputs for performance assessment analysis. Since the performance assessment (PA) process is inherent in compliance determination for any waste repository, these lessons-learned are intended to be useful to investigators, analysts, and Quality Assurance (QA) practitioners working on high level waste disposal projects. On the WIPP Project, PA analyses for regulatory-compliance determination utilized several inter-related computer programs (codes) that mathematically modeled phenomena such as radionuclide release, retardation, and transport. The input information for those codes are the parameters that are the subject of this paper. Parameters were maintained in a computer database, which was then queried electronically by the PA codes whenever input was needed as the analyses were run

  7. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  8. Mineralogy in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility stratigraphic horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    Forty-six samples were selected for this study from two cores, one extending 50 ft up through the roof of the WIPP facility and the other penetrating 50 ft below the facility floor. These samples, selected from approximately every other foot of core length, represent the major lithologies present in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP facility horizon: ''clean'' halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, and mixed polyhalitic-argillaceous halite. Samples were analyzed for non-NaCl mineralogy by determining weight percents of water- and EDTA-insoluble residues, which were then identified by x-ray diffraction. In general, WIPP halite contains at most 5 wt % non-NaCl residue. The major mineral constituents are quartz, magnesite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, and clays. Results of this study confirm that, in previous descriptions of WIPP core, trace mineral quantities have been visually overestimated by approximately an order of magnitude. 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP's environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence

  10. Geotechnical evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been developed; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geological and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. Geotechnical aspects of site characterization are examined. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP

  11. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  12. Performance assessment in support of compliance certification application for the WIPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, H.N.; Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.; Helton, J.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the US Department of Energy for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP (1) for such disposal was submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, and is currently under review, with a decision anticipated in late 1997. An important component of the CCA is a performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP carried out by Sandia National Laboratories. The final outcome of the PA is a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for radionuclide releases from the WIPP to the accessible environment and an assessment of the confidence with which this CCDF can be estimated. This paper describes the computational process used to develop the CCDF. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are also presented

  13. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum G. Accident analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Metcalf, J.H.

    1977-06-01

    The types of accidents or risks pertinent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. Design features addressing these risks are discussed. Also discussed are design features that protect the public

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  15. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  16. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    OpenAIRE

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-01-01

    Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure) out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  17. Recent developments in the conceptual geologic and hydrologic understanding of the WIPP site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the WIPP site has progressed significantly since the 1980 WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement. In 1980, the entire Rustler Formation was modeled as a single hydrologic unit, assumed to be isotropic, single-porosity, and completely confined. Variability within the Rustler was evaluated only on the basis of testing at individual wells. In the 1983 WIPP Site and Preliminary Design Validation effort, the Salado Formation, in which the WIPP facility is being constructed, was assumed to be anhydrous, except for fluid inclusions and mineralogically bound water. Recent hydrologic and tracer testing at the WIPP indicates: 1) The local importance of dual-porosity behavior in hydraulic response and transport in parts of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; 2) the presence of distinct high- and low-transmissivity regions within the Culebra; and 3) the possible importance of vertical fluid flow within the Rustler. Recent analyses indicate that fluids encountered in the WIPP facility and in experimental brine-migration studies are grain-boundary fluids, chemically distinct from fluid inclusions. Fluid-inclination compositions appear to have been determined shortly after the halite deposition. Because of the times required for diagenetic reactions controlling their compositions, the grain-boundary fluids within the Salado probably have a residence time of several million years

  18. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  19. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media

  20. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Ams, David A.; Norden, Diana; Simmons, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  1. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  2. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems

  4. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991

  5. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  6. Basic data report for borehole Cabin Baby-1 deepening and hydrologic testing. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Hassinger, B.W.; Klaiber, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    Borehole Cabin Baby-1 was originally drilled to a depth of 4159.0 feet below kelly bushing (8.0 feet above ground surface) in 1974 and 1975 as a ''wildcat'' hydrocarbon exploratory well. Control of the borehole was given to the US Department of Energy (DOE) after it was found to be a ''dry hole''. Cabin Baby-1 was reentered, deepened, and hydrologically tested in August and September 1983. The well is located in Section 5, T23S, R31E, just outside the limit of WIPP Zone III, approximately 2.5 miles south of the WIPP exploratory shaft. The deepening and testing of Cabin Baby-1 was undertaken for several reasons: to provide data on the hydrologic properties, including hydrostatic head potential of selected permeable zones in the Bell Canyon Formation; to provide representative fluid samples from selected permeable zones in the Bell Canyon Formation for determination of fluid composition and density; and to define further the stratigraphy of the upper Bell Canyon Formation at the Cabin Baby-1 location. The borehole was deepened from the previous total depth to a new depth of 4298.6 feet below kelly bushing by continuous coring. Field operations related to deepening and logging of the borehole began August 12, 1983 and were completed August 30, 1983. Hydrologic testing activities began August 30, 1983 and were completed September 29, 1983. Drill-stem tests were conducted in four zones in the Bell Canyon Formation, and one test of the Salado Formation was performed. Fluid samples were collected from the Hays and Olds sandstones of the Bell Canyon Formation

  7. Performance in the WIPP nondestructive assay performance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, C.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Connolly, M.J.; Becker, G.K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Measurement facilities performing nondestructive assay (NDA) of wastes intended for disposal at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are required to demonstrate their ability to meet specific Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). This demonstration is performed, in part, by participation in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP is funded and managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and is conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It tests the characteristics of precision, system bias and/or total uncertainty through the measurement of variable, blind combinations of simulated waste drums and certified radioactive standards. Each facility must successfully participate in the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP was completed in July 1996 and the second is scheduled for completion by December 1996. Seven sites reported data in cycle 1 for 11 different measurement systems. This paper describes the design and operation of the PDP and provides the performance data from cycle 1. It also describes the preliminary results from cycle 2 and updates the status and future plans for the NDA PDP. 4 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. WIPP waste package testing on simulated DHLW: emplacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several series of simulated (nonradioactive) defense high-level waste (DHLW) package tests have been emplaced in the WIPP, a research and development facility authorized to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-related wastes. The primary purpose of these 3-to-7 year duration tests is to evaluate the in situ materials performance of waste package barriers (canisters, overpacks, backfills, and nonradioactive DHLW glass waste form) for possible future application to a licensed waste repository in salt. This paper describes all test materials, instrumentation, and emplacement and testing techniques, and discusses progress of the various tests. These tests are intended to provide information on materials behavior (i.e., corrosion, metallurgical and geochemical alterations, waste form durability, surface interactions, etc.), as well as comparison between several waste package designs, fabrications details, and actual costs. These experiments involve 18 full-size simulated DHLW packages (approximately 3.0 m x 0.6 m diameter) emplaced in vertical boreholes in the salt drift floor. Six of the test packages contain internal electrical heaters (470 W/canister), and were emplace under approximately reference DHLW repository conditions. Twelve other simulated DHLW packages were emplaced under accelerated-aging or overtest conditions, including the artificial introduction of brine, and a thermal loading approximately three to four times higher than reference. Eight of these 12 test packages contain 1500 W/canister electrical heaters; the other four are filled with DHLW glass. 9 refs., 1 fig

  9. Geomechanical applications for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Hunter, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility in bedded salt addressing the technical issues associated with the demonstration of disposal of radioactive waste from the defense programs of the USA. The geomechanical program includes laboratory experimentation, constitutive model and computer code development, and in-situ experimentation. Various material models, including creep for salt, and techniques for predicting room response under thermal and mechanical loads have been developed and are being applied to experiment and facility designs. A Benchmark II study has been conducted to compare the capabilities of nine structural codes to predict response of underground configuration under ambient temperature and with a thermal load of 7.5 W/m 2 . Parametric studies are being conducted to evaluate optimum room configurations. A series of in situ experiments is the next step towards validating models and predictive techniques. These experiments will be conducted in a facility in southeastern New Mexico mined at a depth of 659 m

  10. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  11. The Wipp Disposal Decision Plan: the Successful Road Map for Transparent and Credible Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    2001-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository for long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) opened on the 26th of March 1999. Beginning on the 4th of April 1994, the United States Department of Energy (DOE), implemented the WIPP Disposal Decision Plan (DDP), which embodied the five-year vision and intents of the then DOE Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), presently the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The successful design and implementation of the DDP ensured good science, enhanced regulator and stake holder (affected and interested parties) interactions and acceptance of programmatic decisions, which resulted in the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the 18th of May 1998, almost three years earlier than projected in November 1993. The present paper contains three sections: A concise background information on the CBFO's TRUW disposal program, incl. the legal framework, current status, and author-envisioned challenges and solutions; A description of the main components and attributes of the WIPP DDP. A summary of the lessons learned during and after the 1994 through 1998 implementation of the WIPP DDP

  12. History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have supported characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical studies have provided significant understanding of the nature of site deformation, tectonics and stability. Geophysical methods have delineated possible brine reservoirs beneath the underground facility and have defined the disturbed rock zone that forms around underground excavations. The role of geophysics in the WIPP project has evolved with the project. The early uses were for site characterization to satisfy site selection criteria or factors. As the regulatory framework for WIPP grew since 1980, the geophysics program supported experimental and field programs such as Salado hydrogeology and underground room systems and excavations. In summary, the major types of issues that geophysical studies addressed for WIPP are: Site Characterization; Castile Brine Reservoirs; Rustler/Dewey Lake Hydrogeology; Salado Hydrogeology; and Excavation Effects. The nature of geophysics programs for WIPP has been to support investigation rather than being the principal investigation itself. The geophysics program has been used to define conceptual models (e.g., the Disturbed Rock Zone-DRZ) or to test conceptual models (e.g., high transmissivity zones in the Rustler Formation). The geophysics program primarily supported larger characterization and experimental programs. Funding was not available for the complete documentation and interpretation. Therefore, a great deal of the geophysics survey information resides in contractor reports

  13. Preliminary identification of interfaces for certification and transfer of TRU waste to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1982-02-01

    This study complements the national program to certify that newly generated and stored, unclassified defense transuranic (TRU) wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The objectives of this study were to identify (1) the existing organizational structure at each of the major waste-generating and shipping sites and (2) the necessary interfaces between the waste shippers and WIPP. The interface investigations considered existing waste management organizations at the shipping sites and the proposed WIPP organization. An effort was made to identify the potential waste-certifying authorities and the lines of communication within these organizations. The long-range goal of this effort is to develop practicable interfaces between waste shippers and WIPP to enable the continued generation, interim storage, and eventual shipment of certified TRU wastes to WIPP. Some specific needs identified in this study include: organizational responsibility for certification procedures and quality assurance (QA) program; simple QA procedures; and specification and standardization of reporting forms and procedures, waste containers, and container labeling, color coding, and code location

  14. The Wipp Disposal Decision Plan: the Successful Road Map for Transparent and Credible Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository for long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) opened on the 26th of March 1999. Beginning on the 4th of April 1994, the United States Department of Energy (DOE), implemented the WIPP Disposal Decision Plan (DDP), which embodied the five-year vision and intents of the then DOE Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), presently the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The successful design and implementation of the DDP ensured good science, enhanced regulator and stake holder (affected and interested parties) interactions and acceptance of programmatic decisions, which resulted in the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the 18th of May 1998, almost three years earlier than projected in November 1993. The present paper contains three sections: A concise background information on the CBFO's TRUW disposal program, incl. the legal framework, current status, and author-envisioned challenges and solutions; A description of the main components and attributes of the WIPP DDP. A summary of the lessons learned during and after the 1994 through 1998 implementation of the WIPP DDP.

  15. Implications of the presence of petroleum resources on the integrity of the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the US Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves of potash, crude oil, and natural gas. These are attractive targets for exploratory drilling which could disrupt the integrity of the transuranic waste repository. The performance assessment calculations published to date have identified future drilling for oil and gas reserves as an event that may disrupt the repository and may release radionuclides in excess of the standards. Therefore, the probability of inadvertent human intrusion into the repository by drilling and its impact on the integrity of the repository must be carefully assessed. This report evaluates: (1) the studies funded by the DOE to examine the crude oil potential in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP; (2) the use of an elicitation exercise to predict future drilling rates for use in the calculation of the repository performance; and (3) the observed limitations of institutional controls. This report identifies the following issues that remain to be resolved: (1) the limited performance of blowout preventers after drilling into high pressure zones immediately adjacent to the WIPP Site Boundary; (2) reported problems with waterflooding operations in southeastern New Mexico; (3) reported water level rises in several wells completed in the Rustler Formation, south of the WIPP Site, possibly due to oil and gas wells or leaking injection wells; and (4) reports of inadequate well abandonment practices on BLM leases and the continued absence of enforceable regulations

  16. And so it all began: A personal tribute to the man behind the scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2018-01-01

    At the time I began my scientific career as a PhD student under the supervision of Claudio Spitaleri, the Trojan Horse Method was still in its infancy. Like with any new-born idea, it took time and passion and effort to plant the early seeds that would eventually develop into a now well-established method in nuclear astrophysics research. Here, I offer my own recollection of those early years as a personal homage to Claudio's unique mix of human traits that shaped our professional relationship for many years since.

  17. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Underground and MGO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ajo, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ekechukwu, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Gregory, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Jones, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); White, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Analysis of the recent WIPP samples are summarized in this report; WIPP Cam Filters 4, 6, 9 (3, 7, 11 were analyzed with FAS-118 in a separate campaign); WIPP Drum Lip R16 C4; WIPP Standard Waste Box R15 C5; WIPP MgO R16 C2; WIPP MgO R16 C4; WIPP MgO R16 C6; LANL swipes of parent drum; LANL parent drum debris; LANL parent drum; IAEA Swipe; Unused “undeployed” Swheat; Unused “undeployed” MgO; and Masselin cloth “smears”. Analysis showed that the MgO samples were very pure with low carbonate and water content. Other samples showed the expected dominant presence of Mg, Na and Pb. Parent drum debris sample was mildly acidic. Interpretation of results is not provided in this document, but rather to present and preserve the analytical work that was performed. The WIPP Technical Analysis Team is responsible for result interpretation which will be written separately.

  18. Salt impact studies at WIPP effects of surface storage of salt on microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) currently under construction in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic waste in a deep geological formation (bedded salt). The Ecological Monitoring Program at WIPP is designed to detect and measure changes in the local ecosystem which may be the result of WIPP construction activities. The primary factor which may affect the system prior to waste emplacement is windblown salt from discrete stockpiles. Both vegetation and soil microbial processes should reflect changes in soil chemistry due to salt importation. Control and experimental (potentially affected) plots have been established at the site, and several parameters are measured quarterly in each plot as part of the soil microbial sampling subprogram. This subprogram was designed to monitor a portion of the biological community which can be affected by changes in the chemical properties at the soil surface

  19. Modification of the ventilation system at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Project near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project sponsored by the US Department of Energy, designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste. A mine (repository) is being developed 2,150 feet below the surface in a thick salt bed, which will serve as the disposal medium. The underground ventilation system for the WIPP project was originally designed based on a fixed project scope. The design criteria and ventilation requirements were developed for the performance of various activities as then envisioned towards the achievement of this goal. However, in light of new information and actual site-specific experience at WIPP leading to a clearer definition of the scope-related programs and activities, it was realized that the existing ventilation system may need to be modified

  20. An evaluation of the proposed tests with radioactive waste at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) a planned repository for permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radiative waste that has resulted from the defense activities of the U.S. Government over the past 50 years. Only the waste that is currently stored in an easily retrievable mode at ten U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories around the country will be shipped to WIPP. The waste consists of various kinds of trash including paper, rubber, rags and metal that is contaminated with radionuclides with very long half-lives. The decision to dispose of the waste permanently will be made based on projections of the behavior of the waste and the repository of 10,000 years or more. DOE has proposed shipping a limited amount of waste to WIPP for a five year Test Phase to demonstrating compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Standard for long-term isolation

  1. Rationale for the H-19 and H-11 tracer tests at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Meigs, L.C.; Davies, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository for transuranic wastes constructed in bedded Permian-age halite in the Delaware Basin, a sedimentary basin in southeastern New Mexico, USA. A drilling scenario has been identified during performance assessment (PA) that could lead to the release of radionuclides to the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, the most transmissive water-saturated unit above the repository horizon. Were this to occur, the radionuclides would need to be largely contained within the Culebra (or neighboring strata) within the WIPP-site boundary through the period lasting for 10,000 years after repository closure for WIPP to remain in compliance with applicable regulations on allowable releases. Thus, processes affecting transport of radionuclides within the Culebra are of importance to PA

  2. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  3. Quality Assistance Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Word Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOE/WIPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed

  4. WIPP Regulatory Compliance Strategy and Management Plan for demonstrating compliance to long-term disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to provide a strategy by which the WIPP will demonstrate its ability to perform as a deep geologic repository. The document communicates the DOE's understanding of the regulations related to long-term repository performance; and provides the most efficient strategy that intergrates WIPP Project elements, ensures the sufficiency of information, and provides flexibility for changes in the TRU waste generation system to facilitate the disposal of defense-generated TRU wastes. In addition, this document forms a focal point between the DOE and its various external regulators as well as other stakeholders for the purpose of arriving at compliance decisions that consider all relevant input

  5. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum F. HVAC systems energy analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facilities proposed to be constructed in southeastern New Mexico. This report analyzes a total of ten WIPP structures to determine the most energy and economic efficient means of providing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning services. Additional analyses were performed to determine the merits of centralized versus dispersed refrigeration and heating facilities, and of performing supplemental domestic hot water heating with solar panels

  6. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  7. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  8. Compilation of historical radiological data collected in the vicinity of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, P.L.; Louderbough, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Radiological Baseline Program (RBP) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been implemented to characterize the radiological conditions at the site prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. Because southeastern New Mexico was the site of an underground nuclear test in 1961, various sampling programs have intermittently monitored background and elevated radiation levels in the vicinity of the WIPP. In addition, radiological characterization of the site region was performed during the 1970's in support of the WIPP Environmental Impact Statement. The historical data are drawn primarily from monitoring activities of the US Public Health Service (PHS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey (USGS) and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA). Information on air and water quality, meat, milk, biota and vegetation is included in the report. This survey is intended to provide a source of reference for historical data on radiological conditions in the vicinity of the WIPP site prior to the establishment of a systematic Radiological Baseline Program. 31 refs., 1 fig

  9. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations

  10. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  11. Construction quality assurance program plan for the WIPP project, Carlsbad, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA) Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Major Project Participants: the Architect-Engineer (Bechtel), the Construction Manager (US Army Corps of Engineers), the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory), and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the construction, including site evaluation, design, and turnover phases of WIPP. Other work in progress during the same period is controlled by DOE documents applicable to that work effort. The prime responsibility for ensuring the quality of construction rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Construction Manager, the Construction Contractors, the Management and Operating Contractor, and the Architect-Engineer. Inspection and burden of proof of acceptability rests with the Construction Contractor as defined by the technical provisions of the contract and as otherwise specified by the DOE WIPP Project Office on an individual work-package basis. To the maximum extent possible, acceptance of work will be based upon first-hand witnessing by the Construction Manager and other representatives of the DOE organization

  12. Summary of research and development activities in support of waste acceptance criteria for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-11-01

    The development of waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is summarized. Specifications for acceptable waste forms are included. Nine program areas are discussed. They are: TRU characterization, HLW interactions, thermal/structural interactions, nuclide migration, permeability, brine migration, borehole plugging, operation/design support, and instrumentation development. Recommendations are included

  13. The development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project's public affairs program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a perspective on the value of designing flexibility into a public affairs program to enable it to grow with and complement a project's evolution from construction through to operations. This paper discusses how the WIPP public affairs program progressed through several stages to its present scope. During the WIPP construction phase, the public affairs program laid a foundation for Project acceptance in the community. A speaker's bureau, a visitors program, and various community outreach and support programs emphasized the educational and socioeconomic benefits of having this controversial project in Carlsbad. Then, in this past year as the project entered a preoperational status, the public affairs program emphasis shifted to broaden the positive image that had been created locally. In this stage, the program promoted the project's positive elements with the various state agencies, government officials, and federal organizations involved in our country's radioactive waste management and transportation program. Currently, an even broader, more aggressive public affairs program is planned. During this stage public affairs will be engaged in a comprehensive institutional and outreach program, explaining and supporting WIPP's mission in each of the communities and agencies affected by the operation of the country's first geologic repository

  14. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Three seismic reflection (Vibroseis) surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described. Volume I describes the purpose, field parameters, and data processing parameters. Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps. Data interpretations will be the subject of the subsequent reports. The data collected during these three surveys total 77 line miles; 72 line miles of this are on or very near the WIPP site. The first of the surveys (1976 SAN) covered 25 line miles and was conducted similarly to previous petroleum industry surveys in the area. 1976 SAN supplemented existing petroleum industry data. The two subsequent surveys (1977 X and 1978 Y) used shorter geophone spacings (110'), higher signal frequencies (up to 100 Hz), and higher data sampling rates (2 ms.) to better define the shallow zone (less than 4000') of primary interest. 1977 X contained 47 line miles on or near the WIPP site and over several structural features northwest of the site. 1978 Y contains 5 line miles over a one square mile area near the center of the WIPP site. These data show increasing discrimination of shallow reflectors as data collection parameters were modified. Data tables of recording and processing parameters are included. A fourth Vibroseis survey was conducted at the WIPP site in 1978 by Grant Geophysical Company for Bechtel; the data are not in final form and are not included. Petroleum industry data and an inconclusive weight-drop survey, conducted in 1976, are also not included in this report

  15. History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have used support characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical studies have provided significant understanding of the nature of site deformation, tectonics and stability. Geophysical methods have delineated possible brine reservoirs beneath the underground facility and have defined the disturbed rock zone that forms around underground excavations. The role of geophysics in the WIPP project has evolved with the project. The early uses were for site characterization to satisfy site selection criteria or factors. As the regulatory framework for WIPP grew since 1980, the geophysics program was focused on support of experimental and field programs such as Salado hydrogeology and underground room systems and excavations. In summary, the major types of issues that geophysical studies addressed for WIPP are: Issue 1: Site Characterization; Issue 2: Castile Brine Reservoirs; Issue 3: Rustler /Dewey Lake Hydrogeology; Issue 4: Salado Hydrogeology; and Issue 5: Excavation Effects. The nature of geophysics program for WIPP has been to support investigation rather than being the principal investigation itself. The geophysics program has been used to define conceptual models (e.g., the Disturbed Rock Zone-DRZ) or to test conceptual models (e.g., high transmissivity zones in the Rustler Formation). An effect of being a support program is that as new project priorities arose the funding for the geophysics program was limited and withdrawn. An outcome is that much of the geophysics survey information resides in contractor reports since final interpretation reports were not funded

  16. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  17. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  18. 9+ years of disposal experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, Norbert T.; Nelson, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    With almost a decade of operating experience, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has established an enviable record by clearly demonstrating that a deep geologic repository for unconditioned radioactive waste in rock salt can be operated safely and in compliance with very complex regulations. WIPP has disposed of contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999 and remote-handled TRU waste since 2007. Emplacement methods range from directly stacking unshielded 0.21-4.5 m 3 containers inside disposal rooms to remotely inserting highly radioactive 0.89 m 3 canisters into horizontally drilled holes (shield plugs placed in front of canisters protect workers inside active disposal rooms). More than 100 000 waste containers have been emplaced, and one-third of WIPP's authorized repository capacity of 175,000 m 3 has already been consumed. Principal surface operations are conducted in the waste handling building, which is divided into CH and RH waste handling areas. Four vertical shafts extend from the surface to the disposal horizon, 655 m below the surface in a 1000 m thick sequence of Permian bedded salt. The waste disposal area of about 0.5 km 2 is divided into ten panels, each consisting of seven rooms. Vertical closure (creep) rates in disposal rooms range up to 10 cm per year. While one panel is being filled with waste, the next one is being mined. Mined salt is raised to the surface in the salt shaft, and waste is lowered down the waste shaft. Both of these shafts also serve as principal access for personnel and materials. Underground ventilation is divided into separate flow paths, allowing simultaneous mining and disposal. A filter building near the exhaust shaft provides the capability to filter the exhaust air (in reduced ventilation mode) through HEPA filters before release to the atmosphere. WIPP operations have not exposed employees or the public to radiation doses beyond natural background variability. They consistently meet or exceed regulatory

  19. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone

  20. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone

  1. The integrated in situ testing program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.

    1987-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project in southeastern New Mexico as a research and development (R and D) facility for examining the response of bedded (layered) salt to the emplacement of radioactive wastes generated from defense programs. The WIPP Experimental Program consists of a technology development program, including laboratory testing and theoretical analysis activities, and an in situ testing program that is being done 659 m underground at the project site. This experimental program addresses three major technical areas that concern (1) thermal/structural interactions, (2) plugging and sealing, and (3) waste package performance. To ensure that the technical issues involved in these areas are investigated with appropriate emphasis and timing, an in situ testing plan was developed to integrate the many activities and tasks associated with the technical issues of waste disposal. 5 refs., 4 figs

  2. Comparison between disign criteria and observed structural performance of underground openings at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.F.; Francke, C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the observed structural performance of the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in relation to design criteria. The criteria were established at an early stage of the project to define the functional and structural requirements that were to be addressed in the design of the facility. For the underground structural response, the criteria defined the requirements for the shaft and shaft liner design, mine design, waste emplacement, retrievability and instrumentation. The observed structural performance of the underground is determined by the field data that have been collected since excavations were started at the WIPP site. The observations include field measurements of rock and water conditions, as well as maintenance records. The data provide input to design confirmation, performance assessment and form the basis for the design of new underground structures. For this paper, the field data have been compared with the design criteria applicable to ground control to demonstrate that the requirements of the design are met

  3. Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W.; Pickering, Susan Y.; Swift, Peter N.

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review and expert judgment? Other

  4. Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl

    2014-03-01

    An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.

  5. Plutonium interaction with a bacterial strain isolated from the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strietelmeier, B.A.; Kraus, S.M.; Leonard, P.A.; Triay, I.R.

    1996-01-01

    This work was conducted as part of a series of experiments to determine the association and interaction of various actinides with bacteria isolated from the WIPP site. The majority of bacteria that exist at the site are expected to be halophiles, or extreme halophiles, due to the high concentration of salt minerals at the location. Experiments were conducted to determine the toxicity of plutonium-n-239, neptunium-237 and americium-243 to several species of these halophiles and the results were reported elsewhere. As an extension of these experiments, we report an investigation of the type of association that occurs between 239 Pu and the isolate WIPP-1A, isolated by staff at Brookhaven National Laboratory, when grown in a high-salt, defined medium. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, we demonstrate a surface association of the 239 Pu with the bacterial cells

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program is designed to ensure that compliance with the Quality Assurance Objective, identified in the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (QAPP), is achieved. This Program Plan is intended for use by the WPO to assess the laboratory support provided for the characterization of WIPP TRU waste by the storage/generator sites. Phase 0 of the Performance Demonstration Program encompasses the analysis of headspace gas samples for inorganic and organic components. The WPO will ensure the implementation of this plan by designating an independent organization to coordinate and provide technical oversight for the program (Program Coordinator). Initial program support, regarding the technical oversight and coordination functions, shall be provided by the USEPA-ORP. This plan identifies the criteria that will be used for the evaluation of laboratory performance, the responsibilities of the Program Coordinator, and the responsibilities of the participating laboratories. 5 tabs

  7. Comparative analysis of nine structural codes used in the second WIPP benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1981-11-01

    In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Benchmark II study, various computer codes were compared on the basis of their capabilities for calculating the response of hypothetical drift configurations for nuclear waste experiments and storage demonstration. The codes used by participants in the study were ANSALT, DAPROK, JAC, REM, SANCHO, SPECTROM, STEALTH, and two different implementations of MARC. Errors were found in the preliminary results, and several calculations were revised. Revised solutions were in reasonable agreement except for the REM solution. The Benchmark II study allowed significant advances in understanding the relative behavior of computer codes available for WIPP calculations. The study also pointed out the possible need for performing critical design calculations with more than one code. Lastly, it indicated the magnitude of the code-to-code spread in results which is to be expected even when a model has been explicitly defined

  8. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 27 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    WIPP 27 was drilled in Eddy County, New Mexico (NM 1/4 sec. 21, T21S, R30E) to investigate evaporite dissolution features and to determine the stratigraphy of surface and near-surface formations. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 79 feet of Quaternary deposits, 73 feet of the Rustler Formation, and 171 feet of the upper portion of the Salado Formation. Consecutive cores were obtained for the entire depth of WIPP 27. Geophysical logs measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids

  9. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described

  11. Summary of 1988 WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] Facility horizon gas flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    Numerous gas flow measurements have been made at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Facility horizon during 1988. All tests have been pressure decay or constant pressure tests from single boreholes drilled from the underground excavations. The test fluid has been nitrogen. The data have been interpreted as permeabilities and porosities by means of a transient numerical solution method. A closed-form steady-state approximation provides a reasonable order-of-magnitude permeability estimate. The effective resolution of the measurement system is less than 10 -20 m 2 . Results indicate that beyond 1 to 5 m from an excavation, the gas flow is very small and the corresponding permeability is below the system resolution. Within the first meter of an excavation, the interpreted permeabilities can be 5 orders of magnitude greater than the undisturbed or far-field permeability. The interpreted permeabilities in the region between the undisturbed region and the first meter from an excavation are in the range of 10 -16 to 10 -20 m 2 . Measurable gas flow occurs to a greater depth into the roof above WIPP excavations of different sizes and ages than into the ribs and floor. The gas flows into the formation surrounding the smallest excavation tested are consistently lower than those at similar locations surrounding larger excavations of comparable age. Gas flow measured in the interbed layers near the WIPP excavations is highly variable. Generally, immediately above and below excavations, relatively large gas flow is measured in the interbed layers. These results are consistent with previous measurements and indicate a limited disturbed zone surrounding WIPP excavations. 31 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Joint state of Colorado-US Department of Energy WIPP Shipment Exercise Program: TRANSAX '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In July 1990, the United States Secretary of Energy requested the DOE conduct a transportation emergency exercise before the end of CY 1990. The tasking was subsequently directed to the Director of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to plan and conduct an exercise, based on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipment scenario. The state of Colorado was asked to participate. Colorado, in turn, invited the DOE to integrate the exercise into its own series of WIPP-related tabletop and field exercises for which the state had already begun planning. The result was a joint USDOE/Colorado full-scale (orientation) exercise called Transportation Accident Exercise 1990 (TRANSAX '90). The state of Colorado's exercise program was a follow-on to previously conducted classroom training. The program would serve to identify and resolve outstanding issues concerning inspections of the WIPP shipment transporter as it entered and passed through the state on the designated Interstate 25 transportation corridor; criteria for movement under various adverse weather and road conditions; and emergency response to accidents occurring in an urban or rural environment. The USDOE designed its participation in the exercise program to test selected aspects of the DOE Emergency Management System relating to response to and management of DOE off-site transportation emergencies involving assistance to state and local emergency response personnel. While a number of issues remain under study for ultimate resolution, others have been resolved and will become the basis for emergency operations plans, SOPs, mutual aid agreements, and checklist upgrades. Concurrently, the concentrated efforts at local, state, and federal levels in dealing with WIPP- related activities during this exercise program development have given renewed impetus to all parties as the beginning of actual shipments draws nearer. Three tabletop scenarios are discussed in this report

  13. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum J. Support equipment in the high level waste facility of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieb, M.J.; Foley, R.S.

    1977-04-01

    The Aerojet Manufacturing Company (AMCO) received a contract in November 1976 to provide consulting services in assisting Holmes and Narver, Incorporated with the conceptual designs, cost estimates, and schedules of equipment used to handle waste casks, to decontaminate waste canisters and to overpack damaged or highly contaminated waste canisters for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Also, the layout of the hot cell in which canister handling, overpack and decontamination takes place was to be reviewed along with the time and motion study of the cell operations. This report has been prepared to present the results of the efforts and contains all technical and planning data developed during the program. The contents of this report are presented in three sections: (1) comments on the existing design criteria, equipment conceptual designs, hot cell design and time and motion studies of projected hot cell activities; (2) design descriptions of the equipment concepts and justification for varying from the existing concept (if a variation occurred). Drawings of each concept are provided in Appendix A. These design descriptions and drawings were used as the basis for the cost estimates; and (3) schedule projections and cost estimates for the equipment described in Section 2. Detail cost estimate backup data is provided in Appendix B

  14. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs

  15. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, C L [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. V.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Beauheim, R. L.; Roberts, R. M.

    1997-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  16. Champion for radioactive waste disposal host of the WIPP: Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    The city of Carlsbad, New Mexico, volunteered to host the United States' first final repository for radioactive waste. Carlsbad citizens and their leaders understood that after decades of accumulating waste, the time had come to close the nuclear cycle. They therefore agreed to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), provided the project would not endanger its neighbors or the environment. The southeastern New Mexico area offers several advantages for deep geologic waste disposal: The regional geology is well understood. Massive salt beds are an excellent repository medium. Decades of potash mining experience inspired confidence in that concept. In underground nuclear test in the salt had caused no harm. And the city was seeking opportunities to diversify its economic base. Through the growth of the project, beginning in 1971, Carlsbad has demonstrated unwavering commitment, patience, and persistence. Without these attitudes, the WIPP would certainly not be where it is today and most likely would not exist at all. Civic leaders made the critical difference as the project weathered repeated challenges. With the support of their constituents, they foiled anti-nuclear obstructionism and advanced the project at every turn, frequently on their own time and at their own expense. The WIPP is now scheduled to start disposal in 1998, after a ten-year delay from its originally intended opening date. If it still has a realistic chance to start operations before the end of the century, the credit must in no small measure go to the city and the citizens of Carlsbad, New Mexico

  17. Position paper on flammability concerns associated with TRU waste destined for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in southeastern New Mexico,is an underground repository, designed for the safe geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated from defense-related activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP storage rooms are mined in a bedded salt (halite) formation, and are located 2150 feet below the surface. After the disposal of waste in the storage rooms, closure of the repository is expected to occur by creep (plastic flow) of the salt formation, with the waste being permanently isolated from the surrounding environment. This paper has evaluated the issue of flammability concerns associated with TRU waste to be shipped to WIPP, including a review of possible scenarios that can potentially contribute to the flammability. The paper discusses existing regulations that address potential flammability concerns, presents an analysis of previous flammability-related incidents at DOE sites with respect to the current regulations, and finally, examines the degree of assurance these regulations provide in safeguarding against flammability concerns during transportation and waste handling. 50 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Technical evaluation of WIPP by the New Mexico environmental evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository under construction in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of 14.1 million curies of defense transuranic (TRU) waste. The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to start storing waste in the underground facility in October 1988 for a 5-yr research and demonstration period. Since the State of New Mexico had a number of concerns in 1978 regarding the impact on health and safety of the proposed WIPP facility for disposal of radioactive waste, the DOE agreed to fund an independent technical review and evaluation of the planned repository, resulting in the creation of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG). This full-time multidisciplinary group has published 39 major reports to date, testified before the New Mexico Legislature and the US Congress, and has disseminated the results of analyses to DOE, the governor, the legislature, the Congress, the scientific community, and the general public. While the disposal of radioactive defense mill tailings and defense high-level wastes are both subject to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing, Congress specifically chose not to have defense TRU waste disposal licensed by the NRC. This has placed a heavy burden on EEG as the only full-time technical review agency on WIPP, but without regulatory authority

  19. Politics and technology in repository siting: military versus commercial nuclear wastes at WIPP 1972-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1970s, attempts by the federal government to develop a comprehensive system for disposing of nuclear wastes in geologic repositories were plagued by two related political problems; (1) whether or not military and commercial wastes should be buried together in the same repository, and (2) how to define the host state's role in the repository siting mechanism. This article explains why these two problems were connected by showing how they proved to be of decisive importance in the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Although WIPP was initially conceived as a wholly military facility, The Department of Energy triggered a three-year dispute over the project's scope by proposing in 1978 to include commercial wastes in the repository. The key issue in the dispute concerned the political legitimacy of decision-making mechanisms for repository siting, which depend upon the extent to which they both adequately represent the interests of affected groups and meet an indistinct technical/political criterion of acceptable safety. DOE's ill-fated proposal to mix military and commercial disposal at WIPP demonstrated that the two rely on somewhat different conditions for their legitimacy. The agency overlapped the legitimate authorities of the federal and state governments and gave itself the hopeless task of negotiating a new boundary between them. 50 references, 3 figures

  20. Analysis of the potential formation of a Breccia chimney beneath the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1982-05-01

    This report evaluates the potential formation of a Breccia pipe beginning at the Bell Canyon aquifer beneath the WIPP repository and the resulting release of radioactivity to the surface. Rock mechanics considerations indicate that the formation of a Breccia pipe by collapse of a cavern is not reasonable. Even if rock mechanics is ignored, the overlying strata act as a barrier and would prevent the release of radioactivity to the biosphere. Gradual formation of a Breccia pipe is so slow that the plutonium-239 in the waste (one of the most important long-lived components) would decay during formation. If Bell Lake and San Simon Sinks are the surface manifestation of a regional deep dissolution wedge, such a wedge is too far removed to represent pipe forming activity near the WIPP site. The formation of a Breccia pipe under the WIPP repository is highly unlikely. If it did occur, the concentration of plutonium-239 in brine reaching the surface would be less than the maximum permissible concentration in water specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 10, part 20

  1. The Revised WIPP Passive Institutional Controls Program - A Conceptual Plan - 13145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Russ; Klein, Thomas; Van Luik, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) is responsible for managing all activities related to the disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed waste in the geologic repository, 650 m below the land surface, at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The main function of the Passive Institutional Controls (PIC's) program is to inform future generations of the long-lived radioactive wastes buried beneath their feet in the desert. For the first 100 years after cessation of disposal operations, the rooms are closed and the shafts leading underground sealed, WIPP is mandated by law to institute Active Institutional Controls (AIC's) with fences, gates, and armed guards on patrol. At this same time a plan must be in place of how to warn/inform the future, after the AIC's are gone, of the consequences of intrusion into the geologic repository disposal area. A plan was put into place during the 1990's with records management and storage, awareness triggers, permanent marker design concepts and testing schedules. This work included the thoughts of expert panels and individuals. The plan held up under peer review and met the requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Today the NEA is coordinating a study called the 'Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations' to provide the international nuclear waste repository community with a guide on how a nuclear record archive programs should be approached and developed. CBFO is cooperating and participating in this project and will take what knowledge is gained and apply that to the WIPP program. At the same time CBFO is well aware that the EPA and others are expecting DOE to move forward with planning for the future WIPP PIC's program; so a plan will be in place in time for WIPP's closure slated for the early 2030's. The DOE/CBFO WIPP PIC's program in place today meets the regulatory criteria, but complete feasibility of implementation is questionable, and may not be in conformance

  2. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m 3 for 241 Am and 10.2 μBq/m 3 for 239+240 Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m 3 of 241 Am and 5.8 μBq/m 3 of 239+240 Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  3. Systems analysis, long-term radionuclide transport, and dose assessments, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico, September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Davies, P.B.; Borns, D.J.; Reeves, M.; Pickens, J.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1990-12-01

    This study supports the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and has two main objectives. First, it describes current ideas about the characteristics and potential impacts of the disturbed-rock zone (DRZ) known to develop with time around excavations at the WIPP horizon. Second, it presents new calculations of radionuclide migration within and from the WIPP repository for steady-state undisturbed conditions and for two cases that consider human intrusion into the repository. At the WIPP, the presence of a DRZ has been confirmed by geophysical studies, gas-flow tests, and direct observations. The DRZ will allow gas or brine from waste-emplacement panels to bypass panel seals and flow into adjacent portions of the underground workings unless preventive measures are taken. Revised calculations of the undisturbed performance of the repository indicate that no radionuclides will be released into the Culebra Dolomite within the regulatory period of 10,000 years. The human-intrusion calculations included here assume a connection between the WIPP repository, an occurrence of pressurized brine within the underlying Castile Formation, and the overlying Culebra Dolomite. 61 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  5. Tomorrow Began Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sixtiers was prepared by the previous historical period. The period after the World War II comprises a fundamental change of the world order – from a multipolar world to a confrontation of two superpowers and two ideological systems, and, at the same time, formation of a complex of international organizations on a global scale. In this context, the Soviet architecture made a sharp turn from Stalin’s Empire style to an extreme ascetism – the continuation of constructivism of the early XXth century. The Irkutsk architectural school, unlike the main flow of the 1960s, developed the style of Neo-Brutalism. The article draws parallels between Neo-Brutalism of the Irkutsk school and “a severe style” of the Soviet pictorial art of the same period.

  6. How life began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P

    1986-11-01

    Study of the origin of life has become a legitimate scientific inquiry, with an international, multidisciplinary membership and a cogent body of data. Experiments involving plausible early Earth conditions and biogeochemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites imply a variety of available starting molecules. Biogeological evidence indicates microbial beginnings about 3800 million years (3.8 aeons) ago. By then the known universe had been in existence for perhaps 15 aeons and galaxies abundant for ten. Conditions suitable for the origin of life may require a long prior cosmic evolution. The natural origin of life on the early Earth is now widely agreed upon but not the pathways. The beginnings of catalysis, replication and a functional cell remain moot. Much discussion has centered on the templating role that crystals such as clays and zeolites might have played in prebiotic evolution. Recent discovery of the catalytic and replicative functions of RNA recommend it as the key molecule in the transition from chemical to biological evolution. Copyright © 1986. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. How nonimaging optics began

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, M.A.; Cammann, J.W.; McBeath, R.S.; Rode, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A new Hanford waste management facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility (planned to be operational by FY 1994) will receive, inspect, process, and repackage contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) contaminated solid wastes. The wastes will be certified according to the waste acceptance criteria for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geologic repository in southeast New Mexico. Three alternatives which could cost effectively be applied to certify Hanford CH-TRU waste to the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) have been examined in this updated engineering study. The alternatives differed primarily in the reference processing systems used to transform nonconforming waste into an acceptable, certified waste form. It is recommended to include the alternative of shredding and immobilizing nonconforming wastes in cement (shred/grout processing) in the WRAP facility. Preliminary capital costs for WRAP in mid-point-of-construction (FY 1991) dollars were estimated at $45 million for new construction and $37 million for modification and installation in an existing Hanford surplus facility (231-Z Building). Operating, shipping, and decommissioning costs in FY 1986 dollars were estimated at $126 million, based on a 23-y WRAP life cycle (1994 to 2017). During this period, the WRAP facility will receive an estimated 38,000 m 3 (1.3 million ft 3 ) of solid CH-TRU waste. The study recommends pilot-scale testing and evaluation of the processing systems planned for WRAP and advises further investigation of the 231-Z Building as an alternative to new facility construction

  9. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    2001-01-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator

  10. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  11. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests

  12. The WIPP PC based data collection program for real time data capture from the Eberline Alpha Air Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, D.A.; Clayton, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) needed the capability to evaluate the performance of the Eberline Alpha Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs). An additional goal was to characterize and document the Radon background activity at various locations above and below ground at the WIPP. A PC based data collection system was developed to continuously collect information used to evaluate the CAMs' performance and document the operability of the Alpha monitoring program at the WIPP. To accomplish the stated objectives, Westinghouse Radiation Monitoring Systems Engineering modified an existing Eberline CAM supervision and control program to include real time data collection. The paper will address the specific hardware requirements for program usage, the functional structure of the program, and the actions required for an operator to generate graphical output. The utilization of the information generated and the future plans for the expansion and networking of the data collection system also be presented

  13. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator.

  14. Department of Energy Operation Quality Assurance Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project (Carlsbad, New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA)reverse arrow Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Project Participants: the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory) and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the Pre-Operational and Operational phases of the WIPP Project not addressed under the construction phase. This plan also requires the QA Programs for DOE and Project Participants to be structured so as to comply with this plan and ANSI-ASME NQA-1. The prime responsibility for Operational Quality Assurance rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Scientific Advisor and the Management and Operating Contractor. Overviews of selected operational and testing activities will be are conducted in accordance with prescribed requirements and that adequate documentation of these activities is maintained. 4 figs

  15. Analytical technology in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villareal, R.

    1994-01-01

    The need for long-term disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) wastes became apparent as the DOE recognized the environmental consequences of maintaining waste storage facilities designed for short or interim storage periods, not long-term storage. In 1979, Congress authorized the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a research and development facility and full-scale pilot plant, to demonstrate the safe management, storage, and disposal of TRU wastes. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations governing disposal of TRU wastes in 40 CFR 191 require that TRU waste disposal systems be designed to limit migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years based on performance assessment results. The actinide source-term waste test program (STTP) is an experiment designed to quantitatively measure the time-dependent concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, thorium, and americium in TRU wastes immersed in brines that simulate the chemistry that may occur in WIPP disposal rooms, partially or completely contacted with brines. The total concentration of each actinide in brine is the sum of its dissolved and colloidally suspended components, as determined by variables including pcH, oxidation-reduction potential (Eh), chelating and complexing agents, sorption capacity, and colloidal suspension capabilities. To determine the effect of influencing variables on the concentration of actinides in WIPP brines, several TRU waste types will be characterized and loaded into specially designed noncorrosive test containers filled with brine containing additives to enhance the action of each influencing variable. The test container brine and headspace gases will be analyzed

  16. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  17. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites' compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site

  18. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi 2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 10 4 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi 2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study

  19. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  20. Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10 -21 to 10 -20 m 2 (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. NMT-7 plan for producing certifiable TRU debris waste for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, A.J.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of waste characterization data for debris items generated during a recent six month period indicates that the certifiability of TRUPACT II payload containers packaged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) can be increased from approximately 52% of solid waste payload containers to 78% by applying the simple strategies of screening out high decay heat items and sorting remaining items to maintain nuclear material loading at levels below WIPP waste acceptance limits. Implementation of these strategies will have negative impacts on waste minimization and waste management operations that must also be considered

  2. Basic data report for drillhole H-12 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Snyder, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Drillhole H-12 was drilled where hydraulic data were needed to better establish flow characteristics existing south-southeast of the WIPP site. The fluid-bearing zones of interest are the Magenta and Culebra dolomite units of the Rustler Formation. Dissolution of halite in the Rustler Formation has occurred in the uppermost member, but has not yet begun in the lower halite-bearing members. Cuttings and cores were taken at selected intervals and geophysical logs were run over the entire depth of the hole. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  4. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  5. Groundwater flow in the Rustler Formation, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeast New Mexico (SENM). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.D.

    1983-03-01

    In hypothetical breach scenarios for the WIPP, the Culebra Dolomite in the Rustler Formation has historically been considered the aquifer most likely to play a significant role in transporting radioisotopes to the biosphere. Recently, it was determined that breach scenarios involving connection of aquifers above and below the Salado Formation where waste emplacement is planned would not result in an upward flow of water into the Rustler aquifers. Considerable hydrologic investigation has focused on the Culebra, since some scenarios might result in contamination of this aquifer. In such events the Culebra would provide more rapid transport of radioisotopes from the WIPP than any of the other aquifers in the WIPP area. Hydrologic tests conducted in three-well arrays at four different locations near the WIPP are described. Tracer tests at the H-6 wells northwest of the WIPP indicated an effective porosity of 0.007 in the principal direction of flow and a dispersivity of 33 ft. At the H-2 wells, 1-1/4 mi W-SW of the center of the WIPP site, the effective porosity in the principal flow direction is 0.18 and the dispersivity is 17 ft. Anisotropy of transmissivity was determined from pumping tests at the H-4, H-5, and H-6 wells. The principal direction of transmissivity is roughly NW-SE at all three locations. The ratio of the major-to-minor transmissivity components varies only from 2.1 to 2.7, even though the transmissivity itself varies three orders of magnitude among the three locations. This information, coupled with transmissivity and head potential data, indicates that flow patterns near the WIPP site are toward the southeast. Present estimates for flow rates are 1 to 10 ft/y. Values of transmissivity for the Culebra vary six orders of magnitude over the extent of the study area, decreasing monotonically from 10 3 ft 2 /d in Nash Draw to 10 - 3 ft 2 /d on the east side of the WIPP site

  6. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  7. A sensitivity analysis of the WIPP disposal room model: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labreche, D.A.; Beikmann, M.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osnes, J.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The WIPP Disposal Room Model (DRM) is a numerical model with three major components constitutive models of TRU waste, crushed salt backfill, and intact halite -- and several secondary components, including air gap elements, slidelines, and assumptions on symmetry and geometry. A sensitivity analysis of the Disposal Room Model was initiated on two of the three major components (waste and backfill models) and on several secondary components as a group. The immediate goal of this component sensitivity analysis (Phase I) was to sort (rank) model parameters in terms of their relative importance to model response so that a Monte Carlo analysis on a reduced set of DRM parameters could be performed under Phase II. The goal of the Phase II analysis will be to develop a probabilistic definition of a disposal room porosity surface (porosity, gas volume, time) that could be used in WIPP Performance Assessment analyses. This report documents a literature survey which quantifies the relative importance of the secondary room components to room closure, a differential analysis of the creep consolidation model and definition of a follow-up Monte Carlo analysis of the model, and an analysis and refitting of the waste component data on which a volumetric plasticity model of TRU drum waste is based. A summary, evaluation of progress, and recommendations for future work conclude the report.

  8. Petrographic study of evaporite deformation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico contains about 1000 m of layered evaporites. Areas in the northern Delaware Basin, bordering the Capitan reef, have anomalous seismic reflection characteristics, such as loss in reflector continuity. Core from holes within this zone exhibits complex mesoscopic folds and extension structures. On a larger scale, anticlines and synclines are indicated by structure contours based on boreholes. The deformation is probably gravity-driven. Such a process is initiated by basin tilting during either a Mesozoic or Cenozoic period of uplift. Small-scale structures suggest that deformation was episodic with an early, syndepositional stage of isoclinal folding. Later, open-to-tight asymmetric folding is more penetrative and exhibits a sense of asymmetry opposite to that of the earlier isoclinal folding. The younger folds are associated with development of zonal crenulation cleavage and microboundinage of more competent carbonate layers. At the same time, halite beds developed dimensional fabrics and convolute folds in anhydrite stringers. Late-stage, near-vertical fractures formed in competent anhydrite layers. Microscopic textures exhibit rotated anhydrite porphyroblasts, stress shadow growth, and microboundinage. Except during late-stage deformation, anhydrite and halite recrystallized synkinematically. Drastic strength reduction in anhydrites through dynamic recrystallization occurs experimentally near 200 0 C. However, evaporites of the WIPP site never experienced temperatures > 40 0 C. Microscopic fabrics and P, T history of the evaporites suggest that pressure solution was the active mechanism during deformation of evaporites at the WIPP site

  9. Test plan: Gas-threshold-pressure testing of the Salado Formation in the WIPP underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    Performance assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste from the United States defense program in the WIPP underground facility must assess the role of post-closure was generation by waste degradation and the subsequent pressurization of the facility. be assimilated by the host formation will Whether or not the generated gas can be assimilated by the host formation will determine the ability of the gas to reach or exceed lithostatic pressure within the repository. The purpose of this test plan is (1) to present a test design to obtain realistic estimates of gas-threshold pressure for the Salado Formation WIPP underground facility including parts of the formation disturbed by the underground of the Salado, and (2) to provide a excavations and in the far-field or undisturbed part framework for changes and amendments to test objectives, practices, and procedures. Because in situ determinations of gas-threshold pressure in low-permeability media are not standard practice, the methods recommended in this testplan are adapted from permeability-testing and hydrofracture procedures. Therefore, as the gas-threshold-pressure testing program progresses, personnel assigned to the program and outside observers and reviewers will be asked for comments regarding the testing procedures. New and/or improved test procedures will be documented as amendments to this test plan, and subject to similar review procedures

  10. Basic data report for Drillhole AEC 7 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    AEC 7 is a borehole drilled in western Lea County, New Mexico, in section 31, T.21S.,R.32E. AEC 7 was drilled to 3918 feet in 1974 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sandia deepened the hole to 4732 ft in 1979. The borehole provided stratigraphic and lithologic information in the initial and final drilling. The borehole was used extensively for tests of borehole plugs and plugging operations. AEC 7 penetrated, in descending order, Holocene sands and Mescalero caliche (8 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (109 ft), Dewey Lake Red Beds (542 ft), Rustler Formation (325 ft), Salado Formation (2014 ft), Castile Formation (1521 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (197 ft). Cores were obtained from much of the borehole. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on stratigraphy, lithology, and structure. Beds were in normal stratigraphic sequence and without structural deformation except in the lower Castile. Anhydrite II and Halite II appear to be repeated in the borehole. This section was penetrated during deepening by Sandia; the structural complication is consistent with deformation found nearby in ERDA 6. The potential site on which AEC 7 is located was abandoned in 1976 after ERDA 6 was drilled. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  11. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Geochemistry of Salado formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogeneous with respect to composition but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Conclusions from working group 2 - the analyses of the WIPP-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The INTRAVAL WIPP-2 test case is based on data from site investigations carried out at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. The site has been chosen as a potential location for a radioactive waste repository. Extensive investigations have been carried out, focused mainly on groundwater flow and transport in the Culebra Dolomite, the main pathway for transport of radionuclides off the site by groundwater in the case of an accidental borehole intrusion into the repository. Five teams studied the test case. Two teams addressed issues involved in the treatment of heterogeneity. Stochastic models and a Monte Carlo approach were used. One team quantified the increased uncertainty resulting from fewer data and explored the issues involved in validation of stochastic models. A second team developed a new method for conditioning stochastic models on head data. Two other teams examined issues relating to the choice of conceptual models. Two-dimensional vertical cross-section models were used to explore the importance of vertical flow. The fifth team advocate the use of a variety of models to highlight the most important processes and parameters. Conclusions from each team experiment are analysed. (J.S.). 4 refs., 11 figs

  14. Basic data report for drillhole AEC 8 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    AEC 8 was originally drilled in 1974 to a depth of 3028 ft by Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the initial investigations of a site for radioactive waste disposal. In 1976, Sandia National Laboratories deepened the borehole from the top of the Castile Formation into the Bell Canyon Formation to test the hydraulic properties of the Bell Canyon. The borehole encountered in descending order Holocene sands (20 ft), Mescalero caliche (6 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (143 ft), Dewey Lake Redbeds (491 ft), Rustler Formation (322 ft), Salado Formation (1990 ft), Castile Formation (1335 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (603 ft). The borehole stratigraphy is in normal order and there is no significant deformation. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on the lithology and stratigraphy. The potentiometric surfaces of Bell Canyon fluid-bearing zones are 550 ft (for the zone at 4821 ft to 4827 ft) and 565 ft below land surface (for the zone at 4844 to 4860 ft). The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  15. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  16. Evaporite dissolution relevant to the WIPP site, northern Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the threat of natural dissolution of host evaporites to the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has taken into consideration (1) the volume of missing rock salt, (2) the occurrence (or not) of characteristic dissolution brines, (3) geomorphic features, some of which are unrelated to dissolution, and (4) the time intervals over which dissolution may have been active. Even under the assumption that all missing halite was originally present and has been removed by dissolution, there is no evidence of active preferential removal of the lower Salado Formation halite by any geologically reasonable process. The geologic record contains evidence of dissolution in the Triassic and Jurassic; to constrain all removal of basinal halite to the late Cenozoic yields an unrealistically high rate of removal. Application to the lower Salado of a stratabound mechanism known to be active in Nash Draw, a near-surface feature within the Basin, allows a minimum survival time of 2,500,000 years to be predicted for the subsurface facility for storage of radioactive waste at WIPP. This calculation is based on an analysis of all known dissolution features in the Delaware Basin, and takes into account the wetter (pluvial) climate during the past 600,000 years. 2 figures, 1 table

  17. Potential release scenario and radiological consequence evaluation of mineral resources at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    This report has reviewed certain of the natural resources which may be found at the site of the nuclear waste repository being considered for southeastern New Mexico, and discussed the scenarios which have been used to estimate the radiological consequences from the mining of these resources several hundred years after the radioactive waste has been emplaced. It has been concluded that the radiological consequences of the mining of potash or hydrocarbons (mostly natural gas) are probably bounded by the consequences of hydrologic breach scenarios already considered by the US Department of Energy, and by reports of EEG. These studies conclude that the resultant doses would not constitute a significant threat to public health. This report also evaluates the radiological consequences of solution mining of halite at the WIPP site. Although such mining in the Delaware Basin and particularly at the WIPP site, is not likely at the present time, significant economic, social or climatic changes a few hundred years after emplacement may make these resources more attractive. The DOE did not consider such mining at the site credible

  18. Meteorological and air quality data quarterly report WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico. Winter quarter, December 1976-February 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocalujka, L.P.; Babij, E.; Church, H.W.

    1979-08-01

    The Wipp meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was implemented to support the environmental effort for the evaluations of the site selection suitability. This data report is the third of a series of seasonal quarterly data summaries to be issued for the southeastern New Mexico site

  19. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] in situ room closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured WIPP in situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1: Volume 1, Preliminary Design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The Preliminary Design Report (Title 1) for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and process systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title 1 design. The primary mission of the WRAP 1 Facility is to characterize and certify contact-handled (CH) waste in 55-gallon drums for disposal. Its secondary function is to certify CH waste in Standard Waste Boxes (SWBs) for disposal. The preferred plan consist of retrieving the waste and repackaging as necessary in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to certify TRU waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. WIPP is a research and development facility designed to demonstrate the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of TRU waste from National Defense programs. Retrieved waste found to be Low-Level Waste (LLW) after examination in the WRAP facility will be disposed of on the Hanford site in the low-level waste burial ground. The Hanford Site TRU waste will be shipped to the WIPP for disposal between 1999 and 2013

  1. Evaluation of the WIPP Project's compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M.

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP's compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy's (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA's proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA's responses to EEG's comments

  2. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum D. A report to Holmes and Narver, Inc., Anaheim, California on alternative energy sources for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the energy needs of a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a facility for underground storage of radioactive wastes in a deep salt bed. The report analyzes a total of sixteen possible methods for meeting WIPP energy requirements, consisting of purchased electricity and on-site generation in various combinations from full purchased to full on-site

  3. Hanford Tank Waste to WIPP - Maximizing the Value of our National Repository Asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, Allan R.; Wheeler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Preplanning scope for the Hanford tank transuranic (TRU) waste project was authorized in 2013 by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) after a project standby period of eight years. Significant changes in DOE orders, Hanford contracts, and requirements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have occurred during this time period, in addition to newly implemented regulatory permitting, re-evaluated waste management strategies, and new commercial applications. Preplanning has identified the following key approaches for reactivating the project: qualification of tank inventory designations and completion of all environmental regulatory permitting; identifying program options to accelerate retrieval of key leaking tank T-111; planning fully compliant implementation of DOE Order 413.3B, and DOE Standard 1189 for potential on-site treatment; and re-evaluation of commercial retrieval and treatment technologies for better strategic bundling of permanent waste disposal options

  4. Reference stratigraphy and rock properties for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A stratigraphic description of the country rock near the working horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented along with a set of mechanical and thermal properties of materials involved. Data from 41 cores and shafts are examined. The entire stratigraphic section is found to vary in elevation in a regular manner, but individual layer thicknesses and relative separation between layers are found to have no statistically significant variation over the one mile north to south extent of the working horizon. The stratigraphic description is taken to be relative to the local elevation of Anhydrite b. The material properties have been updated slightly from those in the July 1981 Reference Stratigraphy. This reference stratigraphy/properties document is intended primarily for use in thermal/structural analyses. This document supercedes the July 1981 stratigraphy/properties document. 31 references, 7 figures

  5. Hanford Tank Waste to WIPP - Maximizing the Value of our National Repository Asset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Allan R.; Wheeler, Martin

    2013-11-11

    Preplanning scope for the Hanford tank transuranic (TRU) waste project was authorized in 2013 by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) after a project standby period of eight years. Significant changes in DOE orders, Hanford contracts, and requirements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have occurred during this time period, in addition to newly implemented regulatory permitting, re-evaluated waste management strategies, and new commercial applications. Preplanning has identified the following key approaches for reactivating the project: qualification of tank inventory designations and completion of all environmental regulatory permitting; identifying program options to accelerate retrieval of key leaking tank T-111; planning fully compliant implementation of DOE Order 413.3B, and DOE Standard 1189 for potential on-site treatment; and re-evaluation of commercial retrieval and treatment technologies for better strategic bundling of permanent waste disposal options.

  6. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] intermediate scale borehole test: A pretest analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argueello, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element structural analysis of the Intermediate Scale Borehole Test at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been performed. The analysis provides insight into how a relatively new excavation in a creeping medium responds when introduced into an existing pillar which has been undergoing stress redistribution for 5.7 years. The stress field of the volume of material in the immediate vicinity of the borehole changes significantly when the hole is drilled. Closure of the hole is predicted to be larger in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, leading to an ovaling of the hole. The relatively high stresses near the hole persist even at the end of the simulation, 2 years after the hole is drilled. 12 ref., 10 figs

  7. A probabilistic analysis of a catastrophic transuranic waste hoist accident at the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1993-06-01

    This report builds upon the extensive and careful analyses made by the DOE of the probability of failure of the waste hoist, and more particularly on the probability of failure of a major component, the hydraulic brake system. The extensive fault tree analysis prepared by the DOE was the starting point of the present report. A key element of this work is the use of probability distributions rather than so-called point estimates to describe the probability of failure of an element. One of the authors (MAG) developed the expressions for the probability of failure of the brake system. The second author (TJS) executed the calculations of the final expressions for failure probabilities. The authors hope that this work will be of use to the DOE in its evaluation of the safety of the waste hoist, a key element at the WIPP

  8. The evolution of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project's public affairs program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    As a first-of-a-kind facility, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) presents a unique perspective on the value of designing a public affairs program that grown with and complements a project's evolution from construction to operations. Like the project itself, the public affairs programs progressed through several stages to its present scope. During the construction phase, foundations were laid in the community. Then, in this past year as the project entered a preoperational status, emphasis shifted to broaden the positive image that had been created locally. In this stage, public affairs presented the project's positive elements to the various state agencies, government officials, and federal organizations involved in our country's radioactive waste management program. Most recently, and continuing until receipt of the first shipment of waste in October 1988, an even broader, more aggressive public affairs program is planned

  9. In situ testing of titanium and mild steel nuclear waste containers at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in situ tests on the corrosion of titanium and mild steel for high level waste containers is presented. The tests at Sandia have moved out of the laboratory into a test underground facility in order to evaluate the performance of the waste package material. The tests are being performed under both near-reference and accelerated salt repository conditions. Some containers are filled with high level waste glass (non-radioactive); others contain electric heaters. Backfill material is either bentonite/sand or crushed salt. In other tests metals and glasses are exposed directly to brine. The tests are designed to study the corrosion and metallurgy of the canister and overpack materials; the feasibility and performance of backfill materials; and near-field effects such as brine migration

  10. On the road to WIPP: Or remote packaging of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Field, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hot Cell facility, highly productive programs in reactor research spanning three decades have generated appreciable quantities of legacy waste. Hot cell capability had become virtually useless due to the storage of this waste. As a result of concentrated efforts by LANL staff, in cooperation with Westinghouse Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a solution was arrived at that allowed the facility to become productive once again. Equipment has been designed and fabricated to remotely handle 55-gal. waste drums, load waste canisters, perform canister weld closure, leak test welds, grapple the waste canister and transport the canister to an interim storage site. It is our contention that the technology and acquired equipment produced from this effort should be used to further benefit other DOE sites

  11. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  12. Key Past and Present Hydrologic Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, Allen R.; McKenna, Sean A.; Davies, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998, the U.S; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be in compliance with applicable portions of regulations governing the permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. The step was accomplished after 24 years of effort by Sandia National Laboratories, extending from initial site selection, through extensive site characterization and under-ground experimentalization to evaluation and demonstration of regulatory compliance. The strong focus on regulatory compliance extended over approximately five years, culminating in DOE's submittal of a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) in October, 1996. Specific lessons learned from the WIPP'S transition from site characterization/experimental research to a successful regulatory compliance application may be of general interest to participants in other repository problems. In summary, the three examples considered in this paper indicate that: It is critical that site-characterization and performance-assessment (PA) activities in a repository project advance through multiple iterative interactions. This is because there are parallel paths of evolution-within a projecy On one hand, there is a natural development in the conceptual understanding of the site and repository geology, hydrology, and geochemistry over time, as well as a normal increase in the roles of regulatory/safety issues relative to technical issues. On the other hand there is ongoing evolution in numerical-modeling, experimental, and PA techniques, as well as in understanding of the insights gained from these activities. However, even if conceptual models do not change, the modeling and documentation techniques and detailed logic supporting these models will change; as additional relevant information is collected within or outside the project. Some issues related to general site-characterization or site-suitability will remain of interest, even after initial

  13. Experimental plan for tracer testing in the Culebra Dolomite at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Davies, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    This Experimental Plan provides a conceptual description of a proposed series of tracer tests to be conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The new tracer tests are intended to address deficiencies that have been identified both in the performance and interpretation of previously conducted tracer tests' Tracer tests were conducted at the H-2 hydropad in 1980, at the H-6 hydropad in 1981, 1982, and 1983, at the H-4 hydropad from 1982 to 1984, at the H-3 hydropad in 1984, and at the H-11 hydropad in 1988. These tests were all performed over the entire 7-m thickness of the Culebra and, therefore, provided no information on the effects of vertical heterogeneity within the Culebra on transport. In addition, each of the previous tracer tests provided data only from 1 to 3 flow paths, allowing calibration of interpretive models but not validation of those models. The tracer tests at the H-3, H-6, and H-11 hydropads have been interpreted using a double-porosity continuum model (SWIFT 11) in which advective transport occurs through a uniform network of fractures while diffusion of tracer from the fractures to the porosity in the rock matrix causes a physical retardation of the transport. External reviewers, particularly participants in the international INTRAVAL program, have suggested that alternative mechanisms, such as fracture channeling, could explain the observed physical retardation and have recommended that additional tracer tests be designed and performed to distinguish among these mechanisms. The previous tracer tests also provided no information on chemical-retardation processes within the Culebra, which have been shown through performance-assessment calculations to have a large impact on cumulative releases of radionuclides from the WIPP to the accessible environment

  14. WIPP Hydrology Program Waste Isolation Pilot Plant southeastern New Mexico. Hydrologic data report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This report contains basic hydrologic data for aquifer tests and water-level measurements conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site over the period 1983 through November 1985. Part A summarizes data collected during a series of pumping and slug tests conducted during 1983 and 1984 in wells at the H-2 and H-9 hydropads, and in well H-12. Water-level data collected in 1983 and 1984 at the H-2 hydropads and Appendixes tabulate water-level, drawdown, millivolt, and pressure data collected with automated Data Acquisition Systems (DAS's) during the aquifer tests for both the test wells and the observation wells, and water-level data collected with electric water-level sounders. Part B is a detailed presentation of pumping tests conducted at the H-11 hydropad in May and June, 1985. Part B discusses the automated DAS, water-level measurement devices, the discharge measurement system, well and equipment configurations, and provides plots of pressure or water-level response in both the pumping and observation wells. Pressure data collected with the DAS, depth to water collected with the water-level sounders in observation wells, and measured pumping rate data are tabulated. Part C presents January through November, 1985 water-level data collected from wells in the observation-well network at and near the WIPP site. The types of devices utilized are discussed and the water-level plots obtained from the water-level data for the Magenta, the Culebra, the Rustler-Salado contact zone, the Bell Canyon Formation, and the Salado/Castile Formations are presented. Water levels are tabulated

  15. The WIPP RCRA Part B permit application for TRU mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    In August 1993, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a draft permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to begin experiments with transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. Subsequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to cancel the on-site test program, opting instead for laboratory testing. The Secretary of the NMED withdrew the draft permit in 1994, ordering the State's Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Bureau to work with the DOE on submittal of a revised permit application. Revision 5 of the WIPP's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application was submitted to the NMED in May 1995, focusing on disposal of 175,600 m 3 of TRU mixed waste over a 25 year span plus ten years for closure. A key portion of the application, the Waste Analysis Plan, shifted from requirements to characterize a relatively small volume of TRU mixed waste for on-site experiments, to describing a complete program that would apply to all DOE TRU waste generating facilities and meet the appropriate RCRA regulations. Waste characterization will be conducted on a waste stream basis, fitting into three broad categories: (1) homogeneous solids, (2) soil/gravel, and (3) debris wastes. Techniques used include radiography, visually examining waste from opened containers, radioassay, headspace gas sampling, physical sampling and analysis of homogeneous wastes, and review of documented acceptable knowledge. Acceptable knowledge of the original organics and metals used, and the operations that generated these waste streams is sufficient in most cases to determine if the waste has toxicity characteristics, hazardous constituents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), or RCRA regulated metals

  16. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1998-01-01

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E(-7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E(-7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E(-7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP's hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE's last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example

  17. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2007-01-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  18. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  19. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 9 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 9 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate and test salt beds for the disposal of nuclear wastes. The hole was placed near the SE corner of section 20, T22S,R31E. It was drilled between April 28 and June 4, 1976, to a depth of 2889 ft (measured from a kelly bushing altitude of 3,420.4 ft MSL). The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Holocene deposits (including artificial fill) of 22 ft, the Pleistocene Mescalero Caliche (5 ft) and Gatuna Formation (27 ft), 9 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and 487 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 290 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1976 ft of the Salado Formation and 53 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cuttings were collected at 5-ft intervals for the land surface to a depth of 1090 ft, and consecutive cores were taken to a depth of 2876.6 ft. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run the full length of the borehole to measure distribution of radioactive elements and hydrogen, and variations in rock density and elastic velocity. On the basis of the borehole findings and related hydrological and geophysical programs, the site was judged suitable to pursue the extensive geological characterization program which followed. The core from ERDA 9 provided a suite of samples extensively tested for rock mechanics, physical properties, and mineralogy. Drill-stem tests in ERDA 9 indicated no significant fluids or permeability in the Salado beds of interest. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 7: Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion): Volume 3, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations. (CBS)

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  3. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

  4. Analysis of borehole inclusion stress measurement concepts proposed for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed in southeastern New Mexico by the United States Department of Energy as a research and development (RandD) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal in salt of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities. As part of the WIPP RandD program, a series of in situ tests will be performed to determine the behavior of drifts and storage rooms in the creeping salt medium. Data obtained in these tests will be used to evaluate and improve numerical models used to compute the structural response of these drifts and rooms. Stress has been proposed as one of the parameters to be measured in the tests, and borehole inclusion stressmeters have been included in the instrumentation package

  5. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  6. Summary report for the WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] technology development program for isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.; Matalucci, R.V.; Molecke, M.A.; Munson, D.E.; Nowak, E.J.; Stormont, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    The technology experiments have been managed in three broad categories: Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI), Plugging and Sealing Performance and Design (PandS), and Waste Package Performance (WPP). The history and major progress in each of these areas is summarized in this report. The TSI program has established the fact that the WIPP salt creep rate, and therefore closure of WIPP rooms, is about three times more rapid than our best models predicted prior to the tests. Studies to resolve this discrepancy are well advanced; in the interim, good agreement between predicitions and observation is obtained by empirical adjustment of the elastic constants. The closure of backfilled waste room to about five percent void volume is predicted to take less than 100 years, the time during which active controls may be assumed to prevent human intrusion. The waste package program has revealed that migration of interstitial brine to excavations in the WIPP salt occurs at a significantly greater rate than assumed by earlier investigations. A satisfactory model to explain the data utilizes darcy flow in very low permeability salt which is driven by a pore pressure gradient caused when the excavation creates an atmospheric pressure boundary. This model, coupled with room closure predictions and backfill design using a salt/bentonite clay mixture, indicates that the rate of brine seepage will not result in a fluid or slurry state in the room, but rather in a compacted solid. 373 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Disposal of TRU Waste from the PFP in pipe overpack containers to WIPP Including New Security Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and cleanup of the DOE complex. As part of the cleanup and closure of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford site, the nuclear material inventory was reviewed to determine the appropriate disposition path. Based on the nuclear material characteristics, the material was designated for stabilization and packaging for long term storage and transfer to the Savannah River Site, or a decision for discard was made. The discarded material was designated as waste material and slated for disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Prior to preparing any residue wastes for disposal at the WIPP, several major activities need to be completed. As detailed a processing history as possible of the material including origin of the waste must be researched and documented. A technical basis for termination of safeguards on the material must be prepared and approved. Utilizing process knowledge and processing history, the material must be characterized, sampling requirements determined, acceptable knowledge package and waste designation completed prior to disposal. All of these activities involve several organizations including the contractor, DOE, state representatives and other regulators such as EPA. At PFP, a process has been developed for meeting the many, varied requirements and successfully used to prepare several residue waste streams including Rocky Flats incinerator ash, hanford incinerator ash and Sand, Slag and Crucible (SS and C) material for disposal. These waste residues are packed into Pipe Overpack Containers for shipment to the WIPP

  8. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Duff, M.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  9. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Courtney, J.C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Duff, M.J. (Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  10. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P.; Courtney, J.C.; Duff, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m 3 (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein

  11. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  12. Comparison between predicted and measured south drift closures at the WIPP using a transient creep model for salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is constructing and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a research and development facility near Carlsbad, New Mexico, to determine whether or not defense-generated high-level radioactive waste can be stored safely in bedded salt. The goal of the WIPP modeling program is to develop the capability to predict room responses from one site to another without a priori knowledge of the actual room responses. Data from one of the early WIPP excavations, called the South Drift, have already been used to form an initial evaluation of computational models for predicting room closures as a result of salt creep. In that study, a significant unresolved discrepancy existed between predicted and measured room closures. It was suggested that future studies address alternate forms of the constitutive law. In this paper, an alternate form of the creep model for salt is used that is founded upon the deformation-mechanism map for the micromechanical deformation processes. This model embodies both steady-state and transient creep. Also, quasi-static plasticity is incorporated into the complete constitutive model for salt. The conclusion is drawn that the combination of the mechanistic creep model, plasticity, and flow potential can approximate the late time South Drift deformation. Further improvement of the model fit of plasticity in the future is expected to further improve the simulation

  13. Review of the draft supplement to the WIPP environmental impact statement DOE/EIS-0026-S-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Spiegler, P.; Chaturvedi, L.

    1997-04-01

    New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group's (EEG) review of the WIPP Disposal Phase Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) concentrated on the radiological aspects of the Proposed Action, including transportation. The alternatives were reviewed in less detail. Some calculations were checked, mostly for the Proposed Action. Because of time constraints, there was little review of Hazardous Chemicals, Economics, or other Environmental Assessments. SEIS-II was written as a pre-decision document with the Alternatives all plausible and eligible to be selected. Also, the inventory of TRU waste for disposal went well beyond that portion of TRU waste that has been historically considered to be the WIPP inventory. This broadened scope is probably appropriate for an EIS but it is confusing to the reviewer who is aware of the statutory limits of wastes that are allowed to come to WIPP at the present time. EEG has attempted to keep the broadened scope of SEIS-II in mind during their review. The more important issues discussed within are: alternatives; related documents; transportation; questionable assumptions; use of the 75th percentile values; family farm scenario and inhalation doses; modification of BRAGFLO volumes; emplacement of remotely handled TRU wastes; conversion error; and remotely handled TRU casks

  14. PROBABILITY OF FAILURE OF THE TRUDOCK CRANE SYSTEM AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    This probabilistic analysis of WIPP TRUDOCK crane failure is based on two sources of failure data. The source for operator errors is the report by Swain and Guttman, NUREG/CR-1278-F, August 1983. The source for crane cable hook breaks was initially made by WIPP/WID-96- 2196, Rev. O by using relatively old (1970s) U.S. Navy data (NUREG-0612). However, a helpful analysis by R.K. Deremer of PLG guided the authors to values that were more realistic and more conservative, with the recommendation that the crane cable/hook failure rate should be 2.5 x 10-6 per demand. This value was adopted and used. Based on these choices a mean failure rate of 9.70 x 10-3(1/yr) was calculated. However, a mean rate by itself does not reveal the level of confidence to be associated with this number. Guidance to making confidence calculations came from the report by Swain and Guttman, who stated that failure data could be described by lognormal distributions. This is in agreement with the widely use d reports (by DOE and others) NPRD-95 and NPRD-91, on failure data. The calculations of confidence levels showed that the mean failure rate of 9.70x 10-3(1/yr) corresponded to a percentile value of approximately 71; i.e. there is a 71% likelihood that the failure rate is less than 9.70x 10-3(1/yr). One also calculated that there is a 95% likelihood that the failure rate is less than 29.6x 10-3(1/yr). Or, as stated previously, there is a 71% likelihood that not more than one dropped load will occur in 103 years. Also, there is a 95% likelihood that not more than one dropped load will occur in approximately 34 years. It is the responsibility of DOE to select the confidence level at which it desires to operate

  15. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  16. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-10-09

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  17. WIPP Hydrology Program: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, Hydrologic Data Report No. 5: Parts, A-WIPP-13 multipad test; B-H-4c, P-17, ERDA-9, and Cabin Baby-1 slug tests; C-Engle and Carper well pumping tests; D-WIPP-12, H-14, and H-15 drill-stem tests; E-Water-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensrud, W.A.; Bame, M.A.; Lantz, K.D.; LaVenue, A.M.; Palmer, J.B.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Part A of this report describes the objectives, scope, design, equipment, and methodology for a long-term pumping test conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The test was conducted to provide technical assistance as part of the ongoing hydrologic characterization of the WIPP site. The test is referred to as the northern multipad pumping test, because it was designed to create a hydraulic stress over a wide area of the northern half of the WIPP site. The fluid-pressure and water-level recovery in both pumping and observation wells were monitored for a minimum of 72 days. The test interval was the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Twenty-three observation wells completed in the Culebra dolomite were monitored at least once a month as part of the regional water-level monitoring program. Severl wells completed in the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation were monitored during the test to assess the possibility of Magenta-Culebra communication in the expected area of influence of this test. The succeeding sections of this part of Hydrologic Data Report No. 5 present detailed descriptions of the test objectives, pretest data collection, test equipment and test-well configuration, the observation-well network, and test results. 3 refs., 147 figs., 107 tabs

  18. Pretest parametric calculations for the heated pillar experiment in the WIPP In-Situ Experimental Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branstetter, L.J.

    1983-03-01

    Results are presented for a pretest parametric study of several configurations and heat loads for the heated pillar experiment (Room H) in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) In Situ Experimental Area. The purpose of this study is to serve as a basis for selection of a final experiment geometry and heat load. The experiment consists of a pillar of undisturbed rock salt surrounded by an excavated annular room. The pillar surface is covered by a blanket heat source which is externally insulated. A total of five thermal and ten structural calculations are described in a four to five year experimental time frame. Results are presented which include relevant temperature-time histories, deformations, rock salt stress component and effective stress profiles, and maximum stresses in anhydrite layers which are in close proximity to the room. Also included are predicted contours of a conservative post-processed measure of potential salt failure. Observed displacement histories are seen to be highly dependent on pillar and room height, but insensitive to other geometrical variations. The use of a tensile cutoff across slidelines is seen to produce more accurate predictions of anhydrite maximum stress, but to have little effect on rock salt stresses. The potential for salt failure is seen to be small in each case for the time frame of interest, and is only seen at longer times in the center of the room floor

  19. Review comments on Environmental Analysis Cost Reduction Proposals (WIPP-DOE-136), July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-11-01

    The cost reduction proposals have the laudable goal of significantly reducing the total capital And operating cost connected with WIPP. Furthermore, since the proposed changes would reduce the size and operating rate of the project, they would be expected to have decreased environmental And socioeconomic impacts. However, some of these cost reduction proposals do decrease factors of safety in various components of the project or trade off one type of environmental detriment for another. The report does not contain sufficient detail to justify all of the conclusions reached; more discussion and quantitative information (including costs) is necessary in some cases. Also, there are places where the report is unclear or contradictory. Without a more detailed evaluation, EEG is unable to conclude that each of these cost reduction proposals either has a net environmental/health and safety benefit or a cost savings that justifies a net detriment. A revised Environmental Analysis (EA) should either include additional information or specifically reference backup documents where these conclusions have been justified. In addition, the EA needs to be revised to include the effect of the recently announced (11/18/82) decision by DOE to relocate the underground waste storage areas of the repository to the south

  20. Review of the scientific and technical criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The panel has evaluated the scientific and technical adequacy of work being done on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project to satisfy the charge to the panel set out in Chapter 1. The panel concluded that the scientific work has been carried out with a high degree of professional competence. The panel notes that the geology revealed by shaft sinking and excavation of drifts and the preliminary measurements generally confirm the geologic expectations derived from surface explorations and boreholes. The purity and volume of the salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt indicate that a repository can be constructed that will meet the geologic criteria for site selection. Thus, the important issues about the geology at the site have been resolved, but there remain some issues about the hydrology and design of the facility that should be resolved before large-scale transuranic (TRU) waste emplacement begins. The panel's conclusions and recommendations regarding the following studies are presented: site selection and characterization; in-situ tests and experiments; waste acceptance criteria; design and construction of underground facilities; and performance assessment. 65 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  1. Evaluation of the WIPP site for the supernova neutrino burst observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbes, M.J.; Boyd, R.N.; Kalen, J.D.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hencheck, M.; Sugarbaker, E.R.; Vandegriff, J.D.; Lieberwirth, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the neutron background in a potential underground site for the supernova neutrino burst observatory (SNBO) have been made. The SNBO will ultimately be capable of detecting μ and τ neutrinos from a supernova. Furthermore, masses of the μ and τ neutrinos might be measurable in the range of 10-50 eV. SNBO operates by detecting the neutrons caused by interaction of the supernova neutrinos with rock. It will consist of order ten thousand neutron detectors located in an underground environment having a very low intrinsic radiation level. The limit to the size, hence sensitivity, of SNBO is thus the neutron signal-to-noise ratio, which depends on the neutron background in the environment of SNBO. Thus we have made neutron background measurements at the department of energy waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, NM. The value of the ambient neutron flux we determined, 332±148 neutrons m -2 d -1 , shows that the background levels in this facility are sufficiently low to warrant construction of a galactic supernova neutrino detector. (orig.)

  2. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Snyder, R.P.

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Pretest 3D finite element analysis of the WIPP Intermediate Scale Borehole Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguello, J.G.

    1991-11-01

    A three dimensional pretest finite element analysis of the Intermediate Scale Borehole Test has been performed. In the analysis, the 7.7 years simulation period includes the mining of Rooms C1 and C2, and the N1420 cross drift, at time zero; drilling of the borehole between the two rooms at 5.7 years; and 2 years of post-drilling response. An all salt configuration was used in the calculation. The 1984 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) reference elastic-secondary creep law, with reduced elastic moduli, was used to model the creeping response of the salt. Results show that after mining of the rooms and cross drift a relatively high von Mises stress state exists around the perimeter of the pillar. However, by 5.7 years, or immediately prior to drilling of the borehole, the pillar has relaxed to an almost uniform von Mises stress of about 7--8 MPa. After the borehole is drilled, a relatively high von Mises stress field is once again set up in the immediate vicinity of the hole. This drives the creep closure of the borehole. The hole closes more in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, resulting in ovalling of the hole. At the end of the simulation, the von Mises stress around the borehole is still higher than that in the remained of the pillar. Thus, the closure rates are relatively high at the end of the simulation time

  5. Intergranular fluid compositions from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic sampling of the intergranular brines that slowly ''weep'' from four of the main stratigraphic units exposed in the WIPP. This information was added to the data base on brine compositions used in performance assessment and also employed in characterizing Salado Formation hydrology at the repository horizon. Concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, SO 4 , and Br were all highly variable. It was also established that this variability reflects neither post-excavation evaporation nor imprecision in the analytical techniques. Compositional variability on the length scale of a few tens of centimeters is as large as that found over several hundreds of meters. Stratigraphy did not appear to exert any control over weep brine compositions. Programmatically relevant applications of these results are: (1) a valid performance assessment must consider the possibility of a wide range of brines, rather than carry out evaluations using a single ''best'' average brine, and (2) the Salado appears not to function as a continuous aquifer since brines originating millions of years ago have failed to homogenize though separated by only short distances. 10 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Arthropod and decomposition studies at the WIPP site, October-November, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    These studies were conducted to address topics related to potential environmental impacts resulting from WIPP construction at the Los Medanos site. Studies include the effect of salt piles on soil microarthropod faunas and soil community respiration, quantities of soil moved from deep in the soil column to the surface by termites and ants, and development and testing of a multiple regression model for predicting decomposition. Soil cores were taken at increasing distances from the twenty-year-old salt dump at the Nash Draw Potash facility and examined for microarthropod content and tested for other biological activity. Although there were some reductions in densities of most taxa at the base of the salt pile and at 100 m from the base, all of the dominant soil taxa from the area were found at the base of the pile. If a substantial adverse impact occurred soon after emplacement of the salt, recovery has been relatively complete. Substantial changes in these baseline population densities during or after construction could be indicators of impact to the ecology of the Los Medanos site. A model was developed to predict rates of decomposition of shinnery oak litter based on evapotranspiration and lignin content. The model was less successful in predicting the decomposition rate of creosotebush litter, as removal of litter by termites produced large variances in apparent decomposition rates

  7. Background radiation measurements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnema, D.M.; Brewer, L.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of background radiation measurements was performed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico. The survey consisted of gross gamma and gamma spectral measurements of the radiation fields, soil and salt grab sample gamma analysis, and radon and working level measurements. The survey included locations at the surface and also within the mine itself. Background radiation levels on the surface were measured to average 7.65 microR/hour, and 0.7 microR/hour within the mine. Radon and working levels were at or below detection levels at all locations, and the radon concentration was estimated to be about 0.01 pCi/liter on the surface based on spectral measurements. The spectral measurements were performed using an intrinsic germanium spectrometer, and calculations from the spectra indicated that potassium-40 contributed about 28% to the surface level dose rates, natural uranium daughters contributed about 64%, and cesium-137 from weapons testing fallout contributed about 8%. In the mine potassium-40 was the only identifiable contributor to the dose rate

  8. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covington, J.A.; Wicks, G.G.; Molecke, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of 'pineapple slices', polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90 degrees C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants

  9. Strategy for investigation of fluid migration in evaporites (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.; Shefelbine, H.C.

    1980-03-01

    The proposed strategy for WIPP project investigations of fluid migration in evaporites focuses upon a quantitative evaluation of each of several processes. Potential short- and long-term problems arising from fluid migration are complication of waste retrieval and mobilization of waste nuclides. The strategy will attempt to determine the degree to which these potentials are realized with respect to five hypothetical types of waste-rock interactions: movement of waste containers, migration of nuclides, formation of radioactive brine pocket, radiolytic generation of gas, and degradation of waste container. Of eight identified processes whose combinations could lead to the five types of interactions, only five are to be quantitatively investigated by the studies of fluid migration per se: presence of fluids, fluid mobilization toward heat-producing and contact-handled waste, encounter of fluids with influence of waste form, reversal of direction of fluid mobilization, and entrainment of nuclides in fluids. Methods of investigation entail an iterative combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling

  10. Preoperational radiation surveillance of the WIPP Project by EEG for the years 1993 - 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, J.W.; Gray, D.H.; Ballard, S.C. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Average {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 238}Pu concentrations measured in ambient air near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during 1993, 1994 and 1995 are consistent with similar data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for Espanola, Pojoaque and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Through the use of replicate analyses of matrix blanks minimum detectable activity (MDA), minimum detectable concentration (MDC) and action levels (ACTL) were established for the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) measurement system. Using MDA data from fixed air sampler (FAS) filters and conservative assumptions applied in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report 123 (NCRP 1996), it is shown that the EEG sampling and measurement methodology is capable of detecting effluent air emissions which would produce a dose that is approximately 1000 times below the 40 CFR 191 Subpart A limit of 2.5E{sup -4} Sv/y (25 mrem/y). A similar calculation using the NCRP worksheet with storm water effluent MDCs found the EEG measurement program capable of detecting actinide emissions which would result in a dose that is approximately 10 times below the dose limits in 40 CFR 191 Subpart A and 40 CFR 61 Subpart H.

  11. The Rustler Formation at the WIPP [Waste Isolations Pilot Plant] site: Report of a workshop on the geology and hydrology of the Rustler Formation as it relates to the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1987-02-01

    This workshop contained eight papers characterizing the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site in New Mexico. Four of these reports were processed separately for the data bases. Information contained in the four remaining papers is available in journal articles or in the reports of other conferences and included discussions of ground water flow through the Rustler Formation, the potential migration of leached radionuclides in this rock, the effects of mineral dissolution on the removal of underlying salt deposits, and a possible pathway for radionuclide migration into the biosphere

  12. Scientific studies in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Weart, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    The DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application for WIPP in october, 1996. A critical part of this application was a Performance Assessment which predicts the cumulative radioactive release to the accessible environment over a time period of 10,000 years. Comparison of this predicted release to the EPA standard shows a comfortable margin of compliance. The scientific understanding that was critical to developing this assessment spans a broad range of geotechnical disciplines, and required a thorough understanding of the site's geology and hydrology. Evaluation of the geologic processes which are active in the site region establishes that there will be no natural breach of site integrity for millions of years, far longer than the 10,000 year regulatory period. Inadvertent human intrusion is, therefore, the only credible scenario to lead to potential radioactive release to the accessible environment. To substantiate this conclusion and to quantify these potential releases from human intrusion, it has been necessary to develop an understanding of the following processes: salt creep and shaft seal efficacy; gas generation from organic decomposition of waste materials and anoxic corrosion of metals in the waste and waste packages; solubilities for actinides in brine; fluid flow in Salado formation rocks, and hydrologic transport of actinides in the overlying dolomite aquifers. Other issues which had to be evaluated to allow definition of breach scenarios were brine reservoir occurrences and their associated reservoir parameters, consequences of mining over the repository, and drilling for natural resources in the vicinity of the repository. Results of all these studies will be briefly summarized in this paper

  13. Densities and species composition of the avifauna of the Los Medanos WIPP site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, J.D.; Haydock, J.

    1981-01-01

    Data were gathered in various habitat types to determine annual fluctuations in species diversity and relative abundance, breeding densities, reproductive success of White-necked Ravens and Harris Hawks, fall and spring migrant species and to collect voucher specimens for the site. Four Emlen transects were surveyed in four habitat types during the summer of 1980. These transects were used monthly in May, June and July to determine densities of breeding and non-breeding birds. Active White-necked Raven and Harris Hawk nests were located by checking all conspicuous nests. The nests were checked several times during the nesting stage to determine nest success. During 1980, eleven new species and two new families were added to the list of birds seen on or near the WIPP site. The list now totals 133 species representing 38 families. White-necked Raven nesting success was slightly lower in 1980 than in 1979. Average clutch size in 1980 was 5.5, which is 3.5% less than in 1979 and 19% greater than in 1978. The average number of birds fledged per nest was surprisingly similar over the past three years despite fairly large climatic differences. Success of Harris Hawk nesting was very low in the autumn of 1980 due principally to bad weather. The overall density of breeding birds was lower in 1980 than in 1979 in all habitat types. The overall density was also lower in 1980 than in 1978 in all habitat types except mesquite-grassland. Many species showed larger year-to-year fluctuations in numbers. Mourning Dove density, for example, dropped from 76.9 to 11.2 individuals per square kilometer in the hummock-mesquite habitat. Voucher specimens have been collected for 69 of the 133 species seen on the Los Medanos site

  14. Geochemistry of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive geochemical data base, including analyses of major and minor solutes, mineralogical studies of core samples, and isotopic studies of waters, carbonates and sulfates, has been assembled for evaporites and related rocks in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. These data were compiled for the geological and hydrological characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is excavated in the evaporites of the Salado Formation. These data were evaluated in order:(1) to determine the stability of the evaporite mineralogy over geological time; (2) to compare the aqueous geochemistry with host rock mineralogy; (3) to delineate the nature and timing of water-rock interactions, such as dissolution and recrystallization; and (4) to determine the geological and climatic conditions that have governed groundwater recharge. The resulting synthesis of data and current hypotheses concerning the origin, composition and history of waters in the evaporite rocks and related units of the Delaware Basin provides a tentative conceptual model for the behavior of the water-rock system since the deposition of the evaporites in the Permian. Essential components of this model include: (1) widespread Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evaporite recrystallization; (2) accumulation of deep-basin brines isolated from meteoric recharge; (3) evaporite dissolution by meteoric waters flowing in carbonates and sulfates interbedded in the uppermost Permian section and at the basin margin; (4) lateral rather than vertical infiltration of pre-Holocene meteoric waters in the uppermost Permian section; and (5) climatic conditions presently less conductive to recharge than in the Late Pleistocene. (author)

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) research and development program: in situ testing plan, March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.; Molecke, M.A.; Munson, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The WIPP in southeast New Mexico is being developed as an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive defense wastes in bedded salt. The tests are done first without radioactive materials and then with transuranic (TRU) waste and Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW). The thermal/structural itneraction experiments include (a) geomechanical evaluations of access drifts, vertical shafts, and isothermal TRU disposal rooms during the Site and Preliminary Validation Program, (b) tests that represent the reference DHLW room configuraton (5.5 m x 5.5 m) and areal thermal loading of 12 W/m 2 , (c) an overtest of the DHLW congfiguration heated to about four times the reference thermal loading; (d) geomechanical evaluations of various room widths up to 9.1 m, variable pillar widths, and a long-drift intersection, (e) an 11-m-dia axisymmetric heated pillar test, and (f) miscellaneous tests to determine stress field and clay seam sliding resistance. The plugging and sealing experiments include (a) salt permeability tests, (b) tests to determine effects of size and scale on behavior of plugs and to determine backfill material behavior and emplacement techniques, and (c) a plug test matrix to evaluate candidate sealing materials. Waste package interaction experiments include (a) simulated-waste package tests that use several design options and engineered barrier materials under reference and accelerated DHLW environments, (b) confirmatory brine migration tests, (c) TRU drum durability tests in dry and wet conditions, (d) options for radiation-source tests using cesium capsules, and (e) actual DHLW tests using up to 40 canisters for technical demonstrations and for addressing concerns of wasteform chemistry, leaching, and near-field radionuclide migration

  16. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  17. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO 3 ), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  18. Representation of spatial variability for modelling of flow and transport processes in the Culebra Dolomite at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, L.C.; Beauheim, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a proposed repository for transuranic wastes constructed in bedded Permian-acre halite deposits in southeastern New Mexico, USA. Site-characterization studies at the WIPP site identified groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation as the most likely Geologic pathway for radio nuclide transport to the accessible environment in the event of a breach of the WIPP repository through inadvertent human intrusion. The Culebra is a 7-m-thick, variably fractured dolomite with massive and layers. Detailed studies at all scales demonstrated that the Culebra is a heterogeneous medium. Heterogeneity in Culebra properties was incorporated into numerical simulations used for data interpretation and PA calculations in different ways, depending on the amount of data available, the certainty with which the effects of a given approach could be evaluated, and the purpose of the study. When abundant, spatially distributed data were available, the heterogeneity was explicitly included. For example, a stochastic approach was used to generate numerous, equally likely, heterogeneous transmissivity fields conditioned on head and transmissivity data. In other cases, constant parameter values were applied over the model domain. These constant values were selected and applied in two different ways. In simple cases where a conservative bounding value could be identified that would not lead to unrealistically conservative results, that value was used for all calculations. In more complex cases, parameter distributions were developed and single values of the parameters were sampled from the distributions and applied across the entire model domain for each of the PA Monte Carlo simulations. We are currently working to refine our understanding of the multiple rates of diffusion attributable to small-scale spatial variability

  19. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO 4 values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines

  20. Planning, developing, and fielding of thermal/structural interactions in situ tests for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    Large-scale, well-instrumented underground tests to determine in situ thermal/structural response of bedded salt are being constructed in the WIPP facility in southeastern New Mexico. These tests are an essential component of a broad research and development program to resolve thermal/structural issues, to validate long-term prediction methods, and to develop a design basis for a future repository. They are the result of an extensive planning and evaluation procedure to determine the appropriate test configuration. All details of the tests, including background, decisions, design, site operations, and testing organization are explained. These procedures may be useful in developing other in situ tests

  1. Pre-WIPP in-situ experiments in salt. Part I. Executive summary. Part II. Program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, A.R.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    This document presents plans for in-situ experiments in a specific location in southeastern New Mexico. Schedule and facility design were based on features of a representative local potash mine and on contract negotiations with mine owners. Subsequent WIPP program uncertainties have required a delay in the implementation of the activities discussed here; however, the relative schedule for various activities are appropriate for future planning. The document represents a matrix of in-situ activities to address relevant technical issues prior to the availability of a bedded salt repository.

  2. Pre-WIPP in-situ experiments in salt. Part I. Executive summary. Part II. Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    This document presents plans for in-situ experiments in a specific location in southeastern New Mexico. Schedule and facility design were based on features of a representative local potash mine and on contract negotiations with mine owners. Subsequent WIPP program uncertainties have required a delay in the implementation of the activities discussed here; however, the relative schedule for various activities are appropriate for future planning. The document represents a matrix of in-situ activities to address relevant technical issues prior to the availability of a bedded salt repository

  3. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S.

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed

  4. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste isolation pilot plants (WIPP). (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, and examine research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  6. Rustler Formation in the waste handling and exhaust shafts, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Permian Rustler Formation was recently examined in detail in two shafts at the WIPP site: the waste handling shaft (waste shaft) and the exhaust shaft. Fresh exposures of the Rustler in the shafts exhibited abundant primary sedimentary structures. The abundance of primary sedimentary structures observed in the shafts is unequaled in previously described sections. Data are reported here in their stratigraphic context as an initial basis for evaluation of depositional environments of the Rustler and reevaluating the role of dissolution in the formation of the Rustler. 10 refs

  7. Sandia Review of High Bridge Associates Report: Comparison of Plutonium Disposition Alternatives: WIPP Diluted Plutonium Storage and MOX Fuel Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Park, HeeHo Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The subject report from High Bridge Associates (HBA) was issued on March 2, 2016, in reaction to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program decision to pursue down-blending of surplus Pu and geologic disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sandia National Laboratories was requested by the DOE to review the technical arguments presented in the HBA report. Specifically, this review is organized around three technical topics: criticality safety, radiological release limits, and thermal impacts. Questions raised by the report pertaining to legal and regulatory requirements, safeguards and security, international agreements, and costing of alternatives, are beyond the scope of this review.

  8. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  9. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-01-01

    Use of nature's laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia

  10. A review of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Stochastic analysis of radionuclides travel times at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP), in New Mexico (U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla Roma, J. E.; Gomez-Hernandez, J. J.; Sahuquillo Herraiz, A.

    1999-01-01

    Multiple equally likely transmissivity fields that honor piezo metric head measurements are generated as input to a Monte-Carlo exercise, for the stochastic analysis of travel times in the Culebra dolomite overlaying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. Results of the analysis show the importance of modeling variable-density flow as accurately as possible, and of including as much information as possible in the simulations of alternative scenarios. Results also unveil a channel of high transmissivity when transmissivity fields are conditioned to piezo metric data. This channel leads to important reductions of travel time from the WIPP area to the south boundary. The uncertainty of the boundary conditions is analyzed searching for alternative boundary conditions can be obtained that improve the reproduction of piezo metric data and yield a reduction of the minimum travel times to the south boundary. Results of the Monte-Carlo exercise are compared with those from a deterministic analysis showing the limitations of the latter method when trying to estimate extreme values or characterizing the uncertainty of their predictions. The report ends with a brief study on the impact of the small transmissivity measurements at location P-18, showing that its value is not consistent with the model of spatial variability inferred from the data and that it has an important effect on model predictions. (Author)

  12. Stochastic analysis of radionuclides travel times at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP), in New Mexico (U. S. A. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla Roma, J E; Gomez-Hernandez, J J; Sahuquillo Herraiz, A [Universidad Politecnia de Valencia (Spain)

    1999-12-15

    Multiple equally likely transmissivity fields that honor piezo metric head measurements are generated as input to a Monte-Carlo exercise, for the stochastic analysis of travel times in the Culebra dolomite overlaying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. Results of the analysis show the importance of modeling variable-density flow as accurately as possible, and of including as much information as possible in the simulations of alternative scenarios. Results also unveil a channel of high transmissivity when transmissivity fields are conditioned to piezo metric data. This channel leads to important reductions of travel time from the WIPP area to the south boundary. The uncertainty of the boundary conditions is analyzed searching for alternative boundary conditions can be obtained that improve the reproduction of piezo metric data and yield a reduction of the minimum travel times to the south boundary. Results of the Monte-Carlo exercise are compared with those from a deterministic analysis showing the limitations of the latter method when trying to estimate extreme values or characterizing the uncertainty of their predictions. The report ends with a brief study on the impact of the small transmissivity measurements at location P-18, showing that its value is not consistent with the model of spatial variability inferred from the data and that it has an important effect on model predictions. (Author)

  13. Site selection and evaluation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Los Medanos, Eddy County, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-12-01

    Bedded-salt deposits of the Salado Formation have been selected for evaluation for a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in Eddy County, NM, approximately 26 mi east of Carlsbad. Site selection and evaluation studies that included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, drilling, and resource appraisal were conducted over and under the prospective location. The lower portion of the Salado meets essential criteria for waste isolation. Beds chosen for waste storage lie 2074 to 2730 ft below the surface. High-purity salt exists at these depths, and the geologic structure revealed by geophysical surveys indicates that these beds are essentially flat. Additional geophysical surveys are now under way. The initial interpretation of the new data indicates that more structure may exist in the salt beds in the northern portion of the site area. Full evaluation of potentially commercial deposits of potash and natural gas within the WIPP site will be reported by separate studies, as will be the hydrologic details of the region

  14. Solubility and sorption characteristics of uranium(VI) associated with rock samples and brines/groundwaters from WIPP and NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solubility measurements for U(VI) in WIPP-related brines/groundwaters were made using initial U(VI) concentrations in the range of 1 to 50 μg/ml. Distribution coefficients (Kd) for U(VI) were determined for Culebra and Magenta dolomites using four different brine/groundwater compositions and for argillaceous shale and hornfels samples from the Eleana and Calico Hills Formation on NTS using a groundwater simulant typical of that area. The Kd's were evaluated as functions of: (1) U(VI) concentration (1.4 x 10 -4 to 1.4 μg/ml); (2) solution volume-to-rock mass ratios used in the measurements (5 to 100 ml/g), and for WIPP material only; (3) water composition (0 to 100% brine in groundwater); and (4) sample location in the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler Formation. The results indicate that if groundwater intrudes into a repository and leaches a waste form, significant concentrations of dissolved or colloidal U(VI) could be maintained in the liquid phase. Should these solutions enter an aquifer system, there are reasonable sets of conditions which could lead to subsequent migration of U(VI) away from the repository site

  15. Design, modeling, and current interpretations of the H-19 and H-11 tracer tests at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, L.C.; Beauheim, R.L.; McCord, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.; Haggerty, R.

    1996-01-01

    Site-characterization studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico, US identified ground-water flow in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation as the most likely geologic pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the event of a breach of the WIPP repository through inadvertent human intrusion. The results of recent tracer tests, as well as hydraulic tests, laboratory measurements, and re-examination of Culebra geology and stratigraphy, have led to a significant refinement of the conceptual model for transport in the Culebra. Tracer test results and geologic observations suggest that flow occurs within fractures, and to some extent within interparticle porosity and vugs connected by microfractures. Diffusion occurs within all connected porosity. Numerical simulations suggest that the data from the tracer tests cannot be simulated with heterogeneous single-porosity models; significant matrix diffusion appears to be required. The low permeability and lack of significant tracer recovery from tracers injected into the upper Culebra suggest that transport primarily occurs in the lower Culebra

  16. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  17. Permeability of natural rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during damage evolution and healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive transuranic wastes. Four vertical shafts provide access to the underground workings located at a depth of about 660 meters. These shafts connect the underground facility to the surface and potentially provide communication between lithologic units, so they will be sealed to limit both the release of hazardous waste from and fluid flow into the repository. The seal design must consider the potential for fluid flow through a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that develops in the salt near the shafts. The DRZ, which forms initially during excavation and then evolves with time, is expected to have higher permeability than the native salt. The closure of the shaft openings (i.e., through salt creep) will compress the seals, thereby inducing a compressive back-stress on the DRZ. This back-stress is expected to arrest the evolution of the DRZ, and with time will promote healing of damage. This paper presents laboratory data from tertiary creep and hydrostatic compression tests designed to characterize damage evolution and healing in WIPP salt. Healing is quantified in terms of permanent reduction in permeability, and the data are used to estimate healing times based on considerations of first-order kinetics

  18. How newspapers began to blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    of technologists (project managers, computer programers, information architects, etc.) that are increasingly integral to how legacy media organizations operate in a new and ever more convergent media environment under circumstances of great economic uncertainty, and discuss the wider implications for how we......In this article, I examine how ‘old’ media organizations develop ‘new’ media technologies by analyzing processes of technological innovation in two Danish newspaper companies that integrated blogs into their websites in very different ways in 2007. Drawing on concepts from science and technology...... studies and sociology and building on previous research on blogging by news media organizations, I analyze how the three different communities involved in the development process – journalists and managers, but also the often-overlooked community of technologists – articulated different versions of what...

  19. When the atomic age began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    2 December 1942, just twenty-five years ago, is the date most often proclaimed as marking the beginning of the atomic age. On that day Enrico Fermi's atomic 'pile' went critical - man had achieved the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. This achievement is an outstanding example of how modern science can work. It had been predicted in theory, calculated in advance and finally realised through the work of large teams of scientists, headed by some of the most imaginative personalities of our century. The military aspects of man-made nuclear chain reaction still dominate our world today. However, within this quarter of a century, nuclear energy has also become significant as a source of power for peaceful purposes. By the end of another quarter of a century it will, according to the best forecasts we can make today, produce a major part of the electricity in the world. The control of nuclear fission was initiated by Fermi and his collaborators. It had a tremendous impact on politics, on concepts of warfare and finally on scientific progress for man's welfare. Fifteen years afterwards the International Atomic Energy Agency was created to promote the peaceful uses of the new technology and to assist in winning the advantages it offered for improving health and prosperity. Another of its great objects is to ensure, as far as possible, that nuclear materials intended for peaceful purposes shall not be diverted to military ends. The hope of the world must be that this, one day, will include all nuclear materials

  20. A comparison of real-time radiography results and visual characterization results with emphasis on WIPP WAC and TRAMPAC compliance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Visual characterization provides a means of confirming the real-time radiography (RTR) certification process and process knowledge. RTR and visual characterization have been conducted on thirty-three drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program (WETP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) detected a small can of liquid in one of these drums during the visual examination, resulting in a WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) miscertification. The remaining thirty-two drums were certified correctly by the RTR system at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) for WIPP-WAC and TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC) requirements. TRAMPAC contains restrictions on the weights of specific materials allowed in the waste, based on the shipping category. Items on the restricted list for a given shipping category are allowed in quantities less than 1 percent of the weight of the waste. RTR can estimate the weights of certain broad categories in homogeneous waste forms, however, the capability to estimate weights at the 1 percent level is not presently realistic. Process knowledge forms the basis of conformance to these weight requirements. Visual characterization suggests process knowledge is not completely adequate at this level

  1. Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.D.; Burness, H.S.; Norton, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

  2. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  3. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed

  4. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  5. WIPP WAC Equivalence Support Measurements for Low-Level Sludge Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) as an off-site disposal facility for low-level waste (LLW), including sludge waste. NNSS has issued a position paper that indicates that systems that are not certified by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste must demonstrate equivalent practices to the CBFO certified systems in order to assign activity concentration values to assayed items without adding in the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) when certifying waste for NNSS disposal. Efforts have been made to meet NNSS requirements to accept sludge waste for disposal at their facility. The LANL LLW Characterization Team uses portable high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of both debris and sludge LLW. A number of performance studies have been conducted historically by LANL to support the efficacy and quality of assay results generated by the LANL HPGe systems, and, while these detector systems are supported by these performance studies and used with LANL approved procedures and processes, they are not certified by CBFO for TRU waste disposal. Beginning in 2009, the LANL LLW Characterization Team undertook additional NDA measurements of both debris and sludge simulated waste containers to supplement existing studies and procedures to demonstrate full compliance with the NNSS position paper. Where possible, Performance Demonstration Project (PDP) drums were used for the waste matrix and PDP sources were used for the radioactive sources. Sludge drums are an example of a matrix with a uniform distribution of contaminants. When attempting to perform a gamma assay of a sludge drum, it is very important to adequately simulate this uniform distribution of radionuclides in order to accurately model the assay results. This was accomplished by using a spiral radial source tube placement in a sludge drum rather than the standard

  6. Hydrologic analyses of two brine encounters in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1982-12-01

    The data from ERDA-6 indicates a naturally fractured reservoir of the two-porosity type. The best estimate of the volume is about 60 thousand to 120 thousand barrels. The data from WIPP-12 also indicates a naturally fractured reservoir of the two-porosity type. The best estimate of the volume is about 5 million to 10 million barrels. The excess pressure above hydrostatic pressure suggests that the reservoirs were formed many millions of years ago. The location of the fractures suggest that their formation may be connected to the tilting of the Delaware Basin as a unit. The effect of the flow testing data on a drilling scenario through the repository many years following its closure is evaluated

  7. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P.

    2000-01-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Chapter D, Appendices D4--D13: Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report (Vol. 6) for the WIPP facility contains appendices on the following information: Site characterization; general geology; ecological monitoring; and chemical compatibility of waste forms and container materials.

  9. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  10. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs

  11. INTRAVAL Phase 2 WIPP 1 test case report: Modeling of brine flow through halite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the WIPP 1 test case studied as part of INTRAVAL, an international project to study validation of geosphere transport models. The WIPP 1 test case involved simulation of measured brine-inflow rates to boreholes drilled into the halite strata surrounding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. The goal of the test case was to evaluate the use of Darcy's law to describe brine flow through halite. The general approach taken was to try to obtain values of permeability and specific capacitance that would be: (1) consistent with other available data and (2) able to provide reasonable simulations of all of the brine-inflow experiments performed in the Salado Formation. All of the teams concluded that the average permeability of the halite strata penetrated by the holes was between approximately 10 -22 and 10 -21 m 2 . Specific capacitances greater than 10 -10 Pa -1 are inconsistent with the known constitutive properties of halite and are attributed to deformation, possibly ongoing, of the halite around the WIPP excavations. All project teams found that Darcy-flow models could replicate the experimental data in a consistent and reasonable manner. Discrepancies between the data and simulations are attributed to inadequate representation in the models of processes modifying the pore-pressure field in addition to the experiments themselves, such as ongoing deformation of the rock around the excavations. Therefore, the conclusion from the test case is that Darcy-flow models can reliably be used to predict brine flow to WIPP excavations, provided that the flow modeling is coupled with measurement and realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field around the excavations. This realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field would probably require coupling to a geomechanical model of the stress evolution around the repository

  12. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant]/SRL in situ tests: Part 2, Pictorial history of MIIT [Materials Interface Interactions Tests] and final MIIT matrices, assemblies, and sample listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Weinle, M.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In situ testing of Savannah River Plant [SRP] waste glass is an important component in ensuring technical and public confidence in the safety and effective performance of the wasteforms. Savannah River Laboratory [SRL] is currently involved in joint programs involving field testing of SRP waste in Sweden, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Most recently, this in situ effort has been expanded to include the first field tests to be conducted in the United States, involving burial of a variety of simulated nuclear waste systems. This new effort, called the Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT, is a program jointly conducted by Sandia National Laboratory/Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] and SRL. Over 1800 samples, supplied by the United States, France, West Germany, Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the United Kingdom, were buried approximately 650m below the earth's surface in the salt geology at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program is one of the largest cooperative efforts ever undertaken in the waste management field; the data produced from these tests are designed to benefit a wide cross-section of the waste management community. An earlier document provided an overview of the WIPP MIIT program and described its place in the waste glass assessment program at Savannah River. This document represents the second in this series and its objectives include: (1) providing a pictorial history of assembly and installation of wasteforms, metals, and geologic samples in WIPP; (2) providing 'finalized and completed' sample matrices for the entire 7-part MIIT program; (3) documenting final sample assemblies by the use of schematic drawings, including each sample, its orientation, and its environment; and (4) providing a complete listing of all samples and the means for managing analyses and resulting data

  13. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

  14. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  15. Deformation of evaporites near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Barrows, L.J.; Powers, D.W.; Snyder, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    Layered evaporite units of Ochoan age in the Delaware Basin are 1000 m thick. They are divided into three stratigraphic units (listed in order of increasing age): the Rustler Formation, the Salado Formation, the Castile Formation. These units, especially the Castile, are deformed along portions of the margin of the Delaware Basin and in some areas internal to the basin. Hypotheses of origin of deformation considered are: gravity foundering; gravity sliding; gypsum dehydration; dissolution; and depositional variations. Gravity foundering and sliding are considered the most probable causes of deformation. However, no hypothesis adequately answers why the deformation has a limited areal distribution. A possible explanation would be areal variations in rock strength caused by variations of intergranular water content. Age and timing of deformation are also crucial. Standard stratigraphic arguments based on superposition may not apply to such a highly incompetent material as halite. Gravity foundering could have happened at any time since deposition including the present; gravity sliding would probably have occurred since basin tilting began in the Cenozoic. Deformation could be ongoing. However, the strain rates are such (10 - 16 s - 1 ) that deformation would progress slowly relative to the facility's time frame of 2.5 x 10 5 y. Deformation of Salado units would be minimal ( 4 to 10 6 y to develop. At these strain rates, fractures that connect the fractured anhydrites of the Castile with the middle Salado could not develop. Deformation should not directly jeopardize the facility over the next 2.5 x 10 5 y

  16. Hydraulic Characterization Activities in Support of the Shaft-Seals Fluid-Flow Modeling Integration into the WIPP EPA Compliance Certification Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M.K.; Hurtado, L.D.; Dale, Tim

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a planned geologic repository for permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by the U.S. Department of Energy. Disposal regions consist of panels and drifts mined from the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of approximately 650 m below the surface. This lithology is part of the 225 million year old Delaware Basin, and is geographically located in southeastern New Mexico. Four shafts service the facility needs for air intake, exhaust, waste handling, and salt handling. As the science advisor for the project, Sandia National Laboratories developed the WIPP shaft sealing system design. This design is a fundamental component of the application process for facility licensing, and has been found acceptable by stakeholders and regulatory agencies. The seal system design is founded on results obtained from laboratory and field experiments, numerical modeling, and engineering judgment. This paper describes a field test program to characterize the fluid flow properties in the WIPP shafts at representative seal locations. This work was conducted by Duke Engineering and Services under contract to Sandia National Laboratories in support of the seal system design

  17. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  18. Probabilistic modelling of gas generation in nuclear waste repositories under consideration of new studies performed at the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.; Wilhelm, S.; Poppei, J.

    2012-01-01

    consequences for calculations in long-term safety analyses are discussed. Recent experimental studies from WIPP have provided new quantitative results concerning the rates of microbial degradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to the methodology and selected results, this contribution provides a comparison to the experimental results from WIPP and an evaluation of the results under consideration of the previously used degradation rates. (authors)

  19. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  20. Pressure and density measurements of selected fluid-bearing zones at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstanley, D.; Carrasco, R.; Zurkoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    A field effort is presently being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to collect accurate pressure and density information from the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler formation. The spatial variation of fluid density that occurs in these water-bearing units requires the use of numerical models to accurately solve for flow direction and velocity. The groundwater regime is a vital element in possible release scenarios of radionuclide-bearing fluid from the repository. Field tests were conducted on four wells utilizing a testing apparatus composed of two pressure and temperature monitoring systems and a point water sampler. Pressure versus depth plots are linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 or greater. Comparison of the calculated density and measured density of water obtained at depth agree within 2 percent of density measurements obtained after continuous pumping of the formation for several days before sampling. The temperature gradients ranged from 0.4 0 to 0.6 0 C per 100 feet. The data presented here are preliminary and serve as developmental information for the detailed operating plan currently under preparation

  1. Radionuclide release, transport, and consequence modeling for WIPP: a report of a workshop held on September 16-17, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss potential mechanisms for release of radionuclides from the WIPP repository years after waste emplacement and termination of institutional controls, and the resultant radiological consequences. Opportunity was also provided for the exchange of information on meaningful release and transport models, and the availability, reliability and significance of data for the parameters applicable to those models. Other than those scenarios provided in draft by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) (Appendix II), there were no new breach scenarios postulated. Also there were no major objections posed to the EEG proposals or the approaches taken in these drafts. Although there were no formal conclusions highlighted by the Conference, the EEG has concluded that the statements below provide a summary of EEG's views concerning the topics covered. These views are based upon the discussions at the Conference, the subsequent comments of the conferees, the information provided in the preceding EEG sponsored geological meeting and field trip, and the information contained in the EEG draft reports

  2. Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

    1983-04-01

    The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal

  3. Interpretation of wireline geophysical logs. ERDA No. 9 stratigraphic test borehole, DOE WIPP Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.; McWhirter, V.C.

    1981-02-01

    A stratigraphic core hole known as ERDA No. 9 was drilled at the approximate center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site located east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The hole was continuously cored from 1090 to 2887 feet, the total depth of the hole. A suite of 20 wireline geophysical logs were made under open hole conditions over the cored interval. Recording in the field was by analog strip charts. The records were subsequently digitized at 0.5 foot intervals with the data placed on magnetic tape. A simple computer program was devised to interpret rock type and calculate elastic properties based on the digital data. All of the data is available in convenient digital form, and additional computer-assisted analysis is now possible to describe the detailed stratigraphy of the evaporites penetrated in ERDA No. 9. The analysis performed thus far is in excellent agreement with physical examination of the core. The main advantage of correlating the wireline geophysical logs with core is to provide a better basis for using wireline logs to describe rock conditions either in future holes drilled by the simpler rotary method or where core has been lost in cored holes

  4. Analysis of tracer tests with multirate diffusion models: recent results and future directions within the WIPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Meigs, L.C.; Altman, S.J.; Haggerty, R.

    1998-01-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basis physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations. An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results

  5. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1: Volume 5, Engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The WRAP facility at Hanford will retrieve, process, certify transuranic, mixed, and low level radioactive wastes for disposal/either on-site or at the WIPP. The Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving And Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP 1), established the technical benchmark. The UE ampersand C Engineering Proposal/Work Plan proposed twenty Evaluation/Optimization Engineering Studies to evaluate design alternatives and critically examine functional performance requirements prior to commencement of Preliminary Design. Of these twenty studies, one has been eliminated as unnecessary (The Use of Scintered Metal Filters) due mainly to the lack of National Standards and to the fact that standard HEPA type filters are totally adequate for WRAP application. This report presents an executive summary of the remaining nineteen studies

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter E, Appendix E1, Chapter L, Appendix L1: Volume 12, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility.

  7. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  8. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  9. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  10. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  11. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOENEMAN, J. LEE; SMARTT, HEIDI ANNE; HOFER, DENNIS

    2000-01-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements

  12. Dissolution of evaporites and its possible impact on the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a breach of the WIPP TRU waste repository, as a result of dissolution processes were shown to be in two broad classes. Most of the possible scenarieos that could happen as a result of the deep dissolution processes were shown to be addressed by the scenarios already presented elsewhere or are being investigated at the present. The remaining possible scenarios, except one, showed that the possible release of radionuclides through the geosphere to the biosphere would take periods of time orders-of-magnitude longer than the half-life of Plutonium-239. The one not specifically addressed, a postulated hydralogic pathway with the characteristics of the Salado/Castile interface aquifer, appears unlikely. However, it should be quantified when more data become available. To obtain a better understanding of the radiological health effects of the deep dissolution-caused breach of the repository, emphasis must be placed on better evaluation and refinement of the existing mathematical models and associated parameters. In the majority of the existing scenarios the most significant pathway of the radionuclide through the geosphere to the biosphere is the dolomitic Magenta and Culebra aquifers. Because these formations are fractured, mathematical modeling of radionuclide transport is subject to a large degree of uncertainty. Other uncertainties that relate to this pathway which need further study are: (a) the possibility of having more permeable abandoned mined potash tunnels as a part of the radionuclide flow path and (b) the outcrops of the Magenta and Culebra formations in Nash Draw, 11 km (7 mi) before the outlet to the Pecos River at Malaga Bend. The problems associated with the quantifications of these uncertainties as well as the effects of long-term climatic and hydrologic changes and hydrogeological data requirements of the models should be further addressed

  13. WIPP supplementary roof support system, Room 1, Panel 1: Geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991, Waste Isolation Division (WID) initiated the design effort to develop a supplementary roof support system to extend the life of Room 1, Panel 1, to allow successful completion of the bin-scale test program. A number of potential options for ground control were considered leading to the finalization of the currently installed roof support system. This highly instrumented system is ''state of the art'' for mine ground control and will provide extensive geotechnical data. The system is an innovative blend of several standard techniques and incorporates five of the suggestions made by the Geotechnical Panel in its report of June 1991, on the effective life of Rooms in Panel 1. The design was subjected to an exhaustive scrutiny by two formal Design Review Panels and was approved based on reviewed design documents, on-site observations at the WIPP underground facility, and detailed discussions with members of the design team. The original requirement was to have only a section of the room completed in October in preparation for first waste receipt. This goal was met and the relatively complex installation in the entire room was completed in December 1991. The Support System, with all its instrumentation, is now fully operational and generating geotechnical data. Examination of extensometer, closure and load cell data indicate that Room support is performing within the design parameters. All the anchors were initially loaded to approximately 445 kN (1000 lbs). The results of load cell monitoring indicates a steady increase of load on the rock bolts. The anchors installed near the room centerline have shown the greatest increase with the outermost anchors showing little or no load

  14. Two-well recirculation tracer tests at the H-2 hydropad, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Two recirculation tracer tests were performed on the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the H-2 hydropad at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The first test, which used pentafluorobenzoate (PFB), sodium benzoate, and a suite of halocarbons for tracers, was terminated before breakthrough at the pumping well because of equipment failure. The second test, which used sodium thiocyanate (SCN) and difluorochlorobromomethane (BCF) as tracers, proceeded normally and lasted 270 days. During the second test, the tracer injected during the first test was recovered. Tracer test analyses for the two tests were performed only for the PFB tracer injected during the first test and recovered during the second, and for SCN. Analysis of the PFB recovery was crudely modeled as a one-dimensional pulse-injection test. The SCN tracer used in the second test was analyzed with the homogeneous, isotropic Grove and Beetem one-dimensional porous-medium recirculating flow test model. In general, model predictions are in poor agreement with the field measurements. Discrepancies could be produced by the combined effects of local nonhomogeneities, matrix diffusion, and possible sorption or degradation of the tracer during the test. The best overall match between the SCN breakthrough curve predicted by the semianalytical model and that observed in measurements was achieved using a porosity that ranged from 17% to 19% and a dispersivity of 16 to 18 ft. A match based only on the early part of the breakthrough curve, however, yielded a porosity of 11.5% and a dispersivity of 8 ft. The latter porosity might more closely represent the effective porosity of the Culebra, if the SCN degraded during the test

  15. Natural-analog studies for partial validation of conceptual models of radionuclide retardation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.; Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Transport by groundwater within the Culebra Dolomite, an aquifer above the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), is the most probable mechanism for long-term release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Radionuclides could be retarded by sorption if the groundwater is exposed to sufficient amounts of fracture-lining clays. In this natural-analog study, distributions of U and trace metals have been examined to constrain the strength of clay/solute interactions within the Culebra. Uranium solid/liquid distribution ratios, calculated from U concentrations of groundwaters and consanguineous fracture-filling clays, range from ∼80 to 800 m ell/g and imply retardation factors of 60 to 500 using a fracture-flow model. Retardation factors inferred from uranium-series disequilibria and 14 C ages in Culebra groundwaters alone are much lower (∼10), implying that clays may contain a significant unreactive component of U. Such a possibility is corroborated by Rb/Sr ages; these imply long-term stability of the clays,with resetting occurring more than 250 Ma ago. Factor analysis and mass-balance calculations suggest, however, that Mg-rich clays are dissolving in Pleistocene-age groundwaters and/or are converting to Na-rich smectites, and that B and Li are taken up from the water by the clays. Apparently, the solution chemistry reflects gradual equilibration of clays with groundwater, but thus far the bulk of the clays remain structurally intact. Measurements of the distribution of U in the Culebra will be more meaningful if the inert and exchangeable components of the U content of the clays can be quantified. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Analysis of Tracer Tests with Multirate Diffusion Models: Recent Results and Future Directions within the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALTMAN, SUSAN J.; HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A.; MEIGS, LUCY C.

    1999-01-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basic physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations (H-11 and H-19 hydropads). An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results

  17. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  18. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste Isolation Pilot Plants (WIPP). March 1978-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for Mar 78-Nov 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, along with research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 184 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Well bore Flow Treatment Used to Predict Radioactive Brine Releases to the Surface from Future Drilling Penetrations into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brien, D.G.O.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Hadgu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) mined geologic repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA.This site is designed for the permanent burial of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense related activities.The waste produces gases when exposed to brine. This gas generation may result in increased pressures over time. Therefore, a future driller that unknowingly penetrates through the site may experience a blowout. This paper describes the methodology used to predict the resultant volumes of contaminated brine released

  20. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  1. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  2. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  3. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  4. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 5, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Neville G.W.; Heuze, Francois E.; Miller, Hamish D.S.; Thoms, Robert L.

    1993-03-01

    The reference design for the underground facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was developed using the best criteria available at initiation of the detailed design effort. These design criteria are contained in the US Department of Energy document titled Design Criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA), Rev. 4, dated February 1984. The validation process described in the Design Validation Final Report has resulted in validation of the reference design of the underground openings based on these criteria. Future changes may necessitate modification of the Design Criteria document and/or the reference design. Validation of the reference design as presented in this report permits the consideration of future design or design criteria modifications necessitated by these changes or by experience gained at the WIPP. Any future modifications to the design criteria and/or the reference design will be governed by a DOE Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) covering underground design changes. This procedure will explain the process to be followed in describing, evaluating and approving the change.

  6. Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1981-09-01

    As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report

  7. Stable isotopic study of soil water from the WIPP site: Constraints on the origin of water in the Rustler Fm, Delaware Basin, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.R.; Vanlandingham, R.J.; Phillips, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Rustler Fm. overlies the salt beds in Salado Fm. in which the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is being developed. The water in the Rustler Fm. aquifers have been the subject of various studies, including stable isotopes. Lambert and Harvey note that the Rustler waters all have δD below -43% whereas the other young ground waters in the region have δD's above 41%. They conclude that the water in the Rustler is not from modern recharge but is fossil water from a past climatic regime. Chapman on the other hand concludes that waters on Carlsbad Caverns are isotopically heavier than the Rustler water due to cave evaporation, and thus the Rustler water could be from modern recharge. The two different interpretations have very different implications for the hydrological characterization of the WIPP site. In order to further study this issue the authors have collected six shallow cores from the unconsolidated sand in the vicinity of WIPP. Water was extracted from each sample by vacuum distillation. For these samples the projected meteoric waters would have δD values in the range of -45 to -55%. This falls well within the range of the δD values for the Rustler Fm. From this the author concludes that the Rustler water could result from modern precipitation, although not from infiltration through a soil where evaporation is active. Soil waters may provide important isotopic constraints on the origins of water in regional aquifer systems

  8. Laboratory creep and mechanical tests on salt data report (1975-1996): Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) thermal/structural interactions program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility located in a bedded salt formation in Carlsbad, New Mexico, is being used by the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate the technology for safe handling and disposal of transuranic wastes produced by defense activities in the United States. In support of that demonstration, mechanical tests on salt were conducted in the laboratory to characterize material behavior at the stresses and temperatures expected for a nuclear waste repository. Many of those laboratory test programs have been carried out in the RE/SPEC Inc. rock mechanics laboratory in Rapid City, South Dakota; the first program being authorized in 1975 followed by additional testing programs that continue to the present. All of the WIPP laboratory data generated on salt at RE/SPEC Inc. over the last 20 years is presented in this data report. A variety of test procedures were used in performance of the work including quasi-static triaxial compression tests, constant stress (creep) tests, damage recovery tests, and multiaxial creep tests. The detailed data is presented in individual plots for each specimen tested. Typically, the controlled test conditions applied to each specimen are presented in a plot followed by additional plots of the measured specimen response. Extensive tables are included to summarize the tests that were performed. Both the tables and the plots contain cross-references to the technical reports where the data were originally reported. Also included are general descriptions of laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures used to perform the work.

  9. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  10. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  11. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  12. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  13. Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Expósito i Amagat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6 Review to  Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6

  14. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  15. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  16. Studies of transuranic waste storage under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Interim summary report, October 1, 1977-June 15, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Barraclough, B.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1980-01-01

    The major focus of the program has been on the gas generation potential of organic wastes produced by radiolytic and thermal degradation under simulated WIPP storage conditions. The effects of TRU contamination level, temperature, waste type, pressure, and exposure time on radiolysis are presented. In addition, results from preliminary experiments on processed sludge dewatering are discussed. A summary is presented here of the results of a detailed study of all retrievably stored TRU wastes present at LASL before January 1, 1978. The data indicate a gross volume for the LASL inventory of 1610 m 3 with a total weight of nearly 1.24 x 10 6 kg (1240 metric tonnes). The dominant radionuclide contents of the waste are plutonium (primarily 238 Pu) and americium

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The US Department of Energy is currently constructing the Waste Isolation Pilot near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The full-scale pilot plant will demonstrate the feasibility of the safe disposal of defense-related nuclear waste in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2160 feet below the surface. WIPP will provide for the permanent storage of 25,000 cu ft of remote-handled (RH) transuranic waste and 6,000,000 cu ft of contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste. This paper covers the major mechanical/structural design considerations for the waste hoist and its hoist tower structure. The design of the hoist system and safety features incorporates state-of-the-art technology developed in the hoist and mining industry to ensure safe operation for transporting nuclear waste underground. Also included are design specifications for VOC-10 monitoring system.

  18. Potential microbial impact on transuranic wastes under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.; Campbell, E.W.; Martinez, E.; Caldwell, D.E.; Hallett, R.

    1980-07-01

    Previous results were confirmed showing elevated frequencies of radiation-resistant bacteria in microorganisms isolated from shallow transuranic (TRU) burial soil that exhibits nanocurie levels of beta and gamma radioactivity. Research to determine whether plutonium could be methylated by the microbially produced methyl donor, methylcobalamine, was terminated when literature and consulting radiochemists confirmed that other alkylated transuranic elements are extremely short-lived in the presence of oxygen. Emphasis was placed on investigation of the dissolution of plutonium dioxide by complex formation between plutonium and a polyhydroxamate chelate similar to that produced by microorganisms. New chromatographic and spectrophotometric evidence supports previous results showing enhanced dissolution of alpha radioactivity when 239 Pu dioxide was mixed with the chelate Desferol. Microbial degradation studies of citrate, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), and nitrilo triacetate (NTA) chelates of europium are in progress. Current results are summarized. All of the chelates were found to degrade. The average half-life for citrate, NTA, and EDTA was 3.2, 8.0, and 28 years, respectively. Microbial CO 2 generation is also in progress in 72 tests on several waste matrices under potential WIPP isolation conditions. The mean rate of gas generation was 5.97 μg CO 2 /g waste/day. Increasing temperature increased rates of microbial gas generation across treatments of brine, varying water content, nutrient additions, and anaerobic conditions. No microbial growth was detected in experiments to enumerate and identify the microorganisms in rocksalt cores from the proposed WIPP site. This report contains the year's research results and recommendations derived for the design of safe storage of TRU wastes under geologic repository conditions

  19. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  20. Satisfying story of how it all began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    {sup N}ow this 'Big Bang' idea seemed to me to be unsatisfactory...for it is an irrational process that cannot be described in scientific terms.' With this rather derisory remark (or at least so intended) in a 1950 radio broadcast, Fred Hoyle named the theory that rivalled his steady-state theory. The Big Bang has subsequently become the dominant paradigm in attempts to understand our universe. It is also one of the dominant ways in which popular-science writing seeks to persuade people to part with their cash. Simon Singh has rapidly made a name for himself as one of the leading popularizers of science, with his previous books Fermat's Last Theorem and The Code Book bringing accessible science to a wide audience . Big Bang brings him to a much busier marketplace, where he must compete both with other science writers and with working scientists. (U.K.)

  1. The day the Internet age began

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerf, Vinton G

    2009-01-01

    Forty years ago today the first message was sent between computers on the ARPANET. Vinto G. Cerf, who was a principal programmer on the project, reflects on how our online world was shaped by its innovative origins. (2 pages)

  2. The Geneva conference - How it began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  3. The Geneva conference - How it began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  4. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography

  5. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  6. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  7. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  8. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  9. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  10. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  11. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  12. Quarter-scale modeling of room convergence effects on CH [contact-handled] TRU drum waste emplacements using WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] reference design geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandeKraats, J.

    1987-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of horizontal room convergence on CH waste packages emplaced in the WIPP Reference Design geometry (rooms 13 feet high by 33 feet wide, with minus 3/8 inch screened backfill emplaced over and around the waste packages) as a function of time. Based on two tests, predictions were made with regard to full-scale 6-packs emplaced in the Reference Design geometry. These are that load will be transmitted completely through the stack within the first five years after waste emplacement and all drums in all 6-packs will be affected; that virtually all drums will show some deformation eight years after emplacement; that some drums may breach before the eighth year after emplacement has elapsed; and that based on criteria developed during testing, it is predicted that 1% of the drums emplaced will be breached after 8 years and, after 15 years, approximately 12% of the drums are predicted to be breached. 8 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1990-11-01

    Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  14. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  15. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  16. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  17. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  18. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance.

  19. The role of regional groundwater flow in the hydrogeology of the Culebra member of the Rustler formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbet, T.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, P.M. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to enhance conceptual understanding, of the hydrogeology of the Culebra Dolomite in the context of regional groundwater flow. The hydrogeology is of interest because this unit is a possible pathway for offsite migration of radionuclides from a proposed repository for defense-generated transuranic wastes (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The numerical model used is three-dimensional, extends laterally to topographic features that form the actual boundaries of a regional groundwater system, and uses a free-surface upper boundary condition to simulate the effect of change in the rate of recharge on groundwater flow. Steady-state simulations were performed to examine the sensitivity of simulation results to assumed values for hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Transient simulations, covering the time period from 14,000 years in the past to 10,000 years in the future, provided insight into how patterns of groundwater flow respond to changes in climate. Simulation results suggest that rates and directions of Groundwater flow in the Culebra change with time due to interaction between recharge, movement of the water table, and the topography of the land surface. The gentle east-to-west slope of the land surface in the vicinity of the WIPP caused groundwater in the Culebra to flow toward and discharge into Nash Draw, a topographic depression. Modern-day flow directions in the Culebra reflect regional rather than local features of the topography. Changes in Groundwater flow, however, lagged behind changes in the rate of recharge. The present-day position of the water table is still adjusting to the decrease in recharge that ended 8,000 years ago. Contaminants introduced into the Culebra will travel toward the accessible environment along the Culebra rather than by leaking upward or downward into other units. Natural changes in flow over the next 10,000 years will be small and will mainly reflect future short-term wet periods.

  20. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the open-quotes reportedclose quotes failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes. In many instances the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular open-quotes reoperational checkclose quotes tests, the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table

  1. The role of regional groundwater flow in the hydrogeology of the Culebra member of the Rustler formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, T.F.; Knupp, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to enhance conceptual understanding, of the hydrogeology of the Culebra Dolomite in the context of regional groundwater flow. The hydrogeology is of interest because this unit is a possible pathway for offsite migration of radionuclides from a proposed repository for defense-generated transuranic wastes (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The numerical model used is three-dimensional, extends laterally to topographic features that form the actual boundaries of a regional groundwater system, and uses a free-surface upper boundary condition to simulate the effect of change in the rate of recharge on groundwater flow. Steady-state simulations were performed to examine the sensitivity of simulation results to assumed values for hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Transient simulations, covering the time period from 14,000 years in the past to 10,000 years in the future, provided insight into how patterns of groundwater flow respond to changes in climate. Simulation results suggest that rates and directions of Groundwater flow in the Culebra change with time due to interaction between recharge, movement of the water table, and the topography of the land surface. The gentle east-to-west slope of the land surface in the vicinity of the WIPP caused groundwater in the Culebra to flow toward and discharge into Nash Draw, a topographic depression. Modern-day flow directions in the Culebra reflect regional rather than local features of the topography. Changes in Groundwater flow, however, lagged behind changes in the rate of recharge. The present-day position of the water table is still adjusting to the decrease in recharge that ended 8,000 years ago. Contaminants introduced into the Culebra will travel toward the accessible environment along the Culebra rather than by leaking upward or downward into other units. Natural changes in flow over the next 10,000 years will be small and will mainly reflect future short-term wet periods

  2. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance

  3. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

  4. Analysis of pumping tests of the Culebra dolomite conducted at the H-11 hydropad at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation was hydrologically evaluated in a series of pumping tests conducted at the H-11 hydropad at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. At H-11, the Culebra dolomite is a 25-ft thick argillaceous dolomite with 0.1- to 0.5-foot thick layers with a high density of vugs. The vugs range in size from 0.1 to 0.5 inches in diameter; most are 0.1 to 0.2 inches in diameter. The thin vuggy layers alternate with thicker, more competent layers which have few vugs, but which do contain high-angle fractures. Some of the vugs and fractures are gypsum-filled. Three pumping tests consisted of 12- to 21-hour pumping periods at each of the three wells, while using the other two wells at the hydropad as observation wells. An additional pumping test was conducted at H-11b3 with H-11b1 and H-11b2 as observation wells. The test was a 32-day multirate test with four pumping and recovery periods. The original tests were conducted by lowering a submersible pump and pressure transducers in the boreholes. The additional test added a downhole packer with feed-through assembly designed to isolate the test interval and reduce or minimize the effect of wellbore storage. The data from all tests were recorded and stored on floppy disks. The pumping tests at the H-11 hydropad were analyzed with the INTERPRET reservoir-analysis software. 46 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Revised Earthquake Catalog and Relocated Hypocenters Near Fluid Injection Wells and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, S.; Bilek, S. L.; Garcia, K.

    2014-12-01

    Induced seismicity is a class of crustal earthquakes resulting from human activities such as surface and underground mining, impoundment of reservoirs, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground cavities. Within the Permian basin in southeastern New Mexico lies an active area of oil and gas production, as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic nuclear waste repository located just east of Carlsbad, NM. Small magnitude earthquakes have been recognized in the area for many years, recorded by a network of short period vertical component seismometers operated by New Mexico Tech. However, for robust comparisons between the seismicity patterns and the injection well locations and rates, improved locations and a more complete catalog over time are necessary. We present results of earthquake relocations for this area by using data from the 3-component broadband EarthScope Flexible Array SIEDCAR experiment that operated in the area between 2008-2011. Relocated event locations tighten into a small cluster of ~38 km2, approximately 10 km from the nearest injection wells. The majority of events occurred at 10-12 km depth, given depth residuals of 1.7-3.6 km. We also present a newly developed more complete catalog of events from this area by using a waveform cross-correlation algorithm and the relocated events as templates. This allows us to detect smaller magnitude events that were previously undetected with the short period network data. The updated earthquake catalog is compared with geologic maps and cross sections to identify possible fault locations. The catalog is also compared with available well data on fluid injection and production. Our preliminary results suggest no obvious connection between seismic moment release, fluid injection, or production given the available monthly industry data. We do see evidence in the geologic and well data of previously unidentified faults in the area.

  6. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, J. W.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) signal injection scheme. Measurements show that the HEB mixer stability is limited by gain fluctuations with a 1/f spectral distribution. In a 60 MHz noise bandwidth this results in an Allan varian...

  7. Remark on receiving encouraging prize; Shoreisho jusho shokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Tomichika [Meji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-31

    The 1998 fiscal year Japan Solar Energy Soc. encouraging prize is received this time, and it is really sure of thank you and this winning prize for future research activity with large encouragement, while research activity in the university becomes in the good commemoration. This study also put environmental problem in visual field oil crisis energy resource worldwide new, and it was noticed in the wave energy which was one of the natural energy, it was started. That the wave energy was noticed, when the research of various natural energy was advanced, Over 10 years, it is the idea which was produced by the process in which the mechanics laboratory studies the vibration problem, and it is regarded as connecting with present winning prize as a summing-up of research result kept since the front. In the keyword of 'new{exclamation_point}' it began to leave Mr.Taichi Matsuoka and cooperation of the science graduate student as a partner of the graduation thesis the research the present it was a start from the nothing as a thing of this type. It is negative to advance this study in which the failure was always given here, when the new work began, of Mr.Matsuoka of the passion for the research. Away from the research of the wave power generation, solar light and wind power generation are noticed a little, and I aim at the hybridization of the wave power generation, and the research is advanced. Therefore, the vibration-proof stage for installing sun and wind energy conversion system on the wave-power device at present has been designed. At the end, the gratitude is shown to the everybody who received the enthusiastic guidance for this study. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  9. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  10. Large-scale use of solar energy with central receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1983-12-01

    The working principles of solar central receiver power plants are outlined and applications are discussed. Heliostat arrays direct sunlight into a receiver cavity mounted on a tower, heating the working fluid in the tower to temperatures exceeding 500 C. The formulation for the image plane and the geometric concentration ratio for a heliostat field are provided, noting that commercial electric power plants will require concentration ratios of 200-1000. Automated controls consider imperfections in the mirrors, tracking errors, and seasonal insolation intensity and angular variations. Membranes may be used instead of rigid heliostat mirrors to reduce costs, while trade-offs exist between the efficiencies of cavity and exterior receivers on the tower. Sensible heat storage has proved most effective for cloudy or nighttime operations. Details of the DOE Solar One 10 MW plant, which began operation in 1982, are provided, with mention given to the 33.6 continuous hours of power generation that have been achieved. Projected costs of commercial installations are $700/kWt, and possible applications include recovering and refining oil, processing natural gas, uranium ore, and sugar cane, drying gypsum board, and manufacturing ammonia.

  11. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  12. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  13. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  14. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  15. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  16. The consideration and representation of retention processes in the WIPP performance assessment: justification of adopted approaches and interaction with the regulator. Part 2: EPA review process and approval justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrum, Ch.; Peake, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was directed by Congress to review whether the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would comply with EPA regulations on radioactive waste disposal. The review of the effectiveness of retardation in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation was a major focus of the Agency's review since the Culebra is postulated to be the major long-term pathway for the movement of radionuclides. EPA review consisted of reviewing the Department of Energy's (DOE) data as well as conducting separate evaluations and modelling. EPA independent evaluation identified several issues of concern: First, steady-state conditions did not appear to be reached in some experiments. Second, the effect of actinide concentration did not appear to be addressed. Third, the effect of magnesium oxide backfill in the repository for creating alkaline pH conditions in the brines passing through was not considered. Fourth, the experiments for Am(III) failed for various reasons and Pu(V) was used to represent Am(III). EPA also considered other concerns voiced by different reviewers in its review. After receipt of information supplemental to DOE's Compliance Certification Application (CCA), EPA was able to determine that the experimental foundation supported the retardation conceptual model in the Culebra and the parameters used were adequate. EPA independent modelling confirmed DOE's modelling that indicated radionuclide releases through the Culebra would be greatly reduced by even low K d values. However, EPA did determine that DOE should have used a log-uniform probability distribution for the retardation distribution coefficients (K d s)instead of the uniform probability distribution used in DOE's compliance calculations. EPA required an additional Performance Assessment (PA), called the Performance Assessment Verification Test (PAVT). The change in the K d distribution from uniform to log-uniform was incorporated for the K d values used in the PAVT. The

  17. WIPP: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are discussed briefly: history and site selection; salt as a disposal medium; transporting waste materials; early key events; impacts on New Mexico; project organization; and site certification profile

  18. MIIT: International in-situ testing of nuclear-waste glasses: Performance of SRS simulated waste glass after five years of burial at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Lodding, A.R.; Macedo, P.B.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In July of 1986, the first in-situ test involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms conducted in the United States was started. This program, called the Materials Interface Interactions Test or MIIT, comprises the largest, most cooperative field-testing venture in the international waste management community. In July of 1991, the experimental portion of the 5-year MIIT study was completed on schedule. During this time interval, many in-situ measurements were performed, thousands of brine analyses conducted, and hundreds of waste glass and package components exhumed and evaluated after 6 mo., 1 yr., 2 yr. and 5 yr. burial periods. Although analyses are still in progress, the performance of SRS waste glass based on all data currently available has been seen to be excellent thus far. Initial analyses and assessment of Savannah River (SR) waste glass after burial in WIPP at 90 degrees C for 5 years are presented in this document

  19. MIIT: International in-situ testing of nuclear waste glasses-performance of SRS simulated waste glass after 5 years of burial at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Lodding, A.R.; Macedo, P.B.; Clark, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    In July of 1986, the first in-situ test involving burial of simulated high-level waste [HLW] forms conducted in the United States was started. This program, called the Materials Interface Interactions Test or MIIT, comprises the largest, most cooperative field-testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by seven nations. Also included are about 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are almost 2000 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which has been conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program represents a joint effort managed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in Aiken, S.C., and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, N.M.. and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Involved in MIIT are participants from national and federal laboratories, universities, and representatives from laboratories in France, Germany, Canada, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In July of 1991, the experimental portion of the 5-year MIIT study was completed on schedule. During this time interval, many in-situ measurements were performed, thousands of brine analyses conducted, and hundreds of waste glass and package components exhumed and evaluated after 6 mo., 1 yr., 2 yr. and 5 yr. burial periods. Although analyses are still in progress, the performance of SRS waste glass based on all data currently available has been seen to be excellent thus far. Initial analyses and assessment of Savannah River (SR) waste glass after burial in WIPP at 90 degrees C for 5 years is presented

  20. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  1. Design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhai; Han Kuixia; Wang Fei

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the theory of infrasonic generation and reception of nuclear explosion. An idea of the design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver using CPLD technology is given in it. Compare with the single capacitance infrasonic receiver, sensitivity of the improved receiver can be improved scores of times, dynamic range can be improved largely, and the whole performance gets improvement a lots

  2. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as cleaning... transportation applications as railways, vehicles or cranes. (b) Gauges and valves. (1) Air receivers shall be... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...

  3. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  4. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  5. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  6. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  7. RF subsystem design for microwave communication receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, W. J.; Brodsky, W. G.

    A system review of the RF subsystems of (IFF) transponders, tropscatter receivers and SATCOM receivers is presented. The quantity potential for S-band and X-band IFF transponders establishes a baseline requirement. From this, the feasibility of a common design for these and other receivers is evaluated. Goals are established for a GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) device and related local oscillator preselector and self-test components.

  8. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  9. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Receiving Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Woolley, Joshua D; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-11-27

    Receiving help can be a "mixed blessing." Despite the many psychosocial benefits it can carry, it sometimes has negative psychological consequences, such as loss in self-esteem or enhanced guilt. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that modify responses to receiving help from others. We explored the role of the hormone oxytocin (OT) on affective and social responses to receiving help, given the putative role of OT in social bonding and attunement. To this end, we manipulated whether help was received from a same-sex interaction partner (confederate) versus a control condition, crossed with a double-blind administration of intranasal OT (vs. placebo), and examined subjective and observer-rated participant responses to help. We observed significant interactions between OT and the help manipulation. In the placebo condition, receiving help from the interaction partner compared with the control condition had negative consequences, such that participants reported greater negative affect and came to view themselves and their interaction partners more negatively after interacting together on several tasks. What is important, however, is that OT administration buffered against these negative subjective responses to receiving help. Further, outside observers rated participants who received OT administration as expressing greater happiness and gratitude in response to help, relative to those who received placebo. In sum, in the context of receiving help from a stranger, oxytocin administration fostered more positive affective and social responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  11. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... the bit error rate performance is degraded by the subsampling in the CS-enabled receivers, this may be remedied by including quantization in the receiver model.We also study the computational complexity of the proposed receiver design under different sparsity and measurement ratios. Our work shows...

  12. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  13. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  15. Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Module 1: Maximum possible fire loss (MPFL) decontamination and cleanup estimates. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, A.W.; Jacobsen, P.H.; Lucas, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Module 1, a 1991 Line Item, is planned for completion and start of operations in the spring of 1997. WRAP Module 1 will have the capability to characterize and repackage newly generated, retrieved and stored transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed, and suspect TRU waste for shipment to the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, the WRAP Facility Module 1 will have the capability to characterize low-level mixed waste for treatment in WRAP Module 2A. This report documents the assumptions and cost estimates for decontamination and clean-up of a maximum possible fire loss (MPFL) as defined by DOE Order 5480.7A, FIRE PROTECTION. The Order defines MPFL as the value of property, excluding land, within a fire area, unless a fire hazards analysis demonstrates a lesser (or greater) loss potential. This assumes failure of both automatic fire suppression systems and manual fire fighting efforts. Estimates were developed for demolition, disposal, decontamination, and rebuilding. Total costs were estimated to be approximately $98M

  16. The Geologic and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.N.; Corbet, T.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a mined repository constructed by the US Department of Energy for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes generated since 1970 by activities related to national defense. The WIPP is located 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in bedded salt (primarily halite) of the Late Permian (approximately 255 million years old) Salado Formation 655 m below the land surface. Characterization of the site began in the mid-1970s. Construction of the underground disposal facilities began in the early 1980s, and the facility received final certification from the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1998. Disposal operations are planned to begin following receipt of a final permit from the State of New Mexico and resolution of legal issues. Like other proposed geologic repositories for radioactive waste, the WIPP relies on a combination of engineered and natural barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Engineered barriers at the WIPP, including the seals that will be emplaced in the access shafts when the facility is decommissioned, are discussed in the context of facility design elsewhere in this volume. Physical properties of the natural barriers that contribute to the isolation of radionuclides are discussed here in the context of the physiographic, geologic, and hydrogeologic setting of the site

  17. MIIT: International in-situ testing of simulated HLW forms - performance of SRS simulated waste glass after 6 mos., 1 yr., 2 yrs. and 5 yrs. of burial at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Lodding, A.R.; Macedo, P.B.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The first field test, involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms and package components, to be conducted in the United States, was begun in July of 1986. This program, called the Materials Interface Interactions Test or MIIT, comprises the largest cooperative field-testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by 7 countries. Also included are about 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are almost 2000 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which is being conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program represents a joint effort managed by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., and Savannah River Laboratory in Aiken, S.C. and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Also involved in MIIT are participants from various laboratories and universities in France, Germany, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In July of 1991, the experimental portion of the 5-yr. MIIT program was completed. Although only about 5% of all MIIT samples have been assessed thus far, there are already interesting findings that have emerged. The present paper will discuss results obtained for SRS 165/TDS waste glass after burial of 6 mo., 1 yr. and 2 yrs., along with initial analyses of 5 yr. samples

  18. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  19. GPU Acceleration of DSP for Communication Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Jake; Gunther, Hyrum; Moon, Todd

    2017-09-01

    Graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of signal processing algorithms can outperform CPU-based implementations. This paper describes the GPU implementation of several algorithms encountered in a wide range of high-data rate communication receivers including filters, multirate filters, numerically controlled oscillators, and multi-stage digital down converters. These structures are tested by processing the 20 MHz wide FM radio band (88-108 MHz). Two receiver structures are explored: a single channel receiver and a filter bank channelizer. Both run in real time on NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 graphics card.

  20. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  1. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  2. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  3. How We Began - About the Guard - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal Office of the Joint Surgeon PARC Small Business Programs Chaplain Diversity NGB-GOMO Resources Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front the organization date of the oldest Army National Guard units is based in law. The Militia Act of May

  4. Construction recently began on the new CERN hostel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Construction begins on a third CERN hostel to add almost 100 more rooms for Laboratory visitors. The new hostel, building 41, will be a three-story structure containing 98 rooms, ready for occupancy in June 2007

  5. The South African commercial abalone Haliotis midae fishery began ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and 20 m deep, and virtually no abalone occur at ... factories were granted processing rights to a fixed percentage of an overall .... behaviour and temporal change in individual and aggre- ... series, is to gain further information through carefully.

  6. Origins how the planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe began

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at answers to the biggest questions in astronomy – the questions of how the planets, stars, galaxies and the universe were formed. Over the last decade, a revolution in observational astronomy has produced possible answers to three of these questions. This book describes this revolution. The one question for which we still do not have an answer is the question of the origin of the universe. In the final chapter, the author looks at the connection between science and philosophy and shows how new scientific results have laid the groundwork for the first serious scientific studies of the origin of the universe.

  7. Where Radiobiology Began in Russia: A Physician’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    White Archipelago”) (Gubarev, 2004): “Visiting a number of production facilities that worked with plutonium and polonium - 210 , I was struck by the...its owners. The wide array of food on the table was all vegetarian fare. I found out for the first time that both of them were Orthodox Christians...was ordinary food poisoning. After several days’ treatment, the workers returned to the area. Later, after changes in their skin and blood

  8. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  10. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... of interest accrued to the date of the balance sheet on bonds, notes, and other commercial paper...

  11. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  12. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  13. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  14. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  15. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  16. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    , orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition......Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first...

  17. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  18. Care of the patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasko, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    External radiation therapy, or teletherapy, is the use of ionizing radiation to destroy cancer cells. Clinical use of ionizing radiation as treatment for cancer began with the discovery of x-rays in 1895, the identification of natural radioactivity (radium) in 1896, and the first reported cure of cancer, a basal cell epithelioma, induced by radiation in 1899. Initially, radiation was administered as a single large dose and produced severe, life-threatening side effects. The basis for the use of ionizing radiation in daily increments for a period of weeks was provided by Regaud in 1922; ten years later, Coutard clinically developed the method of dose fractionation, which remains in use today. Although the use of ionizing radiation as a treatment is over eighty years old, only in recent years have advancements in its clinical application been based on research related to the biologic effect of radiation on human cells. To effectively care for the patient prior to, during, and at the completion of external radiation therapy, the nurse must know the physical and biologic basis of external radiation therapy and its clinical application.

  19. Care of the patient receiving radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasko, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    External radiation therapy, or teletherapy, is the use of ionizing radiation to destroy cancer cells. Clinical use of ionizing radiation as treatment for cancer began with the discovery of x-rays in 1895, the identification of natural radioactivity (radium) in 1896, and the first reported cure of cancer, a basal cell epithelioma, induced by radiation in 1899. Initially, radiation was administered as a single large dose and produced severe, life-threatening side effects. The basis for the use of ionizing radiation in daily increments for a period of weeks was provided by Regaud in 1922; ten years later, Coutard clinically developed the method of dose fractionation, which remains in use today. Although the use of ionizing radiation as a treatment is over eighty years old, only in recent years have advancements in its clinical application been based on research related to the biologic effect of radiation on human cells. To effectively care for the patient prior to, during, and at the completion of external radiation therapy, the nurse must know the physical and biologic basis of external radiation therapy and its clinical application

  20. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  1. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Ba-hat t B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: jean-claude.commercon@insa-lyon.fr; Badard, Robert [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Bat B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: robert.badard@insa-lyon.fr

    2005-02-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal.

  2. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  3. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  4. The ARSQ: the athletes' received support questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support.

  5. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  6. Multistandard Receiver Design for Telemedicine Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In short-distance wireless communications for telemedicine monitoring, different medical data measurement equipment has different wireless transmission modes. A multistandard receiver is designed that can adapt to different medical data measuring equipment. Using a second-order bandpass sampling for the design of antialiasing filters, two aliasing signals can be separated. Simultaneously, constraint conditions for sampling frequency are not as critical. The design is useful for a multistandard receiver in a telemedicine monitoring system and has the advantages such as saving spectrum resources and facilitating spectrum planning.

  7. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  8. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.

    2014-01-01

    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  9. Billing and accounts receivable: fundamentals for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, M M

    1993-07-01

    If a healthcare facility's accounts receivable operation is experiencing problems, the patient accounts manager should survey all areas of his or her responsibility to determine the best method of resolving the difficulties. One effective technique to reduce billing problems is to take a proactive--not reactive--approach. If mistakes can be corrected before they get out of control, and if the patient accounts manager can ensure that claims will not be denied, a healthcare facility's accounts receivable should remain in good condition.

  10. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available are transmitted to the receiver. In the proposed method, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide reliable estimates of a soft timing signal, which in turn, improves the decoding time. The derived method... as ( ) ( )( )1 2 1 2, ,..., , ,...,Q Qk k k k k k k k ka a x x x P a x x xη∗ ∗∈Β= ∑ (29) where ( )1 2, ,..., Qk k kx x x are the Q coded bits in a multilevel symbol modulation scheme [32]. According to [29], the soft information demapper computes posteriori...

  11. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  12. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  13. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2004-01-01

    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  14. 7 CFR 966.124 - Approved receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, the following information: (1) Name, address, contact person, telephone number, and e-mail... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved receiver. 966.124 Section 966.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  15. Optimization of Passive Coherent Receiver System Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    spheroid object with a constant radar cross section (RCS). Additionally, the receiver and transmitters are assumed to be notional isotropic antennae...software- defined radio for equatorial plasma instability studies,” Radio Science, vol. 48, pp. 1–11. Aug. 2013. [2] P. C. Zhang and B. Y. Li, “Passive

  16. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  17. 8. Prevalence of Epistaxis among Patients Receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of this study was thus to determine the prevalence, aetiology and treatment modalities of epistaxis among patients receiving otorhinolaryngology services at MNH and MOI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital based study was done to 427 patients at Muhimbili. National Hospital (MNH) and Muhimbili.

  18. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  19. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  20. Statement on the safety of glucosamine for patients receiving coumarin anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to provide a scientific statement on the safety of glucosamine for patients receiving coumarin anticoagulants. More than 40 case reports have been collected by drug-monitoring agencies...... cases haemorrhage occurred in a variety of organs, and in one case this resulted in a persistent vegetative state. The evidence for an interaction between glucosamine and coumarin anticoagulants is strengthened by the observation that in the majority of cases the INR began to fall to normal values when...... glucosamine intake was discontinued. There is insufficient information to conclude on a mechanism for an interaction between glucosamine and coumarin anticoagulants. There are also insufficient data in the case reports to derive a dose-response relationship for glucosamine and to assess the level of risk...