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Sample records for wiping metal transfer

  1. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  2. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  3. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms

    Clausen, P.A.; Spaan, S.; Brouwer, D.H.; Marquart, H.; Feber, M. le; Engel, R.; Geerts, L.; Jensen, K.A.; Kofoed-Sørensen, V.; Hansen, B.; Brouwere, K. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles

  4. Wipe sampling - review of the literature

    Souza, Daiane Cristini Barbosa de; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Methods for characterization of solid, non-compactable radioactive wastes contaminated in the surface are developed aiming at estimating the waste radioisotopic inventory for regulatory compliance and operational purposes. The wastes of interest here are mainly composed of plastic, metallic, or other materials parts originated in the decommissioning and maintenance operations of nuclear facilities. One way of measuring surface contamination is the indirect method of wiping the contaminated surface and counting the wipe, a common method of detecting non-fixed contamination in the radiation protection routine. The wipe sampling is an important tool in controlling the quality of the workplace in nuclear and radioactive facilities. Although radioprotection regulations establish quantitative limits, the practice in the radiation protection routine is to use wipe sampling as a qualitative measurement. To product useful quantitative results for inventorying radioactive wastes, a quantitative approach must be adopted. A previous paper presented by the authors in the last INAC Conference discussed alternative wipe materials and protocols. The method of wipe sampling underwent small changes since it started to be used but still is the object of study, as it is attested by many recent papers and patents on the subject. This article consists of a literature review. Results of a survey in the literature about wipe sampling techniques that can be applied to waste characterization are presented. (author)

  5. wait and wipe

    and wipe strategy” as an alternative to circumcision for HIV prevention. In this paper, we argue that waiting for ten minutes and wiping with a dry cloth does not prevent men from becoming infected by HIV. We ... HIV infected despite having reported no sex or 100% condom .... In a qualitative study conducted in Kenya, men.

  6. Preliminary assessment on exposure of four typical populations to potentially toxic metals by means of skin wipes under the influence of haze pollution.

    Cao, Zhiguo; Wang, Mengmeng; Chen, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yajie; Dong, Wenjing; Yang, Tianfang; Yan, Guangxuan; Zhang, Xin; Pi, Yunqing; Xi, Benye; Bu, Qingwei

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the exposure risk of human beings to nine potentially toxic metals (PTMs), namely, Cu, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Co, skin wipe samples were collected from four types of populations, namely, children, undergraduates, security guards, and professional drivers, under different haze pollution levels in Xinxiang, China by using Ghost wipes. The Ghost wipes were quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Generally, Zn (ND-1350μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-2660μg/m 2 for security guards, ND-2460μg/m 2 for children, and ND-2530μg/m 2 for professional drivers) showed the highest concentration among the four populations, followed by Cu (0.02-83.4μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-70.2μg/m 2 for security guards, 23.2-487μg/m 2 for children, and ND-116μg/m 2 for professional drivers). As (ND-5.7μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-2.3μg/m 2 for security guards, ND-21.1μg/m 2 for children, and ND-11.0μg/m 2 for professional drivers) and Co (ND-6.0μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-7.9μg/m 2 for security guards, ND-13.4μg/m 2 for children, and ND-2.1μg/m 2 for professional drivers) showed the lowest concentrations in all populations. Remarkable differences were found among the four populations and PTM levels decreased in the following order: children, professional drivers, security guards, and undergraduates. Gender variation was discovered for undergraduates and children. Generally, PTM contamination in skin wipes collected during a light haze pollution level was generally higher than that during a heavy haze pollution level, but PTM contamination was comparable between the two haze pollution levels for children. Non-carcinogenic exposure risks to As, Cd, and Pb for all populations were higher than those for the other six elements but all of them were within the acceptable safety threshold, indicating no apparent non-carcinogenic risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  8. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes

  9. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  10. Beryllium Measurement In Commercially Available Wet Wipes

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant(trademark) Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  11. On wiping the interior walls of 37-mm closed-face cassettes: an OSHA perspective.

    Hendricks, Warren; Stones, Fern; Lillquist, Dean

    2009-12-01

    As early as 1976, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods for analyzing metal samples collected using 37-mm polystyrene closed-face cassettes specified that any loose dust be transferred from the cassette to the digestion vessel, that the cassette be rinsed, and that, if necessary, the cassette be wiped out to help ensure that all particles that enter the cassette are included along with the filter as part of the sample for analysis. OSHA analytical methods for metal analysis were recently revised to explicitly require cassette wiping for all metal samples. This change was based on policy that any material entering the collection device constitutes part of the sample and on OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center research showing that invisible residue on the cassette walls can significantly contribute to the total sample results reported. OSHA procedures are consistent with guidance given in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. This guidance concludes that internal deposits in sampling cassettes should be included in the analysis and that one way to accomplish this would be to wipe or wash the internal surfaces of the cassette and include the material along with the filter for analysis.

  12. The development of a new three-step protocol to determine the efficacy of disinfectant wipes on surfaces contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Williams, G J; Denyer, S P; Hosein, I K; Hill, D W; Maillard, J-Y

    2007-12-01

    We developed a three-step protocol to quantify the efficacy of disinfectant wipes, their ability to remove and prevent microbial transfer from surfaces and their overall antimicrobial activity. Meticillin-resistant (MRSA) or -susceptible (MSSA) Staphylococcus aureus (6-7 log(10)cfu) were inoculated onto stainless steel discs with or without organic load and dried. Grapefruit extract-containing test wipes and unmedicated control wipes were used. In step 1, wipes were mechanically rotated against surfaces for 10s at 60rpm, exerting a weight of 100+/-5g. Bacterial removal was assessed by transferring the steel discs to neutraliser, resuspending and counting remaining bacteria. In step 2, bacterial transfer from wipes was assessed by eight consecutive mechanical adpression transfers to agar/neutraliser plates. Step 3 was the measurement of antimicrobial activity by direct inoculation of the wipes for 10s followed by neutralisation and enumeration. Test wipes achieved a significantly higher bacterial cell removal than control wipes on all surfaces (P<0.05). The low bactericidal activity of the wipes (<1 log(10) reduction when directly inoculated) and the subsequent survival of bacteria on the wipes, however, led to repeated microbial transfer when initially high contamination levels were present. There were no differences between MRSA and MSSA in removal, transfer or antimicrobial activity. The three-step method is a useful tool for developing future guidelines to assess the ability of wipes to disinfect surfaces.

  13. Lessons learned from surface wipe sampling for lead in three workplaces.

    Beaucham, Catherine; Ceballos, Diana; King, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Surface wipe sampling in the occupational environment is a technique widely used by industrial hygienists. Although several organizations have promulgated standards for sampling lead and other metals, uncertainty still exists when trying to determine an appropriate wipe sampling strategy and how to interpret sampling results. Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation Program have used surface wipe sampling as part of their exposure assessment sampling strategies in a wide range of workplaces. This article discusses wipe sampling for measuring lead on surfaces in three facilities: (1) a battery recycling facility; (2) a firing range and gun store; and (3) an electronic scrap recycling facility. We summarize our findings from the facilities and what we learned by integrating wipe sampling into our sampling plan. Wiping sampling demonstrated lead in non-production surfaces in all three workplaces and that the potential that employees were taking lead home to their families existed. We also found that the presence of metals such as tin can interfere with the colorimetric results. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of colorimetric analysis of surface wipe samples and the challenges we faced when interpreting wipe sampling results.

  14. Model Based Metal Transfer Control

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    In pulsed gas metal arc welding (pulsed GMAW) current pulses are used for detaching drops at the tip of the electrode. To obtain a high weld quality one drop should be detached for every pulse, and moreover, the amount of energy used for detachment should be kept at a minimum. Thus, each pulse must...

  15. Valuation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

    Rankin, W.N.; Reif, D.J.; Fink, S.D.; Luckenbach, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: Does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, More fire resistant, Less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and Product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 1 ref., 5 figs

  16. Metal transfer during vacuum consumable arc remelting

    Zanner, F.J.

    1977-11-01

    A description of the vacuum consumable arc remelt process as related to solidification and a review of vacuum arc literature is presented. Metal transfer at arc lengths less than or equal to 3 cm was found to occur when liquid metal spikes hanging from the cathode form a low resistance bridge (drop short) by touching the anode and subsequently rupturing. During the bridge lifetime (0.0003 to 0.020 s) the arc is extinguished and all of the electrical power is directed through the molten bridge. The formation and rupture of these molten metal bridges are confirmed with electrical resistance measurements. At long arc lengths (greater than 10 cm) the spikes separate before touching the anode

  17. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  18. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  19. Effect of metal shielding on a wireless power transfer system

    Jiacheng Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of non-ferromagnetic metal shielding (NFMS material on the resonator of wireless power transfer (WPT is studied by modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. And, the effect of NFMS material on the power transfer efficiency (PTE of WPT systems is investigated by circuit model. Meanwhile, the effect of ferromagnetic metal shielding material on the PTE of WPT systems is analyzed through simulation. A double layer metal shield structure is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that by applying the novel double layer metal shielding method, the system PTE increases significantly while the electromagnetic field of WPT systems declines dramatically.

  20. Effect of metal shielding on a wireless power transfer system

    Li, Jiacheng; Huang, Xueliang; Chen, Chen; Tan, Linlin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Jinpeng

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of non-ferromagnetic metal shielding (NFMS) material on the resonator of wireless power transfer (WPT) is studied by modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. And, the effect of NFMS material on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of WPT systems is investigated by circuit model. Meanwhile, the effect of ferromagnetic metal shielding material on the PTE of WPT systems is analyzed through simulation. A double layer metal shield structure is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that by applying the novel double layer metal shielding method, the system PTE increases significantly while the electromagnetic field of WPT systems declines dramatically.

  1. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  2. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R., E-mail: him-lax3@yahoo.com [Laser Spectroscopy Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580003 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  3. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    Kuznetsov, V D

    1956-01-01

    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  4. Role of surface energy and nano-roughness in the removal efficiency of bacterial contamination by nonwoven wipes from frequently touched surfaces

    Edwards, Nicholas W. M.; Best, Emma L.; Connell, Simon D.; Goswami, Parikshit; Carr, Chris M.; Wilcox, Mark H.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are responsible for substantial patient morbidity, mortality and economic cost. Infection control strategies for reducing rates of transmission include the use of nonwoven wipes to remove pathogenic bacteria from frequently touched surfaces. Wiping is a dynamic process that involves physicochemical mechanisms to detach and transfer bacteria to fibre surfaces within the wipe. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which systematic changes in fibre surface energy and nano-roughness influence removal of bacteria from an abiotic polymer surface in dry wiping conditions, without liquid detergents or disinfectants. Nonwoven wipe substrates composed of two commonly used fibre types, lyocell (cellulosic) and polypropylene, with different surface energies and nano-roughnesses, were manufactured using pilot-scale nonwoven facilities to produce samples of comparable structure and dimensional properties. The surface energy and nano-roughness of some lyocell substrates were further adjusted by either oxygen (O2) or hexafluoroethane (C2F6) gas plasma treatment. Static adpression wiping of an inoculated surface under dry conditions produced removal efficiencies of between 9.4% and 15.7%, with no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the relative removal efficiencies of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus or Enterococcus faecalis. However, dynamic wiping markedly increased peak wiping efficiencies to over 50%, with a minimum increase in removal efficiency of 12.5% and a maximum increase in removal efficiency of 37.9% (all significant at p < 0.05) compared with static wiping, depending on fibre type and bacterium. In dry, dynamic wiping conditions, nonwoven wipe substrates with a surface energy closest to that of the contaminated surface produced the highest E. coli removal efficiency, while the associated increase in fibre nano-roughness abrogated this trend with S. aureus and E. faecalis.

  5. Natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.; Choi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical studies using the FLOW-3D computer program have been performed on natural convection heat transfer of a high density molten metal pool, in order to evaluate the coolability of the corium pool. The FLOW-3D results on the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region have been compared and evaluated with the experimental data. The FLOW-3D results have shown that the developed natural convection flow contributes to the solidified crust formation of the high density molten metal pool. The present FLOW-3D results, on the relationship between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region, are more similar to the calculated results of Globe and Dropkin's correlation than any others. The natural convection heat transfer in the low aspect ratio case is more substantial than that in the high aspect ratio case. The FLOW-3D results, on the temperature profile and on the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region, are very similar to the experimental data. The heat transfer rate of the internal heat generation case is higher than that of the bottom heating case at the same heat supply condition. (author)

  6. Charge transfer in gold--alkali-metal systems

    Watson, R.E.; Weinert, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on conventional electronegativity arguments, gold--alkali-metal compounds are expected to be among the most ''ionic'' of metallic compounds. The concepts of ionicity and charge transfer are difficult to quantify. However, the changes in bonding in the 50/50 Au--alkali-metal systems between the elemental metals and the compounds are so severe that observations can readily be made concerning their character. The results, as obtained from self-consistent electronic-structure calculations, lead to the apparently odd observation that the electron density at the alkali-metal sites in the compound increases significantly and this involves high l componennts in the charge density. This increase, however, can be attributed to Au-like orbitals spatially overlapping the alkali-metal sites. In a chemical sense, it is reasonable to consider the alkali-metal transferring charge to these Au orbitals. While normally the difference in heats of formation between muffin-tin and full-potential calculations for transition-metal--transition-metal and transition-metal--main-group (e.g., Al) compounds having high site symmetry are small, for the gold--alkali-metal systems, the changes in bonding in the compounds cause differences of ∼0.5 eV/atom between the two classes of potential. Any serious estimate of the electronic structure in these systems must account for these aspherical bonding charges. The origin of the semiconducting behavior of the heavy-alkali-metal Au compounds is shown to arise from a combination of the Au-Au separations and the ionic character of the compounds; the light-alkali-metal Au compounds, with their smaller Au-Au separations, do not have a semiconducting gap. Core-level shifts and isomer shifts are also briefly discussed

  7. Heat transfer characteristics of alkali metals flowing across tube banks

    Sugiyama, K.; Ishiguro, R.; Kojima, Y.; Kanaoka, H.

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of getting heat transfer coefficients of alkali metals flowing across tube banks at an acceptable level, we propose to use an inviscid-irrotational flow model, which is based on our flow visualization experiment. We show that the heat transfer coefficients obtained for the condition where only the test rod is heated in tube banks considerably differ from those obtained for the condition where all the rods are heated, because of interference between thick thermal boundary layers of alkali metals. We also confirm that the analytical values obtained by this flow model are in a reasonable agreement with experimental values. (author)

  8. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices

    Yang, Jin-Guo; Kam, Fong-Yu; Chua, Lay-Lay

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation of metal-film gate electrodes for top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) limits the minimum thickness of the polymer gate dielectric to typically more than 300 nm due to deep hot metal atom penetration and damage of the dielectric. We show here that the self-release layer transfer method recently developed for high-quality graphene transfer is also capable of giving high-quality metal thin-film transfers to produce high-performance capacitors and OFETs with superior dielectric breakdown strength even for ultrathin polymer dielectric films. Dielectric breakdown strengths up to 5–6 MV cm −1 have been obtained for 50-nm thin films of polystyrene and a cyclic olefin copolymer TOPAS ® (Zeon). High-quality OFETs with sub-10 V operational voltages have been obtained this way using conventional polymer dielectrics and a high-mobility polymer semiconductor poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl]. The transferred metal films can make reliable contacts without damaging ultrathin polymer films, self-assembled monolayers and graphene, which is not otherwise possible from evaporated or sputtered metal films

  9. Charge transfers in complex transition metal alloys (Ti2Fe)

    Abramovici, G.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a new non-orthogonal tight-binding model, for complex alloys, in which electronic structure is characterized by charge transfers. We give the analytic calculation of a charge transfer, in which overlapping two-center terms are rigorously taken into account. Then, we apply numerically this result to an approximant phase of a quasicrystal of Ti 2 Fe alloy. This model is more particularly adapted to transition metals, and gives realistic densities of states. (orig.)

  10. Charge transfer in chromium-transition metal alloys

    Kulakowski, K.; Maksymowicz, A.

    1984-07-01

    The average T-matrix approximation is applied for calculations of charge transfer of 3d-electrons in transition metal alloys. The role of concentration, long-range and short-range atomic order is investigated. The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. (author)

  11. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  12. Laboratory Validation and Field Assessment of Petroleum Laboratory Technicians' Dermal Exposure to Crude Oil Using a Wipe Sampling Method.

    Galea, Karen S; Mueller, Will; Arfaj, Ayman M; Llamas, Jose L; Buick, Jennifer; Todd, David; McGonagle, Carolyn

    2018-05-21

    Crude oil may cause adverse dermal effects therefore dermal exposure is an exposure route of concern. Galea et al. (2014b) reported on a study comparing recovery (wipe) and interception (cotton glove) dermal sampling methods. The authors concluded that both methods were suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil but that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. We describe a study which aimed to further evaluate the wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to crude oil, with this assessment including extended sample storage periods and sampling efficiency tests being undertaken at environmental conditions to mimic those typical of outdoor conditions in Saudi Arabia. The wipe sampling method was then used to assess the laboratory technicians' actual exposure to crude oil during typical petroleum laboratory tasks. Overall, acceptable storage efficiencies up to 54 days were reported with results suggesting storage stability over time. Sampling efficiencies were also reported to be satisfactory at both ambient and elevated temperature and relative humidity environmental conditions for surrogate skin spiked with known masses of crude oil and left up to 4 h prior to wiping, though there was an indication of reduced sampling efficiency over time. Nineteen petroleum laboratory technicians provided a total of 35 pre- and 35 post-activity paired hand wipe samples. Ninety-three percent of the pre-exposure paired hand wipes were less than the analytical limit of detection (LOD), whereas 46% of the post-activity paired hand wipes were less than the LOD. The geometric mean paired post-activity wipe sample measurement was 3.09 µg cm-2 (range 1.76-35.4 µg cm-2). It was considered that dermal exposure most frequently occurred through direct contact with the crude oil (emission) or via deposition. The findings of this study suggest that the wipe sampling method is satisfactory in quantifying

  13. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in metal foams

    Gangapatnam, Priyatham; Kurian, Renju; Venkateshan, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports a numerical study of forced convection heat transfer in high porosity aluminum foams. Numerical modeling is done considering both local thermal equilibrium and non local thermal equilibrium conditions in ANSYS-Fluent. The results of the numerical model were validated with experimental results, where air was forced through aluminum foams in a vertical duct at different heat fluxes and velocities. It is observed that while the LTE model highly under predicts the heat transfer in these foams, LTNE model predicts the Nusselt number accurately. The novelty of this study is that once hydrodynamic experiments are conducted the permeability and porosity values obtained experimentally can be used to numerically simulate heat transfer in metal foams. The simulation of heat transfer in foams is further extended to find the effect of foam thickness on heat transfer in metal foams. The numerical results indicate that though larger foam thicknesses resulted in higher heat transfer coefficient, this effect weakens with thickness and is negligible in thick foams.

  14. Charge Transfer and Catalysis at the Metal Support Interface

    Baker, Lawrence Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Kinetic, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of model Pt–support systems are used to demonstrate the relationship between charge transfer and catalytic activity and selectivity. The results show that charge flow controls the activity and selectivity of supported metal catalysts. This dissertation builds on extensive existing knowledge of metal–support interactions in heterogeneous catalysis. The results show the prominent role of charge transfer at catalytic interfaces to determine catalytic activity and selectivity. Further, this research demonstrates the possibility of selectively driving catalytic chemistry by controlling charge flow and presents solid-state devices and doped supports as novel methods for obtaining electronic control over catalytic reaction kinetics.

  15. Heat Transfer in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers at High Temperature

    Hafeez, Pakeeza

    Heat transfer though open-cell metal foam is experimentally studied for heat exchanger and heat shield applications at high temperatures (˜750°C). Nickel foam sheets with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per linear inch (PPI), have been used to make the heat exchangers and heat shields by using thermal spray coating to deposit an Inconel skin on a foam core. Heat transfer measurements were performed on a test rig capable of generating hot gas up to 1000°C. The heat exchangers were tested by exposing their outer surface to combustion gases at a temperature of 550°C and 750°C while being cooled by air flowing through them at room temperature at velocities up to 5 m/s. The temperature rise of the air, the surface temperature of the heat exchangers and the air temperature inside the heat exchanger were measured. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated for different velocities. The heat transfer performance of the 40PPI sample brazed with the foil is found to be the most efficient. Pressure drop measurements were also performed for 10 and 40PPI metal foam. Thermographic measurements were done on 40PPI foam heat exchangers using a high temperature infrared camera. A high power electric heater was used to produce hot air at 300°C that passed over the foam heat exchanger while the cooling air was blown through it. Heat shields were made by depositing porous skins on metal foam and it was observed that a small amount of coolant leaking through the pores notably reduces the heat transfer from the hot gases. An analytical model was developed based assuming local thermal non-equilibrium that accounts for the temperature difference between solid and fluid phase. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the predicted values of the model.

  16. Trophic transfer of metal-based nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Selck, Henriette; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (Me-ENPs) are used in a wide range of products including inks, plastics, personal care products, clothing and electronic devices. The release of Me-ENPs has been demonstrated from some products, and thus, particles are likely to enter the aquatic environm......Metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (Me-ENPs) are used in a wide range of products including inks, plastics, personal care products, clothing and electronic devices. The release of Me-ENPs has been demonstrated from some products, and thus, particles are likely to enter the aquatic...... environment where they have been shown to be taken up by a variety of species. Therefore, there is a possibility that Me-ENPs will enter and pass through aquatic food webs, but research on this topic is limited. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors contributing to trophic transfer of Me......-ENPs, and where this information is scarce, we utilize the existing literature on aqueous metal trophic transfer as a potential starting point for greater mechanistic insight and for setting directions for future studies. We identify four key factors affecting trophic transfer of Me-ENPs: (1) environmental...

  17. Modelling current transfer to cathodes in metal halide plasmas

    Benilov, M S; Cunha, M D; Naidis, G V

    2005-01-01

    This work is concerned with investigation of the main features of current transfer to cathodes under conditions characteristic of metal halide (MH) lamps. It is found that the presence of MHs in the gas phase results in a small decrease of the cathode surface temperature and of the near-cathode voltage drop in the diffuse mode of current transfer; the range of stability of the diffuse mode expands. Effects caused by a variation of the work function of the cathode surface owing to formation of a monolayer of alkali metal atoms on the surface are studied for particular cases where the monolayer is composed of sodium or caesium. It is found that the formation of the sodium monolayer affects the diffuse mode of current transfer only moderately and in the same direction that the presence of metal atoms in the gas phase affects it. Formation of the caesium monolayer produces a dramatic effect: the cathode surface temperature decreases very strongly, the diffuse-mode current-voltage characteristic becomes N-S-shaped

  18. Disinfectant wipes are appropriate to control microbial bioburden from surfaces: use of a new ASTM standard test protocol to demonstrate efficacy.

    Sattar, S A; Bradley, C; Kibbee, R; Wesgate, R; Wilkinson, M A C; Sharpe, T; Maillard, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    The use of disinfectant pre-soaked wipes (DPW) to decontaminate high-touch environmental surfaces (HTES) by wiping is becoming increasingly widespread in the healthcare environment. However, DPW are rarely tested using conditions simulating their field use, and the label claims of environmental surface disinfectants seldom include wiping action. To evaluate the new E2967-15 standard test specific to wipes, particularly their ability to decontaminate surfaces and to transfer acquired contamination to clean surfaces. ASTM Standard E2967-15 was used by three independent laboratories to test the efficacy of five types of commercially available wipe products. All data generated were pulled together, and reproducibility and repeatability of the standard were measured. All the commercial DPW tested achieved a >4log10 (>99.99%) reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanii with 10s of wiping, but only one DPW containing 0.5% accelerated H2O2 prevented the transfer of bacteria to another surface. This newly introduced standard method represents a significant advance in assessing DPW for microbial decontamination of HTES, and should greatly assist research and development, and in making more relevant and reliable claims on marketed DPW. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Friction and metal transfer for single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with various metals in vacuum

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D.H.

    1978-04-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with transition metals (tungsten, iron, rhodium, nickel, titanium, and cobalt), copper, and aluminum. Results indicate the coefficient of friction for a silicon carbide-metal system is related to the d bond character and relative chemical activity of the metal. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to the surface of silicon carbide in sliding. The chemical activity of metal to silicon and carbon and shear modulus of the metal may play important roles in metal transfer and the form of the wear debris. The less active metal is, and the greater resistance to shear it has, with the exception of rhodium and tungsten, the less transfer to silicon carbide

  20. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  1. Representation of hysteresis with wipe-out memory

    Friedman, G.; Cha, K.

    2001-01-01

    A model representing scalar hysteretic systems with wipe-out memory is proposed. In this model a hysteresis operator is represented as a power series expansion containing an infinite number of terms in general. It is shown that this representation converges to any given hysteresis relation having wipe-out memory as long as the output of the given hysteresis varies sufficiently smoothly with input history. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  2. Study on the wiping gas jet in continuous galvanizing line

    Kweon, Yong-Hun; Kim, Heuy-Dong

    2011-09-01

    In the continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, the gas-jet wiping is used to control the coating thickness of moving steel strip. The high speed gas-jet discharged from the nozzle slot impinges on the strip, and at this moment, wipes the liquid coating layer dragged by a moving strip. The coating thickness is generally influenced on the flow characteristics of wiping gas-jet such as the impinging pressure distribution, pressure gradient and shear stress distribution on the surface of strip. The flow characteristics of wiping gas-jet mentioned above depends upon considerably both the process operating conditions such as the nozzle pressure, nozzle-to-strip distance and line speed, and the geometry of gas-jet wiping apparatus such as the height of nozzle slot. In the present study, the effect of the geometry of nozzle on the coating thickness is investigated with the help of a computational fluid dynamics method. The height of nozzle slot is varied in the range of 0.6mm to 1.7mm. A finite volume method (FVM) is employed to solve two-dimensional, steady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Based upon the results obtained, the effect of the height of nozzle slot in the gas-jet wiping process is discussed in detail. The computational results show that for a given standoff distance between the nozzle to the strip, the effective height of nozzle slot exists in achieving thinner coating thickness.

  3. Near transferable phenomenological n-body potentials for noble metals.

    Pontikis, Vassilis; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Luneville, Laurence; Simeone, David

    2017-09-06

    We present a semi-empirical model of cohesion in noble metals with suitable parameters reproducing a selected set of experimental properties of perfect and defective lattices in noble metals. It consists of two short-range, n-body terms accounting respectively for attractive and repulsive interactions, the former deriving from the second moment approximation of the tight-binding scheme and the latter from the gas approximation of the kinetic energy of electrons. The stability of the face centred cubic versus the hexagonal compact stacking is obtained via a long-range, pairwise function of customary use with ionic pseudo-potentials. Lattice dynamics, molecular statics, molecular dynamics and nudged elastic band calculations show that, unlike previous potentials, this cohesion model reproduces and predicts quite accurately thermodynamic properties in noble metals. In particular, computed surface energies, largely underestimated by existing empirical cohesion models, compare favourably with measured values, whereas predicted unstable stacking-fault energy profiles fit almost perfectly ab initio evaluations from the literature. All together the results suggest that this semi-empirical model is nearly transferable.

  4. Load transfer in short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites

    Garces, Gerardo; Bruno, Giovanni; Wanner, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The internal load transfer and the deformation behaviour of aluminium-matrix composites reinforced with 2D-random alumina (Saffil) short fibres was studied for different loading modes. The evolution of stress in the metallic matrix was measured by neutron diffraction during in situ uniaxial deformation tests. Tensile and compressive tests were performed with loading axis parallel or perpendicular to the 2D-reinforcement plane. The fibre stresses were computed based on force equilibrium considerations. The results are discussed in light of a model recently established by the co-authors for composites with visco-plastic matrix behaviour and extended to the case of plastic deformation in the present study. Based on that model, the evolution of internal stresses and the macroscopic stress-strain were simulated. Comparison between the experimental and computational results shows a qualitative agreement in all relevant aspects

  5. Transfer and accumulation of metals in a soil-diet-wood mouse food chain along a metal pollution gradient

    Rogival, Damien; Scheirs, Jan; Blust, Ronny

    2007-01-01

    We studied the accumulation and transfer of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the compartments of a soil-diet-wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) food chain at five sites located along a metal pollution gradient. We observed a clear gradient in metal exposure at increasing distance from the smelter in all compartments of the food chain for the non-essential metals. The gradient was less clear or absent for the essential metals in acorn and mice target tissues. Regression analysis showed overall strong relationships within the soil-diet and diet-wood mouse compartments for the non-essential metals, while relationships for the essential metals were weak or absent. Total metal in soil appeared as a better predictor for the diet metal content than the available metal fraction. Our results suggest a more important transfer of non-essential elements through the food chain than essential elements, which is probably a consequence of homeostatic control of the latter group. - Non-essential metal transfer through a soil-diet-wood mouse food chain is more important than essential metal transfer

  6. Laser Transfer of Metals and Metal Alloys for Digital Microfabrication of 3D Objects.

    Zenou, Michael; Sa'ar, Amir; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-09-02

    3D copper logos printed on epoxy glass laminates are demonstrated. The structures are printed using laser transfer of molten metal microdroplets. The example in the image shows letters of 50 µm width, with each letter being taller than the last, from a height of 40 µm ('s') to 190 µm ('l'). The scanning microscopy image is taken at a tilt, and the topographic image was taken using interferometric 3D microscopy, to show the effective control of this technique. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Control of the electrode metal transfer by means of the welding current pulse generator

    Knyaz'kov, A.; Pustovykh, O.; Verevkin, A.; Terekhin, V.; Shachek, A.; Knyaz'kov, S.; Tyasto, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a generator of welding current pulses to transfer an electrode metal into the molten pool. A homogeneous artificial line is used to produce near rectangular pulses. The homogeneous artificial line provides the minimum heat input with in the pulse to transfer the electrode metal, and it significantly decreases the impact of disturbances affecting this transfer. The pulse frequency does not exceed 300 Hz, and the duration is 0.6 ÷ 0.9 ms.

  8. Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?

    Wladimir C. Paradas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP. The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG (Rio de janeiro, Brasil. Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle. Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por

  9. Toward 3D Printing of Pure Metals by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer

    Visser, C.W.; Pohl, Ralph; Sun, Chao; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    3D printing of common metals is highly challenging because metals are generally solid at room conditions. Copper and gold pillars are manufactured with a resolution below 5 μm and a height up to 2 mm, using laser-induced forward transfer to create and eject liquid metal droplets. The solidified

  10. A LITERATURE REVIEW OF WIPE SAMPLING METHODS FOR CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    Wipe sampling is an important technique for the estimation of contaminant deposition in buildings, homes, or outdoor surfaces as a source of possible human exposure. Numerousmethods of wipe sampling exist, and each method has its own specification for the type of wipe, we...

  11. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people

  12. A unique metal-semiconductor interface and resultant electron transfer phenomenon

    Taft, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    An unusual electron transfer phenomenon has been identified from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles, the result of a unique metal semiconductor interface that results when the metal particles are grown from the semiconductor substrate. The unique interface acts as a one-way (rectifying) open gateway and was first identified in reduced rutile polycrystalline titanium dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII (noble) metal particles. The interface significantly affects th...

  13. Printing of metallic 3D micro-objects by laser induced forward transfer.

    Zenou, Michael; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-01-25

    Digital printing of 3D metal micro-structures by laser induced forward transfer under ambient conditions is reviewed. Recent progress has allowed drop on demand transfer of molten, femto-liter, metal droplets with a high jetting directionality. Such small volume droplets solidify instantly, on a nanosecond time scale, as they touch the substrate. This fast solidification limits their lateral spreading and allows the fabrication of high aspect ratio and complex 3D metal structures. Several examples of micron-scale resolution metal objects printed using this method are presented and discussed.

  14. Direct metal transfer printing on flexible substrate for fabricating optics functional devices

    Jiang, Yingjie; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Feng; Shi, Zhenwu; Chen, Linsen; Peng, Changsi

    2015-11-01

    New functional materials and devices based on metal patterns can be widely used in many new and expanding industries,such as flat panel displays, alternative energy,sensors and so on. In this paper, we introduce a new transfer printing method for fabricating metal optics functional devices. This method can directly transfer a metal pattern from a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)supported UV or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern to another PET substrate. Purely taking advantage of the anaerobic UV curing adhesive (a-UV) on PET substrate, metal film can be easily peeled off from micro/nano-structured surface. As a result, metal film on the protrusion can be selectively transferred onto the target substrate, to make it the metal functional surface. But which on the bottom can not be transferred. This method provides low cost fabrication of metal thin film devices by avoiding high cost lithography process. Compared with conventional approach, this method can get more smooth rough edges and has wider tolerance range for the original master mold. Future developments and potential applications of this metal transfer method will be addressed.

  15. The CVD graphene transfer procedure introduces metallic impurities which alter the graphene electrochemical properties.

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2014-01-07

    High quality graphene films can be fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Ni and Cu as catalytic substrates. Such a synthesis procedure always requires a subsequent transfer process to be performed in order to eliminate the metallic substrate and transfer the graphene onto the desired surface. We show here that such a transfer process causes significant contamination of the graphene film with residual Fe and Ni metal impurities. Fe contamination derives from the use of Fe-based etching solutions to dissolve Ni (or Cu) substrates, while residual Ni (or Cu) is due to an incomplete metal substrate etching. The presence of these metallic impurities within the transferred graphene film affects tremendously its electrochemical behavior when adopted as an electrode material.

  16. Wipe sampling for characterization of noncompactable radioactive waste

    Barbieri, Aline E.O.; Ferreira, Robson J.; Vicente, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Wipe sampling is a method of monitoring radioactive surface contamination on working area and on radioactive, non-compactable wastes, constituted of large pieces of replaced parts of equipment in nuclear and radioactive installations. In this method, sampling is executed by rubbing a disc of filter paper on the contaminated surface in such a way as to collect entirely or partially the deposited material. The target radioisotopes are subsequently measured directly on the wipe or extracted by appropriate radio analytical methods and then qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The collection factor, or the efficiency with which the material is removed from the surface and deposited on the smear, is the main source of error in quantitative measurements. The determination of the collection efficiency is the object of this communication. (author)

  17. Electron transfer reactions of metal complexes in solution

    Sutin, N.

    1977-01-01

    A few representative electron-transfer reactions are selected and their kinetic parameters compared with the predictions of activated complex models. Since Taube has presented an elegant treatment of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions, emphasis is on bimolecular reactions. The latter electron-transfer reactions are more complicated to treat theoretically since the geometries of their activated complexes are not as well known as for the intramolecular case. In addition in biomolecular reactions, the work required to bring the two reactants together needs to be calculated. Since both reactants generally carry charges this presents a non-trivial problem at the ionic strengths usually used to study bimolecular electron transfer

  18. Mass transfer and slag-metal reaction in ladle refining : a CFD approach

    Ramström, Eva

    2009-01-01

      In order to optimise the ladle treatment mass transfer modelling of aluminium addition and homogenisation time was carried out. It was stressed that incorporating slag-metal reactions into the mass transfer modelling strongly would enhance the reliability and amount of information to be analyzed from the CFD calculations.   In the present work, a thermodynamic model taking all the involved slag metal reactions into consideration was incorporated into a 2-D fluid flow model of an argon stirr...

  19. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively.

  20. Remote Wiping and Secure Deletion on Mobile Devices: A Review.

    Leom, Ming Di; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Hunt, Ray

    2016-11-01

    Mobile devices have become ubiquitous in almost every sector of both private and commercial endeavors. As a result of such widespread use in everyday life, many users knowingly and unknowingly save significant amounts of personal and/or commercial data on these mobile devices. Thus, loss of mobile devices through accident or theft can expose users-and their businesses-to significant personal and corporate cost. To mitigate this data leakage issue, remote wiping features have been introduced to modern mobile devices. Given the destructive nature of such a feature, however, it may be subject to criminal exploitation (e.g., a criminal exploiting one or more vulnerabilities to issue a remote wiping command to the victim's device). To obtain a better understanding of remote wiping, we survey the literature, focusing on existing approaches to secure flash storage deletion and provide a critical analysis and comparison of a variety of published research in this area. In support of our analysis, we further provide prototype experimental results for three Android devices, thus providing both a theoretical and applied focus to this article as well as providing directions for further research. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Fabrication of metallic nanomasks by transfer of self-organized nanodot patterns from semiconductor material into thin metallic layers

    Bobek, T.; Kurz, H.

    2007-01-01

    The basic understanding of the formation of highly regular nanostructures during ion erosion of amorphous GaSb layers is revised. The essential physical parameters for the formation of the highly regular dot pattern are discussed. Numerical modelling based on the stabilized isotropic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is presented and discussed. The experimental part of this contribution presents the successful pattern transfer into metallic buried thin layers as well as into Silicon underlayers. The critical conditions for this transfer technique are discussed. Application potential of using this self-organization scheme for the generation of highly regular patterns in ferromagnetic metal layers as well as in crystalline silicon is estimated

  2. Conference on heat mass transfer and properties of liquid metals TF-2002

    Efanov, A.D.; Kozlov, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of the conference TF-2002 devoted to the combined approach to problems of harnessing liquid metals as coolants for NPU are presented. The conference takes place in Obninsk, 29 - 31 October, 2002. Papers of the conference involve items on thermal hydraulics, mass transfer and safety of NPU with liquid metal coolants, structure, physical and chemical properties of liquid metal and liquid metal solutions, decommissioning of units and ecology, application of liquid metals divorced with NPU. Most of the papers of the conference are devoted to the investigation into lead and lead-bismuth coolants [ru

  3. Charge transfer and redistribution at interfaces between metals and 2D materials

    Bokdam, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Large potential steps are observed at the interfaces between metals and novel 2D materials. They can lower the work function by more than 1 eV, even when the two parts are only weakly interacting. In this thesis the transfer and redistribution of electrons in metal|2D material heterostructures are

  4. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidifcation of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. As a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 .deg. C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleight number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer

  5. Heat transfer on liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water

    Tanaka, T.; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro

    2001-01-01

    Molten-core pool had been formed in the lower-head of TMI-2 pressure vessel at the severe accident. The lower head, however, didn't receive any damage by reactor core cooling. Heat transfer at outside of the lower head and boiling heat transfer at liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water, however, are important for initial cooling process of the molten-core pool. The heat transfer experiments for the liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water are carried out over the range of natural convection to film boiling region. Phenomenon on the heat transfer experiments are visualized by using of high speed video camera. Wood's metal and U-alloy 78 are used as molten-metal. The test section of the experiments consists of a copper block with heater, wood's metal, and water. Three thermocouple probes are used for temperature measurement of water side and the molten-metal side. Stability of the liquid-liquid interface is depended on the wetness of container wall for molten metal and the temperature distribution of the interface. Entrainment phenomena of molten-metal occurs by a fluctuation of the interface after boiling on the container wall surface. The boiling curves obtained from the liquid-liquid interface experiments are agree with the nucleate boiling and the film boiling correlations of solid-liquid system. (Suetake, M.)

  6. Semi-empirical model for heat transfer coefficient in liquid metal turbulent flow

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1982-01-01

    The heat transfer by forced convection in a metal liquid turbulent flow for circular ducts is analyzed. An analogy between the momentum and heat in the wall surface, is determined, aiming to determine an expression for heat transfer coefficient in function of the friction coefficient. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results

    Xiaofang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer between two high Q resonators, especially in a complex electromagnetic environment. In the close proximity of metallic plates, the transfer efficiency stays roughly the same as the free space efficiency with proper designs. The experimental data fits well with a coupled theory model. Resonance frequency matching, alignment of the magnetic field, and impedance matching are shown to be the most important factors for efficient wireless power transfer.

  8. TRANSFER OF METALS FROM SOIL TO Cucumis sativus FRUIT ...

    iudousoro

    and cadmium from shoot to leaf; and nickel and chromium from shoot to fruit. Generally ... The main human exposure route of all toxic metals in Eket was ..... The existential potential for nickel and lead contamination and toxicity raises the issue.

  9. Using metal complex-labeled peptides for charge transfer-based biosensing with semiconductor quantum dots

    Medintz, Igor L.; Pons, Thomas; Trammell, Scott A.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Philip E.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2009-02-01

    Luminescent colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have unique optical and photonic properties and are highly sensitive to charge transfer in their surrounding environment. In this study we used synthetic peptides as physical bridges between CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and some of the most common redox-active metal complexes to understand the charge transfer interactions between the metal complexes and QDs. We found that QD emission underwent quenching that was highly dependent on the choice of metal complex used. We also found that quenching traces the valence or number of metal complexes brought into close proximity of the nanocrystal surface. Monitoring of the QD absorption bleaching in the presence of the metal complex provided insight into the charge transfer mechanism. The data suggest that two distinct charge transfer mechanisms can take place. One directly to the QD core states for neutral capping ligands and a second to surface states for negatively charged capping ligands. A basic understanding of the proximity driven charge-transfer and quenching interactions allowed us to construct proteolytic enzyme sensing assemblies with the QD-peptide-metal complex conjugates.

  10. Ultra thin metallic coatings to control near field radiative heat transfer

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the changes in the near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces due to the presence of ultra thin metallic coatings on semiconductors. Depending on the substrates, the radiative heat transfer is modulated by the thickness of the ultra thin film. In particular we consider gold thin films with thicknesses varying from 4 to 20 nm. The ultra-thin film has an insulator-conductor transition close to a critical thickness of dc = 6.4 nm and there is an increase in the near field spectral heat transfer just before the percolation transition. Depending on the substrates (Si or SiC) and the thickness of the metallic coatings we show how the near field heat transfer can be increased or decreased as a function of the metallic coating thickness. The calculations are based on available experimental data for the optical properties of ultrathin coatings.

  11. Natural convection and boiling heat transfer of a liquid metal in a magnetic field

    Seki, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1983-02-01

    A liquid metal is often assumed as a coolant and a breeding material of a Tokamak fusion reactor. However, many problems on the thermo-hydraulics of a liquid metal in a magnetic field are still remained to be studied. In the present report, natural convection and boiling of a liquid metal in a strong magnetic field are studied to examine a fundamental feasibility of a fusion reactor cooled by a liquid metal. In the experimental study of the natural convection, the circulation of a liquid metal was found to be surpressed even by a magnetic field parallel to the gravity. A numerical study has confirmed the conclusion drawn by the experiment. In the study of boiling heat transfer, stable boiling of a liquid metal has been found also in a strong magnetic field. The burnout heat flux hardly affected by the magnetic field. These indicate a fundamental feasibility of the liquid-metal cooling for a Tokamak fusion reactor. (author)

  12. Impact of urban gardening in equatorial zone on soils and metal transfer to vegetables

    Ondo Aubin Jean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the impact of urban agriculture on physicochemical soil properties and the metal uptake by some leafy vegetables cultivated in urban soils of Libreville, Gabon. Cultivated and uncultivated top-soil and vegetable samples were collected on two urban garden sites, and analyzed. The results showed that there was strong acidification and a decrease of nutrient and metal concentrations in soils due of agricultural practices. The metal transfer to plants was important, with the exception of iron. The non-essential metal cadmium and lead were not detectable in plant tissues. Amaranth accumulated more metals than other vegetables. Amaranth and Roselle were vegetables that preferentially concentrated metals in their leaves and can therefore be used for metal supplementation in food chain.

  13. Transfer matrix treatment of atomic chemisorption on transition metal surface

    Mariz, A.M.; Koiller, B.

    1980-05-01

    The atomic adsorption of hydrogen on paramagnetic nickel 100 surface is studied, using the Green's function formalism and the transfer matrix technique, which allows the treatment of the geometry of the system in a simple manner. Electronic correlation at the adatom orbital in a self consistent Hartree-Fock approach is incorporated. The adsorption energy, local density of states and charge transfer between the solid and the adatom are calculated for different crystal structures (sc and fcc) and adatom positions at the surface. The results are discussed in comparison with other theories and with available experimental data, with satisfactory agreement. (Author) [pt

  14. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  15. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, L.; Klimenko, N.; Rätsep, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 13 (2017), s. 4520-4525 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : white wine * Chardonnay * Vitis * Ukraine * vineyard * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  16. Interrelationships of metal transfer factor under wastewater reuse and soil pollution.

    Papaioannou, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Papadopoulos, F; Psoma, P

    2018-06-15

    The transfer of heavy metals under soil pollution wastewater reuse was studied in a Greenhouse experiment using a randomized block design, including 6 treatments of heavy metals mixtures composed of Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, where each metal was taking part in the mixture with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/kg respectively, in four replications. The Beta vulgaris L (beet) was used as a test plant. It was found that the metal transfer factors were statistically significantly related to the: (i) DTPA extractable soil metals, (ii) the soil pollution level as assessed by the pollution indices, (iii) the soil pH, (iv) the beet dry matter yield and (v) the interactions between the heavy metals in the soil. It was concluded that the Transfer Factor is subjected to multifactor effects and its real nature is complex, and there is a strong need for further study for the understanding of its role in metal-plant relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating and optimizing charge transfer between graphene and metal by using double layer electrode and polymer-free transfer method

    Huang, Kuo-You; Li, Chia-Shuo; Wen, Luo-Hong; Chou, Ang-Sheng; Ho, Mon-Shu; Wu, Chih-I.

    2017-06-01

    Achieving low contact resistance between graphene and metals is crucial to the further development of high-performance graphene field effect transistors. Increasing the number of conduction modes is the key issue in improving the contact between graphene and metals. This study characterized the work function between graphene and metal contacts using in situ thermal evaporation and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Silver produces weak n-type doping and gold produces heavy p-type doping in graphene. The use of a polymer-free transfer method and a double electrode contact structure produced gold contacts with a resistance value of 352.8 Ω · µm, which is 2.7 times lower than that obtained using conventional methods. This method also produced silver contacts with a resistance value of 958.6 Ω · µm, which represents a 180% improvement over conventional methods.

  18. Trophic transfer of metal nanoparticles in freshwater ecosystems

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal

    freshwater ecosystems range from a few ng/L in surface waters and up to mg/kg in sediments. Several studies have shown Ag ENPs to be toxic, bioaccumulative and harmful to aquatic biota within these concentration ranges. However, research on potential trophic transfer of Ag ENPs is limited. To investigate...... the aquatic ecosystems, Ag ENPs will undergo several transformation processes, ultimately leading to particles settling out of the water column. This will likely result in an increased concentration of ENPs in the sediment. In fact, predicted environmental concentrations of Ag ENPs in Danish and European...... freshwater food web. Future studies should concentrate on the internal distribution of Me-ENPs after uptake in both prey and predator, as this will increase the understanding of fate and effects of Me-ENPs on aquatic biota. Trophic transfer studies including more trophic levels, and higher pelagic organisms...

  19. Experimental study of conjugate heat transfer from liquid metal layer cooled by overlying freon

    Cho, J.S.; Suh, K.Y.; Chung, C.H.; Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state and transient experiments were performed for the heat transfer from the liquid metal pool with overlying Freon (R113) coolant in the process of boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 Celsius degrees. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the R113 coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8 kW to 14 kW. The temperature distributions of the metal layer and coolant were obtained in the steady-state experiment. The boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant was changed from the nucleate boiling to film boiling in the transient experiment. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was observed during the transition from the nucleate boiling to the film boiling. Also, the Nusselt (Nu) number and the Rayleigh (Ra) number in the molten metal pool region were obtained as functions of time. Analysis was done for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference between the metal layer surface and the boiling coolant. In this experiment, the heat transfer is achieved with accompanying solidification in the molten metal pool by the boiling R113 coolant there above. The present test results of the natural convection heat transfer on the molten metal pool are higher than those of the liquid metal natural convection heat transfer without coolant boiling. It can be interpreted that the heat transfer rate is enhanced by the overlying boiling coolant having the high heat removal rate. Analysis of the relationship between the heat flux and the difference between the metal layer surface temperature and the coolant bulk boiling temperature revealed that the CHF occurs when the temperature difference reaches a neighborhood of 50 Celsius degrees. Also, if the temperature

  20. Performance of a wiped film evaporator with simulated high level waste slurries

    Dierks, R.D.; Bonner, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    The horizontal, reverse taper, wiped film evaporator that was evaluated demonstrated a number of positive characteristics with respect to its applicability in the solidification of nuclear fuel recovery process wastes. Foremost among these is its ability to remove the bulk (80 to 90 percent) of the liquid associated with any of the purex-type high level, intermediate level, or mixed waste slurries. The major disadvantage of the evaporator is its current inability to discharge a product that is low enough in liquid content to avoid sticking to the evaporator discharge nozzle. Also, while the indirect indications of the torque required to turn the rotor and the power drawn by the drive motor are indicative of the liquid content of the discharged product, no reliable correlation has been found to cover all of the possible flow rates and feed stock compositions that the evaporator may be required to handle. In addition, no reliable means has been found to indicate the presence or absence of product flow through the discharge nozzle. The lack of a positive means of moving the product concentrate out of the evaporator and into a high temperature receiver is an undesirable feature of the evaporator. Pulverized glass former, or frit, was added to the evaporator feedstock in a ratio of frit to metal oxides of 2 to 1, and the resulting mixture successfully evaporated to a concentrate containing about 50 percent solids. In general, the performance of the wiped film evaporator evaluated was favorable for its use in a nuclear waste fixation process, however further development of the rotor design, power input, and operating techniques will be required to produce a free flowing solid product

  1. Effects of Metals on Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugal Plasmid Transfer in Soil Bacterial Communities

    Song, Jianxiao

    Antibiotic resistance currently represents one of the biggest challenges for human health and in recent years the environmental dimension of antibiotic resistance has been increasingly recognized. The soil environment serves as an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. In addi...... adaptation to metal stress did not significantly increase the permissiveness of the soil bacterial community towards conjugal plasmid transfer........ In addition to direct selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotics, metals may co-select for antibiotic resistance via different mechanisms causing environmental selection of antibiotic resistance in metal contaminated soils. Horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids...... is generally considered one of the most important co-selection mechanisms as multiple resistance genes can be located on the same MGE. This PhD thesis focused on the impact of metals (Cu and Zn) on the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities in soils exposed to different degrees...

  2. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paark, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Ad a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  3. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paark, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Ad a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Identifying trace evidence in data wiping application software

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One area of particular concern for computer forensics examiners involves situations in which someone utilized software applications to destroy evidence. There are products available in the marketplace that are relatively inexpensive and advertised as being able to destroy targeted portions of data stored within a computer system. This study was undertaken to identify these tools and analyze them to determine the extent to which each of the evaluated data wiping applications perform their tasks and to identify trace evidence, if any, left behind on disk media after executing these applications. We evaluated five Windows 7 compatible software products whose advertised features include the ability for users to wipe targeted files, folders, or evidence of selected activities. We conducted a series of experiments that involved executing each application on systems with identical data, and we then analyzed the results and compared the before and after images for each application. We identified information for each application that is beneficial to forensics examiners when faced with similar situations. This paper describes our application selection process, our application evaluation methodology, and our findings. Following this, we describe limitations of this study and suggest areas of additional research that will benefit the study of digital forensics.

  5. Dynamical interaction of He atoms with metal surfaces: Charge transfer processes

    Flores, F.; Garcia Vidal, F.J.; Monreal, R.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham LCAO method is presented to calculate the charge transfer processes between a He * -atom and metal surfaces. Intra-atomic correlation effects are taken into account by considering independently each single He-orbital and by combining the different charge transfer processes into a set of dynamical rate equations for the different ion charge fractions. Our discussion reproduces qualitatively the experimental evidence and gives strong support to the method presented here. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  6. Spontaneous Emission and Energy Transfer Rates Near a Coated Metallic Cylinder

    BRADLEY, LOUISE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates of quantum systems in proximity to a dielectrically coated metallic cylinder are investigated using a Green's tensor formalism. The excitation of surface plasmon modes can significantly modify these rates. The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates are investigated as a function of the material and dimensions of the core and coating, as well as the emission wavelength of the donor. For the material of the core we consider...

  7. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    Sutin, N.; Creutz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  8. Heat transfer enhancement in energy storage in spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads

    Ettouney, Hisham; Alatiqi, Imad; Al-Sahali, Mohammad; Al-Hajirie, Khalida

    2006-01-01

    Energy storage is an attractive option to conserve limited energy resources, where more than 50% of the generated industrial energy is discarded in cooling water and stack gases. This study focuses on the evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in phase change energy storage units. The experiments are performed using spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads. The experiments are conducted by inserting a single spherical capsule filled with wax and metal beads in a stream of hot/cold air. Experimental measurements include the temperature field within the spherical capsule and in the air stream. To determine the enhancement effects of the metal beads, the measured data is correlated against those for a spherical capsule filled with pure wax. Data analysis shows a reduction of 15% in the melting and solidification times upon increasing the number and diameter of the metal beads. This reduction is caused by a similar decrease in the thermal load of the sphere due to replacement of the wax by metal beads. The small size of the spherical capsule limits the enhancement effects; this is evident upon comparison of the heat transfer in a larger size, double pipe energy storage unit, where 2% of the wax volume is replaced with metal inserts, result in a three fold reduction in the melting/solidification time and a similar enhancement in the heat transfer rate

  9. Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies

    Manan Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases—without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta, GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed proving the relevance of 3D over 2D heat transfer analysis.

  10. Charge transfer and injection barrier at the metal-organic interfaces

    Yan, Li

    2002-09-01

    The metal-organic interface plays a critical role in determining the functionality and performance of many innovative organic based devices. It has attracted extensive research interests in recent years. This thesis presents investigations of the electronic structures of organic materials, such as tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), during their interface formation with metals. The characterization is accomplished by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopes (XPS and UPS) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES). As discussed herein, both occupied and unoccupied electronic states at the interfaces are carefully examined in different aspects. In Chapter 4, the charge transfer and chemical reaction at various metal/Alq3 interfaces are investigated using XPS and UPS to study the electron injection into the Alga film. Electron transfer from the low work function metal and Al/LiF(CsF) bilayer to the Alga has been observed. The role of the dielectric and possible chemistry at the interface are discussed in comparison of the low work function metals. Further in Chapter 5, the origin of the metal-interface dipole and the estimation of charge injection barrier is explored using several organic materials. A thermodynamic equilibrium model is extended to explain the relation between the charge transfer process ad the interface dipole. Further, in Chapter 6 the combination of XPS, UPS and IPES detailed the evolution of both occupied and unoccupied energy states during the alkali metal doping. The energy gap modification in organic due to metal doping is observed directly for the spectra. Chapter 7 provides stability study of the organic thin films under x-ray and UV light. The results verify the usability of UPS and XPS for the organic materials used in the thesis. Chapter 7 also shows the secondary ion mass spectroscopy results of metal diffusion in organic thin films.

  11. Time constants and transfer functions for a homogeneous 900 MWt metallic fueled LMR

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal transfer functions are calculated for a 900 MWt U10Zr-fueled sodium cooled reactor. From the transfer functions the time constants, feedback reactivity transfer function coefficients, and power coefficients can be determined. These quantities are calculated for core fuel, upper and lower axial reflector steel, radial blanket fuel, radial reflector steel, and B 4 C rod shaft expansion effect. The quantities are compared to the analogous quantities of a 60 MWt metallic-fueled sodium cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor II configuration. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Large scale metal-free synthesis of graphene on sapphire and transfer-free device fabrication.

    Song, Hyun Jae; Son, Minhyeok; Park, Chibeom; Lim, Hyunseob; Levendorf, Mark P; Tsen, Adam W; Park, Jiwoong; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2012-05-21

    Metal catalyst-free growth of large scale single layer graphene film on a sapphire substrate by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process at 950 °C is demonstrated. A top-gated graphene field effect transistor (FET) device is successfully fabricated without any transfer process. The detailed growth process is investigated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies.

  13. Ejection Regimes in Picosecond Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Metals

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials, including pure metals. To understand the ejection mechanism and thereby improve deposition, here we present visualizations of ejection events at high-spatial (submicrometer) and

  14. Charge transfer between hydrogen(deuterium) ions and atoms in metal vapors

    Alvarez T, I.; Cisneros G, C.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of the experiments on charge transfer between hydrogen (deuterium) ions and atoms in metal vapors are given. Emphasis is given to describing different experimental techniques. The results of calculations if available, are compared with existing experimental data. (author)

  15. Oxidation and Metal-Insertion in Molybdenite Surfaces: Evaluation of Charge-Transfer Mechanisms and Dynamics

    Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Becker, U.; Shutthanandan, V.; Julien, C. M.

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), an important representative member of the layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and industrial science and technology. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. On the other hand understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is quite important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, such a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and intercalation process will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions on to geomedia. Therefore, the present work was performed to understand the oxidation and intercalation processes of molybdenite surfaces. The results obtained, using a wide variety of analytical techniques, are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Determination of heat transfer coefficient for an interaction of sub-cooled gas and metal

    Sidek, Mohd Zaidi; Kamarudin, Muhammad Syahidan

    2016-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for a hot metal surface and their surrounding is one of the need be defined parameter in hot forming process. This study has been conducted to determine the HTC for an interaction between sub-cooled gas sprayed on a hot metal surface. Both experiments and finite element have been adopted in this work. Initially, the designated experiment was conducted to obtain temperature history of spray cooling process. Then, an inverse method was adopted to calculate the HTC value before we validate in a finite element simulation model. The result shows that the heat transfer coefficient for interaction of subcooled gas and hot metal surface is 1000 W/m 2 K. (paper)

  17. Laminar natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal circular cylinder to liquid metals

    Sugiyama, K.; Ma, Y.; Ishiguro, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to clarify the heat transfer characteristic of natural convection around a horizontal circular cylinder immersed in liquid metals. Experimental work concerning liquid metals sometimes involves such a degree of error that is impossible to understand the observed characteristics in measurement. Numerical analysis is a powerful means to overcome this experimental disadvantage. In the present paper the authors first show that the Boussinesq approximation is more applicable heat transfer rates, even for a cylinder with a relatively large temperature difference (>100K) between the heat transfer surface and fluid. It is found from a comparison of the present results with previous work that the correlation equations that have already been proposed predict values lower than the present ones

  18. Chemical potential pinning due to equilibrium electron transfer at metal/C60-doped polymer interfaces

    Heller, C. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-04-01

    We report electroabsorption measurements of the built-in electrostatic potential in metal/C60-doped polymer/metal structures to investigate chemical potential pinning due to equilibrium electron transfer from a metal contact to the electron acceptor energy level of C60 molecules in the polymer film. The built-in potentials of a series of structures employing thin films of both undoped and C60-doped poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) were measured. For undoped MEH-PPV, which has an energy gap of about 2.4 eV, the maximum built-in potential is about 2.1 eV, whereas for C60-doped MEH-PPV the maximum built-in potential decreases to 1.5 eV. Electron transfer to the C60 molecules close to the metal interface pins the chemical potential of the metal contact near the electron acceptor energy level of C60 and decreases the built-in potential of the structure. From the systematic dependence of the built-in potential on the metal work function we find that the electron acceptor energy level of C60 in MEH-PPV is about 1.7 eV above the hole polaron energy level of MEH-PPV.

  19. Transient heat transfer phenomena of the liquid metal layer cooled by overlying R113 coolant

    Cho, J. S.; Seo, K. R.; Jung, C. H.; Park, R. J.; Kim, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the fundamental relationship of the natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool and the boiling mechanism of the overlying coolant, experiments were performed for the transient heat transfer of the liquid metal pool with overlying R113 coolant with boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted by changing the bottom surface boundary condition. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8kW to 14kW. As a result the boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant is changed from the nuclear boiling to film boiling. The Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region obtained as functions of time. Analysis was made for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference of the metal layer surface temperature and the boiling coolant bulk temperature

  20. A rapid alpha dosimeter for measuring nasal cavity wipe matter

    Tuo, Xianguo; Mu, Keliang; Zhong, Hongmei; Yang, Guoshan; Yuan, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is necessary for people who work in the special condition to know whether the alpha radiation is inhaled through detecting quickly nasal cavity wipe matter. This measure method requires that the dosimeter must be portable and easy to operate, and be able to overcome some disadvantages, such as high environment background, few sample quantity, short measure time, and so on. Based on the above requests, a new intelligent portable system is developed for measuring alpha radiated degree, which is suitable for solid wiping matter detected of which diameter is smaller than 20 mm. This system is mainly made up of the detector, self- circumrotating sample shelf, I/A converter, signal gathering and processing system, power supply etc. The system chooses PIPS (Planar Implanted Passivated Silicon) detector which is a designed logical signal gathering hardware. The detector is with small volume, high efficiency and good resolution. PIPS detector doesn't need working gas and is easy to use compared with gas ionization chamber detector. The self-circumrotating sample shelf carries on measuring samples cubically and this improves the accuracy. The system uses compensating adjustment technology to remove background, automatically identify and compensate for radon, thoron and progeny interference, and is able to obtain the reliable measurement result. And the power for this system is supplied simultaneously by 220 V AV power and rechargeable Li-battery supply; it also has a mobile storage for more environments. The dosimeter is used to measure the samples of which diameters are 10∼20 mm , the result of tests shows that: detection efficiency ≥ 30%, background count ≤ 0.2 cpm, stability ≤ 0.3% / h, working temperature -10∼40 C degrees. The parameters of the system basically meet the rapid measurement in a special environment, so it has valuable application prospect in the field of environment, laboratories, and nuclear facilities etc. (author)

  1. A comparative study of the accuracy between plastic and metal impression transfer copings for implant restorations.

    Fernandez, Monica A; Paez de Mendoza, Carmen Y; Platt, Jeffrey A; Levon, John A; Hovijitra, Suteera T; Nimmo, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    A precise transfer of the position and orientation of the antirotational mechanism of an implant to the working cast is particularly important to achieve optimal fit of the final restoration. This study evaluated and compared the accuracy of metal and plastic impression copings for use in a full-arch mandibular edentulous simulation with four implants. Metal and plastic impression transfer copings for two implant systems, Nobel Biocare™ Replace and Straumann SynOcta®, were assessed on a laboratory model to simulate clinical practice. The accuracy of producing stone casts using these plastic and metal impression transfer copings was measured against a standard prosthetic framework consisting of a cast gold bar. A total of 20 casts from the four combinations were obtained. The fit of the framework on the cast was tested by a noncontact surface profilometer, the Proscan 3D 2000 A, using the one-screw test. The effects of implant/system and impression/coping material on gap measurements were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The findings of this in vitro study were as follows: plastic copings demonstrated significantly larger average gaps than metal for Straumann (p = 0.001). Plastic and metal copings were not significantly different for Nobel (p = 0.302). Nobel had significantly larger average gaps than Straumann for metal copings (p = 0.003). Nobel had marginally smaller average gaps than Straumann (p = 0.096) for plastic copings. The system-by-screw location interaction was significant as well (p impression copings were more accurate than plastic copings when using the Straumann system, and there was no difference between metal and plastic copings for the Nobel Replace system. The system-by-screw location was not conclusive, showing no correlation within each system. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Concentration of a sodium nitrate-based waste with a wiped film evaporation

    Farr, L.L.; Boring, M.D.; Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) currently has an inventory of 500,000 gallons of sodium nitrate-based radioactive liquid waste which is currently stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). This waste needs to be treated and one option being considered is concentration of the wastes using evaporation. Testing is underway to determine whether a Wiped Film Evaporator (WFE) can be used to concentrate these wastes in an economical and reliable manner. The capability of the evaporator to process a non-radioactive simulant of the MVST wastes over a range of operating conditions is being studied. The equipment has to be checked for reliability, potential corrosion problems, and the effects of the waste on the efficiency of heat transfer due to scaling. Physical and chemical characteristics of the product and distillate are being investigated. Heat transfer coefficients and volume reductions are being determined under different operating conditions. Decontamination factors are being calculated to determine the necessity for further treatment of the distillate and off-gas

  3. Metal-etching-free direct delamination and transfer of single-layer graphene with a high degree of freedom.

    Yang, Sang Yoon; Oh, Joong Gun; Jung, Dae Yool; Choi, HongKyw; Yu, Chan Hak; Shin, Jongwoo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool

    2015-01-14

    A method of graphene transfer without metal etching is developed to minimize the contamination of graphene in the transfer process and to endow the transfer process with a greater degree of freedom. The method involves direct delamination of single-layer graphene from a growth substrate, resulting in transferred graphene with nearly zero Dirac voltage due to the absence of residues that would originate from metal etching. Several demonstrations are also presented to show the high degree of freedom and the resulting versatility of this transfer method. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Transfer of metallic debris from the metal surface of an acetabular cup to artificial femoral heads by scraping: comparison between alumina and cobalt-chrome heads.

    Chang, Chong Bum; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Song, Won Seok; Kim, Deug Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Kim, Hee Joong

    2008-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the transfer of metal to both ceramic (alumina) and metal (cobalt-chrome) heads that were scraped by a titanium alloy surface under different load conditions. The ceramic and metal heads for total hip arthroplasties were scraped by an acetabular metal shell under various loads using a creep tester. Microstructural changes in the scraped area were visualized with a scanning electron microscope, and chemical element changes were assessed using an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Changes in the roughness of the scraped surface were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface profiling system. Metal transfer to the ceramic and metal heads began to be detectable at a 10 kg load, which could be exerted by one-handed force. The surface roughness values significantly increased with increasing test loads in both heads. When the contact force increased, scratching of the head surface occurred in addition to the transfer of metal. The results documented that metallic debris was transferred from the titanium alloy acetabular shell to both ceramic and metal heads by minor scraping. This study suggests that the greatest possible effort should be made to protect femoral heads, regardless of material, from contact with metallic surfaces during total hip arthroplasty.

  5. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  6. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant

  7. Optimal Magnetic Field Shielding Method by Metallic Sheets in Wireless Power Transfer System

    Feng Wen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power transfer (WPT systems based on magnetic field coupling. However, the metals in the vicinity of the WPT coils cause the decrease of self and mutual inductances and increase of effective series resistance; as such, the electric performance including transmission power and the efficiency of the system is affected. With the research objective of further investigating excellent shielding effectiveness associated with system performance, the utilization of the optimal magnetic field shielding method by metallic sheets in magnetic field coupling WPT is carried out in this paper. The circuit and 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA models are combined to predict the magnetic field distribution and electrical performance. Simulation and experiment results show that the method is very effective by obtaining the largest possible coupling coefficient of the WPT coils within the allowable range and then reducing the value nearest to and no smaller than the critical coupling coefficient via geometric unbroken metallic sheets. The optimal magnetic field shielding method which considers the system efficiency, transmission power, transmission distance, and system size is also achieved using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results can benefit WPT by helping to achieve efficient energy transfer and safe use in metal shielded equipment.

  8. Effect of crust increase on natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool

    Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Choi, Sang Min

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed on natural convection heat transfer with a rapid crust formation in the molten metal pool of a low Prandtl number fluid. Two types of steady state tests, a low and high geometric aspect ratio cases in the molten metal pool, were performed. The crust thickness by solidification was measured as a function of boundary surface temperatures. The experimental results on the relationship between the Nusselt number and Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool with a crust formation were compared with existing correlations. The experimental study has shown that the bottom surface temperature of the molten metal layer, in all experiments, is the major influential parameter in the crust formation, due to the natural convection flow. The Nusselt number of the case without a crust formation in the molten metal pool is greater than that of the case with the crust formation at the same Rayleigh number. The present experimental results on the relationship between the Nusselt number and Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool match well with Globe and Dropkin's correlation. From the experimental results, a new correlation between the Nusselt number and Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool with the crust formation was developed as Nu=0.0923 (Ra) 0.0923 (2 X 10 4 7 ). (author)

  9. Liquid metal heat transfer in heat exchangers under low flow rate conditions

    Mochizuki, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the liquid metal heat transfer in heat exchangers under low flow rate conditions. Measured data from some experiments indicate that heat transfer coefficients of liquid metals at very low Péclet number are much lower than what are predicted by the well-known empirical relations. The cause of this phenomenon was not fully understood for many years. In the present study, one countercurrent-type heat exchanger is analyzed using three, separated countercurrent heat exchanger models: one is a heat exchanger model in the tube bank region, while the upper and lower plena are modeled as two heat exchangers with a single heat transfer tube. In all three heat exchangers, the same empirical correlation is used in the heat transfer calculation on the tube and the shell sides. The Nusselt number, as a function of the Péclet number, calculated from measured temperature and flow rate data in a 50 MW experimental facility was correctly reproduced by the calculation result, when the calculated result is processed in the same way as the experiment. Finally, it is clarified that the deviation is a superficial phenomenon which is caused by the heat transfer in the plena of the heat exchanger. (author)

  10. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX [Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Lavine, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Metallic conductivity in a disordered charge-transfer salt derived from cis-BET-TTF

    Rovira, C. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Tarres, J. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Ribera, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Veciana, J. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Canadell, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Molins, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Mas, M. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Laukhin, V. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain)]|[Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki; Doublet, M.L. [Lab. de Structure et Dynamique (CNRS), Univ. de Montpellier 2 (France); Cowan, D.O. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-02-28

    The first example of a metallic charge-transfer salt derived from cis-bis(ethylenethio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BET-TTF) is reported. (BET-TTF){sub 2}SCN and (BET-TTF)SCN salts were obtained by electrocrystallization starting from trans-BET-TTF. X-ray crystal structure of the mixed-valence salt revealed that trans-cis isomerization occurs upon one electron oxidation. In spite of the structural disorder in both BET-TTF and the counterion, 2:1 salt is metallic down to 60 K and then resistance increases slowly down to 4 K. (orig.)

  12. Exciplex formation and energy transfer in a self-assembled metal-organic hybrid system.

    Haldar, Ritesh; Rao, K Venkata; George, Subi J; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2012-05-07

    Exciting assemblies: A metal-organic self-assembly of pyrenebutyric acid (PBA), 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen), and Mg(II) shows solid-state fluorescence originating from a 1:1 PBA-o-phen exciplex. This exciplex fluorescence is sensitized by another residual PBA chromophore through an excited-state energy-transfer process. The solvent polarity modulates the self-assembly and the corresponding exciplex as well as the energy transfer, resulting in tunable emission of the hybrid (see figure). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Liquid metal MHD and heat transfer in a tokamak blanket slotted coolant channel

    Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Black, D.B.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I.; Shapiro, A.M.; Evtushenko, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic)/heat transfer test was conducted at the ALEX (Argonne Liquid Metal Experiment) facility of ANL (Argonne National Laboratory), jointly between ANL and NIIEFA (Efremov Institute). The test section was a rectangular slotted channel geometry (meaning the channel has a high aspect ratio, in this case 10:1, and the long side is parallel to the applied magnetic field). Isothermal and heat transfer data were collected. A heat flux of ∼9 W/cm 2 was applied to the top horizontal surface (the long side) of the test section. Hartmann Numbers to 1050 (2 Tesla), interaction parameters to 9 x 10 3 , Peclet numbers of 10--200, based on the half-width of the small dimension (7mm), and velocities of 1--75 cm/sec. were achieved. The working fluid was NaK (sodium potassium eutectic). All four interior walls were bare, 300-series stainless steel, conducting walls

  14. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures.

    Herr, Ulrich; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Benel, Cahit; Papageorgiou, Giorgos; Goncalves, Manuel; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Marek, Peter; Hahn, Horst

    2013-01-01

    One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL) and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu(3+), since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The experiments are

  15. Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides

    Schaller-Duke, Ranelle M.; Bogala, Mallikharjuna R.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met - H]+, and [M + Met - 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides

    Schaller-Duke, Ranelle M.; Bogala, Mallikharjuna R.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2018-02-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met - H]+, and [M + Met - 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Coolant material effect on the heat transfer rates of the molten metal pool with solidification

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik

    1998-01-01

    Experimental studies on heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling were performed. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 degree C. Demineralized water and R113 are used as the working coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool immersed in the boiling coolant. The Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study are compared between the water coolant case and the R113 coolant case. The experimental results for the water coolant are higher than those for R113. Also, the empirical relationship of the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is compared with the literature correlations measured from mercury. The present experimental results are higher than the literature correlations. It is believed that this discrepancy is caused by the effect of the heat loss to the environment on the natural convection heat transfer in the molten pool

  18. Surface modification of nanodiamond through metal free atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Shi, Kexin; Heng, Chunning; Mao, Liucheng; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Fengjie, E-mail: fengjiedeng@aliyun.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Surface modification of ND with water soluble and biocompatible polymers. • Functionalized ND through metal free surface initiated ATRP. • The metal free surface initiated ATRP is rather simple and effective. • The ND-poly(MPC) showed high dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanodiamond (ND) with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) [poly(MPC)] has been achieved by using metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The ATRP initiator was first immobilized on the surface of ND through direct esterification reaction between hydroxyl group of ND and 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The initiator could be employed to obtain ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites through SI-ATRP using an organic catalyst. The final functional materials were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis in detailed. All of these characterization results demonstrated that ND-poly(MPC) have been successfully obtained via metal free photo-initiated SI-ATRP. The ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites shown enhanced dispersibility in various solvents as well as excellent biocompatibility. As compared with traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP is rather simple and effective. More importantly, this preparation method avoided the negative influence of metal catalysts. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a promising strategy for fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with great potential for different applications especially in biomedical fields.

  19. Surface modification of nanodiamond through metal free atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Shi, Kexin; Heng, Chunning; Mao, Liucheng; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modification of ND with water soluble and biocompatible polymers. • Functionalized ND through metal free surface initiated ATRP. • The metal free surface initiated ATRP is rather simple and effective. • The ND-poly(MPC) showed high dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanodiamond (ND) with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) [poly(MPC)] has been achieved by using metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The ATRP initiator was first immobilized on the surface of ND through direct esterification reaction between hydroxyl group of ND and 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The initiator could be employed to obtain ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites through SI-ATRP using an organic catalyst. The final functional materials were characterized by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis in detailed. All of these characterization results demonstrated that ND-poly(MPC) have been successfully obtained via metal free photo-initiated SI-ATRP. The ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites shown enhanced dispersibility in various solvents as well as excellent biocompatibility. As compared with traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP is rather simple and effective. More importantly, this preparation method avoided the negative influence of metal catalysts. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a promising strategy for fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with great potential for different applications especially in biomedical fields.

  20. Final Rule: 2013 Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    This is a regulation page for the final rule EPA issued on July 31, 2013 that modifies the hazardous waste management regulations for solvent-contaminated wipes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Alkoxyalcohols in Wet Wipes Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    Lee, So Jin; Pyo, Hee Soo; Chung, Bong Chul; Lee, Jeon Gae [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hai Dong [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Alkoxyalcohols are used as solvents or preservatives in various consumer products such as wet wipes. The metabolites of alkoxyalcohols are known to be chronically toxic and carcinogenic to animals. Thus, an analytical method is needed to monitor alkoxyalcohols in wet wipes. The aim of this study was to develop a simultaneous analytical method for 14 alkoxyalcohols using headspace gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to analyze the wet wipes. This method was developed by comparing with various headspace extraction parameters. The linear calibration curves were obtained for the method (r2 > 0.995). The limit of detection of alkoxyalcohols ranged from 2 to 200 ng mL-1. The precision of the determinative method was less than 18.20% coefficient of variation both intra and inter days. The accuracy of the method ranged from 82.86% to 119.83%. (2-Methoxymethylethoxy)propanol, 2-phenoxyethanol, and 1-phenoxy-2-propanol were mainly detected in wet wipes.

  2. Inter-subchannel heat transfer modeling for a subchannel analysis of liquid metal-cooled reactors

    Hae-Yong, Jeong; Kwi-Seok, Ha; Young-Min, Kwon; Yong-Bum, Lee; Dohee, Hahn

    2007-01-01

    In a subchannel approach, the temperature, pressure and velocity in a subchannel are averaged, and one representative thermal-hydraulic condition specifies the state of a subchannel. To enhance the predictability of a subchannel analysis code, it is required to model the inter-subchannel heat transfer between the adjacent subchannels as accurately as possible. One of the critical parameters which determine the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the coolant in subchannels is the heat conduction between two neighboring sub-channels. This portion of a heat transfer becomes more important in the design of an LMR (Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor) because of the high heat capacity of the liquid metal coolant. The other important part of heat transfer is the mixing of flow as a form of cross flow. Especially, the turbulent mixing caused by the eddy motion of fluid across the gap between the subchannels enhances the exchange of the momentum and the energy through the gap with no net transport of the mass. Major results of recent efforts on these modeling have been implemented in a subchannel analysis code MATRA-LMR-FB. The analysis shows that the accuracy of a subchannel analysis code is improved by enhancing the models describing the conduction heat transfer and the cross-flow mixing, especially at low flow rate. (authors)

  3. New approaches to wipe sampling methods for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings.

    Connor, Thomas H; Smith, Jerome P

    2016-09-01

    At the present time, the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs is surface wipe sampling and subsequent sample analysis with a variety of analytical techniques. The purpose of this article is to review current methodology for determining the level of surface contamination with hazardous drugs in healthcare settings and to discuss recent advances in this area. In addition it will provide some guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling and sample analysis for these drugs in healthcare settings. Published studies on the use of wipe sampling to measure hazardous drugs on surfaces in healthcare settings drugs were reviewed. These studies include the use of well-documented chromatographic techniques for sample analysis in addition to newly evolving technology that provides rapid analysis of specific antineoplastic. Methodology for the analysis of surface wipe samples for hazardous drugs are reviewed, including the purposes, technical factors, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The use of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for surface wipe sample evaluation is also discussed. Current recommendations are that all healthc a re settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled include surface wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug-safe handling program. Surface wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. New technology, although currently limited in scope, may make wipe sampling for hazardous drugs more routine, less costly, and provide a shorter response time than classical analytical techniques now in use.

  4. A Cultural Look at Moral Purity: Wiping the Face Clean

    Spike W. S. eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morality is associated with bodily purity in the custom of many societies. Does that imply moral purity is a universal psychological phenomenon? Empirically, it has never been examined, as all prior experimental data came from Western samples. Theoretically, we suggest the answer is not so straightforward—it depends on the kind of universality under consideration. Combining perspectives from cultural psychology and embodiment, we predict a culture-specific form of moral purification. Specifically, given East Asians’ emphasis on the face as a representation of public self-image, we hypothesize that facial purification should have particularly potent moral effects in a face culture. Data show that face-cleaning (but not hands-cleaning reduces guilt and regret most effectively against a salient East Asian cultural background. It frees East Asians from guilt-driven prosocial behavior. In the wake of their immorality, they find a face-cleaning product especially appealing and spontaneously choose to wipe their face clean. These patterns highlight both culturally variable and universal aspects of moral purification. They further suggest an organizing principle that informs the vigorous debate between embodied and amodal perspectives.

  5. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia)

    Marchand, C.; Fernandez, J.-M.; Moreton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. - Highlights: • Unusual high concentrations of Fe and Ni were measured in mangrove tissues. • Bioconcentration and translocation factors of Fe, Ni, Co and Mn were low. • Low

  6. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia)

    Marchand, C., E-mail: cyril.marchand@ird.fr [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UR 206/UMR 7590 IMPMC, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Fernandez, J.-M.; Moreton, B. [AEL/LEA, 7 rue Loriot de Rouvray, 98800 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France)

    2016-08-15

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. - Highlights: • Unusual high concentrations of Fe and Ni were measured in mangrove tissues. • Bioconcentration and translocation factors of Fe, Ni, Co and Mn were low.

  7. Wet Wipe Allergens: Retrospective Analysis From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 2011-2014.

    Warshaw, Erin M; Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fowler, Joseph F; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; DeKoven, Joel G

    Although there are several case reports of wet wipe-associated contact dermatitis, the prevalence of wipes as a source of allergic contact dermatitis in larger populations and the responsible allergens are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of wet wipes as a source of contact allergy and the most commonly associated allergens in a North American tertiary referral patch test population. Data collected from 2011 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group was used to conduct a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patient demographics and patch test results associated with the triple-digit source code for "wet wipe." Of the 9037 patients patch tested during the study period, 79 (0.9%) had a positive patch test reaction to an allergen identified with a wet wipe source. The most commonly associated allergens were preservatives, including the following: methylisothiazolinone (MI) (59.0%), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/MI (35.6%), bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) (27.4%), and iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (12.3%). Fragrance (combined) represented 12.3%. Anal/genital dermatitis was 15 times more likely (P contact allergy had their contact allergens detected by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening series. Wet wipes are an important source of contact allergy. Preservatives are the main allergens, especially isothiazolinones.

  8. Development of natural convection heat transfer correlation for liquid metal with overlying boiling coolant

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik

    1999-01-01

    Experimental study was performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics and the crust formation of the molten metal pool concurrent with forced convective boiling of the overlying coolant. Tests were performed under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The constant temperature and constant heater input power conditions were adopted for the bottom heating. Test results showed that the temperature distribution and crust layer thickness in the metal layer are appreciably affected by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much by the coolant injection rate. The relationship between the Nu number and Ra number in the molten metal pool region is determined and compared with the correlations in the literature, and the experiment without coolant boiling. A new correlation on the relationship between the Nu number and Ra number in the molten metal pool with crust formation is developed from the experimental data

  9. Direct transfer of multilayer graphene grown on a rough metal surface using PDMS adhesion engineering

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Youngbok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Ahn, Chi Won; Lee, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    The direct transfer of graphene using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping has advantages such as a ‘pick-and-place’ capability and no chemical residue problems. However, it is not easy to apply direct PDMS stamping to graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on rough, grainy metal surfaces due to poor contact between the PDMS and graphene. In this study, graphene consisting of a mixture of monolayers and multiple layers grown on a rough Ni surface was directly transferred without the use of an adhesive layer. Liquid PDMS was cured on graphene to effect a conformal contact with the graphene. A fast release of graphene from substrate was achieved by carrying out wet-etching-assisted mechanical peeling. We also carried out a thermal post-curing of PDMS to control the level of adhesion between PDMS and graphene and hence facilitate a damage-free release of the graphene. Characterization of the transferred graphene by micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and optical microscopy showed neither cracks nor contamination from the transfer. This technique allows a fast and simple transfer of graphene, even for multilayer graphene grown on a rough surface.

  10. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  11. Application of Degenerately Doped Metal Oxides in the Study of Photoinduced Interfacial Electron Transfer.

    Farnum, Byron H; Morseth, Zachary A; Brennaman, M Kyle; Papanikolas, John M; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-06-18

    Degenerately doped In2O3:Sn semiconductor nanoparticles (nanoITO) have been used to study the photoinduced interfacial electron-transfer reactivity of surface-bound [Ru(II)(bpy)2(4,4'-(PO3H2)2-bpy)](2+) (RuP(2+)) molecules as a function of driving force over a range of 1.8 eV. The metallic properties of the ITO nanoparticles, present within an interconnected mesoporous film, allowed for the driving force to be tuned by controlling their Fermi level with an external bias while their optical transparency allowed for transient absorption spectroscopy to be used to monitor electron-transfer kinetics. Photoinduced electron transfer from excited-state -RuP(2+*) molecules to nanoITO was found to be dependent on applied bias and competitive with nonradiative energy transfer to nanoITO. Back electron transfer from nanoITO to oxidized -RuP(3+) was also dependent on the applied bias but without complication from inter- or intraparticle electron diffusion in the oxide nanoparticles. Analysis of the electron injection kinetics as a function of driving force using Marcus-Gerischer theory resulted in an experimental estimate of the reorganization energy for the excited-state -RuP(3+/2+*) redox couple of λ* = 0.83 eV and an electronic coupling matrix element, arising from electronic wave function overlap between the donor orbital in the molecule and the acceptor orbital(s) in the nanoITO electrode, of Hab = 20-45 cm(-1). Similar analysis of the back electron-transfer kinetics yielded λ = 0.56 eV for the ground-state -RuP(3+/2+) redox couple and Hab = 2-4 cm(-1). The use of these wide band gap, degenerately doped materials provides a unique experimental approach for investigating single-site electron transfer at the surface of oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Transferring metallic nano-island on hydrogen passivated silicon surface for nano-electronics

    Deng, J; Troadec, C; Joachim, C

    2009-01-01

    In a planar configuration, precise positioning of ultra-flat metallic nano-islands on semiconductor surface opens a way to construct nanostructures for atomic scale interconnects. Regular triangular Au nano-islands have been grown on atomically flat MoS 2 substrates and manipulated by STM to form nanometer gap metal-pads connector for single molecule electronics study. The direct assembly of regular shaped metal nano-islands on H-Si(100) is not achievable. Here we present how to transfer Au triangle nano-islands from MoS 2 onto H-Si(100) in a clean manner. In this experiment, clean MoS 2 substrates are patterned as array of MoS 2 pillars with height of 8 μm. The Au triangle nano-islands are grown on top of the pillars. Successful printing transfer of these Au nano-islands from the MoS 2 pillars to the H-Si(100) is demonstrated.

  13. A low-spin Fe(III) complex with 100-ps ligand-to-metal charge transfer photoluminescence

    Chabera, Pavel; Liu, Yizhu; Prakash, Om

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal complexes are used as photosensitizers(1), in light-emitting diodes, for biosensing and in photocatalysis(2). A key feature in these applications is excitation from the ground state to a charge-transfer state(3,4); the long charge-transfer-state lifetimes typical for complexes...

  14. Intravascular local gene transfer mediated by protein-coated metallic stent.

    Yuan, J; Gao, R; Shi, R; Song, L; Tang, J; Li, Y; Tang, C; Meng, L; Yuan, W; Chen, Z

    2001-10-01

    To assess the feasibility, efficiency and selectivity of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to local arterial wall by protein-coated metallic stent. A replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the Lac Z reporter gene for nuclear-specific beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta gal) was used in this study. The coating for metallic stent was made by immersing it in a gelatin solution containing crosslinker. The coated stents were mounted on a 4.0 or 3.0 mm percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon and submersed into a high-titer Ad-beta gal viral stock (2 x 10(10) pfu/ml) for 3 min, and then implanted into the carotid arteries in 4 mini-swines and into the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in 2 mini-swines via 8F large lumen guiding catheters. The animals were sacrificed 7 (n = 4), 14 (n = 1) and 21 (n = 1) days after implantation, respectively. The beta-galactosidase expression was assessed by X-gal staining. The results showed that the expression of transgene was detected in all animal. In 1 of carotid artery with an intact intima, the beta-gal expression was limited to endothelial cells. In vessels with denuded endothelium, gene expression was found in the sub-intima, media and adventitia. The transfection efficiency of medial smooth muscle cells was 38.6%. In 2 animals sacrificed 7 days after transfection, a microscopic examination of X-gal-stained samples did not show evidence of transfection in remote organs and arterial segments adjacent to the treated arterial site. Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer to endothelial, smooth muscle cells and adventitia by protein-coated metallic stent is feasible. The transfection efficiency is higher. The coated stent may act as a good carrier of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and have a potential to prevent restenosis following PTCA.

  15. Spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape.

    Clémentine Fritsch

    Full Text Available Concepts and developments for a new field in ecotoxicology, referred to as "landscape ecotoxicology," were proposed in the 1990s; however, to date, few studies have been developed in this emergent field. In fact, there is a strong interest in developing this area, both for renewing the concepts and tools used in ecotoxicology as well as for responding to practical issues, such as risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of metal bioaccumulation in animals in order to identify the role of spatially explicit factors, such as landscape as well as total and extractable metal concentrations in soils. Over a smelter-impacted area, we studied the accumulation of trace metals (TMs: Cd, Pb and Zn in invertebrates (the grove snail Cepaea sp and the glass snail Oxychilus draparnaudi and vertebrates (the bank vole Myodes glareolus and the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. Total and CaCl(2-extractable concentrations of TMs were measured in soils from woody patches where the animals were captured. TM concentrations in animals exhibited a high spatial heterogeneity. They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp. TM levels in animals and their variations along the pollution gradient were modulated by the landscape, and this influence was species and metal specific. Median soil metal concentrations (predicted by universal kriging were calculated in buffers of increasing size and were related to bioaccumulation. The spatial scale at which TM concentrations in animals and soils showed the strongest correlations varied between metals, species and landscapes. The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc. are discussed. Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our

  16. MHD and heat transfer benchmark problems for liquid metal flow in rectangular ducts

    Sidorenkov, S.I.; Hua, T.Q.; Araseki, H.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal cooling systems of a self-cooled blanket in a tokamak reactor will likely include channels of rectangular cross section where liquid metal is circulated in the presence of strong magnetic fields. MHD pressure drop, velocity distribution and heat transfer characteristics are important issues in the engineering design considerations. Computer codes for the reliable solution of three-dimensional MHD flow problems are needed for fusion relevant conditions. Argonne National Laboratory and The Efremov Institute have jointly defined several benchmark problems for code validation. The problems, described in this paper, are based on two series of rectangular duct experiments conducted at ANL; one of the series is a joint ANL/Efremov experiment. The geometries consist of variation of aspect ratio and wall thickness (thus wall conductance ratio). The transverse magnetic fields are uniform and nonuniform in the axial direction

  17. Investigation of transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions in water.

    Alderson, Juliet M; Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2018-04-11

    Transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer is a powerful method for incorporating new CN bonds into relatively unfunctionalized scaffolds. In this communication, we report the first examples of site- and chemoselective CH bond amination reactions in aqueous media. The unexpected ability to employ water as the solvent in these reactions is advantageous in that it eliminates toxic solvent use and enables reactions to be run at increased concentrations with lower oxidant loadings. Using water as the reaction medium has potential to expand the scope of nitrene transfer to encompass a variety of biomolecules and highly polar substrates, as well as enable pH control over the site-selectivity of CH bond amination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear prehistory influence on transfer velocity of 54Mn impurity 'hot' atoms in irradiated metallic iron

    Alekseev, I.E.

    2007-01-01

    Influence of nuclear prehistory on transfer velocity of 54 Mn impurity 'hot'-atoms - got by different nuclear channels: 56 Fe(d, α), 54 Fe(n,p) in irradiated metallic iron - is studied. Irradiation of targets were carried out in U-120 accelerator (energy range 7.3/5.3 MeV, deuteron beam current makes up 5 μA). Mean density of thermal neutron (WWR-M reactor) makes up 8.6·10 13 neutron·cm -2 ·s -1 . It is shown, that transfer velocity of 54 Mn 'hot' atoms is defining by rate of radiation damage of targets in the irradiation process at that a key importance has a bombarding particles type applied for radioactive label getting

  19. A direct metal transfer method for cross-bar type polymer non-volatile memory applications

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyeongmi; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Jung, Gun-Young; Lee, Takhee

    2008-01-01

    Polymer non-volatile memory devices in 8 x 8 array cross-bar architecture were fabricated by a non-aqueous direct metal transfer (DMT) method using a two-step thermal treatment. Top electrodes with a linewidth of 2 μm were transferred onto the polymer layer by the DMT method. The switching behaviour of memory devices fabricated by the DMT method was very similar to that of devices fabricated by the conventional shadow mask method. The devices fabricated using the DMT method showed three orders of magnitude of on/off ratio with stable resistance switching, demonstrating that the DMT method can be a simple process to fabricate organic memory array devices

  20. Electronic coupling effects and charge transfer between organic molecules and metal surfaces

    Forker, Roman

    2010-07-01

    We employ a variant of optical absorption spectroscopy, namely in situ differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), for an analysis of the structure-properties relations of thin epitaxial organic films. Clear correlations between the spectra and the differently intense coupling to the respective substrates are found. While rather broad and almost structureless spectra are obtained for a quaterrylene (QT) monolayer on Au(111), the spectral shape resembles that of isolated molecules when QT is grown on graphite. We even achieve an efficient electronic decoupling from the subjacent Au(111) by inserting an atomically thin organic spacer layer consisting of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) with a noticeably dissimilar electronic behavior. These observations are further consolidated by a systematic variation of the metal substrate (Au, Ag, and Al), ranging from inert to rather reactive. For this purpose, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) is chosen to ensure comparability of the molecular film structures on the different metals, and also because its electronic alignment on various metal surfaces has previously been studied with great intensity. We present evidence for ionized PTCDA at several interfaces and propose the charge transfer to be related to the electronic level alignment governed by interface dipole formation on the respective metals. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of wetlands designed to transfer and transform selected metals in an aqueous matrix

    Hawkins, W.B.; Gillespie, W.B. Jr.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Constructed wetlands can be used as an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. Two wetlands were constructed at a Louisiana petroleum refinery and were used to study transfers and transformations of selected metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) in a refinery effluent. In order to optimize metal removal from the aqueous matrix and subsequently decrease metal bioavailability, the hydroperiod, hydrosoil, and vegetation were specifically selected and incorporated into the wetland design. To test the metal removal efficiency of the constructed wetlands, refinery effluent was amended with 4 mg Zn/L as ZnCl 2 for 150 d. From influent to effluent, average total recoverable and soluble zinc concentrations decreased by 41 and 72%, respectively. Toxicity tests (7 d) using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas illustrated a decrease in zinc bioavailability. Average C. dubia survival increased from 0--73% as a result of wetland treatment; for P. promelas, the increase in average survival was 37--94%. Based upon this field experiment, constructed wetlands can be specifically designed for zinc removal and concomitant decreases in toxicity

  2. The Enrichment and Transfer of Heavy Metals for Two Ferns in Pb-Zn Tailing

    Mai Jiajie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment and transfer of 8 heavy metals of Equisetum ramosissimum and Pteris vittata growing naturally close to edge of the sewage pool in Bencun Pb-Zn Tailing, Eastern Guangdong were investigated. The results indicated that the pollution of Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn was very severe in this tailing, followed by Cu and Mn. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed to be very strong based on soil background values of Guangdong Province and at high risk according to criteria of the second grade State Soil Environmental Quality Standard, and Cd, Hg, Pb were the main factors leading to potential ecological risk. The content of 8 heavy metals in the two ferns did not reach critical content of hyperaccumulator, so neither of them was typical hyperaccumulator, but both had a certain tolerance to these heavy metal pollution. Underground parts of Pteris vittata had an enrichment coefficient above 1 and that of Equisetum ramosissimum had a value near 1, therefore the two ferns could be utilized as potential enrichment plants. The two ferns have strong adaptability to the tailing habitat and can be used as pioneers in ecological restoration of Pb-Zn tailings.

  3. Surface modification of nanodiamond through metal free atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Shi, Kexin; Heng, Chunning; Mao, Liucheng; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-12-01

    Surface modification of nanodiamond (ND) with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) [poly(MPC)] has been achieved by using metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The ATRP initiator was first immobilized on the surface of ND through direct esterification reaction between hydroxyl group of ND and 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The initiator could be employed to obtain ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites through SI-ATRP using an organic catalyst. The final functional materials were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis in detailed. All of these characterization results demonstrated that ND-poly(MPC) have been successfully obtained via metal free photo-initiated SI-ATRP. The ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites shown enhanced dispersibility in various solvents as well as excellent biocompatibility. As compared with traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP is rather simple and effective. More importantly, this preparation method avoided the negative influence of metal catalysts. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a promising strategy for fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with great potential for different applications especially in biomedical fields.

  4. The determination of oxygen in metals using an impulse heating furnace with a simple transfer lock

    Dale, L.S.; de Jong, S.; Kelly, J.W.; Whittem, R.N.

    1975-05-01

    An impulse heating furnace has been constructed for the determination of low levels of oxygen down to 100 μg g -1 in metals. The furnace is equipped with a sample transfer lock which permits samples to be loaded into outgassed crucibles in a helium atmosphere. As a result, blank levels in the range 2 to 3 μg oxygen are obtained; the modification also results in shorter sample processing time. The apparatus is described, and its suitability for oxygen determinations at these levels has been verified by comparison of results obtained on reference and analysed materials. (author)

  5. Dynamical analysis on carbon transfer in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor

    Kataoka, Tadayuki; Matsumoto, Keishi

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical analysis was undertaken on the exchange of carbon taking place between the structural steels and sodium for the case of a bi-metallic secondary system constituted of type 304 stainless and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels, representing the secondary system of a liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The analysis brought to light the effects to be expected on the long terms carbon transfer behavior of: (a) the surface areas of structural steels in contact with flowing sodium, (b) the thickness of the sodium-boundary layer, (c) the initial carbon concentration in the sodium, and (d) the rate of carbon contamination of the sodium. (author)

  6. Effect of diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer with FC-72

    Kumar G., Udaya; S., Suresh; M. R., Thansekhar; Babu P., Dinesh

    2017-11-01

    Effect of varying diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer performance is presented in this study. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of four different diameters (∼35 nm, ∼70 nm, ∼130 nm and ∼200 nm) were grown directly on copper specimen using template-based electrodeposition technique. Both critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (h) were found to be improved in surfaces with nanowires as compared to the bare copper surface. Moreover, both the parameters were found to increase with increasing diameter of the nanowires. The percentage increases observed in CHF for the samples with nanowires were 38.37%, 40.16%, 48.48% and 45.57% whereas the percentage increase in the heat transfer coefficient were 86.36%, 95.45%, 184.1% and 131.82% respectively as compared to the bare copper surface. Important reasons believed for this enhancement were improvement in micron scale cavity density and cavity size which arises as a result of the coagulation and grouping of nanowires during the drying process. In addition to this, superhydrophilic nature, capillary effect, and enhanced bubble dynamics parameters (bubble frequency, bubble departure diameter, and nucleation site density) were found to be the concurring mechanisms responsible for this enhancement in heat transfer performance. Qualitative bubble dynamics analysis was done for the surfaces involved and the visual observations are provided to support the results presented and discussed.

  7. Direct transfer of metallic photonic structures onto end facets of optical fibers

    Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Feifei; Lin, Yuanhai

    2016-07-01

    We present a flexible approach to transfer metallic photonic crystals (MPCs) onto end facets of optical fibers. The MPCs were initially fabricated on a glass substrate with a spacer layer of indium tin oxide (ITO), which was used as a buffer layer in the transferring process. The fiber ends were firstly welded on the top surface of the MPCs by a drop of polymer solution after the solvent evaporated. The ITO layer was then etched by hydrochloric acid (HCl), so that the MPCs got off the substrate and were transferred to the fiber ends. Alternatively, the MPCs may be also etched off the substrate first by immersing the sample in HCl. The ultra-thin MPC sheet consisting of gold nanolines interlaced with photoresist gratings was then transferred to cap the fiber ends. In the later approach, we can choose which side of the MPCs to be used as the contact with the fiber facet. Such methods enabled convenient nanostructuring on optical fiber tips and achieving miniaturized MPC devices with compact integration, extending significantly applications of MPCs. In particular, the fabrications presented in this manuscript enrich the lab-on-fiber engineering techniques and the resultant devices have potential applications in remote sensing and detection systems.

  8. Direct transfer of metallic photonic structures onto end facets of optical fibers

    Xinping Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a flexible approach to transfer metallic photonic crystals (MPCs onto end facets of optical fibers. The MPCs were initially fabricated on a glass substrate with a spacer layer of indium tin oxide (ITO, which was used as a buffer layer in the transferring process. The fiber ends were firstly welded on the top surface of the MPCs by a drop of polymer solution after the solvent evaporated. The ITO layer was then etched by hydrochloric acid (HCl, so that the MPCs got off the substrate and were transferred to the fiber ends. Alternatively, the MPCs may be also etched off the substrate first by immersing the sample in HCl. The ultra-thin MPC sheet consisting of gold nanolines interlaced with photoresist gratings was then transferred to cap the fiber ends. In the later approach, we can choose which side of the MPCs to be used as the contact with the fiber facet. Such methods enabled convenient nanostructuring on optical fiber tips and achieving miniaturized MPC devices with compact integration, extending significantly applications of MPCs. In particular, the fabrications presented in this manuscript enrich the lab-on-fiber engineering techniques and the resultant devices have potential applications in remote sensing and detection systems.

  9. Metal electrodeposition and electron transfer studies of uranium compounds in room temperature ionic liquids

    Stoll, M.E.; Oldham, W.J.; Costa, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL's) comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and one of several anions such as PF 6 - , BF 4 - , or - N(SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 , represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. Part of the intrigue with RTIL's stems from some of their inherent solvent properties including negligible vapor pressure, good conductivity, high chemical and thermal stability, and non-flammability. Additionally, a substantial number of RTIL's can be envisioned simply by combining different cation and anion pairs, thereby making them attractive for specific application needs. We are interested in learning more about the possible use of RTIL's within the nuclear industry. In this regard our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple metal ions in addition to coordination and organometallic complexes in these novel solvents. Results from our research have also provided us with insight into the bonding interactions between our current anion of choice, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide = NTf 2 , and open coordination sites on actinide and transition metal fragments. This presentation will focus on recent results in two areas: the electrodeposition of electropositive metal ions from RTIL solutions and the electron transfer behavior for several uranium complexes. Details concerning the cathodic electrodeposition and anodic stripping of alkali metals (Na, K) from various working electrode surfaces (Pt, Au, W, Glassy Carbon) will be discussed. Figure 1 displays typical behavior for the electrodeposition of potassium metal from an RTIL containing potassium ions produced through the reaction of KH with H[NTf 2 ]. Our efforts with other metal ions, including our results to date with uranium electrodeposition, will be covered during the presentation. The electron transfer behavior for a number of uranium complexes have been studied with various

  10. Metal-free photochemical silylations and transfer hydrogenations of benzenoid hydrocarbons and graphene

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Li, Hu; Bergman, Joakim; Lundstedt, Anna; Jorner, Kjell; Ayub, Rabia; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Jahn, Burkhard O.; Denisova, Aleksandra; Zietz, Burkhard; Lindh, Roland; Sanyal, Biplab; Grennberg, Helena; Leifer, Klaus; Ottosson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    The first hydrogenation step of benzene, which is endergonic in the electronic ground state (S0), becomes exergonic in the first triplet state (T1). This is in line with Baird's rule, which tells that benzene is antiaromatic and destabilized in its T1 state and also in its first singlet excited state (S1), opposite to S0, where it is aromatic and remarkably unreactive. Here we utilized this feature to show that benzene and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to various extents undergo metal-free photochemical (hydro)silylations and transfer-hydrogenations at mild conditions, with the highest yield for naphthalene (photosilylation: 21%). Quantum chemical computations reveal that T1-state benzene is excellent at H-atom abstraction, while cyclooctatetraene, aromatic in the T1 and S1 states according to Baird's rule, is unreactive. Remarkably, also CVD-graphene on SiO2 is efficiently transfer-photohydrogenated using formic acid/water mixtures together with white light or solar irradiation under metal-free conditions.

  11. Studies of transfer reactions of photosensitized electrons involving complexes of transition metals in view of solar energy storage

    Takakubo, Masaaki

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis addresses electron transfer reactions occurring during photosynthesis, for example, photosensitized reaction in which chlorophyll is the sensitizer. More specifically, the author studied experimentally electron photo-transfers with type D sensitizers (riboflavin, phenoxazine and porphyrin), and various complexes of transition metals. After a presentation of these experiments, the author describes the photosensitisation process (photo-physics of riboflavin, oxygen deactivation, sensitized photo-oxidation and photo-reduction). The theoretical aspect of electron transfer is then addressed: generalities, deactivation of the riboflavin triplet, initial efficiency of electron transfer. Experimental results on three basic processes (non-radiative deactivation, energy transfer, electron transfer) are interpreted in a unified way by using the non-radiative transfer theory. Some applications are described: photo-electrochemical batteries, photo-oxidation and photo-reduction of the cobalt ion

  12. Convective heat transfer the molten metal pool heated from below and cooled by two-phase flow

    Cho, J. S.; Suh, K. Y.; Chung, C. H.; Park, R. J.; Kim, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    During a hypothetical servere accident in the nuclear power plant, a molten core material may form stratified fluid layers. These layers may be composed of high temperature molten debris pool and water coolant in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel or in the reactor cavity. This study is concerned with the experimental test and numerical analysis on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool immersed in the boiling coolant. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 .deg. C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. Tests were performed under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The constant temperature and constant heat flux conditions are adopted for the bottom heating. The test parameters included the heated bottom surface temperature of the molten metal pool, the input power to the heated bottom surface of the test section, and the coolant injection rate. Numerical analyses were simultaneously performed in a two-dimensional rectangular domain of the molten metal pool to check on the measured data. The numerical program has been developed using the enthalpy method, the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm. The experimental results of the heat transfer show general agreement with the calculated values. In this study, the relationship between the Nusselt number and Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region was estimated and compared with the dry experiment without coolant nor solidification of the molten metal pool, and with the crust formation experiment with subcooled coolant, and against other correlations. In the experiments, the

  13. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  14. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy for monitoring cell adhesion using metal induced energy transfer

    Hwang, Wonsang; Seo, JinWon; Song, Jun ho; Kim, DongEun; Won, YoungJae; Choi, In-Hong; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Dug Young

    2018-02-01

    A precise control and a reliable monitoring tool for the adhesion properties of a cell are very important in atherosclerosis studies. If endothelial cells in contact with the intracellular membrane are not attached securely, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles can enter into the inner membrane. It is therefore necessary to measure conditions under which endothelial cell detachment occurs. When a cell is attached to a metal thin film, the lifetime of a fluorescence probe attached to the membrane of the cell is reduced by the metal-induced energy transfer (MIET). Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is used to monitor the attachment condition of a cell to a metal surface using FRET. However, this requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens because axial confocal resolution must be smaller than the cell thickness. This requirement limits the field of view of the measurement specimen. In this study we provides a new method which can measure adhesion properties of endothelial cells even with a low NA objective lens by resolving two lifetime components in FLIM.

  15. Thermal Stress and Heat Transfer Coefficient for Ceramics Stalk Having Protuberance Dipping into Molten Metal

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra; Li, Wenbin; Takase, Yasushi; Ogura, Hiroki; Higashi, Yusuke

    Low pressure die casting is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The low pressure die casting process plays an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. In the low pressure die casting process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal, by means of a pressurized gas, to rise into a ceramic tube having protuberance, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube, called stalk, has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to reduce the risk of fracture that may happen due to the thermal stresses. In this paper, thermo-fluid analysis is performed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficient. The finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the crucible with varying dipping speeds. It is found that the stalk with or without protuberance should be dipped into the crucible slowly to reduce the thermal stress.

  16. Effect of carrier gas composition on transferred arc metal nanoparticle synthesis

    Stein, Matthias; Kiesler, Dennis; Kruis, Frank Einar

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles are used in a great number of applications; an effective and economical production scaling-up is hence desirable. A simple and cost-effective transferred arc process is developed, which produces pure metal (Zn, Cu, and Ag) nanoparticles with high production rates, while allowing fast optimization based on energy efficiency. Different carrier gas compositions, as well as the electrode arrangements and the power input are investigated to improve the production and its efficiency and to understand the arc production behavior. The production rates are determined by a novel process monitoring method, which combines an online microbalance method with a scanning mobility particle sizer for fast production rate and size distribution measurement. Particle characterization is performed via scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. It is found that the carrier gas composition has the largest impact on the particle production rate and can increase it with orders of magnitude. This appears to be not only a result of the increased heat flux and melt temperature but also of the formation of tiny nitrogen (hydrogen) bubbles in the molten feedstock, which impacts feedstock evaporation significantly in bi-atomic gases. A production rate of sub 200 nm particles from 20 up to 2,500 mg/h has been realized for the different metals. In this production range, specific power consumptions as low as 0.08 kWh/g have been reached.

  17. Molecular orbital (SCF-Xα-SW) theory of metal-metal charge transfer processes in minerals - II. Application to Fe2+ --> Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in oxides and silicates

    Sherman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    A molecular orbital description, based on Xα-Scattered wave calculations on a (FeTiO10)14− cluster, is given for Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in minerals. The calculated energy for the lowest Fe2+ → Ti4+ metal-metal charge transfer transition is 18040 cm−1 in reasonable agreement with energies observed in the optical spectra of Fe-Ti oxides and silicates. As in the case of Fe2+ → Fe3+ charge transfer in mixed-valence iron oxides and silicates, Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer is associated with Fe-Ti bonding across shared polyhedral edges. Such bonding results from the overlap of the Fe(t 2g ) and Ti(t 2g ) 3d orbitals.

  18. Wipes coated with a singlet-oxygen-producing photosensitizer are effective against human influenza virus but not against norovirus

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Duizer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of enteric and respiratory viruses, including human norovirus (hNoV) and human influenza virus, may involve surfaces. In food preparation and health care settings, surfaces are cleaned with wipes; however, wiping may not efficiently reduce contamination or may even spread viruses,

  19. Study on transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing spontaneous agglomeration of catalytic Ni and Co metals

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Mizuno, Masaya; Banno, Kazuya; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing metal agglomeration phenomena was investigated by using carbon films deposited on Ni or Co catalyst metals on SiO 2 /Si substrates. As a result of metal agglomeration at high temperatures, multilayer graphene films appeared to be formed directly on SiO 2 films. The microscopic Raman mapping study revealed that graphene films were preferentially synthesized around areas where metal films disappeared at an early stage of agglomeration, and that they finally covered almost the whole surface. It was also found that the synthesized graphene films tended to have better structural qualities and lower layer numbers with the increase in the starting metal thicknesses regardless of the kinds of catalyst metals. Raman study also showed that they had good two-dimensional uniformity in the structural quality. (paper)

  20. Parametric investigation on transient boiling heat transfer of metal rod cooled rapidly in water pool

    Lee, Chi Young [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Pukyong National University, 45, Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunwoo, E-mail: swkim@alaska.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P. O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation are examined. • Liquid subcooling affects remarkably the quenching phenomena. • Cr-coated surfaces for ATF might extend the quenching duration. • Solids with low heat capacity shorten the quenching duration. • Surface oxidation can affect strongly the film boiling heat transfer and MFB point. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation on transient pool boiling heat transfer were investigated experimentally using the vertical metal rod and quenching method. The change in rod temperature was measured with time during quenching, and the visualization of boiling around the test specimen was performed using the high-speed video camera. As the test materials, the zircaloy (Zry), stainless steel (SS), niobium (Nb), and copper (Cu) were tested. In addition, the chromium-coated niobium (Cr-Nb) and chromium-coated stainless steel (Cr-SS) were prepared for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) application. Low liquid subcooling and Cr-coating shifted the quenching curve to the right, which indicates a prolongation of quenching duration. On the other hand, the material with small heat capacity and surface oxidation caused the quenching curve to move to the left. To examine the influence of the material property and surface oxidation on the film boiling heat transfer performance and minimum film boiling (MFB) point in more detail, the wall temperature and heat flux were calculated from the present transient temperature profile using the inverse heat transfer analysis, and then the curves of wall temperature and heat flux in the film boiling regime were obtained. In the present experimental conditions, the effect of material property on the film boiling heat transfer performance and MFB point seemed to be minor. On the other hand, based on the experimental results of the Cu test specimen, the surface

  1. Separation of Metal Binding and Electron Transfer Sites as a Strategy To Stabilize the Ligand-Reduced and Metal-Oxidized Form of [Mo(CO)4L

    Bulak, E.; Varnali, T.; Schwederski, B.; Bubrin, D.; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 23 (2011), s. 6441-6445 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Electron Transfer Sites * [Mo(CO)4L] * metal carbonyl complexes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.963, year: 2011

  2. Laser Induced Forward Transfer of High Viscosity Silver Paste for New Metallization Methods in Photovoltaic and Flexible Electronics Industry

    Chen, Y.; Munoz-Martin, D.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Sánchez-Cortezon, E.; Murillo-Gutierrez, J.

    Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) has been studied in the past as a promising approach for precise metallization in electronics using metallic inks and pastes. In this work we present large area metallization using LIFT of fully commercial silver-based pastes initially designed for solar cell screen-printing. We discuss the mechanisms for the material transfer both in ns and ps regimes of irradiation of these high viscosity materials, and the potential use of this technique in the photovoltaic industry (both in standard c-Si solar cells and thin film technologies) and flexible electronics devices. In particular we summarize the results of our group in this field, demonstrating that our approach is capable of improving the aspect ratio of the standard metallization patterns achieved with screen-printing technologies in those technological fields and, in addition, of fulfilling the requirements imposed by the mechanical properties of the substrates in flexible electronic applications.

  3. Coherently-enabled environmental control of optics and energy transfer pathways of hybrid quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems.

    Hatef, Ali; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Fortin-Deschênes, Simon; Boulais, Etienne; Meunier, Michel

    2013-03-11

    It is well-known that optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots can be controlled using optical cavities or near fields of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of metallic nanoparticles. In this paper we study the optics, energy transfer pathways, and exciton states of quantum dots when they are influenced by the near fields associated with plasmonic meta-resonances. Such resonances are formed via coherent coupling of excitons and LSPRs when the quantum dots are close to metallic nanorods and driven by a laser beam. Our results suggest an unprecedented sensitivity to the refractive index of the environment, causing significant spectral changes in the Förster resonance energy transfer from the quantum dots to the nanorods and in exciton transition energies. We demonstrate that when a quantum dot-metallic nanorod system is close to its plasmonic meta-resonance, we can adjust the refractive index to: (i) control the frequency range where the energy transfer from the quantum dot to the metallic nanorod is inhibited, (ii) manipulate the exciton transition energy shift of the quantum dot, and (iii) disengage the quantum dot from the metallic nanoparticle and laser field. Our results show that near meta-resonances the spectral forms of energy transfer and exciton energy shifts are strongly correlated to each other.

  4. Heaters to simulate fuel pins for heat transfer tests in single-phase liquid-metal-flow

    Casal, V.; Graf, E.; Hartmann, W.

    1976-09-01

    The development of heaters for thermal simulation of the fuel elements of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (SNR) is reported. Beginning with the experimental demands various heating methods are discussed for thermodynamic investigations of the heat transfer in liquid metals. Then a preferred heater rod is derived to simulate the fuel pins of a SNR. Finally it is reported on the fabrication and the operation practice. (orig.) [de

  5. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.

  6. Effect of thermodiffusion on the fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification of molten metal alloys

    E. Jafar-Salehi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a transient Finite Element (FE method has been employed to solve the transport equations to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow and the effect of thermodiffusion on vertical solidification of a binary molten metal alloy, forming a rod. The binary system considered in this study is SnBi composed of 65% Sn and 35% Bi subjected to bottom cooling. It is found that the flow of molten metal at the boundary of the mushy region plays an important role in the shape and geometry of the zone. The presence of thermodiffusion shows considerable difference in the composition of the solidified rod, compared with the one without considering the effect of thermodiffusion. Thermodiffusion also causes a faster solidification and a more uniform concentration distribution. The results of this study may be extended to similar binary and multicomponent systems in which a temperature gradient exists and the Soret coefficient is large enough so as to affect the fluid flow and concentration of the species.

  7. Energy transfer and photochemistry on a metal surface: Mo(CO)6 on Rh(100)

    Germer, T.A.; Ho, W.

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of photoinduced reactions on solid surfaces depends on the relative rates between the excited-state decomposition and the energy transfer to the surface. In this study, the photodecomposition of Mo(CO) 6 on Rh(100) at 90 K by 325-nm UV irradiation has been studied as a function of coverage and surface preparation using thermal desorption spectroscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and photoinduced desorption spectroscopy. It is found that Mo(CO) 6 adsorbs dissociatively on Rh(100) into carbonyl fragments and CO in the first monolayer and molecularly in multilayers. Photoinduced desorption of CO is observed for the multilayers adsorbed onto the dissociated first layer via a nonthermal electronic excitation of adsorbed metal carbonyls. The presence of the metal surface prevents complete decarbonylation as in the gas phase; deexcitation of electronically excited carbonyls is not sufficiently fast to quench all the observed photochemistry. It is also found that Mo(CO) 6 adsorbs molecularly on a presaturated CO ordered overlayer on Rh(100) and undergoes photodissociation to a greater degree than on the dissociated and disordered surface of carbonyl fragments. The ordered CO layer effectively screens the interaction between the molecular carbonyls and the Rh(100) layer surface

  8. Plexciton quenching by resonant electron transfer from quantum emitter to metallic nanoantenna.

    Marinica, D C; Lourenço-Martins, H; Aizpurua, J; Borisov, A G

    2013-01-01

    Coupling molecular excitons and localized surface plasmons in hybrid nanostructures leads to appealing, tunable optical properties. In this respect, the knowledge about the excitation dynamics of a quantum emitter close to a plasmonic nanoantenna is of importance from fundamental and practical points of view. We address here the effect of the excited electron tunneling from the emitter into a metallic nanoparticle(s) in the optical response. When close to a plasmonic nanoparticle, the excited state localized on a quantum emitter becomes short-lived because of the electronic coupling with metal conduction band states. We show that as a consequence, the characteristic features associated with the quantum emitter disappear from the optical absorption spectrum. Thus, for the hybrid nanostructure studied here and comprising quantum emitter in the narrow gap of a plasmonic dimer nanoantenna, the quantum tunneling might quench the plexcitonic states. Under certain conditions the optical response of the system approaches that of the individual plasmonic dimer. Excitation decay via resonant electron transfer can play an important role in many situations of interest such as in surface-enhanced spectroscopies, photovoltaics, catalysis, or quantum information, among others.

  9. Turbulent heavy liquid metal heat transfer along a heated rod in an annular cavity

    Lefhalm, C.-H.; Tak, N.-I.; Piecha, H.; Stieglitz, R.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy liquid metals (HLM) are considered as coolant and spallation material in accelerator driven systems (ADS), because of their good molecular heat conductivity. This property leads to a separation of the spatial extension of thermal and viscous boundary layers. Commercially available computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD) assume an analogy of momentum and energy transfer, which is problematic for liquid metals flow. Therefore, benchmark experiments are required, in order to validate codes or modify existing models used therein. Within this article an experimental and numerical study of a thermally developing turbulent lead bismuth (PbBi) flow along a uniformly heated rod in a circular tube is presented. Local temperatures and velocity distributions are measured using thermocouples and Pitot tubes. The data are compared to simulation results computed with the CFX code package. The measured velocity profiles coincide nearly perfect with the simulation results. However, discrepancies up to 7% between the measured and computed temperatures appear. A minor part of the deviations can be explained by the imperfect experimental set-up. But, the measured shape of the thermal boundary is different to the calculated one, indicating the inadequateness of the presently used models describing the turbulent heat transport within the thermal boundary layer

  10. Wiping Out Disadvantages: The Programs and Services Needed To Supplement Regular Education for Poor School Children.

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    In "Abbott v. Burke" the New Jersey Supreme Court determined that the state constitutional guarantee to a thorough and efficient education must include a supplemental program designed to wipe out the deficits poor children bring with them to school. In this report, the Education Law Center draws on educational research to identify the…

  11. Patient and environmental service employee satisfaction of using germicidal bleach wipes for patient room cleaning.

    Aronhalt, Kimberly C; McManus, James; Orenstein, Robert; Faller, Rebecca; Link, Mary

    2013-01-01

    More healthcare institutions are using bleach products which are sporicidal to reduce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There may be patient and employee concerns about the appearance of bleach residue left on surfaces, odors, and respiratory tract irritation. The intervention used bleach wipes for daily and terminal patient room cleaning to reduce transmission of CDI and was implemented on patient care units with a relatively high incidence of CDI. Both patients and Environmental Services (ES) staff were surveyed to assess their satisfaction of the bleach wipe product used during room cleaning. Patients (n = 94) (91%) continued to be very satisfied with how well their rooms were cleaned every day. Bleach wipes were well tolerated by patients (n = 44) (100%) surveyed on the medical units and less tolerated by patients (n = 50) (22%) on the hematology-oncology units. ES staff (6) reported less satisfaction and more respiratory irritation from using the bleach wipes; however, later their satisfaction improved. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  12. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    2013-07-31

    ... section 307 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)); A municipal solid waste landfill that is regulated under 40 CFR... laundries and dry cleaners could dispose of sludge from cleaning solvent-contaminated wipes in solid waste landfills if the sludge does not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic. \\8\\ The Agency stated in the...

  13. Putting evaporators to work: wiped film evaporator for high level wastes

    Dierks, R.D.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    At Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, a pilot scale, wiped film evaporator was tested for concentrating high level liquid wastes from Purex-type nuclear fuel recovery processes. The concentrates produced up to 60 wt-percent total solids; and the simplicity of operation and design of the evaporator gave promise for low maintenance and high reliability

  14. New airtight transfer box for SEM experiments: Application to lithium and sodium metals observation and analyses.

    Stephant, Nicolas; Grissa, Rabeb; Guillou, Fanch; Bretaudeau, Mickaël; Borjon-Piron, Yann; Guillet, Jacques; Moreau, Philippe

    2018-04-18

    The surface of some materials reacts very quickly on contact with air, either because it is oxidized or because it gets humidity from the air. For the sake of original surface observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we conceived an airtight transfer box to keep the samples under vacuum from the place of manufacturing to the SEM chamber. This object is designed to fit in all the models of SEM including those provided with an airlock chamber. The design is voluntarily simplified to allow the manufacturing of the object by a standard mechanical workshop. The transfer box can be easily opened by gravity inside the SEM and allows the preservation of the best vacuum inside, before opening. SEM images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analyses of metallic lithium and sodium samples are presented prior and after exposure to the air. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of all samples are also discussed in order to investigate the chemical environments of the detected elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated simulation of continuous-scale and discrete-scale radiative transfer in metal foams

    Xia, Xin-Lin; Li, Yang; Sun, Chuang; Ai, Qing; Tan, He-Ping

    2018-06-01

    A novel integrated simulation of radiative transfer in metal foams is presented. It integrates the continuous-scale simulation with the direct discrete-scale simulation in a single computational domain. It relies on the coupling of the real discrete-scale foam geometry with the equivalent continuous-scale medium through a specially defined scale-coupled zone. This zone holds continuous but nonhomogeneous volumetric radiative properties. The scale-coupled approach is compared to the traditional continuous-scale approach using volumetric radiative properties in the equivalent participating medium and to the direct discrete-scale approach employing the real 3D foam geometry obtained by computed tomography. All the analyses are based on geometrical optics. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing procedure is used for computations of the absorbed radiative fluxes and the apparent radiative behaviors of metal foams. The results obtained by the three approaches are in tenable agreement. The scale-coupled approach is fully validated in calculating the apparent radiative behaviors of metal foams composed of very absorbing to very reflective struts and that composed of very rough to very smooth struts. This new approach leads to a reduction in computational time by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the direct discrete-scale approach. Meanwhile, it can offer information on the local geometry-dependent feature and at the same time the equivalent feature in an integrated simulation. This new approach is promising to combine the advantages of the continuous-scale approach (rapid calculations) and direct discrete-scale approach (accurate prediction of local radiative quantities).

  16. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    Nica Dragos V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability

  17. Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy

    Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat...... conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula...... was presented for correlation between external pressure and heat transfer coefficient. Acceptable agreement with data in literature shows the accuracy of the proposed formula....

  18. ''Heat Transfer at the Mold-Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys'' Final Project Report; FINAL

    Pehlke, R. D.; Cookson, John M.; Shouwei Hao; Prasad Krishna; Bilkey, Kevin T.

    2001-01-01

    This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting has been conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigation of squeeze casting at CMI-Tech Center (Now Hayes-Lemmerz Technical Center) and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive

  19. Transfer

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  20. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Gas-Metal-Oxide Mass Transfer in High-Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    Piva, Stephano P. T.; Pistorius, P. Chris; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    During high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HT-CSLM) of liquid steel samples, thermal Marangoni flow and rapid mass transfer between the sample and its surroundings occur due to the relatively small sample size (diameter around 5 mm) and large temperature gradients. The resulting evaporation and steel-slag reactions tend to change the chemical composition in the metal. Such mass transfer effects can change observed nonmetallic inclusions. This work quantifies oxide-metal-gas mass transfer of solutes during HT-CSLM experiments using computational simulations and experimental data for (1) dissolution of MgO inclusions in the presence and absence of slag and (2) Ca, Mg-silicate inclusion changes upon exposure of a Si-Mn-killed steel to an oxidizing gas atmosphere.

  2. Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Internally-Heated Melt Pool and Metallic Layer

    Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, A.T.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of numerical investigation of turbulent natural convection in an internally-heated oxidic pool, and in a metallic layer heated from below and cooled from top and sidewalls. Emphasis is placed upon applicability of the existing heat transfer correlations (obtained from simulant-material experiments) in assessments of a prototypic severe reactor accident. The objectives of this study are (i) to improve the current understanding of the physics of unstably stratified flows, and (ii) to reduce uncertainties associated with modeling and assessment of natural convection heat transfer in the above configuration. Prediction capabilities of different turbulence modeling approaches are first examined and discussed, based on extensive results of numerical investigations performed by present authors. Findings from numerical modeling of turbulent natural convection flow and heat transfer in melt pools and metallic layers are then described. (authors)

  3. Effectiveness of disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria on patients' environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.

    Seenama, Chakkraphong; Tachasirinugune, Peenithi; Jintanothaitavorn, Duangporn; Kachintorn, Kanchana; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of inoculated bacteria on patients' environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital. Tryptic soy broths containing MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were painted onto the surfaces of patient's stainless steel bed rail, patient's fiber footboard, control panel of infusion pump machine and control panel of respirator. The contaminated surfaces were cleaned by either tap water, tap water containing detergent, Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes or PAL disinfectant wipes. The surfaces without any cleaning procedures served as the control surface. The contaminated surfaces cleaned with the aforementioned procedures and control surfaces were swabbed with cotton swabs. The swabs were streaked on agar plates to determine the presence of MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were recovered from all control surfaces. All surfaces cleaned with tap water or tap water containing detergent revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with tap water containing detergent were less than those cleaned with tap water alone. All surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes also revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes were less than those cleaned with tap water containing detergent. No bacteria were recovered from all surfaces cleaned with Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes. Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes were more effective than tap water; tap water containing detergent and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria inoculated on patients environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.

  4. Chemical potential pinning due to equilibrium electron transfer at metal/C{sub 60}-doped polymer interfaces

    Heller, C.M.; Campbell, I.H.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    We report electroabsorption measurements of the built-in electrostatic potential in metal/C{sub 60}-doped polymer/metal structures to investigate chemical potential pinning due to equilibrium electron transfer from a metal contact to the electron acceptor energy level of C{sub 60} molecules in the polymer film. The built-in potentials of a series of structures employing thin films of both undoped and C{sub 60}-doped poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2{sup {prime}}-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) were measured. For undoped MEH-PPV, which has an energy gap of about 2.4 eV, the maximum built-in potential is about 2.1 eV, whereas for C{sub 60}-doped MEH-PPV the maximum built-in potential decreases to 1.5 eV. Electron transfer to the C{sub 60} molecules close to the metal interface pins the chemical potential of the metal contact near the electron acceptor energy level of C{sub 60} and decreases the built-in potential of the structure. From the systematic dependence of the built-in potential on the metal work function we find that the electron acceptor energy level of C{sub 60} in MEH-PPV is about 1.7 eV above the hole polaron energy level of MEH-PPV. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Energy transfer ultraviolet photodetector with 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes as acceptors

    Wu Shuang-Hong; Chen Zhi; Li Shi-Bin; Wang Xiao-Hui; Wei Xiong-Bang; Li Wen-Lian

    2015-01-01

    We choose 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes (Beq, Mgq, and Znq) as the acceptors (A) and 4,4',4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine (m-MTDATA) as the donor (D) respectively to study the existing energy transfer process in the organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD), which has an important influence on the sensitivity of PDs. The energy transfer process from D to A without exciplex formation is discussed, differing from the working mechanism of previous PDs with Gaq [Zisheng Su, Wenlian Li, Bei Chu, Tianle Li, Jianzhuo Zhu, Guang Zhang, Fei Yan, Xiao Li, Yiren Chen and Chun-Sing Lee 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 103309)] and REq [J. B. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, L. L. Chen, G. Zhang, Z. S. Su, Y. R. Chen, D. F. Yang, J. Z. Zhu, S. H. Wu, F. Yan, H. H. Liu, C. S. Lee 2010 Org. Electron. 11 1301] used as an A material. Under 365-nm UV irradiation with an intensity of 1.2 mW/cm 2 , the m-MTDATA:Beq blend device with a weight ratio of 1:1 shows a response of 192 mA/W with a detectivity of 6.5× 10 11 Jones, which exceeds those of PDs based on Mgq (146 mA/W) and Znq (182 mA/W) due to better energy level alignment between m-MTDATA/Beq and lower radiative decay. More photophysics processes of the PDs involved are discussed in detail. (paper)

  6. Energy transfer ultraviolet photodetector with 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes as acceptors

    Wu, Shuang-Hong; Li, Wen-Lian; Chen, Zhi; Li, Shi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Xiong-Bang

    2015-02-01

    We choose 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes (Beq, Mgq, and Znq) as the acceptors (A) and 4,4',4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine (m-MTDATA) as the donor (D) respectively to study the existing energy transfer process in the organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD), which has an important influence on the sensitivity of PDs. The energy transfer process from D to A without exciplex formation is discussed, differing from the working mechanism of previous PDs with Gaq [Zisheng Su, Wenlian Li, Bei Chu, Tianle Li, Jianzhuo Zhu, Guang Zhang, Fei Yan, Xiao Li, Yiren Chen and Chun-Sing Lee 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 103309)] and REq [J. B. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, L. L. Chen, G. Zhang, Z. S. Su, Y. R. Chen, D. F. Yang, J. Z. Zhu, S. H. Wu, F. Yan, H. H. Liu, C. S. Lee 2010 Org. Electron. 11 1301] used as an A material. Under 365-nm UV irradiation with an intensity of 1.2 mW/cm2, the m-MTDATA:Beq blend device with a weight ratio of 1:1 shows a response of 192 mA/W with a detectivity of 6.5× 1011 Jones, which exceeds those of PDs based on Mgq (146 mA/W) and Znq (182 mA/W) due to better energy level alignment between m-MTDATA/Beq and lower radiative decay. More photophysics processes of the PDs involved are discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61371046, 61405026, 61474016, and 61421002) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M552330).

  7. Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China

    Zhang, Shuai; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Laibing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wang, Dawei

    2018-04-01

    Plant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term flooding and tidal flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabilities of heavy metals in these two plant species. Our results showed that in the tidal flooding wetlands, the contents of As, Cr and Cd in roots of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were higher than those in their stems and leaves. Suaeda salsa showed higher contents of Pb and Zn in leaves than those in roots and stems, whereas lower levels of Pb and Zn were observed in Phragmites australis. In the short-term flooding wetlands, heavy metal contents exhibited a big difference between different tissues of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, and both plant species showed higher levels of Pb and Zn in leaves. Suaeda salsa roots enriched more As and Cd, whereas higher enrichment levels were observed in Phragmites australis leaves, which indicated different transfer capacities of these two wetland plants. The transfer factors for stems and leaves of Phragmites australis in the tidal flooding wetlands significantly differed from those in the short-term flooding wetlands, however, no significant differences in transfer factors for stems and leaves of Suaeda salsa were observed between these two types of wetlands.

  8. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Yen Le, T.T.; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Velde, Gerard van der; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  9. Tunable differentiation of tertiary C-H bonds in intramolecular transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions.

    Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-04-13

    Metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions are an appealing and efficient strategy for accessing tetrasubstituted amines through the direct amination of tertiary C-H bonds. Traditional catalysts for these reactions rely on substrate control to achieve site-selectivity in the C-H amination event; thus, tunability is challenging when competing C-H bonds have similar steric or electronic features. One consequence of this fact is that the impact of catalyst identity on the selectivity in the competitive amination of tertiary C-H bonds has not been well-explored, despite the potential for progress towards predictable and catalyst-controlled C-N bond formation. In this communication, we report investigations into tunable and site-selective nitrene transfers between tertiary C(sp 3 )-H bonds using a combination of transition metal catalysts, including complexes based on Ag, Mn, Rh and Ru. Particularly striking was the ability to reverse the selectivity of nitrene transfer by a simple change in the identity of the N-donor ligand supporting the Ag(i) complex. The combination of our Ag(i) catalysts with known Rh 2 (ii) complexes expands the scope of successful catalyst-controlled intramolecular nitrene transfer and represents a promising springboard for the future development of intermolecular C-H N-group transfer methods.

  10. A Heat Transfer Model for a Stratified Corium-Metal Pool in the Lower Plenum of a Nuclear Reactor

    Sohal, M.S.; Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary design report describes a model for heat transfer in a corium-metal stratified pool. It was decided to make use of the existing COUPLE model. Currently available correlations for natural convection heat transfer in a pool with and without internal heat generation were obtained. The appropriate correlations will be incorporated in the existing COUPLE model. Heat conduction and solidification modeling will be done with existing algorithms in the COUPLE. Assessment of the new model will be done by simple energy conservation problems

  11. TRANSFER

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  12. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium: Electron-transfer reactions with organotransition metal complexes

    Matsunaga, P.T.

    1991-11-01

    The divalent lanthanide complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb, reacts with methylcopper to produce the base-free, ytterbium-methyl complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbMe. This product forms a asymmetric, methyl-bridged dimer in the solid state. The bulky alkyl complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCH(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, displays similar chemistry to (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbMe, but at a reduced reaction rate due to the limited accessibility of the metal in (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCH(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. Copper and silver halide salts react with (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}V to produce the trivalent halide derivatives, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}VX (X + F, Cl, Br, I). The chloride complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}VCl, reacts with lithium reagents to form the phenyl and borohydride species. Nitrous oxide transfers an oxygen atom to (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}V producing the vanadium-oxo complex, (Me{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}){sub 2}VO. The trivalent titanium species, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}TiX (X = Cl, Br, Me, BH{sub 4}), form bimetallic coordination complexes with (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb. The magnetic behavior of the products indicates that electron transfer has not occurred. The solid state structures of the chloride and bromide complexes show unusual bend angles for the halide bridges between ytterbium and titanium. A model based on frontier orbital theory has been proposed to account for the bending behavior in these species. The bimetallic methyl complex contains a linear methyl bridge between ytterbium and titanium.

  13. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium: Electron-transfer reactions with organotransition metal complexes

    Matsunaga, Phillip Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    The divalent lanthanide complex, (Me5C5)2Yb, reacts with methylcopper to produce the base-free, ytterbium-methyl complex, (Me5C5)2YbMe. This product forms a asymmetric, methyl-bridged dimer in the solid state. The bulky alkyl complex, (Me5C5)2YbCH(SiMe3)2, displays similar chemistry to (Me5C5)2YbMe, but at a reduced reaction rate due to the limited accessibility of the metal in (Me5C5)3YbCH(SiMe5)2. Copper and silver halide salts react with (Me5C5)2V to produce the trivalent halide derivatives, (Me5C5)2VX (X + F, Cl, Br, I). The chloride complex, (Me5C5)2VCl, reacts with lithium reagents to form the phenyl and borohydride species. Nitrous oxide transfers an oxygen atom to (Me5C5)2V producing the vanadium-oxo complex, (Me5Ce5)2VO. The trivalent titanium species, (Me5C5)2TiX (X = Cl, Br, Me, BH4), form bimetallic coordination complexes with (Me5C5)2Yb. The magnetic behavior of the products indicates that electron transfer has not occurred. The solid state structures of the chloride and bromide complexes show unusual bend angles for the halide bridges between ytterbium and titanium. A model based on frontier orbital theory has been proposed to account for the bending behavior in these species. The bimetallic methyl complex contains a linear methyl bridge between ytterbium and titanium.

  14. Electrical Matching at Metal/Molecule Contacts for Efficient Heterogeneous Charge Transfer.

    Sato, Shino; Iwase, Shigeru; Namba, Kotaro; Ono, Tomoya; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi

    2018-02-27

    In a metal/molecule hybrid system, unavoidable electrical mismatch exists between metal continuum states and frontier molecular orbitals. This causes energy loss in the electron conduction across the metal/molecule interface. For efficient use of energy in a metal/molecule hybrid system, it is necessary to control interfacial electronic structures. Here we demonstrate that electrical matching between a gold substrate and π-conjugated molecular wires can be obtained by using monatomic foreign metal interlayers, which can change the degree of d-π* back-donation at metal/anchor contacts. This interfacial control leads to energy level alignment between the Fermi level of the metal electrode and conduction molecular orbitals, resulting in resonant electron conduction in the metal/molecule hybrid system. When this method is applied to molecule-modified electrocatalysts, the heterogeneous electrochemical reaction rate is considerably improved with significant suppression of energy loss at the internal electron conduction.

  15. Heavy metals distribution in soils surrounding an abandoned mine in NW Madrid (Spain) and their transference to wild flora.

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Manzano, Rebeca; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Gamarra, Roberto; Esteban, Elvira

    2009-03-15

    The present work concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd) in the surrounding soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Thus, soils and plants were sampled from a mining valley in NW Madrid (Spain), and total and extractable heavy metals were analysed. Soils affected by mining activities presented total Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations above toxic thresholds. The percentage of extractable element was highest for Cd and lowest for Cu. A highly significant correlation was observed between the total and extractable concentrations of metals in soils, indicating that, among the factors studied, total metals concentration is the most relevant for heavy metals extractability in these soils. (NH(4))(2)SO(4)-extractable metal concentrations in soils are correlated better with metal concentrations in several plant species than total metals in soils, and thus can be used as a suitable and robust method for the estimation of the phytoavailable fraction present in soils. Twenty-five vascular plant species (3 ferns and 22 flowering plants) were analysed, in order to identify exceptional characteristics that would be interesting for soil phytoremediation and/or reclamation. High Cd and Zn concentrations have been found in the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum (Cd), Salix atrocinerea (Cd, Zn) and Digitalis thapsi (Cd, Zn). The present paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the metal accumulation ability of the two latter plant species. The phytoremediation ability of S. atrocinerea for Cd and Zn was estimated, obtaining intervals of time that could be considered suitable for the phytoextraction of polluted soils.

  16. Air, hand wipe, and surface wipe sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the United States.

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Christianson, Annette L; Clark, John C; Arnold, James E; Pretty, Jack R; Deddens, James A

    2017-11-01

    For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88). Potential determinants of BPA air and end-shift hand exposures (after natural log transformation) were assessed in univariate and multiple regression mixed models. The geometric mean (GM) BPA air concentration was 4.0 µg/m 3 (maximum 920 µg/m 3 ). The end-shift GM BPA hand level (26 µg/sample) was 10-times higher than the pre-shift level (2.6 µg/sample). BPA air and hand exposures differed significantly by industry and job. BPA air concentrations and end-shift hand levels were highest in the BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim industry (GM Air = 48 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 130 µg/sample) and in the job of working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM Air = 43 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 180 µg/sample), and lowest in the phenolic resins industry (GM Air = 0.85 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.43 µg/sample) and in the job of flaking phenolic resins (GM AIR = 0.62 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.38 µg/sample). Determinants of increased BPA air concentration were industry, handling BPA containers, spilling BPA, and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas; increasing age was associated with lower air concentrations. BPA hand exposure determinants were influenced by high values for two workers; for all other workers, tasks involving contact with BPA-containing materials and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas were associated with increased BPA hand levels. Surface wipe BPA levels were significantly lower in

  17. Visible Light-Induced Metal Free Surface Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate on SBA-15

    Liang Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP is one of the most versatile techniques to modify the surface properties of materials. Recent developed metal-free SI-ATRP makes such techniques more widely applicable. Herein photo-induced metal-free SI-ATRP of methacrylates, such as methyl methacrylate, N-isopropanyl acrylamide, and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, on the surface of SBA-15 was reported to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid materials. A SBA-15-based polymeric composite with an adjustable graft ratio was obtained. The structure evolution during the SI-ATRP modification of SBA-15 was monitored and verified by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, BET, and TEM. The obtained polymeric composite showed enhanced adsorption ability for the model compound toluene in aqueous conditions. This procedure provides a low-cost, readily available, and easy modification method to synthesize polymeric composites without the contamination of metal.

  18. Etchant-free graphene transfer using facile intercalation of alkanethiol self-assembled molecules at graphene/metal interfaces.

    Ohtomo, Manabu; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Wang, Shengnan; Hibino, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2016-06-02

    We report a novel etchant-free transfer method of graphene using the intercalation of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) at the graphene/Cu interfaces. The early stage of intercalation proceeds through graphene grain boundaries or defects within a few seconds at room temperature until stable SAMs are formed after a few hours. The formation of SAMs releases the compressive strain of graphene induced by Cu substrates and make graphene slightly n-doped due to the formation of interface dipoles of the SAMs on metal surfaces. After SAM formation, the graphene is easily delaminated off from the metal substrates and transferred onto insulating substrates. The etchant-free process enables us to decrease the density of charged impurities and the magnitude of potential fluctuation in the transferred graphene, which suppress scattering of carriers. We also demonstrate the removal of alkanethiol SAMs and reuse the substrate. This method will dramatically reduce the cost of graphene transfer, which will benefit industrial applications such as of graphene transparent electrodes.

  19. Influence of competition between intragranular dislocation nucleation and intergranular slip transfer on mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained metals

    Tsuru, Tomohito; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Aoyagi, Yoshiteru; Shimokawa, Tomotsugu

    2013-01-01

    Huge-scale atomistic simulations of shear deformation tests to the aluminum polycrystalline thin film containing the Frank-Read source are performed to elucidate the relationship between the inter- and intragranular plastic deformation processes and the mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained metals. Two-types of polycrystalline models, which consist of several grain boundaries reproducing easy and hard slip transfer, respectively, are prepared to investigate the effect of grain boundary on flow stress. While the first plastic deformation occurs by the dislocation bow-out motion within the grain region for both models, the subsequent plastic deformation is strongly influenced by the resistance of the slip transfer by dislocation transmission through grain boundaries. The influence of the competition between the intragranular dislocation nucleation and intergranular slip transfer on the material strength is considered. The nanostructured material's strength depending on local defect structures associated with grain size and dislocation source length is assessed quantitatively. (author)

  20. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg -1 , respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Complementary Strategies for Directed C(sp3 )-H Functionalization: A Comparison of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Activation, Hydrogen Atom Transfer, and Carbene/Nitrene Transfer.

    Chu, John C K; Rovis, Tomislav

    2018-01-02

    The functionalization of C(sp 3 )-H bonds streamlines chemical synthesis by allowing the use of simple molecules and providing novel synthetic disconnections. Intensive recent efforts in the development of new reactions based on C-H functionalization have led to its wider adoption across a range of research areas. This Review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of three main approaches: transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation, 1,n-hydrogen atom transfer, and transition-metal-catalyzed carbene/nitrene transfer, for the directed functionalization of unactivated C(sp 3 )-H bonds. For each strategy, the scope, the reactivity of different C-H bonds, the position of the reacting C-H bonds relative to the directing group, and stereochemical outcomes are illustrated with examples in the literature. The aim of this Review is to provide guidance for the use of C-H functionalization reactions and inspire future research in this area. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Water Splitting over Epitaxially Grown InGaN Nanowires on-Metallic Titanium/Silicon Template: Reduced Interfacial Transfer Resistance and Improved Stability

    Ebaid, Mohamed; Min, Jungwook; Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Idriss, Hicham; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    grown on Si substrate. The interfacial transfer resistance was also reduced significantly after introducing the metallic Ti interlayer. An applied-bias-photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 2.2% and almost unity Faradic efficiency for hydrogen

  3. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Lavender, Tina; Furber, Christine; Campbell, Malcolm; Victor, Suresh; Roberts, Ian; Bedwell, Carol; Cork, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (

  4. Development of a pneumatic transport system for bulk transfer of metal grade uranium oxide powder

    Manna, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium oxide powder is a commonly handled ceramic powder in nuclear industries. Design of the powder transfer system is an important aspect because of some of its typical characteristics. Pneumatic transport system has been widely used in transferring powder from one place to another. A pneumatic transport system using vacuum has been presented in the paper. This is used for bulk transfer of UO 3 powder. The system consists of a cyclone separator and filter cloth at the top of the cyclone separator. The pneumatic transfer system provides high efficiency with sustainable performance and it is a compact, robust, handy and moveable unit. No degradation of the powder quality has been observed during transfer. The system provides highly efficient, easy and safe transfer of radioactive powder, better working environment for the operator. (author)

  5. First-principles study of the interaction and charge transfer between graphene and metals

    Khomyakov, Petr; Giovannetti, G.; Rusu, P.C.; Brocks, G.; van den Brink, J.; Kelly, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the transport of electrons through a graphene sheet necessarily involves contacting it with metal electrodes. We study the adsorption of graphene on metal substrates using first-principles calculations at the level of density-functional theory. The bonding of graphene to Al, Ag, Cu, Au,

  6. Atomic layer deposition to prevent metal transfer from implants: An X-ray fluorescence study

    Bilo, Fabjola [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, via Branze, 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Borgese, Laura, E-mail: laura.borgese@unibs.itl [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, via Branze, 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Prost, Josef; Rauwolf, Mirjam; Turyanskaya, Anna; Wobrauschek, Peter; Kregsamer, Peter; Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Pazzaglia, Ugo [Dipartimento Specialità Medico Chirurgiche Sc. Radiol. e Sanità Pubblica, University of Brescia, v.le Europa, 11, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Depero, Laura E. [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, via Branze, 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Co and Cr migrate from bare alloy implant to the surrounding tissue showing a cluster distribution. • Co and Cr migrate from the TiO{sub 2} coated implant to the surrounding tissue showing a decreasing gradient distribution from the alloy surface. • TiO{sub 2} coating layers obtained by ALD on Co–Cr alloy show a barrier effect for the migration of metals. • The thicker the TiO{sub 2} layer deposited by ALD, the lower the metal migration. • The migration of metals from bare alloy toward the surrounding tissue increases with time. This effect is not detected in the coated samples. - Abstract: We show that Atomic Layer Deposition is a suitable coating technique to prevent metal diffusion from medical implants. The metal distribution in animal bone tissue with inserted bare and coated Co–Cr alloys was evaluated by means of micro X-ray fluorescence mapping. In the uncoated implant, the migration of Co and Cr particles from the bare alloy in the biological tissues is observed just after one month and the number of particles significantly increases after two months. In contrast, no metal diffusion was detected in the implant coated with TiO{sub 2}. Instead, a gradient distribution of the metals was found, from the alloy surface going into the tissue. No significant change was detected after two months of aging. As expected, the thicker is the TiO{sub 2} layer, the lower is the metal migration.

  7. The effect of metallicity on the atmospheres of exoplanets with fully coupled 3D hydrodynamics, equilibrium chemistry, and radiative transfer

    Drummond, B.; Mayne, N. J.; Baraffe, I.; Tremblin, P.; Manners, J.; Amundsen, D. S.; Goyal, J.; Acreman, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have performed a series of simulations of the atmosphere of GJ 1214b assuming different metallicities using the Met Office Unified Model (UM). The UM is a general circulation model (GCM) that solves the deep, non-hydrostatic equations of motion and uses a flexible and accurate radiative transfer scheme, based on the two-stream and correlated-k approximations, to calculate the heating rates. In this work we consistently couple a well-tested Gibbs energy minimisation scheme to solve for the chemical equilibrium abundances locally in each grid cell for a general set of elemental abundances, further improving the flexibility and accuracy of the model. As the metallicity of the atmosphere is increased we find significant changes in the dynamical and thermal structure, with subsequent implications for the simulated phase curve. The trends that we find are qualitatively consistent with previous works, though with quantitative differences. We investigate in detail the effect of increasing the metallicity by splitting the mechanism into constituents, involving the mean molecular weight, the heat capacity and the opacities. We find the opacity effect to be the dominant mechanism in altering the circulation and thermal structure. This result highlights the importance of accurately computing the opacities and radiative transfer in 3D GCMs.

  8. Continuum simulation of heat transfer and solidification behavior of AlSi10Mg in Direct Metal Laser Sintering Process

    Ojha, Akash; Samantaray, Mihir; Nath Thatoi, Dhirendra; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2018-03-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process is a laser based additive manufacturing process, which built complex structures from powder materials. Using high intensity laser beam, the process melts and fuse the powder particles makes dense structures. In this process, the laser beam in terms of heat flux strikes the powder bed and instantaneously melts and joins the powder particles. The partial solidification and temperature distribution on the powder bed endows a high cooling rate and rapid solidification which affects the microstructure of the build part. During the interaction of the laser beam with the powder bed, multiple modes of heat transfer takes place in this process, that make the process very complex. In the present research, a comprehensive heat transfer and solidification model of AlSi10Mg in direct metal laser sintering process has been developed on ANSYS 17.1.0 platform. The model helps to understand the flow phenomena, temperature distribution and densification mechanism on the powder bed. The numerical model takes into account the flow, heat transfer and solidification phenomena. Simulations were carried out for sintering of AlSi10Mg powders in the powder bed having dimension 3 mm × 1 mm × 0.08 mm. The solidification phenomena are incorporated by using enthalpy-porosity approach. The simulation results give the fundamental understanding of the densification of powder particles in DMLS process.

  9. Validation of ANSYS CFX for gas and liquid metal flows with conjugate heat transfer within the European project THINS

    Papukchiev, A., E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de; Buchholz, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • ANSYS CFX is validated for gas and liquid metal flows. • L-STAR and TALL-3D experiments are simulated. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modelled. • Conjugate heat transfer has to be considered in CFD analyses. - Abstract: Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), numerical tools for the simulation of the thermal-hydraulics of next generation rector systems were developed, applied and validated for innovative coolants. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH participated in THINS with activities related to the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) – CFD codes. High quality measurements from the L-STAR and TALL-3D experiments were used to assess the numerical results. Two-equation eddy viscosity and scale resolving turbulence models were used in the validation process of ANSYS CFX for gas and liquid metal flows with conjugate heat transfer. This paper provides a brief overview on the main results achieved at GRS within the project.

  10. Simple method to transfer graphene from metallic catalytic substrates to flexible surfaces without chemical etching

    Ko, P J; Takahashi, H; Sakai, H; Thu, T V; Okada, H; Sandhu, A; Koide, S

    2013-01-01

    Graphene shows promise for applications in flexible electronics. Here, we describe our procedure to transfer graphene grown on copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and SiO 2 /Si surfaces. The transfer of graphene was achieved by a simple, etching-free method onto flexible PDMS substrates.

  11. Effectiveness of cleaning-disinfection wipes and sprays against multidrug-resistant outbreak strains.

    Kenters, Nikki; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; de Wit, Sophie C J; van Rosmalen, Joost; Voss, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Hospital rooms play an important role in the transmission of several health care-associated pathogens. During the last few years, a number of innovative cleaning-disinfecting products have been brought to market. In this study, commercially available products combining cleaning and disinfection were compared, using 2 different application methods. The aim was to determine which product was most effective in simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. Seven cleaning-disinfecting wipes and sprays based on different active ingredients were tested for their efficacy in removal of microbial burden and proteins. Efficacy was tested with known Dutch outbreak strains: vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA-48, or Acinetobacter baumannii. For all bacteria, ready-to-use cleaning-disinfecting products reduced the microbial count with a log 10 reduction >5 with a 5-minute exposure time, with the exception of a spray based on hydrogen peroxide. Omitting the aforementioned hydrogen peroxide spray, there were no significant differences between use of a wipe or spray in bacterial load reduction. Using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements, a significant difference in log 10 relative light units (RLU) reduction between various bacteria (P ≤ .001) was observed. In general, a >5 log 10 reduction of colony forming units (CFU) for tested wipes and sprays was obtained for all tested bacteria strains, with exception of hydrogen peroxide spray and VRE. Although ATP may show a difference between pre- and postcleaning, RLU reduction does not correlate with actual CFU reductions. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. pH-regulated metal-ligand switching in the HM loop of ATP7A: a new paradigm for metal transfer chemistry.

    Kline, Chelsey D; Gambill, Benjamin F; Mayfield, Mary; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-08-01

    Cuproproteins such as PHM and DBM mature in late endosomal vesicles of the mammalian secretory pathway where changes in vesicle pH are employed for sorting and post-translational processing. Colocation with the P1B-type ATPase ATP7A suggests that the latter is the source of copper and supports a mechanism where selectivity in metal transfer is achieved by spatial colocation of partner proteins in their specific organelles or vesicles. In previous work we have suggested that a lumenal loop sequence located between trans-membrane helices TM1 and TM2 of the ATPase, and containing five histidines and four methionines, acts as an organelle-specific chaperone for metallation of the cuproproteins. The hypothesis posits that the pH of the vesicle regulates copper ligation and loop conformation via a mechanism which involves His to Met ligand switching induced by histidine protonation. Here we report the effect of pH on the HM loop copper coordination using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and show via selenium substitution of the Met residues that the HM loop undergoes similar conformational switching to that found earlier for its partner PHM. We hypothesize that in the absence of specific chaperones, HM motifs provide a template for building a flexible, pH-sensitive transfer site whose structure and function can be regulated to accommodate the different active site structural elements and pH environments of its partner proteins.

  13. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  14. Size-dependent single electron transfer and semi-metal-to-insulator transitions in molecular metal oxide electronics.

    Balliou, Angelika; Bouroushian, Mirtat; Douvas, Antonios M; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Glezos, Nikos

    2018-07-06

    All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV-vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films' ability to structurally tune their HOMO-LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature. By adapting POM nanocluster size in solution, self-doping and current modulation of four orders of magnitude is monitored on a single nanocluster on SiO 2 at voltages as low as 3 Volt. Structurally driven insulator-to-semi-metal transitions and size-dependent current regulation through single electron tunneling are demonstrated and examined with respect to the stereochemical and electronic structure of the molecular entities. This extends the value of self-assembly as a tool for correlation length and electronic properties tuning and demonstrate POM hyperstructures' plausibility for on-chip molecular electronics operative at room temperature.

  15. Size-dependent single electron transfer and semi-metal-to-insulator transitions in molecular metal oxide electronics

    Balliou, Angelika; Bouroushian, Mirtat; Douvas, Antonios M.; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Glezos, Nikos

    2018-07-01

    All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV–vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films’ ability to structurally tune their HOMO–LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature. By adapting POM nanocluster size in solution, self-doping and current modulation of four orders of magnitude is monitored on a single nanocluster on SiO2 at voltages as low as 3 Volt. Structurally driven insulator-to-semi-metal transitions and size-dependent current regulation through single electron tunneling are demonstrated and examined with respect to the stereochemical and electronic structure of the molecular entities. This extends the value of self-assembly as a tool for correlation length and electronic properties tuning and demonstrate POM hyperstructures’ plausibility for on-chip molecular electronics operative at room temperature.

  16. Experimental demonstration of efficient and selective population transfer and qubit distillation in a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    Rippe, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Kroell, Stefan; Klieber, Robert; Suter, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    In optically controlled quantum computers it may be favorable to address different qubits using light with different frequencies, since the optical diffraction does not then limit the distance between qubits. Using qubits that are close to each other enables qubit-qubit interactions and gate operations that are strong and fast in comparison to qubit-environment interactions and decoherence rates. However, as qubits are addressed in frequency space, great care has to be taken when designing the laser pulses, so that they perform the desired operation on one qubit, without affecting other qubits. Complex hyperbolic secant pulses have theoretically been shown to be excellent for such frequency-addressed quantum computing [I. Roos and K. Molmer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022321 (2004)] - e.g., for use in quantum computers based on optical interactions in rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. The optical transition lines of the rare-earth-metal-ions are inhomogeneously broadened and therefore the frequency of the excitation pulses can be used to selectively address qubit ions that are spatially separated by a distance much less than a wavelength. Here, frequency-selective transfer of qubit ions between qubit states using complex hyperbolic secant pulses is experimentally demonstrated. Transfer efficiencies better than 90% were obtained. Using the complex hyperbolic secant pulses it was also possible to create two groups of ions, absorbing at specific frequencies, where 85% of the ions at one of the frequencies was shifted out of resonance with the field when ions in the other frequency group were excited. This procedure of selecting interacting ions, called qubit distillation, was carried out in preparation for two-qubit gate operations in the rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. The techniques for frequency-selective state-to-state transfer developed here may be also useful also for other quantum optics and quantum information experiments in these long-coherence-time solid

  17. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of

  18. Charge transfer at junctions of a single layer of graphene and a metallic single walled carbon nanotube.

    Paulus, Geraldine L C; Wang, Qing Hua; Ulissi, Zachary W; McNicholas, Thomas P; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Shih, Chih-Jen; Jin, Zhong; Strano, Michael S

    2013-06-10

    Junctions between a single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and a monolayer of graphene are fabricated and studied for the first time. A single layer graphene (SLG) sheet grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a SiO₂/Si wafer with aligned CVD-grown SWNTs. Raman spectroscopy is used to identify metallic-SWNT/SLG junctions, and a method for spectroscopic deconvolution of the overlapping G peaks of the SWNT and the SLG is reported, making use of the polarization dependence of the SWNT. A comparison of the Raman peak positions and intensities of the individual SWNT and graphene to those of the SWNT-graphene junction indicates an electron transfer of 1.12 × 10¹³ cm⁻² from the SWNT to the graphene. This direction of charge transfer is in agreement with the work functions of the SWNT and graphene. The compression of the SWNT by the graphene increases the broadening of the radial breathing mode (RBM) peak from 3.6 ± 0.3 to 4.6 ± 0.5 cm⁻¹ and of the G peak from 13 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 cm⁻¹, in reasonable agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. However, the RBM and G peak position shifts are primarily due to charge transfer with minimal contributions from strain. With this method, the ability to dope graphene with nanometer resolution is demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) for Photon Collection and Energy Transfer

    So, Monica C.

    . To address problem (a), we incorporated antenna molecules (i.e. perylene diimides) to expand light collection and then transfer energy to the primary chromophores. To address problem (b), we observed that excitons can achieve up to 2,025 hops in a porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystal within its 3 ns lifetime. By precisely aligning the chromophores in the MOF, we showed that long-distance exciton transport (i.e. ultra-fast, sequential hopping) was consistent with the well-established Forster theory. To address problems (c) and (d), we introduced MOF components one step at a time to optimize optical path length and crystal-thickness. This allowed us to incorporate MOFs (normally bulk crystals) into a MOF film. The approach exploited both MOF chemistry and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of crystalline MOFs in a highly controlled fashion on functional surfaces. We also incorporated good light-harvesting molecules as struts in MOFs to increase the visible absorption. Designing MOF-based OPVs can provide insight into solar energy conversion. This can potentially lead to much higher efficiencies, based on the simultaneous resolution of the four challenges hindering OPV performance.

  20. TRANSITION METAL CATALYSIS IN CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION: ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION. (R826735)

    Novel and diversified macromolecular structures, which include polymers with designed topologies (top), compostions (middle), and functionalities (bottom), can be prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization processes. These polymers can be synthesized from a large variety of...

  1. Evaluation and Prediction present of radionuclide for surface wipe sample in Emergency Related with Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Woo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface wipe samples of aircraft and container from Japan that were exposed to radioactive dust fallout due to Fukushima nuclear accident has been analysed using gamma spectrometry systems. The samples were analysed to determine their contamination levels. The surface of aircraft and container might be exposed to short and long lived fission and activation products. Thus, good evaluations, as well as a reliable and reasonable judgment were needed in order to determine the presence of fission and activation products. A work procedure has been developed to evaluate and predict the presence of fission and activation products in surface wipe samples. Good references, skilled and experienced level in analysis, a well calibrated and validated detector system were the important factors in determining the presence of fission and activation products in surface wipe samples. (author)

  2. Enhancement of heat transfer coefficient multi-metallic nanofluid with ANFIS modeling for thermophysical properties

    Balla Hyder H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Zn-water nanofluid is a suspension of the Cu and Zn nanoparticles with the size 50 nm in the water base fluid for different volume fractions to enhance its Thermophysical properties. The determination and measuring the enhancement of Thermophysical properties depends on many limitations. Nanoparticles were suspended in a base fluid to prepare a nanofluid. A coated transient hot wire apparatus was calibrated after the building of the all systems. The vibro-viscometer was used to measure the dynamic viscosity. The measured dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity with all parameters affected on the measurements such as base fluids thermal conductivity, volume factions, and the temperatures of the base fluid were used as input to the Artificial Neural Fuzzy inference system to modeling both dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Then, the ANFIS modeling equations were used to calculate the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient using CFD software. The heat transfer coefficient was determined for flowing flow in a circular pipe at constant heat flux. It was found that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was highly affected by the volume fraction of nanoparticles. A comparison of the thermal conductivity ratio for different volume fractions was undertaken. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid was found to be higher than its base fluid. Comparisons of convective heat transfer coefficients for Cu and Zn nanofluids with the other correlation for the nanofluids heat transfer enhancement are presented. Moreover, the flow demonstrates anomalous enhancement in heat transfer nanofluids.

  3. Results of Testing the Relative Oxidizing Hazard of Wipes and KMI Zeolite

    Ams, Bridget Elaine [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-05-09

    This report includes the results from testing performed on the relative oxidizing hazard of a number of organic sorbing wipe materials, as well as KMI zeolite. These studies were undertaken to address a need by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Materials Management group, which requires a material that can sorb small spills in a glovebox without creating a disposal hazard due to the potential for oxidation reactions, as requested in Request for Testing of Wipes and Zeolite for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-002) and Request for Testing of Chamois Material for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-005). This set oftests is a continuation of previous testing described in Results from Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with (DWT-RPT-003), which provided data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Basis of Knowledge. The Basis of Knowledge establishes criteria for evaluating transuranic (TRU) waste that contains oxidizing chemicals.

  4. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin.

    Koenig, David W; Dvoracek, Barb; Vongsa, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    The ideal gentle cleansing product is one that effectively removes soils while minimizing damage to the skin. Thus, measuring physical abrasion caused by cleansing tissues is critical to the continued development of gentle cleansing products. Current analysis of cleansing materials for skin gentleness is time consuming and requires expensive human subject testing. This report describes the development of a rapid and inexpensive bench assay for the assessment of skin abrasion caused by wiping. Coefficient of friction (COF) evaluations using bench methods were compared with results from clinical studies of repeated wiping and with confocal visualizations of excised skin. A Monitor/Slip and Friction instrument (model 32-06; TMI, Amityville, NY, USA) was used to measure tissue friction on simulated skin (Vitro-Skin, N19-5X; IMS, Milford, CT, USA). Clinical data from a 4-day repetitive forearm wiping study measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in 30 subjects was compared with results from the bench top assay. In addition, excised skin samples were also treated using the COF bench assay and examined using confocal microscopy to visualize stratum corneum damage caused by wiping. Using the bench COF assay, we were able to distinguish between bath tissue codes by comparing average static friction value (ASFV) for the test codes, where lower ASFV indicated less abrasive tissue. The ASFV followed the same gentleness trend observed in the clinical study. Confocal microscopy of excised skin wiped with the same materials indicated stratum corneum damage consistent with the bench COF and clinical TEWL observations. We observed significant correlation between bench and clinical methods for measuring skin damage caused by wiping of skin with tissue. The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Metal-like transport in proteins: A new paradigm for biological electron transfer

    Malvankar, Nikhil; Vargas, Madeline; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Electron flow in biologically proteins generally occurs via tunneling or hopping and the possibility of electron delocalization has long been discounted. Here we report metal-like transport in protein nanofilaments, pili, of bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens that challenges this long-standing belief [1]. Pili exhibit conductivities comparable to synthetic organic metallic nanostructures. The temperature, magnetic field and gate-voltage dependence of pili conductivity is akin to that of quasi-1D disordered metals, suggesting a metal-insulator transition. Magnetoresistance (MR) data provide evidence for quantum interference and weak localization at room temperature, as well as a temperature and field-induced crossover from negative to positive MR. Furthermore, pili can be doped with protons. Structural studies suggest the possibility of molecular pi stacking in pili, causing electron delocalization. Reducing the disorder increases the metallic nature of pili. These electronically functional proteins are a new class of electrically conductive biological proteins that can be used to generate future generation of inexpensive and environmentally-sustainable nanomaterials and nanolectronic devices such as transistors and supercapacitors. [1] Malvankar et al. Nature Nanotechnology, 6, 573-579 (2011)

  6. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope 203Hg and titanium

    Caille, Nathalie; Vauleon, Clotilde; Leyval, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope 203 Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg -1 DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg -1 DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg -1 DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg -1 DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn>Cu>Hg>Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account by decision makers

  7. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope 203Hg and titanium.

    Caille, Nathalie; Vauleon, Clotilde; Leyval, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2005-04-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope 203Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg(-1) DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg(-1) DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg(-1) DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg(-1) DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn > Cu > Hg > Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account by decision

  8. A pilot study to assess the effectiveness and cost of routine universal use of peracetic acid sporicidal wipes in a real clinical environment.

    Saha, Avinandan; Botha, Stefan Louis; Weaving, Paul; Satta, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Peracetic acid sporicidal wipes have been shown to be an effective disinfectant, but in controlled test environments. Their high cost may restrict use. This pilot study investigated the efficacy and compared the costs of routine universal use of peracetic acid sporicidal wipes versus sporicidal quaternary ammonium compound and alcohol wipes in the disinfection of a hospital environment. The routine universal use of peracetic acid wipes (Clinell Sporicidal; GAMA Healthcare Ltd, London, UK) was allocated to a study ward, whereas the control ward continued with the use of quaternary ammonium compound wipes (Tuffie 5; Vernacare, Bolton, UK) and alcohol wipes (PDI Sani-Cloth 70; PDI, Flint, UK). Twenty high-touch areas in the 2 wards were sampled for the presence of indicator organisms. The weekly detection rates of indicator organisms and weekly healthcare associated infection (HCAI) rates in the 2 wards were compared and examined for decreasing trends over the trial period. The detection rates of indicator organisms and HCAI rates were not significantly different in the 2 wards, and did not decrease significantly over the trial period. However, the peracetic acid wipes seem to be more effective against gram-negative organisms but at a significantly higher cost. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of peracetic acid wipes. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Insecticides, PyrethroidTransformation Products, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Bisphenol A in Residential Surface Wipe Samples

    Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential environments. One characteristic of this form of sampling is the need to extract the entire wipe sample to achieve adequate sensitivity and to ensure representativeness. Most s...

  10. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    GUO Zhi-peng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  11. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  12. Liquid metal reactor head designs in the USA - heat and mass transfer considerations

    Burke, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Development of liquid metal reactor plants in the United States over the past 30 years has resulted in an evolution of reactor head designs as reflected in the SRE, Hallam, EBR-II and FFTF plants. This evolution has probably been affected to some extent by the fact that, in contrast to most other countries, there is no single organization in the United States which has been responsible for the design of liquid metal reactor plants. The current U.S. LMR design efforts involve two innovative design consortiums (guided by the US Department of Energy) and a joint industry venture on the Large Scale Prototype Breeder. It is therefore somewhat difficult to provide a statement on the philosophy of the reactor head design in the U.S. This paper however briefly describes the existing and proposed U.S. liquid metal reactor head designs and in the process, attempt to provide some insight on the basis for those designs

  13. Energy transfer between two vacuum-gapped metal plates: Coulomb fluctuations and electron tunneling

    Zhang, Zu-Quan; Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Recent experimental measurements for near-field radiative heat transfer between two bodies have been able to approach the gap distance within 2 nm , where the contributions of Coulomb fluctuation and electron tunneling are comparable. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method in the G0W0 approximation, based on a tight-binding model, we obtain for the energy current a Caroli formula from the Meir-Wingreen formula in the local equilibrium approximation. Also, the Caroli formula is consistent with the evanescent part of the heat transfer from the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics. We go beyond the local equilibrium approximation to study the energy transfer in the crossover region from electron tunneling to Coulomb fluctuation based on a numerical calculation.

  14. High Performance Transfer Press for Precision Manufacturing of Micro Metal Parts

    Mahshid, Rasoul

    for this technology and are available already in the market. Similar to conventional forming processes, the presence of a handling system can significantly improve the efficiency of the technology towards building a high performance transfer press for micro forming technology. To examine this possibility...... for actuation principle and mechanical grippers based on self-centering and friction principles. This study introduced a methodology for the analysis and characterization of this transfer system on component level and system level. Laser interferometry was used in combination with analytical models to predict...... the positioning ability of the actuator in a static as well as dynamic mode. In combination with an analysis of the grippers, a full description of the transfer precision inside the forming press was obtained. The current research involved integration of a handling system into an existing developed micro press...

  15. Transfer-free electrical insulation of epitaxial graphene from its metal substrate.

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Baraldi, Alessandro; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Barreto, Lucas; Bianchi, Marco; Perkins, Edward; Hofmann, Philip

    2012-09-12

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen, and the eventual formation of a SiO(2) layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique.

  16. Transfer-Free Electrical Insulation of Epitaxial Graphene from its Metal Substrate

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen......, and the eventual formation of a SiO2 layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique....

  17. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  18. Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    Goto, Hayato; Ichimura, Kouichi

    2007-01-01

    Coherent population transfer in a laser-driven four-level system in a tripod configuration is experimentally investigated with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal (Pr 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 ). The population transfers observed here indicate that a main process inducing them is not optical pumping, which is an incoherent process inducing population transfer. Moreover, numerical simulation, which well reproduces the experimental results, also shows that the process inducing the observed population transfers is similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) in the sense that this process possesses characteristic features of STIRAP

  19. Simplified computational simulation of liquid metal behaviour in turbulent flow with heat transfer

    Costa, E.B. da.

    1992-09-01

    The present work selected the available bibliography equations and empirical relationships to the development of a computer code to obtain the turbulent velocity and temperature profiles in liquid metal tube flow with heat generation. The computer code is applied to a standard problem and the results are considered satisfactory, at least from the viewpoint of qualitative behaviour. (author). 50 refs, 21 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in aromatic radical anions and binuclear transition metal complexes

    Kuznetsov, A. M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    1981-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer (ET) over distances up to about 10 Å between states in which the electron is localized on donor and acceptor groups by interaction with molecular or external solvent nuclear motion occurs, in particular, in two classes of systems. The excess electron in anionic ra...

  1. Modelling of the heat transfer during oxygen atoms recombination on metallic surfaces in a plasma reactor

    Cavadias, S; Cauquot, P; Amouroux, J

    1997-01-01

    Space shuttle overheating during the re-entry phase, due to catalytic oxygen recombination on the thermal protection system, is a problem of practical and theoretical interest. The energy transfer is characterised by the product of the accommodation and the recombination coefficients. Previous

  2. Automatic system of production, transfer and processing of coin targets for the production of metallic radioisotopes

    Pellicioli, M.; Ouadi, A.; Marchand, P.; Foehrenbacher, T.; Schuler, J.; Dick-Schuler, N.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    The work presented in this paper gathers three main technical developments aiming at 1) optimizing nuclide production by the mean of solid targets 2) automatically transferring coin targets from vault to hotcell without human intervention 3) processing target dilution and purification in hotcell automatically. This system has been installed on a ACSI TR24 cyclotron in Strasbourg France.

  3. Elaboration of metallic and composite fillings by plasma transferred arc. Process analysis and tribological study

    Rochette, Philippe

    1987-01-01

    The experimental part of this research thesis addresses the parametric study of two surface filling processes (by plasma transferred arc, and by plasma arc projection followed by a coating remelting by electron beam), the elaboration by plasma transferred arc and the metallurgical characterization of fillings of nickel base alloys and composite materials made of tungsten carbides dispersed in a nickel matrix, and the characterization of fretting wear of the so-elaborated fillings in aqueous environment. The results show that the plasma transferred arc filling technique allows coating quality and microstructure to be controlled by adjusting the mass energy of the transferred arc. Besides, this technique results in a very good control of nickel alloy coatings. The various studied composites show that it is better to use a matrix with very few alloying elements or pre-coated carbides in order to avoid any cracking phenomenon. The content of dispersed carbides must not be greater than 60 per cent in weight. The best wear behaviour is obtained with polyhedral tungsten carbides dispersed within a low alloyed nickel matrix [fr

  4. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    Dehn, Larissa-A. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)]. E-mail: ftld@uaf.edu; Follmann, Erich H. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Thomas, Dana L. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-6660 (United States); Sheffield, Gay G. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99701-1599 (United States); Rosa, Cheryl [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Duffy, Lawrence K. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon ({delta} {sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta} {sup 15}N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on {delta} {sup 15}N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean {delta} {sup 15}N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of

  5. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    Dehn, Larissa-A.; Follmann, Erich H.; Thomas, Dana L.; Sheffield, Gay G.; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on δ 15 N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean δ 15 N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of dynamic and actively regulated trace metals

  6. Transfer of heavy metals to biota after remediation of contaminated soils with calcareous residues.

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Belen Martínez, Lucia; Hernández, Carmen; García-Fernandez, Antonio Juan; Bech, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (broccoli, lettuce and leek), different parts of which are destined for human and farm animals consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). Five consecutive crops of each vegetable were obtained in greenhouse. In a second stage, experiments were carried out with rabbits fed with such vegetables. The plants were cultivated in four types of soil. The first one was contaminated by heavy metals (S1), the second was a uncontaminated soil (blank soil) (S2), the third was the material obtained by mixing S1 with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (S3); while the fourth was the result of remediating S1 with lime residues coming from quarries (S4). The total metal content (As, Pb, Cd and Zn) of the soil samples, rizosphere, leached water and vegetable samples, were measured, and both the translocation and bioconcentration factors (TF and BCF, respectively) were calculated. In the second stage, the effect caused in rabbits fed with the vegetables was monitorized using both external observation and the analysis of blood, urine, and the levels of metals in muscles, liver and kidney. The statistical analysis of the results obtained showed that there were no significant differences in the heavy metal levels for the vegetables cultivated in S2, S3 and S4. The results for soil sample S1 did not have a normal distribution since the growing of the vegetables were not homogeneous and also strongly dependent on the type of vegetal. As regards the effect caused in rabbits, significant differences were observed for the animals fed with plants cultivated in S1 compared with the others.

  7. Investigation of heat transfer in liquid-metal flows under fusion-reactor conditions

    Poddubnyi, I. I., E-mail: poddubnyyii@nikiet.ru [Joint Stock Company Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (JSC NIKIET) (Russian Federation); Pyatnitskaya, N. Yu.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sviridov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Science, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Leshukov, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (JSC NIKIET) (Russian Federation); Aleskovskiy, K. V. [National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) (Russian Federation); Obukhov, D. M. [Joint Stock Company Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The effect discovered in studying a downward liquid-metal flow in vertical pipe and in a channel of rectangular cross section in, respectively, a transverse and a coplanar magnetic field is analyzed. In test blanket modules (TBM), which are prototypes of a blanket for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) and which are intended for experimental investigations at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), liquid metals are assumed to fulfil simultaneously the functions of (i) a tritium breeder, (ii) a coolant, and (iii) neutron moderator and multiplier. This approach to testing experimentally design solutions is motivated by plans to employ, in the majority of the currently developed DEMO blanket projects, liquid metals pumped through pipes and/or rectangular channels in a transvers magnetic field. At the present time, experiments that would directly simulate liquid-metal flows under conditions of ITER TBM and/or DEMO blanket operation (irradiation with thermonuclear neutrons, a cyclic temperature regime, and a magnetic-field strength of about 4 to 10 T) are not implementable for want of equipment that could reproduce simultaneously the aforementioned effects exerted by thermonuclear plasmas. This is the reason why use is made of an iterative approach to experimentally estimating the performance of design solutions for liquid-metal channels via simulating one or simultaneously two of the aforementioned factors. Therefore, the investigations reported in the present article are of considerable topical interest. The respective experiments were performed on the basis of the mercury magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) loop that is included in the structure of the MPEI—JIHT MHD experimental facility. Temperature fields were measured under conditions of two- and one-sided heating, and data on averaged-temperature fields, distributions of the wall temperature, and statistical fluctuation features were obtained. A substantial effect of counter thermo gravitational

  8. Potential Allergens in Disposable Diaper Wipes, Topical Diaper Preparations, and Disposable Diapers: Under-recognized Etiology of Pediatric Perineal Dermatitis.

    Yu, JiaDe; Treat, James; Chaney, Keri; Brod, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis in young children may be an under-recognized cause of perineal dermatitis. The diapered infant skin is uniquely susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis because of more permeable neonatal skin, a moist environment, frequent contact with irritants and resultant skin barrier breakdown, and exposure to topical products such as diaper wipes, diaper preparations, and disposable diapers. To our knowledge, potential allergens in these products have not been thoroughly catalogued or studied. We explore and review potential allergenic ingredients in diaper wipes, topical diaper preparations, and disposable diapers. We analyzed 63 diaper wipes, 41 topical diaper preparations, and the 3 top selling diaper brands available from two of the largest retailers in the United States. Each potential allergen is discussed, and epidemiologic studies of rates of sensitization to potential allergens in children are also reported. Botanical extracts, including members of the Compositae family, were the most commonly represented potential allergen in both diaper wipes and topical preparations. Other potential allergens identified with high frequency include α-tocopherol, fragrances, propylene glycol, parabens, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, and lanolin. Frequent culprits such as formaldehyde releasers and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone were not prevalent in our analyzed products.

  9. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM.

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ((232)Th and (238)U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ((232)Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the (232)Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ((238)U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 μGy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated (232)Th and (238)U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment

  10. Wipe-rinse technique for quantitating microbial contamination on large surfaces

    Kirschner, L. E.; Puleo, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of an improved wipe-rinse technique for the bioassay of large areas was undertaken due to inherent inadequacies in the cotton swab-rinse technique to which assay of spacecraft is currently restricted. Four types of contamination control cloths were initially tested. A polyester-bonded cloth (PBC) was selected for further evaluation because of its superior efficiency and handling characteristics. Results from comparative tests with PBC and cotton swabs on simulated spacecraft surfaces indicated a significantly higher recovery efficiency for the PBC than for the cotton (90.4 versus 75.2%). Of the sampling area sites studied, PBC was found to be most effective on surface areas not exceeding 0.74 sq m (8.0 sq ft).

  11. Concentration of Melton Valley Storage Tank surrogates with a wiped film evaporator

    Boring, M.D.; Farr, L.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes experiments to determine whether a wiped film evaporator (WFE) might be used to concentrate low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLLW). Solutions used in these studies were surrogates that contain no radionuclides. The compositions of the surrogates were based on one of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). It was found that a WFE could be used to concentrate LLLW to varying degrees by manipulating various parameters. The parameters studied were rotor speed, process fluid feed temperature and feed rate, and evaporator temperature. Product consistency varied from an unsaturated liquid to a dry powder. Volume reductions up to 68% were achieved. System decontamination factors were consistently in the range of 10 4

  12. Exploiting energy transfer in hybrid metal and semiconductor nanoparticle systems for biosensing and energy harvesting

    Mayilo, Sergiy

    2009-06-19

    In this work, gold and semiconductor nanoparticles are used as building blocks for nanostructures, in which energy transfer is investigated. Fluorescence quenching by gold nanoparticles is investigated and used to develop novel immunoassays for medically relevant molecules. The influence of gold nanoparticles on radiative and non-radiative rates of Cy3 and Cy3B dyes is studied here. A competitive, homogeneous immunoassay for digoxigenin and digoxin, a drug used to cure heart diseases, is developed. The assay has a limit of detection of 0.5 nM in buffer and 50 nM in serum. Time resolved spectroscopy reveals that the quenching is due to energy transfer with an efficiency of 70%. A homogeneous sandwich immunoassay for cardiac troponin T, an indicator of damage to the heart muscle, is developed. Gold nanoparticles and fluorophores are functionalized with anti-troponin T antibodies. In the presence of troponin T the nanoparticles and fluorophores form a sandwich structure, in which the dye fluorescence is quenched by a gold nanoparticle. The limit of detection of the immunoassay in buffer is 0.02 nM and 0.11 nM in serum. Energy transfer is demonstrated in clusters of CdTe nanocrystals assembled using three methods. In the first method, clusters of differently-sized water soluble CdTe nanocrystals capped by negatively charged mercaptoacid stabilizers are produced through electrostatic interactions with positively charged Ca{sup 2+} cations. The two other methods employ covalent binding through dithiols and thiolated DNA as linkers between nanocrystals. Energy transfer from smaller nanocrystals to larger nanocrystals in aggregates is demonstrated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, paving the way for nanocrystal-based light harvesting structures in solution. Multi-shell onion-like CdSe/ZnS/CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals are presented. The shade of the white light can be controlled by annealing the particles. Evidence for intra

  13. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges.

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  14. Satisfaction and convenience of using terpenoid-impregnated eyelid wipes and teaching method in people without blepharitis.

    Qiu, Tian Yu; Yeo, Sharon; Tong, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Demodex infestations cause blepharitis and are difficult to treat. Recently, a new type of eyelid wipes with terpenoids has been found effective. We aim to evaluate patient satisfaction after short-term use and compare two teaching modalities on the techniques of use. Eligible participants were taught to use eyelid wipes (Cliradex ® ) by either live or online video demonstration based on random allocation. Participants used the wipes twice daily for a week. All participants had prior evaluation of socioeconomic status, dry eye symptoms, and meibomian gland features. After 1 week, competence of use was assessed by participants showing their technique to the investigator, and a questionnaire on comfort, ease, and convenience of use was administered. Higher scores indicate greater satisfaction, and these levels are compared among the two teaching modalities using chi square. A total of 50 participants were recruited, with a mean age of 42±16 years, and 88% of the participants were females. Overall, median comfort level was 4.0 (range: 1-6), ease level was 5.0 (3-6), and convenience level was 5.0 (2-6). Median stinging was 2.0 (1-4), which corresponded to some but mild stinging. The median competence level was 4.0 (2-4), which corresponded to excellent competence. These satisfactory levels (ease, comfort, and convenience) experienced were not significantly associated with different socioeconomic indicators, that is, housing type, income, highest education level, and were not different between teaching methods ( p >0.05). Short-term use of Cliradex eyelid wipes seems to be acceptable to most people. The teaching instructions before using these wipes were equally effective - whether live or online video demonstration was used.

  15. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  16. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensing of Free Bilirubin Using Metal-Organic Frameworks-Based Energy Transfer Process.

    Du, Yaran; Li, Xiqian; Lv, Xueju; Jia, Qiong

    2017-09-13

    Free bilirubin, a key biomarker for jaundice, was detected with a newly designed fluorescent postsynthetically modified metal organic framework (MOF) (UIO-66-PSM) sensor. UiO-66-PSM was prepared based on the aldimine condensation reaction of UiO-66-NH 2 with 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde. The fluorescence of UIO-66-PSM could be effectively quenched by free bilirubin via a fluorescent resonant energy transfer process, thus achieving its recognition of free bilirubin. It was the first attempt to design a MOF-based fluorescent probe for sensing free bilirubin. The probe exhibited fast response time, low detection limit, wide linear range, and high selectivity toward free bilirubin. The sensing system enabled the monitor of free bilirubin in real human serum. Hence, the reported free bilirubin sensing platform has potential applications for clinical diagnosis of jaundice.

  17. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nuclear Envelope Architecture Using Dual-Color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer Imaging.

    Chizhik, Anna M; Ruhlandt, Daja; Pfaff, Janine; Karedla, Narain; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gregor, Ingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-12-26

    The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color metal-induced energy transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively. Using MIET imaging, we reconstruct the 3D profile of the nuclear envelope over the whole basal area, with an axial resolution of a few nanometers. This result demonstrates that optical microscopy can achieve nanometer axial resolution in biological samples and without recourse to complex interferometric approaches.

  18. Excitation energy transfer in molecular complexes: transport processes, optical properties and effects of nearby placed metal nano-particles

    May, Volkhard; Megow, Jörg; Zelinskyi, Iaroslav

    2012-04-01

    Excitation energy transfer (EET) in molecular systems is studied theoretically. Chromophore complexes are considered which are formed by a butanediamine dendrimer with four pheophorbide-a molecules. To achieve a description with an atomic resolution and to account for the effect of an ethanol solvent a mixed quantum classical methodology is utilized. Details of the EET and spectra of transient anisotropy showing signatures of EET are presented. A particular control of intermolecular EET is achieved by surface plasmons of nearby placed metal nanoparticles (MNP). To attain a quantum description of the molecule-MNP system a microscopic theory is introduced. As a particular application surface plasmon affected absorption spectra of molecular complexes placed in the proximity of a spherical MNP are discussed.

  19. Influence of N-O chemistry on the excitation of alkali metals by a non-transferred DC plasma jet

    Haeyrinen, Ville; Oikari, Risto; Hernberg, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Excitation of Na(3p) and K(4p) states by a high velocity non-transferred direct current plasma jet was studied. A turbulent nitrogen plasma jet was discharged into an atmosphere consisting of nitrogen and oxygen, laden with trace amounts of alkali. The line reversal temperatures of Na and K depend on the molar fraction of oxygen and may deviate considerably from the gas temperature. The reaction pressure was 0.1 MPa. The measured line reversal temperatures were reproduced by a simple chemical model. At temperatures near 2000 K non-equilibrium is caused by association of nitrogen atoms by the Zeldovich mechanism, which affects the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules. Near 1000 K excitation may also take place due to a chemiluminescent mechanism between alkali metals and ozone

  20. Electron Transfer Mediators for Photoelectrochemical Cells Based on Cu(I Metal Complexes

    Michele Brugnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and the photoelectrochemical characterization of a series of bipyridine and pyridyl-quinoline Cu(I complexes, used as electron transfer mediators in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells, are reported. The best performing mediators produced maximum IPCEs of the order of 35–40%. The J-V curves recorded under monochromatic light showed that the selected Cu(I/(II couples generated higher Vocs and fill factors compared to an equivalent I-/I3- cell, due to a decreased dark current.

  1. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope {sup 203}Hg and titanium

    Caille, Nathalie [ENSAIA-INRA/INPL, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); CNRSSP, 930 boulevard Lahure, F-59505 Douai (France); Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere organique dans les sols, CNRS, 17 rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vauleon, Clotilde [CNRSSP, 930 boulevard Lahure, F-59505 Douai (France); Leyval, Corinne [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere organique dans les sols, CNRS, 17 rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Morel, Jean-Louis [ENSAIA-INRA/INPL, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: jean-louis.Morel@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr

    2005-04-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope {sup 203}Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg{sup -1} DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg{sup -1} DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg{sup -1} DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn>Cu>Hg>Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account

  2. Cold metal transfer spot plug welding of AA6061-T6-to-galvanized steel for automotive applications

    Cao, R.; Huang, Q.; Chen, J.H.; Wang, Pei-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two Al-to-galvanized steel spot plug welding joints were studied by CMT method. • The optimum process variables for the two joints were gotten by orthogonal test. • Connection mechanism of the two joints were discussed. -- Abstract: In this study, cold metal transfer (CMT) spot plug joining of 1 mm thick Al AA6061-T6 to 1 mm thick galvanized steel (i.e., Q235) was studied. Welding variables were optimized for a plug weld in the center of a 25 mm overlap region with aluminum 4043 wire and 100% argon shielding gas. Microstructures and elemental distributions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Mechanical testing of CMT spot plug welded joints was conducted. It was found that it is feasible to join Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized steel by CMT spot plug welding method. The process variables for two joints with Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel and galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 are optimized. The strength of CMT spot welded Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel is determined primarily by the strength and area of the brazed interface. While, the strength of the galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 joint is mainly dependent upon the area of the weld metal

  3. Manipulating the dipole layer of polar organic molecules on metal surfaces via different charge-transfer channels

    Lin, Meng-Kai; Nakayama, Yasuo; Zhuang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Chin-Yung; Pi, Tun-Wen; Ishii, Hisao; Tang, S.-J.

    The key properties of organic films such as energy level alignment (ELA), work functions, and injection barriers are closely linked to this dipole layer. Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we systemically investigate the coverage-dependent work functions and spectra line shapes of occupied molecular orbital states of a polar molecule, chloroaluminium phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), grown on Ag(111) to show that the orientations of the first ClAlPc layer can be manipulated via the molecule deposition rate and post annealing, causing ELA at organic-metal interface to differ for about 0.3 eV between Cl-up and Cl-down configuration. Moreover, by comparing the experimental results with the calculations based on both gas-phase model and realistic model of ClAlPc on Ag(111) , we evidence that the different orientations of ClAlPc dipole layers lead to different charge-transfer channels between ClAlPc and Ag, a key factor that controls the ELA at organic-metal interface.

  4. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  5. Bioavailability and soil-to-crop transfer of heavy metals in farmland soils: A case study in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huizhen; Zhou, Yongzhang; Dou, Lei; Cai, Limei; Mo, Liping; You, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Soil-bound heavy metals are of great concern for human health due to the potential exposure via food chain transfer. In the present study, the occurrence, the bioavailability and the soil-to-crop transfer of heavy metals in farmland soils were investigated based on data from two agricultural areas, i.e. Sihui and Shunde in South China. Six heavy metals (As, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb) were quantified in the farmland soils. The mean single pollution level indices (PI) were all lower than 1 except for Hg in soils from Shunde (PI = 1.51 ± 0.46), suggesting the farmland soils were within clean and slightly polluted by heavy metals. As, Cu, Ni and Pb were found to be mostly present in the non-bioavailable form. The majority of Hg was considered potentially bioavailable, and Mn was found to be largely bioavailable. Soil pH was an important factor influencing bioavailability of soil-bound heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables from Sihui and Shunde were within the food hygiene standards, while the rice grain from Sihui was polluted by Pb (PI = 10.3 ± 23.4). Total soil concentrations of heavy metals were not correlated to their corresponding crop concentrations, instead, significant correlations were observed for bioavailable concentrations in soil. The results supported the notion that the bioavailability of the investigated heavy metals in the soil was largely responsible for their crop uptake. The soil-to-crop transfer factors based on bioavailable concentrations suggested that Cu, As and Hg in soils of the study area had greater tendency to be accumulated in the vegetables than other heavy metals, calling for further human health assessment by consuming the contaminated crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  7. Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: a case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula.

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Faivre, Bruno; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; van den Brink, Nico W; Scheifler, Renaud

    2012-08-15

    Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape composition and diversity affect the transfer of trace metals to vertebrates. Bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in blood and feathers of European blackbirds Turdus merula (n=138) was studied over a smelter-impacted area (Northern France). Landscape composition (type and occurrence of the different habitats) and diversity (number of different habitat types and the proportional area distribution among habitat types) were computed around bird capture locations. Diet composition and contamination were assessed. No sex-related differences were detected, while age-related patterns were found: yearlings showed a sharper increase of tissue residues along the pollution gradient than older birds. Factors determining bird exposure acted at nested spatial scale. On a broad scale, environmental contamination mainly influenced metal levels in blackbirds, tissue residues increasing with soil contamination. At a finer grain, landscape composition and soil properties (pH, organic matter, clay) influenced metal transfer, while no influence of landscape diversity was detected. Landscape composition better explained metal transfer than soil properties did. Diet composition varied according to landscape composition, but diet diversity was not influenced by landscape diversity. Surprisingly, metal accumulation in some insect taxa was as high as in earthworms (known as hyper-accumulators). Results strongly suggested that variations in diet composition were the drivers through which landscape composition influenced metal transfer to blackbirds. This study shows that landscape features can affect pollutant transfer in food webs, partly through ecological processes related to spatial and foraging

  8. Heat transfer of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flow with internal heat generation

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Kurita, Kazuhisa; Kodama, Satoshi

    2000-01-01

    Numerical calculations on heat transfer of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with internal heat generation in a rectangular channel have been performed for the cases of very-large Hartmann numbers, finite wall conductivities and small aspect ratio (i.e. small length ratios of the channel side perpendicular to the applied magnetic field and the side parallel to the field), simulating typical conditions for a fusion-reactor blanket. The Nusselt numbers of the MHD flow in rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 1/10 to 1/40 for Hartmann numbers of ∼5 x 10 5 become ∼10 times higher than those for the corresponding flow under no magnetic field. The Nusselt number becomes higher as the internal heat generation rate increases as far as the heat generation rates in a fusion reactor blanket are considered. (author)

  9. Single phase flow pressure drop and heat transfer in rectangular metallic microchannels

    Sahar, Amirah M.; Özdemir, Mehmed R.; Fayyadh, Ekhlas M.; Wissink, Jan; Mahmoud, Mohamed M.; Karayiannis, Tassos G.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed using Fluent 14.5 to investigate single phase flow and conjugate heat transfer in copper rectangular microchannels. Two different configurations were simulated: (1) single channel with hydraulic diameter of 0.561 mm and (2) multichannel configuration consisting of inlet and outlet manifolds and 25 channels with hydraulic diameter of 0.409 mm. In the single channel configuration, four numerical models were investigated namely, 2D thin-wall, 3D thin-wall (heated from the bottom), 3D thin-wall (three side heated) and 3D full conjugate models. In the multichannel configuration, only 3D full conjugate model was used. The simulation results of the single channel configuration were validated using experimental data of water as a test fluid while the results of the multichannel configuration were validated using experimental data of R134a refrigerant. In the multichannel configuration, flow distribution among the channels was also investigated. The 3D thin-wall model simulation was conducted at thermal boundary conditions similar to those assumed in the experimental data reduction (uniform heat flux) and showed excellent agreement with the experimental data. However, the results of the 3D full conjugate model demonstrated that there is a significant conjugate effect and the heat flux is not uniformly distributed along the channel resulting in significant deviation compared to the experimental data (more than 50%). Also, the results demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the 3D thin-wall and full conjugate models. The simulation of the multichannel configuration with an inlet manifold having gradual decrease in cross sectional area achieved very reasonable uniform flow distribution among the channels which will provide uniform heat transfer rates across the base of the microchannels.

  10. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals facilitate the horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes in water environment.

    Zhang, Ye; Gu, April Z; Cen, Tianyu; Li, Xiangyang; He, Miao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2018-06-01

    Although widespread antibiotic resistance has been mostly attributed to the selective pressure generated by overuse and misuse of antibiotics, recent growing evidence suggests that chemicals other than antibiotics, such as certain metals, can also select and stimulate antibiotic resistance via both co-resistance and cross-resistance mechanisms. For instance, tetL, merE, and oprD genes are resistant to both antibiotics and metals. However, the potential de novo resistance induced by heavy metals at environmentally-relevant low concentrations (much below theminimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs], also referred as sub-inhibitory) has hardly been explored. This study investigated and revealed that heavy metals, namely Cu(II), Ag(I), Cr(VI), and Zn(II), at environmentally-relevant and sub-inhibitory concentrations, promoted conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between E. coli strains. The mechanisms of this phenomenon were further explored, which involved intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, SOS response, increased cell membrane permeability, and altered expression of conjugation-relevant genes. These findings suggest that sub-inhibitory levels of heavy metals that widely present in various environments contribute to the resistance phenomena via facilitating horizontal transfer of ARGs. This study provides evidence from multiple aspects implicating the ecological effect of low levels of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance dissemination and highlights the urgency of strengthening efficacious policy and technology to control metal pollutants in the environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    acidification (forestation, lixiviation by rain water, etc). Such anthropogenic metal phases were found in the suspended particular matter of the Seine river system, but the transfer mechanisms and pathways from the polluted soils to the surface waters are not yet fully understood and lack high resolution quantitative methods. In this work we aime at calibrating the environmental magnetic measurements that are tested as complementary tracer tools in combination with more classical geochemical analyses. We performed a magnetic cartography using susceptibility along a topographic profile from the different types of polluted soils (agricultural soil, forest deposits, waste land, flooding plains, etc) towards the surface waters (sediment traps of suspended particular matter) draining this area. The results were compared with laboratory susceptibility and elementary composition (XRF) analyses on the freeze dried bulk samples to evaluate the field work approach. Detailed magnetic hysteresis analyses were used to obtain additional information on the magneto-mineralogy and grain-size distribution in order to deconvolute the magnetic bulk signal in terms of the different "natural" and "anthropogenic" ferruginous phases present in the samples and therefore allowing a better tracking of the pathways of the metallic pollutants.

  12. [Transfer characteristic and source identification of soil heavy metals from water-level-fluctuating zone along Xiangxi River, three-Gorges Reservoir area].

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qiang; Nie, Xiao-Qian; Huang, Ying-Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Transfer characteristics of heavy metals and their evaluation of potential risk were studied based on determining concentration of heavy metal in soils from water-level-fluctuating zone (altitude:145-175 m) and bank (altitude: 175-185 m) along Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir area. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was employed for heavy metal source identification and source apportionment. Results demonstrate that, during exposing season, the concentration of soil heavy metals in water-level-fluctuation zone and bank showed the variation, and the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in shallow soil, but increased in deep soil at water-level-fluctuation zone. However, the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in both shallow and deep soil at bank during the same period. According to the geoaccumulation index,the pollution extent of heavy metals followed the order: Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr, Cd is the primary pollutant. FA and FA-MLR reveal that in soils from water-level-fluctuation zone, 75.60% of Pb originates from traffic, 62.03% of Cd is from agriculture, 64.71% of Cu and 75.36% of Cr are from natural rock. In soils from bank, 82.26% of Pb originates from traffic, 68.63% of Cd is from agriculture, 65.72% of Cu and 69.33% of Cr are from natural rock. In conclusion, FA-MLR can successfully identify source of heavy metal and compute source apportionment of heavy metals, meanwhile the transfer characteristic is revealed. All these information can be a reference for heavy metal pollution control.

  13. D- production by multiple charge-transfer collisions in metal-vapor targets. [1 to 50 keV D/sup +/

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1977-09-01

    A beam of D/sup -/ions can be produced by multiple charge-transfer collisions of a D/sup +/ beam in a thick metal-vapor target. Cross sections and equilibrium charge-state fractions are presented and discussed.

  14. Light-Induced Copper(II) Coordination by a Bicyclic Tetraaza Chelator through a Ligand-to-Metal Charge-Transfer Reaction

    Holm-Jørgensen, Jacob Rørdam; Jensen, Mikael; Bjerrum, Morten J.

    2011-01-01

    coordinated amine groups) at pH above 6. These findings are supported by pH titrations of mixtures of Cu2+ and [24.31]adz in water. Irradiation of this complex in the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) band by a diode-array spectrophotometer leads to photodeprotonation and subsequently to formation...

  15. Effects of Sediment Characteristics on the Accumulation and Transfer Rate of Heavy Metals in Mangrove Trees (Case Study: Nayband Bay and Qeshm Island

    H. Moradi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the accumulation of heavy metals of Nickel (Ni and Vanadium (V was measured in habitat sediments, mangrove roots and leaves (Avicennia marina. Besides, the transfer of Ni and V from the sediment to root and to the leaves in Nayband Bay and Qeshm Island were studied. The samples were gathered by Systematic-random Sampling using selective transects at 16 stations at the end of mangrove cover in both sides of land and sea in two habitats with three replicates of sediment, root and leave samples. The bed characteristics including sediment texture, pH, EC and organic matters were determined. The concentration of Ni and V was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and then the metal transfer factor from sediment to root and root to leave was calculated. The correlation of the metal transfer factor and sediment characteristics was analyzed using the SPSS software (version 19. In the sample of sediments, roots and leaves respectively, the most concentrations of nickel and vanadium were measured. About transfer of Ni and V, transfer rate from sediment to root was much higher than from root to leave. In addition, the highest transfer factor from sediment to root and from root to leave was obtained for V in Qeshm habitat (0.502 and for Ni (0.749 in Nayband Bay. It seems that the difference between sediment textures in the two habitats and widespread oil and gas activities in Nayband Bay might be the notable reasons for the difference in transfer rates in two the habitats. Therefore, we conclude that the finer texture of Qeshm habitat increased transfer of V from sediment to root, and the coarser texture associated with increasing air pollution in Nayband Bay caused more Ni to accumulate in the leaves.

  16. A heat transfer study for vertical straight-tube steam generators heated by liquid metal

    Valette, M.

    1984-04-01

    A single-tube mockup of a vertical straight-tube steam generator heated by sodium-potassium alloy NaK was submitted to thermal and hydraulic testing in conditions representative of fast breeder reactor operation. The mockup consisted of a 10mm I.D. ferritic steel heat exchange tube centered inside a cylindrical stainless steel shell. The complete assembly was 20.9 meters long. Water flowed upward inside the exchange tube, and NaK flowed downward in the annular gap between the tube and the shell. The steam outlet pressure ranged from 90 to 195 bars, while the liquid metal temperature at the mockup inlet was between 480 and 580 0 C. The water flowrate in the tube ranged from 153 to 2460 kg.m -2 .s -1 . During the tests the fluid inlet and outlet temperatures, flowrate and pressures were measured, as was the NaK temperature profile over the full length of the device. The test results were subsequently compared with heat exchange and pressure drop values calculated using the standard formulas for straight-tube heat exchangers. The heat exchange coefficients predicted by these correlations in the boiling zone were found to be largely overestimated, while the calculated pressure drop values proved satisfactory. A set of modified correlations is proposed to account for the observed phenomena, and for use in designing commercial units, provided the sodium flow in the tube bundle is adequately distributed

  17. Organodioxygen complexes of some heavy metal ions and their oxygen transfer reactions

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Mei Ling; Gino Mariotto

    2003-09-01

    Several novel organodioxygen complexes of lanthanide ions, viz., lanthanum(m) and cerium(IV) have been synthesized containing a number of organic co- ligands. The complexes characterized were, [La(0 2 )(det)(N0 3 ) 2 ] (1), [La(O 2 )(tet)(NO 3 ) 2 ] (2), [La(O 2 )(C 5 H 5 N)2NO 3 ] (3), [La(O 2 )(C 6 H 18 N 3 PO) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] (4), [La(0 2 )(OPPh 3 ) 2 (N0 3 ) 2 ] (5), [La(O 2 ) 2 (NH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ) 2 NO 3 ] (6), [La(O 2 )(PPh 3 ) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] (7) and [Ce(O 2 )(C 6 H 18 N 3 PO) 2 (NO 3 ) 3 ] (8). IR and Raman spectra revealed that (3) was a peroxo complex while the others were, in particular, superoxo type. The IR spectrum of (3) gives V 1 (O-O) at 851 cm -1 while the Raman spectra of (4), (5), (7) and (8) give V 1 (O 2 ) bands at 1046 cm -1 , 1032 cm 1 , 1100 cm -1 and 1046 cm -1 , respectively. The oxygen transfer reactions of two selected complexes were carried out under stoichiometric conditions. The complex containing a bidentate ligand, (6), was found to oxidize triphenylphosphine and trans-stilbene to their oxides while the complex containing tridentate ligand (1) was stable and inert towards oxidation. (author)

  18. Tape transfer printing of a liquid metal alloy for stretchable RF electronics.

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-09-03

    In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF) electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems), without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  19. Tape Transfer Printing of a Liquid Metal Alloy for Stretchable RF Electronics

    Seung Hee Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems, without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  20. Charge transfer mechanism for the formation of metallic states at the KTaO3/SrTiO3 interface

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-03-29

    The electronic and optical properties of the KTaO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface are analyzed by the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave approach of density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions points at subordinate changes in the crystal structure and chemical bonding near the interface, which is due to a minimal lattice mismatch. The creation of metallic interface states thus is not affected by structural relaxation but can be explained by charge transfer between transition metal and oxygen atoms. It is to be expected that a charge transfer is likewise important for related interfaces such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The KTaO3/SrTiO3 system is ideal for disentangling the complex behavior of metallic interface states, since almost no structural relaxation takes place.

  1. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger

  2. Dermal transfer quantification of nanoparticles from nano-enabled surfaces

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Mines, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The dermal transfer testing by wipe sampling and analytical approach used in this study demonstrates that wipe testing in combination with spICP-MS analysis can provide both qualitative data in terms of mass and number-based NP release, as well as particle characterization in terms of NP size distribution...... and characterize NP release from keyboard covers and freshly painted surfaces, in terms of mass and number concentration, as well as released particle size distribution through the use of spICP-MS. Three types of NPs were selected for method validation testing, Ag, TiO2, and CuO; and, the particle extraction from...... wipes was found to be efficient for Ag and CuO, but not for TiO2 particles. Thereafter, potential dermal transfer was tested by wipe sampling for two nanoAg-containing silicon keyboard covers, and wood painted with nanoCuO-containing paint. AgNP release was observed for one of the keyboard cover types...

  3. Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels.

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Matt, Georg E; Chatfield, Dale; Zakarian, Joy M; Fortmann, Addie L; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke contains a mixture of pollutants that can persist in air, dust, and on surfaces for months or longer. This persistent residue is known as thirdhand smoke (THS). Here, we detail a simple method of wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of accumulated THS on surfaces. We analyzed findings from 5 real-world studies to investigate the performance of wipe sampling for nicotine on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels in relation to smoking behavior and smoking restrictions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for side-by-side samples was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94). Wipe sampling for nicotine reliably distinguished between private homes, private cars, rental cars, and hotels with and without smoking bans and was significantly positively correlated with other measures of tobacco smoke contamination such as air and dust nicotine. The sensitivity and specificity of possible threshold values (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/m(2)) were evaluated for distinguishing between nonsmoking and smoking environments. Sensitivity was highest at a threshold of 0.1 μg/m(2), with 74%-100% of smoker environments showing nicotine levels above threshold. Specificity was highest at a threshold of 10 μg/m(2), with 81%-100% of nonsmoker environments showing nicotine levels below threshold. The optimal threshold will depend on the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity and on the types of smoking and nonsmoking environments. Surface wipe sampling for nicotine is a reliable, valid, and relatively simple collection method to quantify THS contamination on surfaces across a wide range of field settings and to distinguish between nonsmoking and smoking environments.

  4. Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.

  5. Low pH levels wipe out salmon and trout populations in southernmost Norway

    Jensen, K W; Snekvik, E

    1972-01-01

    A gradual decrease in pH has been documented for many Scandinavian rivers and lakes and there is little doubt that the main cause is acid precipitation (1-4). Eggs, fry, and alevins of salmon and brown trout are more susceptible to acid water than are the older fish. A gradually increasing acidity of trout biotopes will cause a reduction in the natural reproduction rate of trout, because eggs and fry succumb, while the older individuals in the population survive, at least until the pH level sinks low enough to affect them, as well. A study of the present situation and examination of the available data show that the salmon populations in a number of rivers in southernmost Norway have been nearly wiped out by low pH values. During the last twenty to thirty years, low pH levels have eliminated the brown trout populations in a great number of lakes and rivers in Norway's southernmost districts. This alarming development is continuing.

  6. Validation of Transfer Functions Predicting Cd and Pb Free Metal Ion Activity in Soil Solution as a Function of Soil Characteristics and Reactive Metal Content

    Pampura, T.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Priputina, I.

    2007-01-01

    According to recent insight, the toxicity of metals in soils is better related to the free metal ion (FMI) activity in the soil solution than to the total metal concentration in soil. However, the determination of FMI activities in soil solution is a difficult and time-consuming task. An alternative

  7. Transition Metal Donor-Peptide-Acceptor Complexes: From Intramolecular Electron Transfer Reactions to the Study of Reactive Intermediates

    Isied, Stephan S.

    2003-03-11

    The trans-polyproline (PII) oligomers (Figure 1) are unusually rigid peptide structures which have been extensively studied by our group for peptide mediated intramolecular electron transfer (ET) at long distances. We have previously studied ET across a series of metal ion donor (D) acceptor (A) oligoproline peptides with different distances, driving forces and reorganizational energies. The majority of these experiments involve generating the ET intermediate using pulse radiolysis methods, although more recently photochemical methods are also used. Results of these studies showed that ET across peptides can vary by more than twelve orders of magnitude. Using ruthenium bipyridine donors, ET reaction rate constants across several proline residues (n = 4 - 9) occurred in the millisecond (ms) to {micro}s timescale, thus limiting the proline peptide conformational motions to only minor changes (far smaller than the large changes that occur on the ms to sec timescale, such as trans to cis proline isomerization). The present report describes our large data base of experimental results for D-peptide-A complexes in terms of a model where the involvement of both superexchange and hopping (hole and electron) mechanisms account for the long range ET rate constants observed. Our data shows that the change from superexchange to hopping mechanisms occurs at different distances depending on the type of D and A and their interactions with the peptides. Our model is also consistent with generalized models for superexchange and hopping which have been put forward by a number of theoretical groups to account for long range ET phenomena.

  8. Transfer-Free Fabrication of Graphene Scaffolds on High-k Dielectrics from Metal-Organic Oligomers.

    Pang, Qingqing; Wang, Deyan; Wang, Xiuyan; Feng, Shaoguang; Clark, Michael B; Li, Qiaowei

    2016-09-28

    In situ fabrication of graphene scaffold-ZrO2 nanofilms is achieved by thermal annealing of Zr-based metal-organic oligomers on SiO2 substrates. The structural similarities of the aromatic moieties in the ligand (phenyl-, naphthyl-, anthryl-, and pyrenyl-) compared to graphene play a major role in the ordering of the graphene scaffolds obtained. The depth profiling analysis reveals ultrathin carbon-pure or carbon-rich surfaces of the graphene scaffold-ZrO2 nanofilms. The graphene scaffolds with ∼96.0% transmittance in the visible region and 4.8 nm in thickness can be grown with this non-chemical vapor deposition method. Furthermore, the heterogeneous graphene scaffold-ZrO2 nanofilms show a low sheet resistance of 17.0 kΩ per square, corresponding to electrical conductivity of 3197 S m(-1). The strategy provides a facile method to fabricate graphene scaffolds directly on high-k dielectrics without transferring process, paving the way for its application in fabricating electronic devices.

  9. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Xuewei Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT, CMT-Pulse (CMT-P, CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV, and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al2Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode.

  10. Disorder-driven metal-insulator-transition assisted by interband Coulomb repulsion in a surface transfer doped electron system

    Francisco Sánchez-Royo, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The two-dimensional conducting properties of the Si(111) \\sqrt {3} \\times \\sqrt {3} surface doped by the charge surface transfer mechanism have been calculated in the frame of a semiclassical Drude-Boltzmann model considering donor scattering mechanisms. To perform these calculations, the required values of the carrier effective mass were extracted from reported angle-resolved photoemission results. The calculated doping dependence of the surface conductance reproduces experimental results reported and reveals an intricate metallization process driven by disorder and assisted by interband interactions. The system should behave as an insulator even at relatively low doping due to disorder. However, when doping increases, the system achieves to attenuate the inherent localization effects introduced by disorder and to conduct by percolation. The mechanism found by the system to conduct appears to be connected with the increasing of the carrier effective mass observed with doping, which seems to be caused by interband interactions involving the conducting band and deeper ones. This mass enhancement reduces the donor Bohr radius and, consequently, promotes the screening ability of the donor potential by the electron gas.

  11. Fixed distance photoinduced electron transfer between Fe and Zn porphyrins encapsulated within the Zn HKUST-1 metal organic framework.

    Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz

    2015-02-21

    An attractive strategy for the development of photocatalytic metal organic framework (MOF) materials is to co-encapsulate a photoactive electron donor with a catalytic electron acceptor within the MOF. Here we report the co-encapsulation of both Zn(ii) tetrakis(tetra 4-sulphonatophenyl)porphyrin (Zn4SP) and Fe(iii) tetrakis(tetra 4-sulphonatophenyl)porphyrin (Fe4SP) into an HKUST-1 (Zn) MOF and demonstrate photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between the co-encapsulated guest. Photo-excitation of the Zn4SP results in fixed-distance inter-molecular ET between the encapsulated (3)Zn4SP and the Fe(iii)4SP as evident by the reduction in the encapsulated (3)Zn4SP lifetime from 890 μs (kobs = 1.1 × 10(3) s(-1)) to 83 μs (kobs = 1.2 × 10(4) s(-1)) in the presence of Fe4SP giving a kET ∼ 1.1 × 10(4) s(-1). The data are consistent with ET taking place between encapsulated porphyrins that are two cages apart in distance with a reorganizational energy of ∼1.65 eV, β = 1.25 and ΔG° = -0.97 eV (within a semi-classical Marcus theory framework).

  12. A peroxidase mimic with atom transfer radical polymerization activity constructed through the grafting of heme onto metal-organic frameworks.

    Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yue; Yang, Jiebing; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yan; Tang, Jun; Li, Quanshun

    2018-07-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been considered to be an efficient strategy for constructing functional macromolecules owing to its simple operation and versatile monomers, and thus it is of great significance to develop ideal catalysts with higher activity and perfect reusability. We constructed a peroxidase mimic through the grafting of heme onto metal-organic frameworks UiO-66-NH 2 (ZrMOF), namely Heme-ZrMOF. After the systematic characterization of structure, the composite Heme-ZrMOF was demonstrated to possess high peroxidase activity using 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. The enzyme mimic was then used as catalysts in the ATRP reactions of different monomers, in which favorable monomer conversion (44.6-98.0%) and product molecular weight (8600-25,600 g/mol) could be obtained. Compared to free heme, Heme-ZrMOF could efficiently achieve the easy separation of heme from the catalytic system and facilitate the ATRP reaction in an aqueous environment to avoid the utilization of organic solvents. In conclusion, the enzyme mimic Heme-ZrMOF could be potentially used as an effective catalyst for preparing well-defined polymers with biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process.

    Fang, Xuewei; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Hui; Li, Chaolong; Huang, Ke; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-05-16

    In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT), CMT-Pulse (CMT-P), CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV), and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV) were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al₂Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode.

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Fang, Xuewei; Li, Hui; Li, Chaolong; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT), CMT-Pulse (CMT-P), CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV), and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV) were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al2Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode. PMID:29772708

  15. Numerical simulation of the heat transfer at cooling a high-temperature metal cylinder by a flow of a gas-liquid medium

    Makarov, S. S.; Lipanov, A. M.; Karpov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    The numerical modeling results for the heat transfer during cooling a metal cylinder by a gas-liquid medium flow in an annular channel are presented. The results are obtained on the basis of the mathematical model of the conjugate heat transfer of the gas-liquid flow and the metal cylinder in a two-dimensional nonstationary formulation accounting for the axisymmetry of the cooling medium flow relative to the cylinder longitudinal axis. To solve the system of differential equations the control volume approach is used. The flow field parameters are calculated by the SIMPLE algorithm. To solve iteratively the systems of linear algebraic equations the Gauss-Seidel method with under-relaxation is used. The results of the numerical simulation are verified by comparing the results of the numerical simulation with the results of the field experiment. The calculation results for the heat transfer parameters at cooling the high-temperature metal cylinder by the gas-liquid flow are obtained with accounting for evaporation. The values of the rate of cooling the cylinder by the laminar flow of the cooling medium are determined. The temperature change intensity for the metal cylinder is analyzed depending on the initial velocity of the liquid flow and the time of the cooling process.

  16. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  17. The Adsorption Langmuir Model of Transfer Metal Ti, V and Mn on System Water-Sediment in Along Side Code River, Yogyakarta

    Rini Jati Wardani; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption langmuir model of transfer metal Ti, V and Mn on system water-sediment in along side Code river, Yogyakarta has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to make prediction about adsorption langmuir model of identified metal Ti, V and Mn from upstream until downstream samples water and sediment in along side Code river. The factor influenced of langmuir adsorption on transfer metal Ti, V and Mn in system water-sediment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS). The analysis showed that between TSS with metal concentration in sediment have linear correlation. The result of calculation from curve of langmuir isotherm, showed for Ti has R 2 = 0.8006 with capacities of adsorption = 0.5 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 13.286 J/mol, V has R 2 = 0.9883 with capacities of adsorption = 0.0137 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 16.64 J/mol, Mn has R 2 = 0.9624 with capacities of adsorption 0.152 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 10.51 J/mol. The conclusion from this topic about adsorption langmuir for metal Ti, V and Mn according to energy of langmuir adsorption by chemisorption process above 10 J/mo. (author)

  18. Distribution and transfer of potentially toxic metal(loid)s in Juncus effusus from the indigenous zinc smelting area, northwest region of Guizhou Province, China.

    Peng, Yishu; Chen, Jun; Wei, Huairui; Li, Shibin; Jin, Tao; Yang, Ruidong

    2018-05-15

    We collected samples (i.e., the aerial parts and roots of Juncus effusus and their growth media) in the indigenous zinc smelting area in the northwest region of Guizhou Province, China, and we measured and analyzed potentially toxic metal(loid)s (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; mercury, Hg; lead, Pb and zinc, Zn) in these samples. The results include the following: First, there is a high concentration of one or more potentially toxic metal(loid)s in the slag and surrounding soil in the research area. This situation might be caused by metal(loid) damage or contamination due to the circumstances. Additionally, Juncus effusus in the indigenous zinc smelting area are contaminated by some potentially toxic metal(loid)s; since they are used for Chinese medical materials, it is especially significant that their As, Cd and Pb concentrations are greater than their limited standard values. Finally, both the bioconcentration factors and transfer factors for most potentially toxic metal(loid)s in Juncus effusus are less than 1 in the study area. Therefore, we suggest that Juncus effusus could be used for phytostabilization or as a pioneer plant for phytoremediation of potentially toxic metal(loid)s because it has a tolerance and exclusion mechanism for these metal(loid)s in the research district. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  20. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial.

    Lavender, Tina; Furber, Christine; Campbell, Malcolm; Victor, Suresh; Roberts, Ian; Bedwell, Carol; Cork, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (skin hydration when compared with using cotton wool and water (usual care). A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n=280), recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies) or cotton wool and water (140 babies). Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 %) babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4) vs. water 63.5 (14.2), p=0.47, 95% CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4) vs. water 63.6 (14.3), p=0.53, 95% CI -2.4 to 4.2). No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p=0.025 for complete responses). Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86207019.

  1. Beyond alkyl transfer: Synthesis of main group metal (Mg, Ca, Zn) silyl and tris(oxazolinyl)borato complexes and their stoichiometric and catalytic reactions with borane Lewis acids and carbonyls

    Lampland, Nicole Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-05-09

    Recently, the fundamental knowledge of main group metal chemistry has grown. This progress is crucial for the further development of main group metal compounds in silicon chemistry and catalysis and for advancing their applications as green alternatives to many rare earth and transition metal compounds. This thesis focuses on reactivity beyond the welldocumented alkyl-transfer applications for main group metals, and it highlights examples of reactions with Lewis acids and the reduction of carbonyls.

  2. Biokinetics of cadmium, selenium, and zinc in freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus under different phosphorus and nitrogen conditions and metal transfer to Daphnia magna

    Yu Riqing; Wang Wenxiong

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of Cd, Se(IV) and Zn by the freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the subsequent transfer and release budget in Daphnia magna were investigated under different nutrient additions and cell incubation conditions. An increase in ambient phosphate concentrations from 0.5 μmol l -1 to 50 μmol l -1 significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of Cd (by 18x) and Zn (by 5x), but decreased the accumulation of Se (by 126x) in the alga. The percentage of these metals distributing in the intracellular pool of algae also increased substantially with increasing ambient P concentrations. Nitrate addition from 5.0 to 200 μmol l -1 did not influence the uptake of any of the three metals, although a significant decrease in the intracellular Se distribution was observed. Radiolabeled algae under different nutrient manipulations (semi-continuous culture, starvation, and P-pulse treatments) were used to measure trophic transfer assimilation efficiency (AE) in Daphnia. When the algal cells were grown in a semi-continuous culture, starved for N and P, or were treated with P-pulse, the AEs of Cd and Zn were generally independent of the nutritional conditions, but the Se AE was significantly affected by different P levels. The efflux rate constants, determined during 10 d depuration following 7 days of dietary uptake, decreased significantly for Cd and Zn, but were relatively constant for Se with increasing P concentration. N-addition caused no effect on the metal efflux rate constants. P- or N-additions did not influence the release budget (including molting, neonates, excretion and feces) for all three elements in Daphnia. Our study indicated that phosphate enrichment may substantially increase metal uptake in green alga S. obliquus. Responses of trophic transfer in Daphnia to nutrient enrichment were metal specific. P-enrichment can possibly lead to considerable decrease on Se transfer from algae to zooplankton. - Phosphorous enrichment influences metal uptake

  3. Biokinetics of cadmium, selenium, and zinc in freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus under different phosphorus and nitrogen conditions and metal transfer to Daphnia magna

    Yu Riqing; Wang Wenxiong

    2004-06-01

    The uptake of Cd, Se(IV) and Zn by the freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the subsequent transfer and release budget in Daphnia magna were investigated under different nutrient additions and cell incubation conditions. An increase in ambient phosphate concentrations from 0.5 {mu}mol l{sup -1} to 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1} significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of Cd (by 18x) and Zn (by 5x), but decreased the accumulation of Se (by 126x) in the alga. The percentage of these metals distributing in the intracellular pool of algae also increased substantially with increasing ambient P concentrations. Nitrate addition from 5.0 to 200 {mu}mol l{sup -1} did not influence the uptake of any of the three metals, although a significant decrease in the intracellular Se distribution was observed. Radiolabeled algae under different nutrient manipulations (semi-continuous culture, starvation, and P-pulse treatments) were used to measure trophic transfer assimilation efficiency (AE) in Daphnia. When the algal cells were grown in a semi-continuous culture, starved for N and P, or were treated with P-pulse, the AEs of Cd and Zn were generally independent of the nutritional conditions, but the Se AE was significantly affected by different P levels. The efflux rate constants, determined during 10 d depuration following 7 days of dietary uptake, decreased significantly for Cd and Zn, but were relatively constant for Se with increasing P concentration. N-addition caused no effect on the metal efflux rate constants. P- or N-additions did not influence the release budget (including molting, neonates, excretion and feces) for all three elements in Daphnia. Our study indicated that phosphate enrichment may substantially increase metal uptake in green alga S. obliquus. Responses of trophic transfer in Daphnia to nutrient enrichment were metal specific. P-enrichment can possibly lead to considerable decrease on Se transfer from algae to zooplankton. - Phosphorous enrichment

  4. Impact of antimicrobial wipes compared with hypochlorite solution on environmental surface contamination in a health care setting: A double-crossover study.

    Siani, Harsha; Wesgate, Rebecca; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2018-05-11

    Antimicrobial wipes are increasingly used in health care settings. This study evaluates, in a clinical setting, the efficacy of sporicidal wipes versus a cloth soaked in a 1,000 ppm chlorine solution. A double-crossover study was performed on 2 different surgical and cardiovascular wards in a 1,000-bed teaching hospital over 29 weeks. The intervention period that consisted of surface decontamination with the preimpregnated wipe or cloth soaked in chlorine followed a 5-week baseline assessment of microbial bioburden on surfaces. Environmental samples from 11 surfaces were analyzed weekly for their microbial content. A total of 1,566 environmental samples and 1,591 ATP swabs were analyzed during the trial. Overall, there were significant differences in the recovery of total aerobic bacteria (P < .001), total anaerobic bacteria (P < .001), and ATP measurement (P < .001) between wards and between the different parts of the crossover study. Generally, the use of wipes produced the largest reduction in the total aerobic and anaerobic counts when compared with the baseline data or the use of 1,000 ppm chlorine. Collectively, the introduction of training plus daily wipe disinfection significantly reduced multidrug-resistant organisms recovered from surfaces. Reversion to using 1,000 ppm chlorine resulted in the number of sites positive for multidrug-resistant organisms rising again. This double-crossover study is the first controlled field trial comparison of using preimpregnated wipes versus cotton cloth dipped into a bucket of hypochlorite to decrease surface microbial bioburden. The results demonstrate the superiority of the preimpregnated wipes in significantly decreasing microbial bioburden from high-touch surfaces. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metal-assisted exfoliation (MAE): green, roll-to-roll compatible method for transferring graphene to flexible substrates

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V; Moetazedi, Herad; Kong, Casey; Sawyer, Eric J; Savagatrup, Suchol; Valle, Eduardo; O’Connor, Timothy F; Printz, Adam D; Lipomi, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is expected to play a significant role in future technologies that span a range from consumer electronics, to devices for the conversion and storage of energy, to conformable biomedical devices for healthcare. To realize these applications, however, a low-cost method of synthesizing large areas of high-quality graphene is required. Currently, the only method to generate large-area single-layer graphene that is compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing destroys approximately 300 kg of copper foil (thickness = 25 μm) for every 1 g of graphene produced. This paper describes a new environmentally benign and scalable process of transferring graphene to flexible substrates. The process is based on the preferential adhesion of certain thin metallic films to graphene; separation of the graphene from the catalytic copper foil is followed by lamination to a flexible target substrate in a process that is compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. The copper substrate is indefinitely reusable and the method is substantially greener than the current process that uses relatively large amounts of corrosive etchants to remove the copper. The sheet resistance of the graphene produced by this new process is unoptimized but should be comparable in principle to that produced by the standard method, given the defects observable by Raman spectroscopy and the presence of process-induced cracks. With further improvements, this green, inexpensive synthesis of single-layer graphene could enable applications in flexible, stretchable, and disposable electronics, low-profile and lightweight barrier materials, and in large-area displays and photovoltaic modules. (paper)

  6. Metal-assisted exfoliation (MAE): green, roll-to-roll compatible method for transferring graphene to flexible substrates

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V.; Moetazedi, Herad; Kong, Casey; Sawyer, Eric J.; Savagatrup, Suchol; Valle, Eduardo; O'Connor, Timothy F.; Printz, Adam D.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is expected to play a significant role in future technologies that span a range from consumer electronics, to devices for the conversion and storage of energy, to conformable biomedical devices for healthcare. To realize these applications, however, a low-cost method of synthesizing large areas of high-quality graphene is required. Currently, the only method to generate large-area single-layer graphene that is compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing destroys approximately 300 kg of copper foil (thickness = 25 μm) for every 1 g of graphene produced. This paper describes a new environmentally benign and scalable process of transferring graphene to flexible substrates. The process is based on the preferential adhesion of certain thin metallic films to graphene; separation of the graphene from the catalytic copper foil is followed by lamination to a flexible target substrate in a process that is compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. The copper substrate is indefinitely reusable and the method is substantially greener than the current process that uses relatively large amounts of corrosive etchants to remove the copper. The sheet resistance of the graphene produced by this new process is unoptimized but should be comparable in principle to that produced by the standard method, given the defects observable by Raman spectroscopy and the presence of process-induced cracks. With further improvements, this green, inexpensive synthesis of single-layer graphene could enable applications in flexible, stretchable, and disposable electronics, low-profile and lightweight barrier materials, and in large-area displays and photovoltaic modules.

  7. Catalytic Proton Coupled Electron Transfer from Metal Hydrides to Titanocene Amides, Hydrazides and Imides: Determination of Thermodynamic Parameters Relevant to Nitrogen Fixation.

    Pappas, Iraklis; Chirik, Paul J

    2016-10-03

    The hydrogenolysis of titanium-nitrogen bonds in a series of bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium amides, hydrazides and imides by proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) is described. Twelve different N-H bond dissociation free energies (BDFEs) among the various nitrogen-containing ligands were measured or calculated, and effects of metal oxidation state and N-ligand substituent were determined. Two metal hydride complexes, (η 5 -C 5 Me 5 )(py-Ph)Rh-H (py-Ph = 2-pyridylphenyl, [Rh]-H) and (η 5 -C 5 R 5 )(CO) 3 Cr-H ([Cr] R -H, R= H, Me) were evaluated for formal H atom transfer reactivity and were selected due to their relatively weak M-H bond strengths yet ability to activate and cleave molecular hydrogen. Despite comparable M-H BDFEs, disparate reactivity between the two compounds was observed and was traced to the vastly different acidities of the M-H bonds and overall redox potentials of the molecules. With [Rh]-H, catalytic syntheses of ammonia, silylamine and N,N-dimethylhydrazine have been accomplished from the corresponding titanium(IV) complex using H 2 as the stoichiometric H atom source. The data presented in this study provides the thermochemical foundation for the synthesis of NH 3 by proton coupled electron transfer at a well-defined transition metal center.

  8. Transfer of heavy metals in the food chain earthworm Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa): Comparison of a polluted and a reference site in The Netherlands

    Roodbergen, Maja [Department of Ecology and Environment, ALTERRA, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Haren (Netherlands)], E-mail: maja.roodbergen@sovon.nl; Klok, Chris; Hout, Annemariet van der [Department of Ecology and Environment, ALTERRA, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    The Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a migratory wader that favours wet meadows for breeding. The species has a Red List status in The Netherlands, as it strongly declined in numbers since the 1960s. Intensification of agriculture and land use change resulting in habitat loss are considered major causes of this decline. In some areas the breeding habitat is contaminated with heavy metals. Adult godwits mainly feed on earthworms in the breeding season, which are known to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In this paper we investigate the transfer of heavy metals from the soil to the Black-tailed godwit, which may have an additive negative effect on the viability of local populations. We measured heavy metal concentrations in soil, earthworms, and godwit eggs and feathers at a polluted and a reference site. The results suggest that Lead, Mercury and Cadmium are transferred from the soil to godwits even though the species spends only a few months in the breeding area during the year.

  9. Transfer of heavy metals in the food chain earthworm Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa): Comparison of a polluted and a reference site in The Netherlands

    Roodbergen, Maja; Klok, Chris; Hout, Annemariet van der

    2008-01-01

    The Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a migratory wader that favours wet meadows for breeding. The species has a Red List status in The Netherlands, as it strongly declined in numbers since the 1960s. Intensification of agriculture and land use change resulting in habitat loss are considered major causes of this decline. In some areas the breeding habitat is contaminated with heavy metals. Adult godwits mainly feed on earthworms in the breeding season, which are known to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In this paper we investigate the transfer of heavy metals from the soil to the Black-tailed godwit, which may have an additive negative effect on the viability of local populations. We measured heavy metal concentrations in soil, earthworms, and godwit eggs and feathers at a polluted and a reference site. The results suggest that Lead, Mercury and Cadmium are transferred from the soil to godwits even though the species spends only a few months in the breeding area during the year

  10. Influence of Metal Transfer Stability and Shielding Gas Composition on CO and CO2 Emissions during Short-circuiting MIG/MAG Welding

    Valter Alves de Meneses

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated the influence of parameters and shielding gas on metal transfer stability or on the generation of fumes in MIG/MAG welding, but little or nothing has been discussed regarding the emission of toxic and asphyxiating gases, particularly as it pertains to parameterization of the process. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the effect of manufacturing aspects of welding processes (short-circuit metal transfer stability and shielding gas composition on the gas emission levels during MIG/MAG welding (occupational health and environmental aspects. Using mixtures of Argon with CO2 and O2 and maintaining the same average current and the same weld bead volume, short-circuit welding was performed with carbon steel welding wire in open (welder’s breathing zone and confined environments. The welding voltage was adjusted to gradually vary the transfer stability. It was found that the richer the composition of the shielding gas is in CO2, the more CO and CO2 are generated by the arc. However, unlike fume emission, voltage and transfer stability had no effect on the generation of these gases. It was also found that despite the large quantity of CO and CO2 emitted by the arc, especially when using pure CO2 shielding gas, there was no high level residual concentration of CO and CO2 in or near the worker’s breathing zone, even in confined work cells.

  11. Measuring PM2.5, Ultrafine Particles, Nicotine Air and Wipe Samples Following the Use of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Melstrom, Paul; Koszowski, Bartosz; Thanner, Meridith Hill; Hoh, Eunha; King, Brian; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have examined the extent of inhalation or dermal contact among bystanders following short-term, secondhand e-cigarette exposure. Measure PM2.5 (particles e-cigarette exposure. E-cigarettes were used ad libitum by three experienced users for 2 hours during two separate sessions (disposable e-cigarettes, then tank-style e-cigarettes, or "tanks") in a 1858 ft3 room. We recorded: uncorrected PM2.5 (using SidePak); UF (using P-Trak); air nicotine concentrations (using air samplers; SKC XAD-4 canisters); ambient air exchange rate (using an air capture hood). Wipe samples were taken by wiping 100 cm2 room surfaces pre- and post- both sessions, and clean cloth wipes were worn during the exposure and collected at the end. Uncorrected PM2.5 and UF were higher (p e-cigarette use can produce: elevated PM2.5; elevated UF; nicotine in the air; and accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing. Short-term indoor e-cigarette use produced accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing, which could lead to dermal exposure to nicotine. Short-term e-cigarette use produced elevated PM2.5 and ultrafine particles, which could lead to secondhand inhalation of these particles and any chemicals associated with them by bystanders. We measured significant differences in PM2.5 and ultrafine particles between disposable e-cigarettes and tank-style e-cigarettes, suggesting a difference in the exposure profiles of e-cigarette products. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) submitted October, 1972 (NODC Accession 7300575)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data were collected by the Skidway Institute of Oceanography (SKIO). Data were collected...

  13. Liquid-Metal/Water Direct Contact Heat Exchange: Flow Visualization, Flow Stability, and Heat Transfer Using Real-Time X-Ray Imaging

    Abdulla, Sherif H.; Liu Xin; Anderson, Mark H.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.; Cho, Dae; Page, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Advanced reactor system designs are being considered with liquid-metal cooling connected to a steam power cycle. In addition, current reactor safety systems are considering auxiliary cooling schemes that assure ex-vessel debris coolability utilizing direct water injection into molten material pools to achieve core quenching and eventual coolability. The phenomenon common in both applications is direct contact heat exchange. The current study focuses on detailed measurements of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange that is directly applicable to improvements in effective heat transfer in devices that are being considered for both of these purposes.In this study, a test facility was designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to map the operating range of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange. The test section (184-cm height, 45.75-cm width, and 10-cm depth) is a rectangular slice of a larger heat exchange device. This apparatus was used not only to provide measurements of integral thermal performance (i.e., volumetric heat transfer coefficient), but also local heat transfer coefficients in a bubbly flow regime with X-ray imaging based on measured parameters such as bubble formation time, bubble rise velocity, and bubble diameters.To determine these local heat transfer coefficients, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed. With this methodology, a high-energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for our heat exchange experiments. With this real-time, large-area, high-energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was quantitatively visualized. An efficient image processing strategy was developed by combining several optimal digital image-processing algorithms into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer-related variables such as bubble volumes and velocities, were determined. Finally, an error analysis associated with these measurements

  14. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  15. Analysis of natural convection heat transfer with crust formation in the molten metal pool using CONV-2 and 3D computer codes

    Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Choi, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical studies have been performed on natural convection heat transfer with crust formation in a molten metal pool to validate and evaluate experimental data using the CONV-2 and 3D computer codes. Two types of steady state tests, a low and high geometric aspect ratio case in the molten metal pool, were performed to investigate crust thickness as a function of boundary conditions. The CONV-2 and 3D computer codes were developed under the OECD/NEA RASPLAV project to simulate two- and three-dimensional natural convection heat transfer with crust formation, respectively. The Rayleigh-Benard flow patterns in the molten metal pool contribute to the temperature distribution, which affects non-uniform crust formation. The CONV-2D results on crust thickness are a little higher than the experimental data because of heat loss during the test. In comparison of the CONV-3D results with the CONV-2D results on crust thickness, the three-dimensional results are higher than the two-dimensional results, because of three dimensional natural convection flow and wall effect

  16. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions

    Carraher, Jack McCaslin

    leads to the dissociation of H2O2 from Cr(III), while in the H+-independent reaction, CraqOOH2+ is transformed to Cr(V). Both scavengers rapidly remove Cr(V) and simplify both the kinetics and products by impeding formation of Cr(IV, V, VI). Syntheses, Reactivity, and Thermodynamic Considerations LRhR2+. Macrocyclic rhodium(II) complexes LRh(H 2O)2+ (L = L1= cyclam and L2 = meso-Me6-cyclam) react with alkyl hydroperoxides R(CH3)2COOH to generate the corresponding rhodium(III) alkyls LRh(H2O)R2+ (R = CH3, C2 H5, PhCH2). Methyl and benzyl complexes can also be prepared by bimolecular group transfer from alkyl cobaloximes (dmgX) 2(H2O)CoR (where R = CH3, CH2Ph and dmgX is either dimethylglyoxime or a BF2-capped derivative of dmg) to LRh(H2O)2+. When R = C2H5, C3H7 or C4H9, the mechanism changes from group transfer to hydrogen atom abstraction from the coordinated alkyl and produces LRh(H2O)H2+ and an a-olefin. The new LRh(H2O)R2+ complexes were characterized by solution NMR and by crystal structure analysis. They exhibit great stability in aqueous solution at room temperature, but undergo efficient Rh-C bond cleavage upon photolysis. 'Green' Model for Decarboxylation of Biomass Derived Acids via Photolysis of in situ formed Metal-Carboxylate Complexes. Photolysis of aqueous solutions containing propionic acid and Fe 3+ aq in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. Photolysis in the presence of O2 yields catalytic amounts of hydrocarbon products. When halide ions are present during photolysis; nearly quantitative yields of ethyl halides are produced via extraction of a halide atom from FeX2+ by ethyl radical. The rate constants for ethyl radical reactions with FeCl2+ (k = 4.0 (+/- 0.5) x 106 M-1s-1) and with FeBr 2+ (k = 3.0 (+/- 0.5) x 107 M-1s -1) were determined via competition reactions. Irradiation of solutions containing aqueous Cu2+ salts and linear carboxylic acids yield alpha

  17. Long-range electron transfer in porphyrin-containing [2]-rotaxanes: tuning the rate by metal cation coordination.

    Andersson, Mikael; Linke, Myriam; Chambron, Jean-Claude; Davidsson, Jan; Heitz, Valérie; Hammarström, Leif; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2002-04-24

    A series of [2]-rotaxanes has been synthesized in which two Zn(II)-porphyrins (ZnP) electron donors were attached as stoppers on the rod. A macrocycle attached to a Au(III)-porphyrin (AuP+) acceptor was threaded on the rod. By selective excitation of either porphyrin, we could induce an electron transfer from the ZnP to the AuP+ unit that generated the same ZnP*+-AuP* charge-transfer state irrespective of which porphyrin was excited. Although the reactants were linked only by mechanical or coordination bonds, electron-transfer rate constants up to 1.2x10(10) x s(-1) were obtained over a 15-17 A edge-to-edge distance between the porphyrins. The resulting charge-transfer state had a relatively long lifetime of 10-40 ns and was formed in high yield (>80%) in most cases. By a simple variation of the link between the reactants, viz. a coordination of the phenanthroline units on the rotaxane rod and ring by either Ag+ or Cu+, we could enhance the electron-transfer rate from the ZnP to the excited 3AuP+. We interpret our data in terms of an enhanced superexchange mechanism with Ag+ and a change to a stepwise hopping mechanism with Cu+, involving the oxidized Cu(phen)22+ unit as a real intermediate. When the ZnP unit was excited instead, electron transfer from the excited 1ZnP to AuP+ was not affected, or even slowed, by Ag+ or Cu+. We discuss this asymmetry in terms of the different orbitals involved in mediating the reaction in an electron- and a hole-transfer mechanism. Our results show the possibility to tune the rates of electron transfer between noncovalently linked reactants by a convenient modification of the link. The different effect of Ag+ and Cu+ on the rate with ZnP and AuP+ excitation shows an additional possibility to control the electron-transfer reactions by selective excitation. We also found that coordination of the Cu+ introduced an energy-transfer reaction from 1ZnP to Cu(phen)2+ (k = 5.1x10(9) x s(-1)) that proceeded in competition with electron

  18. Investigation of electronic band structure and charge transfer mechanism of oxidized three-dimensional graphene as metal-free anodes material for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Loeblein, Manuela; Bruno, Annalisa; Loh, G. C.; Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Antila, Liisa; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2017-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer an optimal trade-off between conversion-efficiency and low-cost fabrication. However, since all its electrodes need to fulfill stringent work-function requirements, its materials have remained unchanged since DSSC's first report early-90s. Here we describe a new material, oxidized-three-dimensional-graphene (o-3D-C), with a band gap of 0.2 eV and suitable electronic band-structure as alternative metal-free material for DSSCs-anodes. o-3D-C/dye-complex has a strong chemical bonding via carboxylic-group chemisorption with full saturation after 12 sec at capacity of ∼450 mg/g (600x faster and 7x higher than optimized metal surfaces). Furthermore, fluorescence quenching of life-time by 28-35% was measured demonstrating charge-transfer from dye to o-3D-C.

  19. Direct evidence of charge separation in a metal-organic framework: efficient and selective photocatalytic oxidative coupling of amines via charge and energy transfer.

    Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hang; Li, Dandan; Su, Ji-Hu; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-03-28

    The selective aerobic oxidative coupling of amines under mild conditions is an important laboratory and commercial procedure yet a great challenge. In this work, a porphyrinic metal-organic framework, PCN-222, was employed to catalyze the reaction. Upon visible light irradiation, the semiconductor-like behavior of PCN-222 initiates charge separation, evidently generating oxygen-centered active sites in Zr-oxo clusters indicated by enhanced porphyrin π-cation radical signals. The photogenerated electrons and holes further activate oxygen and amines, respectively, to give the corresponding redox products, both of which have been detected for the first time. The porphyrin motifs generate singlet oxygen based on energy transfer to further promote the reaction. As a result, PCN-222 exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity, selectivity and recyclability, far superior to its organic counterpart, for the reaction under ambient conditions via combined energy and charge transfer.

  20. Solubility and Standard Gibb's energies of transfer of alkali metal perchlorates, tetramethyl- and tetraethylammonium from water to aqua-acetone solvents

    Kireev, A.A.; Pak, T.G.; Bezuglyj, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Solubilities of KClO 4 , RbClO 4 , CsClO 4 , (CH 3 ) 4 NClO 4 , (C 2 M 5 ) 4 NClO 4 in water and water-acetone mixtures are determined by the method of isothermal saturation at 298.15 K. Dissociation constants of alkali metal perchlorates are found by conductometric method. Solubility products and standard Gibbs energies of transfer of corresponding electrolytes from water into water-acetone solvents are calculated. The character of transfer Gibbs energy dependence on solvent composition is explained by preferred solvation of cations by acetone molecules and anions-by water molecules. Features of tetraalkyl ammonium ions are explained by large changes in energy of cavity formation for these ions

  1. Effect of fluid-to-structure heat transfer on the structural damage potential to a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor

    Hakim, S.J.; Abramson, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    Deterministic calculations simulating a hypothetical accident in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor that leads to a hydrodynamic disassembly of the core have been carried out to estimate the system's damage potential due to the vapor-pressure-driven expansion of molten core material and its dependency on the heat transfer to the remaining structure. These calculations ignored the effect on the work potential of sodium left in the core during the disassembly. Results indicate that steel cladding in the upper axial blankets and fission gas plenum acts as a thermodynamic energy sink that could reduce the total thermodynamic work energy by between one and two orders of magnitude, provided little or no sodium is present in the core at the time of interaction. These results have been found to be insensitive to the rate of heat transferred from the molten fuel to the molten steel that comprises the molten core material

  2. Water Splitting over Epitaxially Grown InGaN Nanowires on-Metallic Titanium/Silicon Template: Reduced Interfacial Transfer Resistance and Improved Stability

    Ebaid, Mohamed

    2018-03-09

    Water splitting using InGaN-based photocatalysts may have a great contribution in future renewable energy production systems. Among the most important parameters to solve are those related to substrate lattice-matching compatibility. Here, we directly grow InGaN nanowires (NWs) on a metallic Ti/Si template, for improving water splitting performance compared to a bare Si substrate. The open circuit potential of the epitaxially grown InGaN NWs on metallic Ti was almost two times that of those grown on Si substrate. The interfacial transfer resistance was also reduced significantly after introducing the metallic Ti interlayer. An applied-bias-photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 2.2% and almost unity Faradic efficiency for hydrogen generation were achieved using this approach. The InGaN NWs grown on Ti showed improved stability of hydrogen generation under continuous operation conditions, when compared to those grown on Si, emphasizing the role of the semiconductor-on-metal approach in enhancing the overall efficiency of water splitting catalysts.

  3. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. III. Distribution and transference of /sup 115m/Cd in pregnant rat and fetus

    Omori, Y; Takanaka, A; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S; Urakubo, G [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1975-08-01

    Distribution of sup(115m)Cd in pregnant rat, transference to fetus and distribution in fetal organs were investigated by means of intraveneous injection of sup(115m)CdCl/sub 2/ solution to dam at 20th day after mating, dissection at 1 hr later and measurement of radioactivities. In the pregnant rat, the thickest accumulation of radioactivity in liver, and much thicker concentration in pancreas, pituitary, kidney and adrenal than in blood were found. Besides, 24.6% of dose remained in gastrointestinal tract. The transference of sup(115m)Cd to fetus was not so remarkable. Concerning the distribution of partially transfered metal in fetus, outstanding accumulation were observed in adrenal, spleen and testis, and secondly thicker concentrations were seen in liver and bone. The distribution pattern in fetus was not similar to that of dam, and rather thicker concentrations of sup(115m)Cd were observed in fetal spleen, bone, adrenal and brain, comparing with the corresponding organs of dam. In conclusion, cadmium introduced in dam body was transfered partially to fetus through placenta and was distributed in many parts of fetal body.

  4. Heat transfer enhancement for spent nuclear fuel assembly disposal packages using metallic void fillers: A prevention technique for solidification shrinkage-induced interfacial gaps

    Park, Yongsoo, E-mail: yspark@alum.mit.edu; McKrell, Thomas J.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2017-06-15

    This study considers replacing the externally accessible void spaces inside a disposal package containing a spent nuclear fuel assembly (SNFA) with high heat conducting metal to increase the effective thermal conductivity of the package and simplify the heat transfer mechanism inside the package by reducing it to a conduction dominant problem. The focus of the study is on preventing the gaps adjacent to the walls of the package components, produced by solidification shrinkage of poured liquid metal. We approached the problem by providing a temporary coating layer on the components to avoid direct build-up of thick metal oxides on their surface to promote metallic bonding at the interfaces under a non-inert environment. Laboratory scale experiments without SNFA were performed with Zn coated low carbon steel canisters and Zamak-3 void filler under two different filling temperature conditions – below and above the melting point of Zn (designated BMP and AMP respectively). Gap formation was successfully prevented in both cases while we confirmed an open gap in a control experiment, which used an uncoated canister. Minor growth of Al-Fe intermetallic phases was observed at the canister/filler interface of the sample produced under the BMP condition while their growth was significant and showed irregularly distributed morphology in the sample produced under the AMP condition, which has a potential to mitigate excessive residual stresses caused by shrinkage prevention. A procedure for the full-scale application was specified based on the results. - Highlights: •A void filling technique is introduced to enhance SNFA package heat transfer. •The technique is demonstrated via experiments using the Fe-Al-Zn system. •A procedure for the full scale application is proposed based on the results.

  5. Formation of Ag2, Au2 and AgAu particles on MgO(1 0 0): DFT study on the role of support-induced charge transfer in metal-metal interactions

    Fuente, Silvia A.; Belelli, Patricia G.; Branda, Maria M.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of Ag 2 , Au 2 and AgAu particles oriented perpendicularly to the MgO(1 0 0) surface was studied using the density functional theory. While the support induces a slight enhancement of the Ag-Ag bond (by 0.3-0.4 eV), the Au-Au bond is strongly enhanced (by 0.8-1.1 eV). Concerning the bimetallic particle, the Ag-Au bond stabilization depends on the relative position of each atom. Thus, in general terms, the strength of the metal-metal bond is determined by the nature of the terminal atom; the bond is stronger in Au-terminal particles. The partial electronic charge transfer to the terminal Au atom and its ability to polarize this charge are responsible for this energetic stabilization.

  6. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile.

    Oughton, Matthew T; Loo, Vivian G; Dendukuri, Nandini; Fenn, Susan; Libman, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate common hand hygiene methods for efficacy in removing Clostridium difficile. Randomized crossover comparison among 10 volunteers with hands experimentally contaminated by nontoxigenic C. difficile. Interventions included warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, warm water with antibacterial soap, antiseptic hand wipes, alcohol-based handrub, and a control involving no intervention. All interventions were evaluated for mean reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) under 2 contamination protocols: "whole hand" and "palmar surface." Results were analyzed according to a Bayesian approach, by using hierarchical models adjusted for multiple observations. Under the whole-hand protocol, the greatest adjusted mean reductions were achieved by warm water with plain soap (2.14 log(10) CFU/mL [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.74-2.54 log(10) CFU/mL]), cold water with plain soap (1.88 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.48-2.28 log(10) CFU/mL), and warm water with antibacterial soap (1.51 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.12-1.91 log(10) CFU/mL]), followed by antiseptic hand wipes (0.57 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 0.17-0.96 log(10) CFU/mL]). Alcohol-based handrub (0.06 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, -0.34 to 0.45 log(10) CFU/mL]) was equivalent to no intervention. Under the palmar surface protocol, warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, and warm water with antibacterial soap again yielded the greatest mean reductions, followed by antiseptic hand wipes (26.6, 26.6, 26.6, and 21.9 CFUs per plate, respectively), when compared with alcohol-based handrub. Hypothenar (odds ratio, 10.98 [95% CrI, 1.96-37.65]) and thenar (odds ratio, 6.99 [95% CrI, 1.25-23.41]) surfaces were more likely than fingertips to remain heavily contaminated after handwashing. Handwashing with soap and water showed the greatest efficacy in removing C. difficile and should be performed preferentially over the use of alcohol-based handrubs when contact with C. difficile is suspected or likely.

  7. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  8. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu{sup 3+} doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Heng, Chunning [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Hui, Junfeng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Deng, Fengjie, E-mail: fengjiedeng@aliyun.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and The Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surface modification of HAp nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free SI-ATRP. • HAp-polyPEGMA displayed high water dispersibility, good biocompatibility and biological imaging capability. • Metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts of conventional ATRP. - Abstract: The Eu{sup 3+} doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface

  9. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu"3"+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Heng, Chunning; Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Hui, Junfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modification of HAp nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free SI-ATRP. • HAp-polyPEGMA displayed high water dispersibility, good biocompatibility and biological imaging capability. • Metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts of conventional ATRP. - Abstract: The Eu"3"+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu"3"+ doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated

  10. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults.

    Roekenes, Jessica; Strømmen, Magnus; Kulseng, Bård; Martins, Catia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in morbidly obese adults. 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF)) was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®), before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact). Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®). Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); p interquartile range 9.1) vs. 50.0 (interquartile range 7.9); NS) or use of wipes (49.6 (interquartile range 8.5) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); NS). No differences in %BF were found between BIA and ADP (49.1 (IQR: 8.9) vs. 49.3 (IQR: 9.1); NS). Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Heng, Chunning; Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Hui, Junfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    The Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu3+ doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated ATRP. As compared with the traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts such as copper ions. More importantly, the strategy described in this work should also be utilized for fabrications of many other luminescent polymer nanocomposites due to its good monomer adoptability.

  12. Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol: Computational Study of the Hydrogen Transfer on Lewis Acidic BEA Zeolites and Effects of Cation Exchange and Tetravalent Metal Substitution.

    Prasertsab, Anittha; Maihom, Thana; Probst, Michael; Wattanakit, Chularat; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2018-06-04

    The hydrogen transfer of furfural to furfuryl alcohol with i-propanol as the hydrogen source over cation-exchanged Lewis acidic BEA zeolite has been investigated by means of density functional calculations. The reaction proceeds in three steps. First the O-H bond of i-propanol is broken to form a propoxide intermediate. After that, the furylmethoxy intermediate is formed via hydrogen transfer process, and finally furylmethoxy abstracts the proton to form the furfuryl alcohol product. The second step is rate-determining by requiring the highest activation energy (23.8 kcal/mol) if the reaction takes place on Li-Sn-BEA zeolite. We find that the catalytic activity of various cation-exchanged Sn-BEA zeolites is in the order Li-Sn-BEA > Na-Sn-BEA > K-Sn-BEA. The lower activation energy for Li-Sn-BEA compared to Na-Sn-BEA and K-Sn-BEA can be explained by the larger charge transfer from the carbonyl bond to the catalyst, leading to its activation and to the attraction of the hydrogen being transferred. The larger charge transfer in turn is due to the smaller gap between the energies of furfural HOMO and the zeolite LUMO in Li-Sn-BEA, compared to both Na-Sn-BEA and K-Sn-BEA. In a similar way, we also compare the catalytic activity of tetravalent metal centers (Sn, Zr, and Hf) substituted into BEA and find in the order Zr ≥ Hf > Sn, based on activation energies. Finally we investigate statistically which property of the reactants is a suitable descriptor for an approximative prediction of the reaction rate in order to be able to quickly screen promising catalytic materials for this reaction.

  13. Freezing hot electrons. Electron transfer and solvation dynamics at D{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3}-metal interfaces

    Staehler, A.J.

    2007-05-15

    The present work investigates the electron transfer and solvation dynamics at the D{sub 2}O/Cu(111), D{sub 2}O/Ru(001), and NH{sub 3}/Cu(111) interfaces using femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy. Within this framework, the influence of the substrate, adsorbate structure and morphology, solvation site, coverage, temperature, and solvent on the electron dynamics are studied, yielding microscopic insight into the underlying fundamental processes. Transitions between different regimes of ET, substrate-dominated, barrier-determined, strong, and weak coupling are observed by systematic variation of the interfacial properties and development of empirical model descriptions. It is shown that the fundamental steps of the interfacial electron dynamics are similar for all investigated systems: Metal electrons are photoexcited to unoccupied metal states and transferred into the adlayer via the adsorbate's conduction band. The electrons localize at favorable sites and are stabilized by reorientations of the surrounding polar solvent molecules. Concurrently, they decay back two the metal substrate, as it offers a continuum of unoccupied states. However, the detailed characteristics vary for the different investigated interfaces: For amorphous ice-metal interfaces, the electron transfer is initially, right after photoinjection, dominated by the substrate's electronic surface band structure. With increasing solvation, a transient barrier evolves at the interface that increasingly screens the electrons from the substrate. Tunneling through this barrier becomes the rate-limiting step for ET. The competition of electron decay and solvation leads to lifetimes of the solvated electrons in the order of 100 fs. Furthermore, it is shown that the electrons bind in the bulk of the ice layers, but on the edges of adsorbed D{sub 2}O clusters and that the ice morphology strongly influences the electron dynamics. For the amorphous NH{sub 3}/Cu(111

  14. Reducing health care-associated infections by implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors.

    Wong, Swee Siang; Huang, Cheng Hua; Yang, Chiu Chu; Hsieh, Yi Pei; Kuo, Chen Ni; Chen, Yi Ru; Chen, Li Ching

    2018-01-01

    Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas. Fifteen high-touch surfaces were selected for cleanliness evaluation by using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Then data regarding HAI densities in the MICU were collected during the baseline, intervention, and late periods. A total of 120 ATP readings were obtained. The total number of clean high-touch surfaces increased from 13% to 53%, whereas that of unclean high-touch surface decreased from 47% to 20%. The densities of HAI were 14.32‰ and 14.90‰ during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. The HAI density did not decrease after the intervention period, but it decreased to 9.07‰ during the late period. Implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors effectively improves cleanliness in MICU environments. However, no decrease in HAI density was observed within the study period. Considering that achieving high levels of hand-hygiene adherence is difficult, improving environmental cleaning is a crucial adjunctive measure for reducing the incidence of HAIs.

  15. Transfer of metals and metalloids from soil to shoots in wild rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) growing on a former lead smelter site: human exposure risk.

    Affholder, Marie-Cécile; Prudent, Pascale; Masotti, Véronique; Coulomb, Bruno; Rabier, Jacques; Nguyen-The, Bénédicte; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at estimating exposition risks to wild rosemary used as herbs in the contaminated area of the former smelting factory of L'Escalette (South of Marseille, France). Metals and metalloids i.e. Pb, As, Sb, Zn, and Cu concentrations were analyzed in soils and in rosemary aerial parts (stems and leaves) on two sites: one heavily contaminated and the other far away from the pollution source, considered as reference. The metal and metalloid transfer into water during the brewing process of herbal tea was also determined. A mixed contamination by the above-cited contaminants was demonstrated in soils of the factory site, with average concentrations of 9253, 1127, 309, 2698 and 32 mg/kg for Pb, As, Sb, Zn and Cu, respectively. However, metals and metalloids' transfer in rosemary aerial parts was limited, as bioaccumulation factors were under 1. Thus, Pb, As and Cu concentrations in leaves were below international regulation limits concerning ingestion of medicinal herbs (no regulation values available for Sb and Zn). This study highlighted that, if contaminated rosemary leaves were ingested, health risks may be limited since acceptable daily intake (ADI) for Pb, As, Sb and Cu (no ADI value available for Zn) will only be reached if very high quantities are consumed. Furthermore, we aimed to establish if this mixed contamination could alter rosemary's essential oil quality, and thereby the compositions of essential oils obtained from individuals on the heavily contaminated soil were compared to those obtained from the reference population. An increased biosynthesis of antioxidant compounds was favored in essential oils from rosemary individuals growing in contaminated site. Although the health risk of a long-term exposition of low level of the mixed contamination by rosemary ingestion is not easy to elucidate, the use of rosemary essential oils from contaminated site appears as safe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil-plant transfer models for metals to improve soil screening value guidelines valid for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Dos Santos-Araujo, Sabrina N; Swartjes, Frank A; Versluijs, Kees W; Moreno, Fabio Netto; Alleoni, Luís R F

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of combined soil-plant data attempting to explain the influence of specific climate, soil conditions, and crop management on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by plants. As a consequence, soil-plant relationships to be used in risk assessments or for derivation of soil

  17. Survey of studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige

    1980-01-01

    Brief review of the studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field is presented. R.J. Thome measured the distribution of void rate, slip ratio and pressure loss for the two-phase flow of NaK-N 2 under vertical magnetic field. The void rate distribution became even and the slip ratio increased with the increasing magnetic field. The experimental results of pressure loss was compared with the calculation by an equation derived from the homogeneous flow model. R.G. Owen et al. made the analytical studies of the MHD friction loss of two phase flow. Michiyoshi et al. made experimental studies on the hydrodynamic local properties of Hg-Ar two-phase flow of slug region in a vertically ascending tube under magnetic field, and Kimi et al. also made studies on the heat transfer of Hg-Ar flow under magnetic field. Saito et al. measured the slip ratio and pressure loss of NaK-N 2 flow. As a whole, it can be said that the average void rate decreases, and its distribution becomes even under magnetic field. The slip ratio increases, and the friction loss factor becomes nearly one. It was hard to make clear the heat transfer characteristics. (Kato, T.)

  18. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Zupančič, Matevž, E-mail: matevz.zupancic@fs.uni-lj.si; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surfaces with periodically changed wettability were produced by a ns marking laser. • Heat transfer was investigated on uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces. • Microporous surfaces with non-uniform wettability enhance boiling heat transfer. • The most bubble nucleations were observed in the vicinity of the microcavities. • Results agree with the predictions of the nucleation criteria. - Abstract: Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20–40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.

  20. Modeling of charge-transfer transitions and excited states in d6 transition metal complexes by DFT techniques

    Vlček, Antonín; Záliš, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 251, 3-4 (2007), s. 258-287 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC068; GA MŠk OC 139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : charge-transfer transition * DFT technique * excited states * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 8.568, year: 2007

  1. Long-range corrected DFT calculations of charge-transfer integrals in model metal-free phthalocyanine complexes

    Mikolajczyk, M. M.; Zalesny, R.; Czyznikowska, Z.; Toman, Petr; Leszczynski, J.; Bartkowiak, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2011), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280; GA MŠk MEB051010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : charge-transfer integral * density functional theory * long-range corrected functionals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.797, year: 2011

  2. Soil-plant transfer models for metals to improve soil screening value guidelines valid for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Dos Santos-Araujo, Sabrina N; Swartjes, Frank A; Versluijs, Kees W; Moreno, Fabio Netto; Alleoni, Luís R F

    2017-11-07

    In Brazil, there is a lack of combined soil-plant data attempting to explain the influence of specific climate, soil conditions, and crop management on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by plants. As a consequence, soil-plant relationships to be used in risk assessments or for derivation of soil screening values are not available. Our objective in this study was to develop empirical soil-plant models for Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn, in order to derive appropriate soil screening values representative of humid tropical regions such as the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Soil and plant samples from 25 vegetable species in the production areas of SP were collected. The concentrations of metals found in these soil samples were relatively low. Therefore, data from temperate regions were included in our study. The soil-plant relations derived had a good performance for SP conditions for 8 out of 10 combinations of metal and vegetable species. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in lettuce and for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in carrot were determined under three exposure scenarios at pH 5 and 6. The application of soil-plant models and the BCFs proposed in this study can be an important tool to derive national soil quality criteria. However, this methodological approach includes data assessed under different climatic conditions and soil types and need to be carefully considered.

  3. Demonstration/Validation of Tertiary Butyl Acetate (TBAC) for Hand Wipe Cleaning Applications

    2010-10-01

    Visual Inspection Pass Materials Compatibility - Metals Total Immersion Corrosion – none Material Mg (AZ 31B-H24, SAE AMS...plated steel (ASTM A 153) Carbon steel (ASTM A 36) 4140 alloy steel (ASTM A 29) Al (6061, ASTM B 209...constructed from clad aluminum alloy 2024 (T3 temper) conforming to SAE -AMS-QQ-A-250/5, with dimensions of 6 by 3 by 0.025 inch (150 by 76 by 0.6 mm

  4. Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals.

    Wesner, Jeff S; Walters, David M; Schmidt, Travis S; Kraus, Johanna M; Stricker, Craig A; Clements, William H; Wolf, Ruth E

    2017-02-21

    Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 μg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex. Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased δ 15 N by ∼0.8‰, but not δ 13 C. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased δ 15 N signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

  5. A simple and quick model to study uptake and transfer of radionuclides and heavy metals from mycelium to the fruitbody of saprophytic edible fungi

    Manjon, J.L.; Urban, P.L.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model of Pleurotus eryngii mushroom culture, grown under stringent laboratory conditions, was developed to watch ecophysiological pathways of xenobiotics in saprophytic fungi. The investigated substances may be added in different stages of biological cycle of the fungus. It is emphasized that to obtain the fruitbodies, all the physiological needs of the species have to be fulfilled, i.e.: nutritional requirements, optimal temperature (according to the biological cycle), humidity, aeration (oxygen and CO 2 ), absence or presence of the light in each reproduction phase, as well as the control of infections and plaques through all the production stages. The described model serves for investigation of radionuclide and heavy metal uptake and transfer in fungi. Double and some multiple fructification from the same substrate is possible giving a possibility to investigate bioremediation by mycoextraction. (author)

  6. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions

    Carraher, Jack McCaslin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species like high-valent metal-oxo complexes and carbon and oxygen centered radicals are important intermediates in enzymatic systems, atmospheric chemistry, and industrial processes. Understanding the pathways by which these intermediates form, their relative reactivity, and their fate after reactions is of the utmost importance. Herein are described the mechanistic detail for the generation of several reactive intermediates, synthesis of precursors, characterization of precursors, and methods to direct the chemistry to more desirable outcomes yielding ‘greener’ sources of commodity chemicals and fuels.

  7. Photochemically engineering the metal-semiconductor interface for room-temperature transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes with formic acid.

    Li, Xin-Hao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Gong, Ling-Hong; Fu, Wei; Wang, Kai-Xue; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wei, Xiao; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2014-12-08

    A mild photochemical approach was applied to construct highly coupled metal-semiconductor dyads, which were found to efficiently facilitate the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. Aniline was produced in excellent yield (>99 %, TOF: 1183) using formic acid as hydrogen source and water as solvent at room temperature. This general and green catalytic process is applicable to a wide range of nitroarenes without the involvement of high-pressure gases or sacrificial additives. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Dynamical simulation of electron transfer processes in self-assembled monolayers at metal surfaces using a density matrix approach

    Prucker, V.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.; Coto, P. B.

    2018-03-01

    A single-particle density matrix approach is introduced to simulate the dynamics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) processes at interfaces. The characterization of the systems is based on a model Hamiltonian parametrized by electronic structure calculations and a partitioning method. The method is applied to investigate ET in a series of nitrile-substituted (poly)(p-phenylene)thiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed at the Au(111) surface. The results show a significant dependence of the ET on the orbital symmetry of the donor state and on the molecular and electronic structure of the spacer.

  9. Dynamical simulation of electron transfer processes in self-assembled monolayers at metal surfaces using a density matrix approach.

    Prucker, V; Bockstedte, M; Thoss, M; Coto, P B

    2018-03-28

    A single-particle density matrix approach is introduced to simulate the dynamics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) processes at interfaces. The characterization of the systems is based on a model Hamiltonian parametrized by electronic structure calculations and a partitioning method. The method is applied to investigate ET in a series of nitrile-substituted (poly)(p-phenylene)thiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed at the Au(111) surface. The results show a significant dependence of the ET on the orbital symmetry of the donor state and on the molecular and electronic structure of the spacer.

  10. Photoinduced charge transfer in a transition metal complex investigated by time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Setup and experiment

    Goeries, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of this thesis the development of a time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment and its application to fac-Ir(ppy) 3 is described. Such experiments require a very stable setup in terms of spatial and temporal accuracy. Therefore, the stability properties of the present installation were investigated in detail and continuously improved, in particular the synchronization of the ultrashort pulse laser system to the storage ring as well as the spatial stability of both X-ray and laser beam. Experiments utilizing the laser pump and X-ray probe configuration were applied on the green phosphorescence emitter complex fac-Ir(ppy) 3 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Structural and electronic changes were triggered by photoexcitation of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band with ultrashort laser pulses at a wavelength of 343 nm. The excited triplet state spectrum was extracted from the measured pump-probe X-ray absorption spectrum using an ionic approximation. The results con rm the anticipated metal-to-ligand charge transfer as shown by an ionization potential shift of the iridium atom. The symmetry of the complex was found to be pseudo-octahedral. This allowed the first experimental determination of the bond length of fac-Ir(ppy) 3 in an octahedral approximation and revealed a decrease of bond length of the first coordination shell in the triplet state. The first and second-order decay kinetics of the triplet state were investigated in a combination of X-ray and laser based experiments and revealed self-quenching as well as triplet-triplet annihilation rate constants.

  11. Purification of liquid products of cotton wipes biotransformation with the aid of Trichoderma viridae in orbital flight

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis

    Recovery of various organic wastes in space flight is an actual problem of modern astronautics and future interplanetary missions. Currently, organic waste are incinerated in the dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere in cargo containers. However, this method of anthropogenic waste treatment is not environmentally compatible with future interplanetary missions, and is not suitable due to planetary quarantine requirements. Furthermore, the maintaining of a closed ecosystem in spaceship is considered as one of the main ways of ensuring the food and air crew in the long term fully autonomous space expedition. Such isolated ecosystem is not conceivable without biotransformation of organic waste. In this regard, currently new ways of recycling organic waste are currently developed. The most promising method is a method for processing organic waste using thermophilic anaerobic microbial communities.However, the products of anaerobic fermentation of solid organic materials contain significant amounts of organic impurities, which often give them sour pH. This presents a significant problem because it does not allow to use this fluid as process water without pretreatment. Fermentation products - alcohols, volatile fatty acids other carbonaceous substances must be withdrawn.One way to solve this problem may be the use of microorganisms biodestructors for recycling organic impurities in the products of anaerobic biodegradation Under the proposed approach, the metabolic products (having acidic pH) of primary biotransformation of solid organic materials are used as media for the cultivation of fungi. Thus, cellulosic wastes are recycled in two successive stages. The aim of this work was to test the effectiveness of post-treatment liquid products of biodegradation of hygienic cotton wipes (common type of waste on the ISS) by the fungus Trichoderma viridae under orbital flight. The study was conducted onboard biosatellite Bion -M1, where was placed a bioreactor, designed to carry

  12. Quantum size effects on spin-transfer torque in a double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (semiconductor) spacer

    Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.

  13. Quantum size effects on spin-transfer torque in a double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (semiconductor) spacer

    Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader

    2016-07-15

    We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.

  14. DFT Study of Binding and Electron Transfer from a Metal-Free Dye with Carboxyl, Hydroxyl, and Sulfonic Anchors to a Titanium Dioxide Nanocluster

    Corneliu I. Oprea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of density functional theory (DFT calculations of a metal-free dye, 5-(4-sulfophenylazosalicylic acid disodium salt, known as Mordant Yellow 10 (MY-10, used as sensitizer for TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dyes adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we studied various single and double deprotonated forms of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster, taking advantage of the presence of the carboxyl, hydroxyl, and sulfonic groups as possible anchors. We discuss various binding configurations to the TiO2 substrate and the charge transfer from the pigment to the oxide by means of DFT calculations. In agreement with other reports, we find that the carboxyl group tends to bind in bidentate bridging configurations. The salicylate uses both the carboxyl and hydroxyl substituent groups for either a tridentate binding to adjacent Ti(IV ions or a bidentate Ti-O binding together with an O-H-O binding, due to the rotation of the carboxyl group out of the plane of the dye. The sulfonic group prefers a tridentate binding. We analyze the propensity for electron transfer of the various dyes and find that for MY-10, as a function of the anchor group, the DSSC performance decreases in the order hydroxyl + carboxyl > carboxyl > sulfonate.

  15. Probing charge transfer during metal-insulator transitions in graphene-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 systems

    Aliaj, I.; Sambri, A.; Miseikis, V.; Stornaiuolo, D.; di Gennaro, E.; Coletti, C.; Pellegrini, V.; Miletto Granozio, F.; Roddaro, S.

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) at the interface between LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) perovskite oxides display a wide class of tunable phenomena ranging from superconductivity to metal-insulator transitions. Most of these effects are strongly sensitive to surface physics and often involve charge transfer mechanisms, which are, however, hard to detect. In this work, we realize hybrid field-effect devices where graphene is used to modulate the transport properties of the LAO/STO 2DES. Different from a conventional gate, graphene is semimetallic and allows us to probe charge transfer with the oxide structure underneath the field-effect electrode. In LAO/STO samples with a low initial carrier density, graphene-covered regions turn insulating when the temperature is lowered to 3 K, but conduction can be restored in the oxide structure by increasing the temperature or by field effect. The evolution of graphene's electron density is found to be inconsistent with a depletion of LAO/STO, but it rather points to a localization of interfacial carriers in the oxide structure.

  16. Final Scientific Report: Bacterial Nanowires and Extracellular Electron Transfer to Heavy Metals and Radionuclides by Bacterial Isolates from DOE Field Research Centers

    Nealson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This proposal involved the study of bacteria capable of transferring electrons from the bacterial cells to electron acceptors located outside the cell. These could be either insoluble minerals that were transformed into soluble products upon the addition of electrons, or they could be soluble salts like uranium or chromium, that become insoluble upon the addition of electrons. This process is called extracellular electron transport or EET, and can be done directly by cellular contact, or via conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires. In this work we examined a number of different bacteria for their ability to perform EET, and also looked at their ability to produce conductive nanowires that can be used for EET at a distance away from the EET-capable cells. In the work, new bacteria were isolated, new abilities of EET were examined, and many new methods were developed, and carefully described in the literature. These studies set the stage for future work dealing with the bioremediation of toxic metals like uranium and chromium. They also point out that EET (and conductive nanowires) are far more common that had been appreciated, and may be involved with energy transfer not only in sediments, but in symbioses between different bacteria, and in symbiosis/pathogenesis between bacteria and higher organisms.

  17. Final Scientific Report: Bacterial Nanowires and Extracellular Electron Transfer to Heavy Metals and Radionuclides by Bacterial Isolates from DOE Field Research Centers

    Nealson, Kenneth [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This proposal involved the study of bacteria capable of transferring electrons from the bacterial cells to electron acceptors located outside the cell. These could be either insoluble minerals that were transformed into soluble products upon the addition of electrons, or they could be soluble salts like uranium or chromium, that become insoluble upon the addition of electrons. This process is called extracellular electron transport or EET, and can be done directly by cellular contact, or via conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires. In this work we examined a number of different bacteria for their ability to perform EET, and also looked at their ability to produce conductive nanowires that can be used for EET at a distance away from the EET-capable cells. In the work, new bacteria were isolated, new abilities of EET were examined, and many new methods were developed, and carefully described in the literature. These studies set the stage for future work dealing with the bioremediation of toxic metals like uranium and chromium. They also point out that EET (and conductive nanowires) are far more common that had been appreciated, and may be involved with energy transfer not only in sediments, but in symbioses between different bacteria, and in symbiosis/pathogenesis between bacteria and higher organisms.

  18. Transferência de calor aplicada à prototipagem rápida por deposição de metal em camadas sucessivas utilizando soldagem 3D

    Felipe Ferreira Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo dos fenômenos de transferência de calor no processo de prototipagem rápida por deposição de metal em camadas sucessivas utilizando soldagem a arco, também chamada de soldagem 3D (3D Welding. O objetivo é desenvolver um modelo simplificado e compreender o processo de transferência de calor e suas relações com os parâmetros de soldagem, de modo a se possibilitar um controle dos ciclos térmicos a que estará sujeito o material depositado. Desenvolveu-se um modelo físico-matemático para a transferência de calor durante o processo de soldagem, o qual é resolvido numericamente pelo método das diferenças finitas, permitindo a simulação de situações típicas desse tipo de processo de fabricação. O modelo numérico desenvolvido foi validado por meio da simulação de casos específicos para os quais se conhecem soluções analíticas. A partir das equações do modelo, definiram-se parâmetros adimensionais, dentre os quais pode-se citar o grupo adimensional π1, relacionado principalmente à velocidade de soldagem. Realizaram-se alguns experimentos numéricos observando a influência desse grupo nas temperaturas máximas, médias e nas amplitudes dos ciclos térmicos que a peça está sujeita.

  19. Wiping frictional properties of electrospun hydrophobic/hydrophilic polyurethane nanofiber-webs on soda-lime glass and silicon-wafer.

    Watanabe, Kei; Wei, Kai; Nakashima, Ryu; Kim, Ick Soo; Enomoto, Yuji

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, we conducted the frictional tests of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polyurethane (PUo and PUi) nanofiber webs against engineering materials; soda-lime glass and silicon wafer. PUi/glass combination, with highest hydrophilicity, showed the highest friction coefficient which decrease with the increase of the applied load. Furthermore, the effects of fluorine coating are also investigated. The friction coefficient of fluorine coated hydrophobic PU nanofiber (PUof) shows great decrease against the silicon wafer. Finally, wiping ability and friction property are investigated when the substrate surface is contaminated. Nano-particle dusts are effectively collected into the pores by wiping with PUo and PUi nanofiber webs both on glass and silicon wafer. The friction coefficient gradually increased with the increase of the applied load.

  20. Transfer-less flexible and transparent high-κ/metal gate germanium devices on bulk silicon (100)

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Flexible wearable electronics have been of great interest lately for the development of innovative future technology for various interactive applications in the field of consumer electronics and advanced healthcare, offering the promise of low-cost, lightweight, and multifunctionality. In the pursuit of this trend, high mobility channel materials need to be investigated on a flexible platform, for the development of flexible high performance devices. Germanium (Ge) is one of the most attractive alternatives for silicon (Si) for high-speed computational applications, due its higher hole and electron mobility. Thus, in this work we show a cost effective CMOS compatible process for transforming conventional rigid Ge metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPS) into a mechanically flexible and semi-transparent platform. Devices exhibit outstanding bendability with a bending radius of 0.24 cm, and semi-transparency up to 30 %, varying with respect to the diameter size of the release holes array.

  1. Transfer-less flexible and transparent high-κ/metal gate germanium devices on bulk silicon (100)

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible wearable electronics have been of great interest lately for the development of innovative future technology for various interactive applications in the field of consumer electronics and advanced healthcare, offering the promise of low-cost, lightweight, and multifunctionality. In the pursuit of this trend, high mobility channel materials need to be investigated on a flexible platform, for the development of flexible high performance devices. Germanium (Ge) is one of the most attractive alternatives for silicon (Si) for high-speed computational applications, due its higher hole and electron mobility. Thus, in this work we show a cost effective CMOS compatible process for transforming conventional rigid Ge metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPS) into a mechanically flexible and semi-transparent platform. Devices exhibit outstanding bendability with a bending radius of 0.24 cm, and semi-transparency up to 30 %, varying with respect to the diameter size of the release holes array.

  2. Liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant with direct heat transfer from the primary coolant to the working medium

    Hahn, G.

    1974-01-01

    The cooling systems of the sodium-cooled reactor are entirely inside a containment. The heat transfer from the primary to the secondary coolant - i.e. water - is done in heat exchangers with three-layer tubes. As there is no component cooling heat exchanger, it is advantageous that the layers that are in touch with the primary coolant form part of the wall of the containment. An emergency cooling system inside the containment is also made of three-layer tubes. The tubes of the primary loops have the shape of loops, helices, and spirals surrounding the reactor tank or a biological shield. Between the tubes and the safety wall there are maintenance areas which are accessible from the outside. The three-layer construction prevents a reaction of leaked-out or evaporated sodium with the secondary coolant. (DG) [de

  3. Unusual metal-ligand charge transfer in ferrocene functionalized μ3-O iron carboxylates observed with Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Mereacre, Valeriu; Schlageter, Martin; Eichhöfer, Andreas; Bauer, Thomas; Wolny, Juliusz A.; Schünemann, Volker; Powell, Annie K.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependent Mössbauer studies of two ferrocenecarboxylate functionalized {Fe 3 O} complexes in solid state are reported. It was found that conjugation of ferrocene ring orbitals with the π orbitals of the adjacent carboxylic group promotes a shift of electron density from the ferrocene Fe II ion to the cyclopentadienide rings with π-orbital character giving rise to a new type of mixed-valence compound. - Highlights: • In this manuscript we describe a mechanism of electron density shift which stabilizes the trapped mixed-valence state. • The coexistence of ferrocene and ferrocenium in solid state was determined. • A mixed-valence state at room-temperature and a thermally induced electron transfer with gradual interconversion were observed.

  4. Analysis of alcohol-based hand sanitizer delivery systems: efficacy of foam, gel, and wipes against influenza A (H1N1) virus on hands.

    Larson, Elaine L; Cohen, Bevin; Baxter, Kathleen A

    2012-11-01

    Minimal research has been published evaluating the effectiveness of hand hygiene delivery systems (ie, rubs, foams, or wipes) at removing viruses from hands. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of several alcohol-based hand sanitizers in removing influenza A (H1N1) virus, and to compare the effectiveness of foam, gel, and hand wipe products. Hands of 30 volunteers were inoculated with H1N1 and randomized to treatment with foam, gel, or hand wipe applied to half of each volunteer's finger pads. The log(10) count of each subject's treated and untreated finger pads were averaged. Log(10) reductions were calculated from these differences and averaged within treatment group. Between-treatment analysis compared changes from the untreated finger pads using analysis of covariance with treatment as a factor and the average log(10) untreated finger pads as the covariate. Log(10) counts on control finger pads were 2.7-5.3 log(10) of the 50% infectious dose for tissue culture (TCID(50)/0.1 mL) (mean, 3.8 ± 0.5 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), and treated finger pad counts for all test products were 0.5-1.9 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL (mean, 0.53 ± 0.17 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL). Treatments with all products resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers (>3 logs) at their respective exposure times that were statistically comparable. All 3 delivery systems (foam, gel, and wipe) produced significantly reduced viral counts on hands. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contamination monitoring of Na 131 I levels in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences by indirect method (Wipe test)

    Beiki, D.; Shahhosseini, S.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Fard-Esfahani, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination with radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine centres in addition to being a health concern requires time consuming decontamination efforts. According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Contamination should be monitored in nuclear medicine centers where radiopharmaceuticals are prepared and administrated at the end of each working session; otherwise, contamination spread to other areas not only equipment but also personnel and other people will be expected. The wipe test for the presence of radioactivity is accomplished by wiping the surface over an area approximately 100 cm 2 with an absorbent paper, then counting it in an appropriate radiation detector. In this study, contamination monitoring of patient's rooms (4 rooms), entrance corridor, patient's corridor, waiting room, control room (nursing station), radiopharmaceutical storage room in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati hospital was performed by indirect method. Based on the results, some areas including storage room were contaminated. There was also a direct relationship between dose administrated and levels of contamination in patient's rooms. Regarding high uptake of iodine by thyroid gland and damaging effects of Na 131 I, weekly wipe tests are required to determine the level of contamination. Patient's rooms after discharging the patients and before re hospitalization specially should be checked. If these tests reveal contamination over standard levels, appropriate decontamination procedures should be carried out immediately

  6. Detection of Nonvolatile Inorganic Oxidizer-Based Explosives from Wipe Collections by Infrared Thermal Desorption-Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.

    Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward; Staymates, Matthew

    2018-05-07

    Infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) was coupled with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the detection of both inorganic and organic explosives from wipe collected samples. This platform generated discrete and rapid heating rates that allowed volatile and semivolatile organic explosives to thermally desorb at relatively lower temperatures, while still achieving elevated temperatures required to desorb nonvolatile inorganic oxidizer-based explosives. IRTD-DART-MS demonstrated the thermal desorption and detection of refractory potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate oxidizers, compounds difficult to desorb with traditional moderate-temperature resistance-based thermal desorbers. Nanogram to sub-nanogram sensitivities were established for analysis of a range of organic and inorganic oxidizer-based explosive compounds, with further enhancement limited by the thermal properties of the most common commercial wipe materials. Detailed investigations and high-speed visualization revealed conduction from the heated glass-mica base plate as the dominant process for heating of the wipe and analyte materials, resulting in thermal desorption through boiling, aerosolization, and vaporization of samples. The thermal desorption and ionization characteristics of the IRTD-DART technique resulted in optimal sensitivity for the formation of nitrate adducts with both organic and inorganic species. The IRTD-DART-MS coupling and IRTD in general offer promising explosive detection capabilities to the defense, security, and law enforcement arenas.

  7. Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools.

    Persson, Josefin; Wang, Thanh; Hagberg, Jessika

    2018-07-01

    The construction of extremely airtight and energy efficient low-energy buildings is achieved by using functional building materials, such as age-resistant plastics, insulation, adhesives, and sealants. Additives such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) can be added to some of these building materials as flame retardants and plasticizers. Some OPFRs are considered persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Therefore, in this pilot study, the occurrence and distribution of nine OPFRs were determined for dust, air, and window wipe samples collected in newly built low-energy preschools with and without environmental certifications. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were detected in all indoor dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.014 to 10μg/g and 0.0069 to 79μg/g, respectively. Only six OPFRs (predominantly chlorinated OPFRs) were detected in the indoor air. All nine OPFRs were found on the window surfaces and the highest concentrations, which occurred in the reference preschool, were measured for 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) (maximum concentration: 1500ng/m 2 ). Interestingly, the OPFR levels in the environmental certified low-energy preschools were lower than those in the reference preschool and the non-certified low-energy preschool, probably attributed to the usage of environmental friendly and low-emitting building materials, interior decorations, and consumer products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Progressive Product Innovation on Key Environmental Indicators: Pampers® Baby Wipes from 2007–2013

    Gert Van Hoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007 and new (2013 version of a common hygiene product in Europe and the U.S. The standard methodology follows the ISO 14040/44 Guidelines for LCA. Results are reported for the impact indicators with high relevance for the product category: primary energy, global warming, particulates, agricultural land occupation, fossil fuel depletion, and solid waste generation. Generally, raw material supply chains for product and packaging contribute most (up to 82% to the calculated environmental impact indicators. Improvements vs. the 2007 baby wipe range between 4% and 14% in Europe and between 15% and 36% in the U.S. The improvement is driven by a new substrate technology that provides more surface area for cleaning, which results in lower use of resources. This case study illustrates three key environmental drivers behind this innovation: the corporate focus on R&D capability to design for environmentally improved products, the increased interest from retailers and consumers requiring accurate and relevant information on the performance and sustainability of products, and the company’s interest in deeper technical understanding of contributions from upstream material and process innovations on a product’s environmental profile.

  9. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  10. Functional Design of Dielectric-Metal-Dielectric-Based Thin-Film Encapsulation with Heat Transfer and Flexibility for Flexible Displays.

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Seungyeop; Jeon, Yongmin; Kim, Hyuncheol; Chang, Ki Soo; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-08-16

    In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, which are considered to be essential requirements for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al 2 O 3 , Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10 -6 g/m 2 /day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm, corresponding to 0.41% strain for 1000 bending cycles. The electrical performance of a thin-film encapsulated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) was identical to that of a glass-lid encapsulated PHOLED. The operational lifetimes of the thin-film encapsulated and glass-lid encapsulated PHOLEDs are 832 and 754 h, respectively. After 80 days, the thin-film encapsulated PHOLED did not show performance degradation or dark spots on the cell image in a shelf-lifetime test. Finally, the difference in lifetime of the OLED devices in relation to the presence and thickness of a Ag film was analyzed by applying various TFE structures to fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) that could generate high amounts of heat. To demonstrate the difference in heat dissipation effect among the TFE structures, the saturated temperatures of the encapsulated FOLEDs were measured from the back side surface of the glass substrate, and were found to be 67.78, 65.12, 60.44, and 39.67 °C after all encapsulated FOLEDs were operated at an initial luminance of 10 000 cd/m 2 for sufficient heat generation. Furthermore, the operational lifetime tests of the encapsulated FOLED devices showed results that were consistent with the measurements of real-time temperature profiles taken with an infrared camera. A multifunctional hybrid thin-film encapsulation

  11. Computational study of heat transfer from the inner surface of a circular tube to force high temperature liquid metal flow in laminar and transition regions

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    transfer. The general correlation in the laminar and turbulent regions for a high temperature liquid metal was identified for the circular tube with a hydraulic diameter.

  12. Metal Flow in Friction Stir Welding

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The plastic deformation field in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is compared to that in metal cutting. A shear surface around the FSW tool analogous to the metal cutting shear plane is identified and comprises the basis of the "rotating plug" flow field model and the "wiping" model of tool interaction with weld metal. Within the context of these models: The FSW shear rate is estimated to be comparable to metal cutting shear rates. The effect of tool geometry on the FSW shear surface is discussed and related to published torque measurements. Various FS W structural features are explained, including a difference in structure of bimetallic welds when alloys on the advancing and retreating sides of the weld seam are exchanged. The joining mechanism and critical parameters of the FSW process are made clear.

  13. Experimental study of heavy-liquid metal (LBE) flow and heat transfer along a hexagonal 19-rod bundle with wire spacers

    Pacio, J., E-mail: julio.pacio@kit.edu; Daubner, M.; Fellmoser, F.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A unique experiment with lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) as working fluid was performed. • Detailed temperature measurements were implemented at three axial positions. • The experimental results present a good repeatability within the uncertainties. • Pressure drop results agree with water correlations, as expected. • The Nusselt number is well predicted by the most conservative correlation. - Abstract: An experimental campaign considering a 19-pin hexagonal rod bundle with wire spacers, cooled by forced-convective LBE was completed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA). In the frame of the European research project SEARCH (Safe Exploitation Related Chemistry for HLM Reactors, 2011–2015) the geometry and operating conditions of temperature, flow velocity and power density are representative of the fuel assemblies envisaged for the MYRRHA reactor. An extensive test matrix is evaluated, with 33 experimental runs covering a wide range of Reynolds (ca. 14 000–48 000) and Péclet (ca. 400–1500) numbers, as well as thermal powers (up to 295 kW) at 200 °C inlet temperature, indicating a good degree of reproducibility within the relatively small experimental uncertainties. Both the pressure drop and heat transfer performances are studied. When possible, a comparison with correlations available in the reviewed literature (namely, friction and heat transfer coefficients) is given. Furthermore, the detailed cross-sectional temperature distribution at three selected axial positions is obtained in the experiments and represents the main validation data for CFD. In non-dimensional terms, these profiles could be repeated at different operating conditions, for example hot and cold spots are consistently found at given locations.

  14. Resonance energy transfer from quinolinone modified polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) copolymer to terbium(III) metal ions

    Výprachtický, Drahomír, E-mail: vyprachticky@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mikeš, František [New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, 6 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Lokaj, Jan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) was synthesized by nitroxide mediated radical polymerization and modified with 7-amino-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I) and methanol. The formed block polymer ligand contained a quinolinone fluorophore (Ω) and carboxyl (III) or sodium carboxylate (IV) binding sites. The ligand-to-metal resonance energy transfer (RET) and ligand binding properties of [III–Tb{sup 3+}] and [IV–Tb{sup 3+}] complexes were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy in tetrahydrofuran/methanol and/or tetrahydrofuran/deuterated methanol mixtures and compared with those of a low-molecular-weight model ligand, i.e. the sodium salt of N-(4-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-7-yl)succinamic acid (II). The long-lived emission intensities of Tb{sup 3+} at 490, 545, 585, and 620 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 4}, and {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 3} transitions, respectively, were strongly increased by the addition of ligands in the order [II-Tb{sup 3+}]⪡[III-Tb{sup 3+}]<[IV-Tb{sup 3+}]. The efficiency of energy transfer (E) was evaluated from the emission intensity of the donor (Ω) in the presence or absence of the acceptor (Tb{sup 3+}) depending on the acceptor concentration and ligand neutralization. It was concluded that the macromolecular ligand structural properties (polymer coil and supramolecular structures, e.g. micelles) were responsible for the increase in RET. The time-resolved luminescence measurements revealed that the binding affinity of the ligands II, III, and IV increased in the order IItransfer (RET) was found out. • Macromolecular (polymer coil) structure caused a powerful RET and also a supramacromolecular (micelles) structure

  15. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    2011-05-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  16. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  17. A Comparative Study of Additively Manufactured Thin Wall and Block Structure with Al-6.3%Cu Alloy Using Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Baoqiang Cong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a better understanding of the relationship between depositing mode and porosity, microstructure, and properties in wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM 2319-Al components, several Al-6.3%Cu deposits were produced by WAAM technique with cold metal transfer (CMT variants, pulsed CMT (CMT-P and advanced CMT (CMT-ADV. Thin walls and blocks were selected as the depositing paths to make WAAM samples. Porosity, microstructure and micro hardness of these WAAM samples were investigated. Compared with CMT-P and thin wall mode, CMT-ADV and block process can effectively reduce the pores in WAAM aluminum alloy. The microstructure varied with different depositing paths and CMT variants. The micro hardness value of thin wall samples was around 75 HV from the bottom to the middle, and gradually decreased toward the top. Meanwhile, the micro hardness value ranged around 72–77 HV, and varied periodically in block samples. The variation in micro hardness is consistent with standard microstructure characteristics.

  18. Transfer-free graphene synthesis on sapphire by catalyst metal agglomeration technique and demonstration of top-gate field-effect transistors

    Miyoshi, Makoto, E-mail: miyoshi.makoto@nitech.ac.jp; Arima, Yukinori; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi [Research Center for Nano Device and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaya [Research Center for Nano Device and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Soga, Tetsuo [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis was performed on sapphire substrates by using the catalyst metal agglomeration technique, and the graphene film quality was compared to that synthesized on sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Raman scattering measurements indicated that the graphene film on sapphire has better structural qualities than that on sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. The cross-sectional transmission microscopic study also revealed that the film flatness was drastically improved by using sapphire substrates instead of sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. These quality improvements seemed to be due the chemical and thermal stabilities of sapphire. Top-gate field-effect transistors were fabricated using the graphene films on sapphire, and it was confirmed that their drain current can be modulated with applied gate voltages. The maximum field-effect mobilities were estimated to be 720 cm{sup 2}/V s for electrons and 880 cm{sup 2}/V s for holes, respectively.

  19. Transfer-free graphene synthesis on sapphire by catalyst metal agglomeration technique and demonstration of top-gate field-effect transistors

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Arima, Yukinori; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaya; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis was performed on sapphire substrates by using the catalyst metal agglomeration technique, and the graphene film quality was compared to that synthesized on sputtered SiO 2 /Si substrates. Raman scattering measurements indicated that the graphene film on sapphire has better structural qualities than that on sputtered SiO 2 /Si substrates. The cross-sectional transmission microscopic study also revealed that the film flatness was drastically improved by using sapphire substrates instead of sputtered SiO 2 /Si substrates. These quality improvements seemed to be due the chemical and thermal stabilities of sapphire. Top-gate field-effect transistors were fabricated using the graphene films on sapphire, and it was confirmed that their drain current can be modulated with applied gate voltages. The maximum field-effect mobilities were estimated to be 720 cm 2 /V s for electrons and 880 cm 2 /V s for holes, respectively

  20. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  1. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chromium is an important skin sensitizer. Exposure to it has been regulated in cement, and recently in leather. Studies on the deposition of chromium ions on the skin as a result of handling different chromium-containing materials are sparse, but could improve the risk assessment...... of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. Objectives: To determine whether the handling of chromium-containing samples of leather and metal results in the deposition of chromium onto the skin. Methods: Five healthy volunteers participated. For 30 min, they handled samples...... of leather and metal known to contain and release chromium. Skin deposition of chromium was assessed with the acid wipe sampling technique. Results: Acid wipe sampling of the participants' fingers showed chromium deposition on the skin in all participants who had been exposed to leather (range 0.01–0.20 µg...

  2. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.; Schmid, D. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples fr...

  3. Electron transfer reactions

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  4. Radionuclides and trace metals in Canadian moose near uranium mines: comparison of radiation doses and food chain transfer with cattle and caribou.

    Thomas, Patricia; Irvine, James; Lyster, Jane; Beaulieu, Rhys

    2005-05-01

    Tissues from 45 moose and 4 cattle were collected to assess the health of country foods near uranium mines in northern Saskatchewan. Bone, liver, kidney, muscle and rumen contents were analyzed for uranium, radium-226 (226Ra), lead-210 (210Pb), and polonium-210 (210Po). Cesium-137 (137Cs), potassium-40 (40K), and 27 trace metals were also measured in some tissues. Within the most active mining area, Po in liver and muscle declined significantly with distance from tailings, possibly influenced by nearby natural uranium outcrops. Moose from this area had significantly higher 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, and 137Cs in some edible soft tissues vs. one control area. However, soil type and diet may influence concentrations as much as uranium mining activities, given that a) liver levels of uranium, 226Ra, and 210Po were similar to a second positive control area with mineral-rich shale hills and b) 210Po was higher in cattle kidneys than in all moose. Enhanced food chain transfer from rumen contents to liver was found for selenium in the main mining area and for copper, molybdenum and cadmium in moose vs. cattle. Although radiological doses to moose in the main mining area were 2.6 times higher than doses to control moose or cattle, low moose intakes yielded low human doses (0.0068 mSv y(-1)), a mere 0.3% of the dose from intake of caribou (2.4 mSv y(-1)), the dietary staple in the area.

  5. Pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field eeffect transistor-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate

    Seo, Sang-Ho; Seo, Min-Woong; Kong, Jae-Sung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, a pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) has been designed and fabricated by using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET)-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate. The proposed sensor has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process. The pseudo 2-transistor APS consists of two NMOSFETs and one photodetector which can amplify the generated photocurrent. The area of the pseudo 2-transistor APS is 7.1 × 6.2 μm2. The sensitivity of the proposed pixel is 49 lux/(V·s). By using this pixel, a smaller pixel area and a higher level of sensitivity can be realized when compared with a conventional 3-transistor APS which uses a pn junction photodiode.

  6. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    2005-01-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  7. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  8. Fractionation, transfer, and ecological risks of heavy metals in riparian and ditch wetlands across a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in an estuary of China

    Xiao, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Stimulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Bai, Junhong, E-mail: junhongbai@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Stimulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Wen, Xiaojun; Liu, Xinhui [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Stimulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-06-01

    The effect of reclamation on heavy metal concentrations and the ecological risks in ditch wetlands (DWs) and riparian wetlands (RWs) across a 100-year chronosequence in the Pearl River Estuary of China was investigated. Concentrations of 4 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil and plant samples, and sequential extracts of soil samples were determined, using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metal concentrations were higher in older DW soils than in the younger ones, and that the younger RW soils contained higher heavy metal concentrations compared to the older ones. Although the increasing tendency of heavy metal concentrations in soil was obvious after wetland reclamation, the metals Cu, Pb, and Zn exhibited low or no risks to the environment based on the risk assessment code (RAC). Cd, on the other hand, posed a medium or high risk. Cd, Pb, and Zn were mainly bound to Fe–Mn oxide, whereas most of Cu remained in the residual phase in both ditch and riparian wetland soils, and the residual proportions generally increased with depth. Bioconcentration and translocation factors for most of these four heavy metals significantly decreased in the DWs with older age (p < 0.05), whereas they increased in the RWs with younger age (p < 0.05). The DW soils contained higher concentrations of heavy metals in the organic fractions, whereas there were more carbonate and residual fractions in the RW soils. The non-bioavailable fractions of Cu and Zn, and the organic-bound Cd and Pb significantly inhibited plant growth. - Highlights: • Heavy metals in ditch wetland accumulated with increasing reclamation history. • Heavy metals exist in the Fe–Mn oxides and residual fractions in both wetlands. • Cd posed a medium to high environmental risk while low risk for other metals. • Long reclamation history caused lower BCFs and TFs in DWs and higher levels in RWs. • RW soils contained more heavy metals in the carbonate

  9. Fractionation, transfer, and ecological risks of heavy metals in riparian and ditch wetlands across a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in an estuary of China

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Wen, Xiaojun; Liu, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of reclamation on heavy metal concentrations and the ecological risks in ditch wetlands (DWs) and riparian wetlands (RWs) across a 100-year chronosequence in the Pearl River Estuary of China was investigated. Concentrations of 4 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil and plant samples, and sequential extracts of soil samples were determined, using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metal concentrations were higher in older DW soils than in the younger ones, and that the younger RW soils contained higher heavy metal concentrations compared to the older ones. Although the increasing tendency of heavy metal concentrations in soil was obvious after wetland reclamation, the metals Cu, Pb, and Zn exhibited low or no risks to the environment based on the risk assessment code (RAC). Cd, on the other hand, posed a medium or high risk. Cd, Pb, and Zn were mainly bound to Fe–Mn oxide, whereas most of Cu remained in the residual phase in both ditch and riparian wetland soils, and the residual proportions generally increased with depth. Bioconcentration and translocation factors for most of these four heavy metals significantly decreased in the DWs with older age (p < 0.05), whereas they increased in the RWs with younger age (p < 0.05). The DW soils contained higher concentrations of heavy metals in the organic fractions, whereas there were more carbonate and residual fractions in the RW soils. The non-bioavailable fractions of Cu and Zn, and the organic-bound Cd and Pb significantly inhibited plant growth. - Highlights: • Heavy metals in ditch wetland accumulated with increasing reclamation history. • Heavy metals exist in the Fe–Mn oxides and residual fractions in both wetlands. • Cd posed a medium to high environmental risk while low risk for other metals. • Long reclamation history caused lower BCFs and TFs in DWs and higher levels in RWs. • RW soils contained more heavy metals in the carbonate

  10. Structure-dependent photophysical properties of singlet and triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer states in copper(I) bis(diimine) compounds.

    Siddique, Zainul Abedin; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Ohno, Takeshi; Nozaki, Koichi

    2003-10-06

    The photophysical properties of singlet and triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states of [Cu(I)(diimine)(2)](+), where diimine is 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmphen), 2,9-dibutyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dbphen), or 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmbpy), were studied. On 400 nm laser excitation of [Cu(dmphen)(2)](+) in CH(2)Cl(2) solution, prompt (1)MLCT fluorescence with a quantum yield of (2.8 +/- 0.8) x 10(-5) was observed using a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting technique. The quantum yield was dependent on the excitation wavelength, suggesting that relaxation of the Franck-Condon state to the lowest (1)MLCT competes with rapid intersystem crossing (ISC). The fluorescence lifetime of the copper(I) compound was 13-16 ps, unexpectedly long despite a large spin-orbit coupling constant of 3d electrons in copper (829 cm(-1) ). Quantum chemical calculations using a density functional theory revealed that the structure of the lowest (1)MLCT in [Cu(dmphen)(2)](+) (1(1)B(1)) was flattened due to the Jahn-Teller effect in 3d(9) electronic configuration, and the dihedral angle between the two phenanthroline planes (dha) was about 75 degrees with the dha around 90 degrees in the ground state. Intramolecular reorganization energy for the radiative transition of 1(1)B(1) was calculated as 2.1 x 10(3) cm(-1), which is responsible for the large Stokes shift of the fluorescence observed (5.4 x 10(3) cm(-1)). To understand the sluggishness of the intersystem crossing (ISC) of (1)MLCT of the copper(I) compounds, the strength of the spin-orbit interaction between the lowest (1)MLCT (1(1)B(1)) and all (3)MLCT states was calculated. The ISC channels induced by strong spin-orbit interactions (ca. 300 cm(-1)) between the metal-centered HOMO and HOMO - 1 were shown to be energetically unfavorable in the copper(I) compounds because the flattening distortion caused large splitting (6.9 x 10(3) cm(-1)) between these orbitals. The possible ISC is therefore

  11. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly

  12. Development and validation of a highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening method for the simultaneous determination of nanogram levels of fentanyl, sufentanil and alfentanil in air and surface contamination wipes.

    Van Nimmen, Nadine F J; Veulemans, Hendrik A F

    2004-05-07

    A highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analytical method for the determination of the opioid narcotics fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil in industrial hygiene personal air samples and surface contamination wipes was developed and comprehensively validated. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction of the samples with methanol, fortified with a fixed amount of the penta-deuterated analogues of the opioid narcotics as internal standard. The GC-MS analytical procedure using selected ion monitoring (SIM) was shown to be highly selective. Linearity was shown for levels of extracted wipe and air samples corresponding to at least 0.1-2 times their surface contamination limit (SCL) and accordingly to 0.1-2 times their time weighted average occupational exposure limit (OEL-TWA) based on a full shift 9601 air sample. Extraction recoveries were determined for spiked air samples and surface wipes and were found to be quantitative for both sampling media in the entire range studied. The air sampling method's limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.4 ng per sample for fentanyl and sufentanil and 1.6 ng per sample for alfentanil, corresponding to less than 1% of their individual OEL for a full shift air sample (9601). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 1.4, 1.2, and 5.0 ng per filter for fentanyl, sufentanil, and alfentanil, respectively. The wipe sampling method had LODs of 4 ng per wipe for fentanyl and sufentanil and 16 ng per wipe for alfentanil and LOQs of respectively, 14, 12, and 50 ng per wipe. The analytical intra-assay precision of the air sampling and wipe sampling method, defined as the coefficient of variation on the analytical result of six replicate spiked media was below 10 and 5%, respectively, for all opioids at all spike levels. Accuracy expressed as relative error was determined to be below 10%, except for alfentanil at the lowest spike level (-13.1%). The stability of the opioids during simulated

  13. TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.

    Bonaminio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy.

    Xu, Fuchao; Giovanoulis, Georgios; van Waes, Sofie; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Magnér, Jorgen; Haug, Line Småstuen; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-07-19

    We compared the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption using different sampling and assessment strategies. Air (indoor stationary air and personal ambient air), dust (floor dust and surface dust), and hand wipes were sampled from 61 participants and their houses. We found that stationary air contains higher levels of ΣPFRs (median = 163 ng/m(3), IQR = 161 ng/m(3)) than personal air (median = 44 ng/m(3), IQR = 55 ng/m(3)), suggesting that the stationary air sample could generate a larger bias for inhalation exposure assessment. Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (ΣTCPP) accounted for over 80% of ΣPFRs in both stationary and personal air. PFRs were frequently detected in both surface dust (ΣPFRs median = 33 100 ng/g, IQR = 62 300 ng/g) and floor dust (ΣPFRs median = 20 500 ng/g, IQR = 30 300 ng/g). Tris(2-butoxylethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 40% and 60% of ΣPFRs in surface and floor dust, respectively, followed by ΣTCPP (30% and 20%, respectively). TBOEP (median = 46 ng, IQR = 69 ng) and ΣTCPP (median = 37 ng, IQR = 49 ng) were also frequently detected in hand wipe samples. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to PFRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption was conducted with individual personal data rather than reference factors of the general population. Inhalation seems to be the major exposure pathway for ΣTCPP and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), while participants had higher exposure to TBOEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) via dust ingestion. Estimated exposure to ΣPFRs was the highest with stationary air inhalation (median =34 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 38 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), followed by surface dust ingestion (median = 13 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 28 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), floor dust ingestion and personal air inhalation. The median dermal exposure on hand wipes was 0.32 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) (IQR

  15. Trace metal in surface water and groundwater and its transfer in a Yellow River alluvial fan: Evidence from isotopes and hydrochemistry

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. The aim of sustainable management of the agro-ecosystem includes ensuring that water continues to fulfill its function in agricultural production, cycling of elements, and as a habitat of numerous organisms. There is no doubt that the influence of large-scale irrigation projects has impacted the regional surface–groundwater interactions in the North China Plain (NCP). Given these concerns, the aim of this study is to evaluate the pollution, identify the sources of trace metals, analyze the influence of surface–groundwater interactions on trace metal distribution, and to propose urgent management strategies for trace metals in the agriculture area in China. Trace metals, hydrochemical indicators (EC, pH, concentrations of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) and stable isotopic composition (δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H) were determined for surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples. Trace metals were detected in all samples. Concentrations of Fe, Se, B, Mn, and Zn in SW exceeded drinking water standards by 14.8%, 29.6%, 25.9%, 11.1%, and 14.8% higher, respectively, and by 3.8%, 23.1%, 11.5%, 11.5%, and 7.7% in GW. The pollution of trace metals in surface water was more serious than that in groundwater, and was also higher than in common irrigation areas in NCP. Trace metals were found to have a combined origin of geogenic and agriculture and industrial activities. Their distribution varied greatly and exhibited a certain relationship with the water flow direction, with the exception of a number of singular sites. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidence indicates surface–groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of trace metal in the study area. Facing the ongoing serious pollution, management practices for source control, improved control technologies, and the construction of a monitoring net to warn of increased risk are

  16. Evaluation of heavy metals transfer: impact of a dredged sediment deposit on a on-polluted soil; Migration des polluants metalliques: cas d'un depot de sediments contamines sur un sol non pollue

    Vauleon, C.; Laboudigue, A. [Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, CNRSSP, 59 - Douai (France); Tiffreau, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    In many countries and especially in the North of France, inland waterways need to be dredged regularly to provide a high quality environment for customers, staff and local communities. However, dredging operations generate yearly large quantities of sediments, which in spite of their high pollutant contents, are often stored in non-specific sites. Thus, the threat of a spreading contamination for the surrounding environment is important. In order to evaluate this potential risk and to quantify the transfer of heavy metals from the dredged layer to the non-polluted soil below, an interdisciplinary research project was undertaken including, (i) the monitoring of an experimental sediment deposit, (ii) the microscopic study of metal distribution inside this deposit, (iii) the evaluation of microbial activity, (iv) the impact of natural vegetation growth on metal migration. Up to now, the main processes identified (oxidation of sulphur compounds, vertical migration of Zinc) allowed us to make several recommendations for the future management of dredged sediments by: (i) controlling the oxidation processes during dredging operations or (ii) assessing the high neutralizing capacity of the local environment of deposition. Moreover, an adequate vegetation management can reduce the heavy metals migration to groundwater's with maximum efficiency and at low costs. (author)

  17. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of six heavy metals in soils and their transfer into mature tobacco plants in Kushtia District, Bangladesh.

    Saha, Narottam; Rahman, M Safiur; Jolly, Yeasmin Nahar; Rahman, Atiqur; Sattar, M Abdus; Hai, M Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Although the tobacco production and consumption rate in Bangladesh is very high and a substantial portion of premature deaths is caused by tobacco smoking, the status of heavy metals in tobacco plants has not yet determined. This study, therefore, investigated the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Zn in tobacco plants and their surrounding agricultural soils in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. The geochemical maps showed a similar spatial distribution pattern of the analyzed metals and identified Shempur, Kharara, Taragunia, and Shantidanga as metal hot spots. Geoanalytical indexes were applied to assess the extent of soil contamination, and the results depicted that the soils of Shempur, Kharara, Taragunia, and Shantidanga were moderately contaminated where Cd contributed the most to contamination degree (C d) in spite of its relative low content. However, other five areas in Kushtia District were suggested as uncontaminated according to both C d and pollution load index (PLI). The hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) showed no possible indication of human health risks via ingestion of agricultural soils. This study also determined that human activities such as excess application of commercial fertilizers, animal manures, and metal-based pesticides were the sources of Cu, Ni, Cd, and Cr enrichment in soils and that the metals into tobacco plants were transported from the soils. The present study conclusively suggested that regulation of improper use of agrochemicals and continuous monitoring of heavy metals in tobacco plants are needed to reduce the tobacco-related detrimental health problems in Bangladesh.

  18. Electron transfer in proteins

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  19. Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge Transitions in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell Transition-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer.

    Frank, Patrick; Szilagyi, Robert K; Gramlich, Volker; Hsu, Hua-Fen; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

    2017-02-06

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the monodentate sulfate complexes [M II (itao)(SO 4 )(H 2 O) 0,1 ] (M = Co, Ni, Cu) and [Cu(Me 6 tren)(SO 4 )] exhibit well-defined preedge transitions at 2479.4, 2479.9, 2478.4, and 2477.7 eV, respectively, despite having no direct metal-sulfur bond, while the XAS preedge of [Zn(itao)(SO 4 )] is featureless. The sulfur K-edge XAS of [Cu(itao)(SO 4 )] but not of [Cu(Me 6 tren)(SO 4 )] uniquely exhibits a weak transition at 2472.1 eV, an extraordinary 8.7 eV below the first inflection of the rising K-edge. Preedge transitions also appear in the sulfur K-edge XAS of crystalline [M II (SO 4 )(H 2 O)] (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, but not Zn) and in sulfates of higher-valent early transition metals. Ground-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations show that charge transfer from coordinated sulfate to paramagnetic late transition metals produces spin polarization that differentially mixes the spin-up (α) and spin-down (β) spin orbitals of the sulfate ligand, inducing negative spin density at the sulfate sulfur. Ground-state DFT calculations show that sulfur 3p character then mixes into metal 4s and 4p valence orbitals and various combinations of ligand antibonding orbitals, producing measurable sulfur XAS transitions. TDDFT calculations confirm the presence of XAS preedge features 0.5-2 eV below the rising sulfur K-edge energy. The 2472.1 eV feature arises when orbitals at lower energy than the frontier occupied orbitals with S 3p character mix with the copper(II) electron hole. Transmission of spin polarization and thus of radical character through several bonds between the sulfur and electron hole provides a new mechanism for the counterintuitive appearance of preedge transitions in the XAS spectra of transition-metal oxoanion ligands in the absence of any direct metal-absorber bond. The 2472.1 eV transition is evidence for further radicalization from copper(II), which

  20. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems; Transferts et mobilite des elements traces metalliques dans la colonne sedimentaire des hydrosystemes continentaux

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-15

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  1. Simplified computational simulation of liquid metal behaviour in turbulent flow with heat transfer; Simulacao computacional simplificada do comportamento de metais liquidos em escoamento turbulento com transferencia de calor

    Costa, E.B. da

    1992-09-01

    The present work selected the available bibliography equations and empirical relationships to the development of a computer code to obtain the turbulent velocity and temperature profiles in liquid metal tube flow with heat generation. The computer code is applied to a standard problem and the results are considered satisfactory, at least from the viewpoint of qualitative behaviour. (author). 50 refs, 21 figs, 3 tabs.

  2. Resonance energy transfer from quinolinone modified polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) copolymer to terbium(III) metal ions

    Výprachtický, Drahomír; Mikeš, F.; Lokaj, Jan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 160, April (2015), s. 27-34 ISSN 0022-2313 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/0827; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : energy transfer * terbium luminescence * quinolinone donor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2015

  3. Electronic energy transfer from molecules to metal and semiconductor surfaces, and chemisorption-induced changes in optical response of the nickel (111) surface

    Whitmore, P.M.

    1982-10-01

    The evolution of molecular excited states near solid surfaces is investigated. The mechanisms through which energy is transferred to the surface are described within a classical image dipole picture of the interaction. More sophisticated models for the dielectric response of the solid surface add important new decay channels for the energy dissipation. The predictions and applicability of three of these refined theories are discussed

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in lizards living near a phosphate treatment plant: possible transfer of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial food webs.

    Nasri, Intissar; Hammouda, Abdessalam; Hamza, Foued; Zrig, Ahlem; Selmi, Slaheddine

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the accumulation of heavy metals in Bosk's fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus boskianus) living in Gabès region (southeastern Tunisia), in relation to habitat, diet, and distance from the Gabès-Ghannouche factory complex of phosphate treatment. More specifically, we compared the concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the stomach contents and samples of the liver, kidney, and tail from lizards living in four sites corresponding to different combinations of habitat (coastal dunes vs backshore) and distance from the factory complex (lizards living on the coastal dunes mainly feed on littoral amphipods, while those living in the backshore feed exclusively on terrestrial invertebrates. The concentrations of heavy metals in lizard tissues were overall positively correlated with those in the preys they ingested. Moreover, there was a general tendency towards increased concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the samples from lizards living on coastal dunes compared to those from the other sites, although some differences still lacked statistical significance. These results suggest that the highest contamination of lizards living on coastal dunes was probably related to the ingestion of contaminated amphipods. Thus, amphipods and Bosk's fringe-toed lizards seem to provide an important link between the marine and terrestrial food webs, with higher concentrations appearing to accumulate from materials released into the sea rather than the terrestrial environment. With regard to metal distribution among tissues, our results were overall in agreement with previous findings in other reptiles. In particular, cadmium was most concentrated in the liver samples, stressing once more the role of the liver as a storage organ of Cd. Moreover, high concentrations of the three assessed metals were found in the kidney samples, showing the role of the kidney as an active site of heavy metal accumulation.

  5. Steady-State Spectroscopic Analysis of Proton-Dependent Electron Transfer on Pyrazine-Appended Metal Dithiolenes [Ni(pdt)2], [Pd(pdt)2], and [Pt(pdt)2] (pdt = 2,3-Pyrazinedithiol).

    Kennedy, Steven R; Kozar, Morgan N; Yennawar, Hemant P; Lear, Benjamin J

    2016-09-06

    We report the structural, electronic, and acid/base properties of a series of ML2 metal dithiolene complexes, where M = Ni, Pd, Pt and L = 2,3-pyrazinedithiol. These complexes are non-innocent and possess strong electronic coupling between ligands across the metal center. The electronic coupling can be readily quantified in the monoanionic mixed valence state using Marcus-Hush theory. Analysis of the intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) band reveals that that electronic coupling in the mixed valence state is 5800, 4500, and 5700 cm(-1) for the Ni, Pd, and Pt complexes, respectively. We then focus on their response to acid titration in the mixed valence state, which generates the asymmetrically protonated mixed valence mixed protonated state. For all three complexes, protonation results in severe attenuation of the electronic coupling, as measured by the IVCT band. We find nearly 5-fold decreases in electronic coupling for both Ni and Pt, while, for the Pd complex, the electronic coupling is reduced to the point that the IVCT band is no longer observable. We ascribe the reduction in electronic coupling to charge pinning induced by asymmetric protonation. The more severe reduction in coupling for the Pd complex is a result of greater energetic mismatch between ligand and metal orbitals, reflected in the smaller electronic coupling for the pure mixed valence state. This work demonstrates that the bridging metal center can be used to tune the electronic coupling in both the mixed valence and mixed valence mixed protonated states, as well as the magnitude of change of the electronic coupling that accompanies changes in protonation state.

  6. Influence of the complexones on the ionic transfer through cell membranes and the level of radionuclides-metals accumulation in water plants

    Marchiulioniene, D.P.; Motiejuniene, Eh.B.; Zemkajiene, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the complexones diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP) with relatively low concentrations (from 0.1 to 50 mg/l) on ionic permeability of cell membranes of Nitellopsis obtusa algae, as well as on the accumulation levels of the radionuclides 144 Ce, 106 Ru, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in different species of water plants has been studied. It has been shown that complexones under study (with the concentrations up to 50 mg/l) may reduce accumulation levels of three- and four-valent metals and their radionuclides in water plants. For the plants in natural as well as in artificial nutrient medium, however, the complexones increase the availability of metals, forming with the readibly soluble, mobile complex compounds

  7. The ligand-to-metal energy transfer and the role of Lewis base ligands and silver plasmons in emission of new type of lanthanide phosphors

    Gawryszewska, Paula [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14F. Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Amirkhanov, Vladimir M.; Trush, Victor A. [Department of Chemistry, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Kulesza, Dagmara [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14F. Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Legendziewicz, Janina, E-mail: janina.legendziewicz@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14F. Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Two types of new Ln{sup 3+} chelates, phosphoro- and sulfono-derivatives of beta-diketones and Lewis base ligands were obtained and characterized by the high resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy at 293 and 77 as well as by luminescence decay times. The new type of phosphors shows very strong emission after excitation in the UV range within the ligand bands. The dynamics of the excited state will be discussed. The paths of the energy transfer (ET) are analyzed and mechanism of this process is proposed. The silica gels containing investigated complexes with silver particles were obtained and the role of silver plasmons on spectroscopic properties is displayed. - Highlights: • Spectral characteristic of new type of lanthanide chelates: Na[Ln(SP){sub 4}] and [Ln(SP){sub 3}L]. • Preparation of the energy-transfer (E-T) diagram. • Analysis of the possible pathways of energy transfer and their mechanism. • Application of chelates incorporated in sol–gel codoped by Ag particles.

  8. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Scheifler, R

    2002-06-15

    Pollution of ecosystems by metallic trace elements (MTEs) and organic compounds may lead to pollutant transfer in food webs. The aim of this work was to improve the assessment of bioavailability, transfer and effects of various MTEs (mainly cadmium (Cd) but also copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and an organic pollutant, the herbicide Isoproturon. The food webs studied in this work were made up of 2 or 3 compartments among the following: soil - primary producer (lettuce Lactuca sativa, colza Brassica napus and maize Zea mays) - primary consumer (snail Helix aspersa) - secondary consumer (carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens). Three complementary approaches using food webs of increasing complexity were exploited. The first approach allowed studying pollutant bioavailability and transfers between 2 links of a food chain under controlled conditions. The isotopic dilution technique, until now only used to characterise the phyto-availability of major elements and MTEs in soils, was adjusted for the first time to an animal organism, the snail H. aspersa (assessment of zoo-availability) This work showed that snails, contrarily to plants, accessed the non-isotopically exchangeable Cd pool in soils, considered as non-bio-available by current risk assessment procedures. The study of Cd transfer from plants (B. napus contaminated by surface deposition) to the snail H. aspersa showed a high bioaccumulation of Cd in snail tissues and effects on snail growth and consumption at high concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF, herein defined as the ratio of the concentration of a pollutant in the tissues of an organism divided by the concentration of this pollutant in its food) was higher than 2. These results suggest that snails inhabiting polluted environments could represent a risk for their predators. To test this hypothesis, the transfer of Cd from contaminated snails to one of their predators, the carabid beetle C. splendens, was studied. Exposure of

  9. Storm-induced transfer of particulate trace metals to the deep-sea in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    Dumas, C; Aubert, D; Durrieu de Madron, X; Ludwig, W; Heussner, S; Delsaut, N; Menniti, C; Sotin, C; Buscail, R

    2014-10-01

    In order to calculate budgets of particulate matter and sediment-bound contaminants leaving the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion (GoL), settling particles were collected in March 2011 during a major storm, using sediment traps. The collecting devices were deployed in the Cap de Creus submarine canyon, which represents the main export route. Particulate matter samples were analyzed to obtain mass fluxes and contents in organic carbon, Al, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and La, Nd and Sm. The natural or anthropogenic origin of trace metals was assessed using enrichment factors (EFs). Results are that Zn, Cu and Pb appeared to be of anthropogenic origin, whereas Ni, Co and Cr appeared to be strictly natural. The anthropogenic contribution of all elements (except Cd) was refined by acid-leaching (HCl 1 N) techniques, confirming that Zn, Cu and Pb are the elements that are the most enriched. However, although those elements are highly labile (59-77%), they do not reflect severe enrichment (EFs rare earth elements ratios and concentrations of acid-leaching residual trace metals. Our results hence indicate that even in this western extremity of the GoL, storm events mainly export Rhone-derived particles via the Cap de Creus submarine canyons to the deep-sea environments. This export of material is significant as it represents about a third of the annual PTM input from the Rhone River.

  10. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Verdin, Anthony; Garcon, Guillaume; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Pourrut, Bertrand; Debiane, Djouher; Waterlot, Christophe; Laruelle, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. - Highlights: → Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote immobilisation of MTE. → 8 years after the soil amendments, a pot culture study was carried out in greenhouse conditions. → MTE bioavailability and uptake by the two plants was drastically decreased with amendments. → Our results support the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. → CFA addition contributed to the reduction of the MTE mobility and availability for the plants. - Efficiency of Coal Fly Ash amendment for phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn in MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  11. Experimental study on coolability of particulate core-metal debris bed with oxidization, (2). Fragmentation and enhanced heat transfer in zircaloy debris bed

    Su, Guanghui; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Aoki, Hiroomi; Kimura, Iichi

    2006-01-01

    The oxidization and coolability characteristics of the particulate Zircaloy debris bed, which is deposited under the hard debris and through which first vapor penetrates and then water penetrates, are studied in the present paper. In the vapor penetration experiments, it is found that Zircaloy debris particles are effectively broken into small pieces after making thick oxidized layer with deep clacks by rapid oxidization under the condition that vapor with 20 cm/s penetrates for 30 to 70 min at an initial debris bed temperature of 1,030degC. It is also confirmed in the water penetration experiments that the oxidized particle debris bed has potentially of high coolability when water penetrates through the fully oxidized particle bed because of a high capillary force originating from those particles with deep cracks on their surfaces. Based on the present study, a new scenario for the appearance and disappearance of the hot spot in the TMI-2 accident is possible. The particulate core-metal core-metal debris bed is first heated up by rapid oxidization with heat generation when vapor can penetrate through the debris bed with porosities. This corresponds to the appearance of the hot spot. The resultant oxidized particulate debris bed causes a high coolability due to its high capillary force when the water can touch the debris bed at wet condition. This corresponds to the disappearance of the hot spot. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on the particle diameter of a metal porous medium in a heat removal system using liquid nitrogen

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling system using a bronze-particle-sintered porous medium has been studied for a re mountable high-temperature superconducting magnet. This study evaluates boiling curve of subcooled liquid nitrogen as flowing in a bronze porous medium as a function of the particle diameter of the medium. We obtained Departure from Nuclear Boiling (Dnb) point from the boiling curve and discussed growth of nitrogen vapor bubble inferred from measured pressure drop. The pressure drop decreased significantly at wall superheat before reaching the DNB point whereas that slightly decreased after reaching the DNB point compared to the smallest wall superheat. This result could consider DNB rises with an increase in the particle diameter because larger particle makes vapor to move easily from the heated pore region. The influence of the particle diameter on the heat transfer performance is larger than that of coolant's degree of subcooling. (author)

  13. Unusual metal-ligand charge transfer in ferrocene functionalized μ{sub 3}-O iron carboxylates observed with Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Mereacre, Valeriu, E-mail: valeriu.mereacre@kit.edu [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schlageter, Martin; Eichhöfer, Andreas [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bauer, Thomas; Wolny, Juliusz A.; Schünemann, Volker [Department of Physics, University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Powell, Annie K., E-mail: annie.powell@kit.edu [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependent Mössbauer studies of two ferrocenecarboxylate functionalized {Fe_3O} complexes in solid state are reported. It was found that conjugation of ferrocene ring orbitals with the π orbitals of the adjacent carboxylic group promotes a shift of electron density from the ferrocene Fe{sup II} ion to the cyclopentadienide rings with π-orbital character giving rise to a new type of mixed-valence compound. - Highlights: • In this manuscript we describe a mechanism of electron density shift which stabilizes the trapped mixed-valence state. • The coexistence of ferrocene and ferrocenium in solid state was determined. • A mixed-valence state at room-temperature and a thermally induced electron transfer with gradual interconversion were observed.

  14. Performance Testing of Molten Regolith Electrolysis with Transfer of Molten Material for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald; Tripathy, Prabhat; Standish, Evan; Sirk, Aislinn; Melendez, Orlando; Stefanescu, Doru

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the production of oxygen by electrolysis of molten regolith simulants at temperatures near 1600 C. Using an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in the production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Initial direct measurements of current efficiency have confirmed that the process offer potential advantages of high oxygen production rates in a smaller footprint facility landed on the moon, with a minimum of consumables brought from Earth. We now report the results of a scale-up effort toward the goal of achieving production rates equivalent to 1 metric ton O2/year, a benchmark established for the support of a lunar base. We previously reported on the electrochemical behavior of the molten electrolyte as dependent on anode material, sweep rate and electrolyte composition in batches of 20-200g and at currents of less than 0.5 A. In this paper, we present the results of experiments performed at currents up to 10 Amperes) and in larger volumes of regolith simulant (500 g - 1 kg) for longer durations of electrolysis. The technical development of critical design components is described, including: inert anodes capable of passing continuous currents of several Amperes, container materials selection, direct gas analysis capability to determine the gas components co-evolving with oxygen. To allow a continuous process, a system has been designed and tested to enable the withdrawal of cathodically-reduced molten metals and spent molten oxide electrolyte. The performance of the withdrawal system is presented and critiqued. The design of the electrolytic cell and the configuration of the furnace were supported by modeling the thermal environment of the system in an effort to realize a balance between external heating and internal joule heating. We will discuss the impact these simulations and experimental findings have

  15. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat transfer

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  17. Heat transfer

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  18. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    User

    grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of ... transfer factor (TF) showed that Zn was the most bioaccumulated trace metals by all the grasses followed by. Pb, Mn ... was used to de-contaminate copper (Cu) and.

  19. Transfer Pricing

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  20. Microbial competition, lack in macronutrients, and acidity as main obstacles to the transfer of basidiomycetous ground fungi into (organically or heavy-metal contaminated) soils.

    Gramss, Gerhard; Bergmann, Hans

    2007-08-01

    Non-symbiotic soil microorganisms which have been expensively engineered or selected to support plant nutrition, control root diseases, degrade xenobiotic hydrocarbons, and repress or stimulate heavy metal uptake of plants fail to survive in target soils. This prompted studies into the role of chemistry and microbial pre-colonization of 23 top soils in long-term growth of basidiomycetes. Fungi are seen as auxiliary agents in soil remediation. Untreated soils (1.5 L) were colonized by lignocellulose preferring ground fungi such as Agaricus aestivalis, A. bisporus, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrocarpus, A. porphyrizon, Agrocybe dura, A. praecox, Clitocybe sp., Coprinus comatus, Lepista nuda, L. sordida, Macrolepiota excoriata, M. procera, Stropharia coronilla, and S. rugoso-annulata. Spawn mycelia of fairy-ring-type fungi such as Agaricus arvensis, A. fissuratus, A. langei, A. lanipes, A. pilatianus, Lyophyllum sp., and Marasmius oreades died back in contact with non-sterile soils. Fungal growth correlated positively with the soils' Ct Ca K Mg content and negatively with microbial CO2 evolution. Pasteurization and autoclaving increased mycelial growth and life span in soils pH 6.6-8.2. Growth of pH-sensitive but not of pH-tolerant fungi was inhibited on the Ca-deficient soils pH 4-4.4 (-5.6) and was not improved by autoclaving. The pretended fungistasis of acid soils to pH-sensitive fungi was controlled by N P K mineral (pH not altering) or organic (pH increasing) fertilizing as well as by neutralization with NaOH or CaCO3. Although microbial competition was mortal to 33% of the fungal mycelia inserted into natural unplanted soils, further seriously antifungal effects beyond those pretended by low pH conditions and shortage in mineral macronutrients were not identified.

  1. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete.

  2. Light metal production

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  3. Probes of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited states in ruthenium-Am(m)ine-bipyridine complexes: the effects of NH/ND and CH/CD isotopic substitution on the 77 K luminescence.

    Chen, Yuan-Jang; Xie, Puhui; Endicott, John F; Odongo, Onduru S

    2006-06-29

    The effects of ligand perdeuteration on the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited-state emission properties at 77 K are described for several [Ru(L)(4)bpy](2+) complexes in which the emission process is nominally [uIII,bpy-] --> [RuII,bpy]. The perdeuteration of the 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligand is found to increase the zero-point energy differences between the ground states and MLCT excited states by amounts that vary from 0 +/- 10 to 70 +/- 10 cm(-1) depending on the ligands L. This indicates that there are some vibrational modes with smaller force constants in the excited states than in the ground states for most of these complexes. These blue shifts increase approximately as the energy difference between the excited and ground states decreases, but they are otherwise not strongly correlated with the number of bipyridine ligands in the complex. Careful comparisons of the [Ru(L)(4)(d(8)-bpy)](2+) and [Ru(L)(4)(h(8)-bpy](2+) emission spectra are used to resolve the very weak vibronic contributions of the C-H stretching modes as the composite contributions of the corresponding vibrational reorganizational energies. The largest of these, 25 +/- 10 cm(-1), is found for the complexes with L = py or bpy/2 and smaller when L = NH(3). Perdeuteration of the am(m)ine ligands (NH(3), en, or [14]aneN(4)) has no significant effect on the zero-point energy difference, and the contributions of the NH stretching vibrational modes to the emission band shape are too weak to resolve. Ligand perdeuteration does increase the excited-state lifetimes by a factor that is roughly proportional to the excited-state-ground-state energy difference, even though the CH and NH vibrational reorganizational energies are too small for nuclear tunneling involving these modes to dominate the relaxation process. It is proposed that metal-ligand skeletal vibrational modes and configurational mixing between metal-centered, bpy-ligand-centered, and MLCT excited states are important in

  4. Technique for joining metal tubing

    Wright, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    Uniform wall thickness and uninterrupted heat transfer is achieved by using shaped metal insert as wall material for joint. Insert acts as support during brazing, after which excess material is ground away to bring joint to original tubing size.

  5. Transfer Pricing

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  6. Transfer Hydrogenation: Employing a Simple, In Situ Prepared Catalytic System

    Ang, Eleanor Pei Ling

    2017-01-01

    Transfer hydrogenation has been recognized to be an important synthetic method in both academic and industrial research to obtain valuable products including alcohols. Transition metal catalysts based on precious metals, such as Ru, Rh and Ir

  7. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  8. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  9. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m 2 ) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m 2 ) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m 2 ) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust

  10. Plasmons in metallic monolayer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Andersen, Kirsten; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    We study the collective electronic excitations in metallic single-layer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) using time dependent density functional theory in the random phase approximation. For very small momentum transfers (below q≈0.02 Å−1), the plasmon dispersion follows the √q...

  11. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  12. High-quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to polymers.

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Baraket, Mira; Laskoski, Matthew; Mulvaney, Shawn P; Lee, Woo K; Sheehan, Paul E; Hines, Daniel R; Robinson, Jeremy T; Tosado, Jacob; Fuhrer, Michael S; Hernández, Sandra C; Walton, Scott G

    2012-01-11

    In this paper we demonstrate high-quality, uniform dry transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil to polystyrene. The dry transfer exploits an azide linker molecule to establish a covalent bond to graphene and to generate greater graphene-polymer adhesion compared to that of the graphene-metal foil. Thus, this transfer approach provides a novel alternative route for graphene transfer, which allows for the metal foils to be reused. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Development, validation and testing of a skin sampling method for assessment of metal exposure.

    Erfani, Behnaz; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2017-07-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm 2 ) were sampled with 1% HNO 3 , either as 0.1 ml on a swab, or as 0.5 ml on a wipe. Furthermore, 17 participants performed self-sampling by swab after 2 h of leisure activity. Samples were extracted in 1% HNO 3 and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sampling efficiency by swab was 46%, as compared with 93% for acid wipe sampling, for all tested doses. Most metal from the skin dose was detected in the first swab (33-43%). Despite lower sampling efficiency by swab, skin doses of metals following 2 h of leisure activity without hand washing were quantified in all participants, and ranged from 0.0016 to 0.15 µg/cm 2 , from 0.00014 to -0.0020 µg/cm 2 and from 0.00048 to -0.027 µg/cm 2 for nickel, cobalt, and chromium, respectively. The results indicate a future potential of skin sampling by swab to detect and monitor metals on skin by self-sampling. This will contribute to better knowledge of metal skin exposure among dermatitis patients, workers, and the general population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Water tube liquid metal control

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    An improved heat exchanger for use in liquid metal cooled nuclear power reactors is described in which the heat is transferred between the flow of liquid metal which is to be cooled and a forced flow of liquid which is wholly or partly evaporated. (U.K.)

  15. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  16. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  17. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  18. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  19. Forming and bending of metal foams

    Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams

  20. Station Transfers

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  1. Technology transfer

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  2. Multicenter evaluation of a new closed system drug-transfer device in reducing surface contamination by antineoplastic hazardous drugs.

    Bartel, Sylvia B; Tyler, Timothy G; Power, Luci A

    2018-02-15

    Results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently introduced closed system drug-transfer device (CSTD) in reducing surface contamination during compounding and simulated administration of antineoplastic hazardous drugs (AHDs) are reported. Wipe samples were collected from 6 predetermined surfaces in compounding and infusion areas of 13 U.S. cancer centers to establish preexisting levels of surface contamination by 2 marker AHDs (cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil). Stainless steel templates were placed over the 6 previously sampled surfaces, and the marker drugs were compounded and infused per a specific protocol using all components of the CSTD. Wipe samples were collected from the templates after completion of tasks and analyzed for both marker AHDs. Aggregated results of wipe sampling to detect preexisting contamination at the 13 study sites showed that overall, 66.7% of samples (104 of 156) had detectable levels of at least 1 marker AHD; subsequent testing after CSTD use per protocol found a sample contamination rate of 5.8% (9 of 156 samples). In the administration areas alone, the rate of preexisting contamination was 78% (61 of 78 samples); with use of the CSTD protocol, the contamination rate was 2.6%. Twenty-six participants rated the CSTD for ease of use, with 100% indicating that they were satisfied or extremely satisfied. A study involving a rigorous protocol and 13 cancer centers across the United States demonstrated that the CSTD reduced surface contamination by cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil during compounding and simulated administration. Participants reported that the CSTD was easy to use. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclophosphamide identification in wipe test by GC-MS and solid phase extraction Identificação de ciclofosfamida em wipe teste por CG-EM com prévia extração em fase sólida

    Isarita Martins

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study cyclophosphamide was quantified after adapting a prior analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid phase purification and derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The analyte was measured by analysis in wipe test from infusion bags, which may be contaminated by contact with the gloves used during preparation of the drugs. Surface of bag contaminated may be an important source of contamination for workers in the others chemoterapy handling areas, such as administration rooms. This drug, in fact, is one of the most frequently used alkylating antineoplastic agents for different types of tumors and it is furthermore classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. Ifosfamide was used as internal standard and the quantification was carried out by reference to calibration curves within a range from 1 to 100 ng/mL. The limit of detection was 0.4 ng/mL. The values of the variation coefficient varied from 0.5 to 10% (intra-assay and from 0 to 19% (interassay. Frozen reference wipe samples containing cyclophosphamide were analysed over one month and no significant loss was observed. The range obtained for bias assay was 83-116% and the recovery was 98.9%. Cyclophosphamide was measured in 36 of 42 infusion bags collected from different hospitals with values ranging from 90 to 41874 ng (median= 607.5 ng. The results, well related to those reported in the literature, suggest that this method can be used to identify cyclophosphamide from wipe samples and can be considered useful in exposure assessment to this drug.A ciclofosfamida é uma agente alquilante freqüentemente utilizado na prática clínica para diferentes tipos de tumores e, é classificado como carcinógeno para humanos pelo IARC. Neste estudo, o fármaco foi quantificado, após adaptação de um método analítico, utilizando a cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa com prévia extração em fase sólida e derivação com anidrido

  4. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  5. Heavy metals

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  6. Technology Transfer

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  7. b-Cyclodextrin-assisted intervalence charge transfer in mixed- valent

    Administrator

    The study of intramolecular electron transfer in redox active binuclear transition metal complexes is of great fundamental importance and is an area of contemporary research interest. Though there are many reports on the role of bridging ligands (BL) in tuning metal–metal interactions and intramolecular electron transfers in ...

  8. Technology transfer

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  9. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J.M.; Boles, Jeffrey O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Degree of sorption of eight drugs on eleven countertop surfaces was investigated. • Surface composition, volatility and solvent composition played a role in sorption. • Solvent-dependent migration was a key factor of consideration during remediation. • SPME-assisted volatility studies provided evidence for varying degrees of recovery. • Rapid three minute UPLC-QTOF method was developed to quantify the eight compounds. -- Abstract: Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity—amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine—were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman™ 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8–6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface—compound interaction, and solvent composition

  10. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J.M.; Boles, Jeffrey O., E-mail: jboles@tntech.edu

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Degree of sorption of eight drugs on eleven countertop surfaces was investigated. • Surface composition, volatility and solvent composition played a role in sorption. • Solvent-dependent migration was a key factor of consideration during remediation. • SPME-assisted volatility studies provided evidence for varying degrees of recovery. • Rapid three minute UPLC-QTOF method was developed to quantify the eight compounds. -- Abstract: Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity—amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine—were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman™ 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8–6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface—compound interaction, and solvent composition.

  11. Engineering: Liquid metal pumped at a record temperature

    Lambrinou, Konstantina

    2017-10-01

    Although liquid metals are effective fluids for heat transfer, pumping them at high temperatures is limited by their corrosiveness to solid metals. A clever pump design addresses this challenge using only ceramics. See Article p.199

  12. Electromechanical capacitor for energy transfer

    Carroll, T.A.; Chowdhuri, P.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inductive energy transfer between two magnets can be achieved with almost 100% efficiency with a transfer capacitor. However, the bulk and cost will be high, and reliability low if conventional capacitors are used. A homopolar machine, used as a capacitor, will be compact and economical. A homopolar machine was designed with counter-rotating copper disks completely immersed in a liquid metal (NaK-78) to work as a pulse capacitor. Absence of solid-brush collectors minimized wear and frictional losses. Wetting of the copper disks throughout the periphery by the liquid metal minimized the resistive losses at the collector interface. A liquid-metal collector would, however, introduce hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic losses. The selected liquid metal, e.g., NaK-78 will produce the lowest of such losses among the available liquid metals. An electromechanical capacitor of this design was tested at various dc magnetic fields. Its measured capacitance was about 100 farads at a dc magnetic field of 1.15 tesla

  13. Delaminated Transfer of CVD Graphene

    Clavijo, Alexis; Mao, Jinhai; Tilak, Nikhil; Altvater, Michael; Andrei, Eva

    Single layer graphene is commonly synthesized by dissociation of a carbonaceous gas at high temperatures in the presence of a metallic catalyst in a process known as Chemical Vapor Deposition or CVD. Although it is possible to achieve high quality graphene by CVD, the standard transfer technique of etching away the metallic catalyst is wasteful and jeopardizes the quality of the graphene film by contamination from etchants. Thus, development of a clean transfer technique and preservation of the parent substrate remain prominent hurdles to overcome. In this study, we employ a copper pretreatment technique and optimized parameters for growth of high quality single layer graphene at atmospheric pressure. We address the transfer challenge by utilizing the adhesive properties between a polymer film and graphene to achieve etchant-free transfer of graphene films from a copper substrate. Based on this concept we developed a technique for dry delamination and transferring of graphene to hexagonal boron nitride substrates, which produced high quality graphene films while at the same time preserving the integrity of the copper catalyst for reuse. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.

  14. Technology transfer

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  15. Transfer Zymography.

    Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.

  16. Heat transfer characteristics of a direct contact heat exchanger

    Kinoshita, I.; Nishi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    As a first step for development of a direct contact steam generator for FBRs, fundamental heat transfer characteristics of a liquid-liquid contact heat exchanger were evaluated by heat transfer experiment with low melting point alloy and water. Distinctive characteristics of direct contact heat transfer with liquid metal and water was obtained. (author)

  17. Understanding metals pollutions

    Bril, H.; Bollinger, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Either from natural or anthropic origin, be it normal or accidental (Tchernobyl), metallic elements are found everywhere in our environment. After a presentation of their repartition and mobility in water, sediments or soils, the mechanisms allowing their dispersion or their concentration are shown. Finally, transfers between environmental compartments are presented, before evoking the case of polluted sites: diagnostic, remediation and long-time management. (authors)

  18. Plasma methods for metals recovery from metal-containing waste.

    Changming, Du; Chao, Shang; Gong, Xiangjie; Ting, Wang; Xiange, Wei

    2018-04-27

    Metal-containing waste, a kind of new wastes, has a great potential for recycling and is also difficult to deal with. Many countries pay more and more attention to develop the metal recovery process and equipment of this kind of waste as raw material, so as to solve the environmental pollution and comprehensively utilize the discarded metal resources. Plasma processing is an efficient and environmentally friendly way for metal-containing waste. This review mainly discuss various metal-containing waste types, such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), red mud, galvanic sludge, Zircon, aluminium dross and incinerated ash, and the corresponding plasma methods, which include DC extended transferred arc plasma reactor, DC non-transferred arc plasma torch, RF thermal plasma reactor and argon and argon-hydrogen plasma jets. In addition, the plasma arc melting technology has a better purification effect on the extraction of useful metals from metal-containing wastes, a great capacity of volume reduction of waste materials, and a low leaching toxicity of solid slag, which can also be used to deal with all kinds of metal waste materials, having a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New metals

    Bergqvist, U.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this report is to estimate the exposure to various metals and metal compounds and discuss the available information of the possible toxic effects of these metals and compounds. In the first section, some metals are defined as those with either a large or a fast increasing exposure to living organisms. The available information on toxicity is discussed in the second section. In the third section interesting metals are defined as compounds having a large exposure and an apparent insufficient knowledge of their possible toxic effects. Comments on each of these metals are also to be found in the third section. (G.B.)

  20. Facilitating Transfers

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  1. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin

    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Animals Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Methods Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Results Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Conclusions and clinical importance Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. Résumé Contexte Des lingettes contenant de la chlorhexidine et des dérivésazolés ont été recommandés en médicine vétérinaire. Aucune étude n'a été publiée sur leur activité contre Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothèses/Objectifs Evaluer l'activité in vivo et in vitro de lingettes imprégnées d'une solution de chlorhexidine, climbazole et Tris

  2. Radionuclide transfer

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Sump, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties

  4. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  5. Silicone metalization

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  6. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  7. Facilitating Transfers

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  8. Multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates via laser-assisted transfer-printing process

    Park, J. B.; Yoo, J.-H.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    A laser-assisted transfer-printing process is developed for multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates using femtosecond laser scanning on a graphene/metal substrate and transfer techniques without using multi-step patterning processes

  9. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  10. Study on Writing Transmission Metal Grating with Pulse Shaping of Femtosecond Laser

    Ni, X C; Sun, Q; Wang, Ch Y; Yang, L; Wu, Y Z; Jia, W; Chai, L

    2006-01-01

    Pulse shaping in femtosecond(fs) laser micromachining is different from that of traditional laser, whose main purpose is to reduce focal scale size, wipe off fluorescence around laser beam, decrease pulse distortion, and fabricate all kinds of figures. To describe the spatial form of laser pulse around focal scale, the synchronous moving of focal objective and accepting material is presented. When a pinhole mask is placed in front of focal objective, the changing trend of laser spatial form around focal point with the laser beam diameter will be obtained by the diameter changing of the hole mask. Experimental results show that the diameter of laser pulse around focal point trends smoothly when the pinhole diameter is modulated to smaller, even the position of beam waist is changed. These phenomena can be explained by optical imaging theory. Finally, the transmission metal grating is written successfully with a selected parameter

  11. Metallic nanomesh

    Ren, Zhifeng; Sun, Tianyi; Guo, Chuanfei

    2018-02-20

    A transparent flexible nanomesh having at least one conductive element and sheet resistance less than 300.OMEGA./.quadrature. when stretched to a strain of 200% in at least one direction. The nanomesh is formed by depositing a sacrificial film, depositing, etching, and oxidizing a first metal layer on the film, etching the sacrificial film, depositing a second metal layer, and removing the first metal layer to form a nanomesh on the substrate.

  12. Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987

    Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers

  13. Bacterial contamination of fabric and metal-bead identity card lanyards: A cross-sectional study

    Thomas Pepper

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In healthcare, fabric or metal-bead lanyards are universally used for carrying identity cards. However there is little information on microbial contamination with potential pathogens that may readily re-contaminate disinfected hands. We examined 108 lanyards from hospital staff. Most grew skin flora but 7/108 (6% had potentially pathogenic bacteria: four grew methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, and four grew probable fecal flora: 3 Clostridium perfringens and 1 Clostridium bifermentans (one lanyard grew both S. aureus and C. bifermentans. Unused (control lanyards had little or no such contamination. The median duration of lanyard wear was 12 months (interquartile range 3–36 months. 17/108 (16% of the lanyards had reportedly undergone decontamination including wiping with alcohol, chlorhexidine or chlorine dioxide; and washing with soap and water or by washing machine. Metal-bead lanyards had significantly lower median bacterial counts than those from fabric lanyards (1 vs. 4 CFU/cm2; Mann–Whitney U = 300.5; P < 0.001. 12/32 (38% of the metal-bead lanyards grew no bacteria, compared with 2/76 (3% of fabric lanyards. We recommend that an effective decontamination regimen be instituted by those who use fabric lanyards, or that fabric lanyards be discarded altogether in preference for metal-bead lanyards or clip-on identity cards. Keywords: Lanyard, Contamination, Identity card, Metal, Fabric

  14. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metasurfaces

    Dai, Jin; Dyakov, Sergey A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials possess artificial bulk and surface electromagnetic states. Tamed dispersion properties of surface waves allow one to achieve a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer (RHT) process between two closely spaced objects. We numerically demonstrate enhanced RHT between two...... and highly geometrically tailorable. Our simulation also reveals thermally excited nonresonant surface waves in constituent metallic materials may play a prevailing role for RHT at an extremely small separation between two metal plates, rendering metamaterial modes insignificant for the energy-transfer...

  15. Survey on investigations on carbon chemistry and transfer in sodium

    Menken, G.; Jung, J.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor Systems at elevated temperatures requires the control of carbon impurities in sodium and of carbon transfer related to the metallic structural materials wetted by the coolant. This review is aimed at providing a brief statement of the objectives and accomplishments in some major areas of the investigations on the behaviour of carbon impurities in the heat transfer circuits of the SNR-300 reactor presently under construction at Kalkar on the Rhine

  16. Graphene transfer process and optimization of graphene coverage

    Sabki Syarifah Norfaezah; Shamsuri Shafiq Hafly; Fauzi Siti Fazlina; Chon-Ki Meghashama Lim; Othman Noraini

    2017-01-01

    Graphene grown on transition metal is known to be high in quality due to its controlled amount of defects and potentially used for many electronic applications. The transfer process of graphene grown on transition metal to a new substrate requires optimization in order to ensure that high graphene coverage can be obtained. In this work, an improvement in the graphene transfer process is performed from graphene grown on copper foil. It has been observed that the graphene coverage is affected b...

  17. Towards nanoprinting with metals on graphene

    Melinte, G.; Moldovan, S.; Hirlimann, C.; Liu, X.; Bégin-Colin, S.; Bégin, D.; Banhart, F.; Pham-Huu, C.; Ersen, O.

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes are envisaged as suitable materials for the fabrication of the new generation of nanoelectronics. The controlled patterning of such nanostructures with metal nanoparticles is conditioned by the transfer between a recipient and the surface to pattern. Electromigration under the impact of an applied voltage stands at the base of printing discrete digits at the nanoscale. Here we report the use of carbon nanotubes as nanoreservoirs for iron nanoparticles transfer on few-layer graphene. An initial Joule-induced annealing is required to ensure the control of the mass transfer with the nanotube acting as a `pen' for the writing process. By applying a voltage, the tube filled with metal nanoparticles can deposit metal on the surface of the graphene sheet at precise locations. The reverse transfer of nanoparticles from the graphene surface to the nanotube when changing the voltage polarity opens the way for error corrections.

  18. Gas-solid heat exchange in a fibrous metallic material measured by a heat regenerator technique

    Golombok, M.; Jariwala, H.; Shirvill, C.

    1990-01-01

    The convective heat transfer properties of a porous metallic fibre material used in gas surface combustion burners are studied. The important parameter governing the heat transfer between hot gas and metal fibre—the heat transfer coefficient—is measured using a non-steady-state method based on

  19. Metallic spintronic devices

    Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metallic Spintronic Devices provides a balanced view of the present state of the art of metallic spintronic devices, addressing both mainstream and emerging applications from magnetic tunneling junction sensors and spin torque oscillators to spin torque memory and logic. Featuring contributions from well-known and respected industrial and academic experts, this cutting-edge work not only presents the latest research and developments but also: Describes spintronic applications in current and future magnetic recording devicesDiscusses spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device architectures and modelingExplores prospects of STT-MRAM scaling, such as detailed multilevel cell structure analysisInvestigates spintronic device write and read optimization in light of spintronic memristive effectsConsiders spintronic research directions based on yttrium iron garnet thin films, including spin pumping, magnetic proximity, spin hall, and spin Seebeck effectsProposes unique solutions for ...

  20. Plasma metallization

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  1. Investigations to single and combined effects of organic pollutants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu) on biomass production and soil-plant transfer by cultivation of raw and energy plants. Final report; Bodenoekologische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und Verteilung von organischen Stoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) in ballungsraumtypischen Oekosystemen. Untersuchungen zu Einzel- und Kombinationswirkungen von organischen Schadstoffen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetallen (Cd, Cu) auf Biomasseertrag und Boden-Pflanze-Transfer beim Anbau von Rohstoff- und Energiepflanzen. Abschlussbericht

    Metz, R.; Dorn, J.; Sauer, W.

    1997-05-01

    Together with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals other elements and compounds as well as nutrients are present in typical contaminated areas like sewage fields. They are found as mixed undisturbed contamination and the transfer of these pollutants into food or forage plants is dangerous for people. So far investigations of ecological effects of these substances are focused mainly on single agents or on some agents of the same chemical group. But in most cases the mixture of different chemical compounds in extremely contaminated fields cause synergistic effects resulting in yield reduction and decrease of microbiological activity. Therefore the aim of the present report is to show combined effects of selected organic pollutants (benzo-a-pyren, 2,2`, 5,5` tetrachlorbiphenyl) and heavy metals (cadmium, copper) on parameters of soil biology, biomass production and pollutant uptake by plants. Resulting changes of cellulose decomposition, CO{sub 2}-release from soil and N-mineralization after separated and combined enrichment of weakly polluted sewage field soil with said pollutants up to concentrations of extremely polluted sewage field soils are presented in this paper. Data of yields and pollutant contents of plants (rye, maize and potatoes) cultivated on experimental soils are summarised and ecotoxicological risks resulting form pollutants and their interactions discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Polycyclische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, Polychlorierte Biphenyle und Schwermetalle sind zusammen mit anderen Elementen und Verbindungen u.a. auch mit Naehrstoffen als gemischte gewachsene Kontamination in ballungsraumtypischen Belastungsflaechen (z.B. Rieselfelder) vorhanden und stellen bei einem Transfer in Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen eine besondere Gefaehrdung fuer den Menschen dar. Bei Untersuchungen hinsichtlich oekosystemarer Konsequenzen dieser Substanzen wurden bisher vor allem Einzelstoffbetrachtungen angestellt bzw. mehrere

  2. Transfer and Social Practice.

    Billett, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Transfer involves disembodying knowledge and transferring it for use in different contexts. Vocational knowledge arises in communities of practice, and difficulties arise in transferring it from one distinct community, such as a workplace, to another, such as a classroom. (SK)

  3. International technology transfer

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  4. Technology transfer by multinationals

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  5. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  6. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Scheifler, R.

    2002-06-15

    Pollution of ecosystems by metallic trace elements (MTEs) and organic compounds may lead to pollutant transfer in food webs. The aim of this work was to improve the assessment of bioavailability, transfer and effects of various MTEs (mainly cadmium (Cd) but also copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and an organic pollutant, the herbicide Isoproturon. The food webs studied in this work were made up of 2 or 3 compartments among the following: soil - primary producer (lettuce Lactuca sativa, colza Brassica napus and maize Zea mays) - primary consumer (snail Helix aspersa) - secondary consumer (carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens). Three complementary approaches using food webs of increasing complexity were exploited. The first approach allowed studying pollutant bioavailability and transfers between 2 links of a food chain under controlled conditions. The isotopic dilution technique, until now only used to characterise the phyto-availability of major elements and MTEs in soils, was adjusted for the first time to an animal organism, the snail H. aspersa (assessment of zoo-availability) This work showed that snails, contrarily to plants, accessed the non-isotopically exchangeable Cd pool in soils, considered as non-bio-available by current risk assessment procedures. The study of Cd transfer from plants (B. napus contaminated by surface deposition) to the snail H. aspersa showed a high bioaccumulation of Cd in snail tissues and effects on snail growth and consumption at high concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF, herein defined as the ratio of the concentration of a pollutant in the tissues of an organism divided by the concentration of this pollutant in its food) was higher than 2. These results suggest that snails inhabiting polluted environments could represent a risk for their predators. To test this hypothesis, the transfer of Cd from contaminated snails to one of their predators, the carabid beetle C. splendens, was studied. Exposure of

  7. Charge-transfer spectra of tetravalent lanthanide ions in oxides

    Hoefdraad, H.E.

    The charge-transfer spectra of Ce4+, Pr4+ and Tb4+ in a number of oxides are reported. It is noted that the position of the first charge-transfer band is fixed for the metal ion in an oxygen coordination of VI, but varies in VIII coordination as a function of the host lattice. It is argued that this

  8. Do constructed wetlands remove metals or increase metal bioavailability?

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Mills, Gary L

    2018-07-15

    The H-02 wetland was constructed to treat building process water and storm runoff water from the Tritium Processing Facility on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC). Monthly monitoring of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations and water quality parameters in surface waters continued from 2014 to 2016. Metal speciation was modeled at each sampling occasion. Total Cu and Zn concentrations released to the effluent stream were below the NPDES limit, and the average removal efficiency was 65.9% for Cu and 71.1% for Zn. The metal-removal processes were found out to be seasonally regulated by sulfur cycling indicated by laboratory and model results. High temperature, adequate labile organic matter, and anaerobic conditions during the warm months (February to August) favored sulfate reduction that produced sulfide minerals to significantly remove metals. However, the dominant reaction in sulfur cycling shifted to sulfide oxidation during the cool months (September to next March). High concentrations of metal-organic complexes were observed, especially colloidal complexes of metal and fulvic acid (FA), demonstrating adsorption to organic matter became the primary process for metal removal. Meanwhile, the accumulation of metal-FA complexes in the wetland system will cause negative effects to the surrounding environment as they are biologically reactive, highly bioavailable, and can be easily taken up and transferred to ecosystems by trophic exchange. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  10. Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    For centuries, it had been the dream of alchemists to turn inexpensive metals into gold. Certainly, it is not enough from an alchemist's point of view to transfer only the appearance of a metal to gold. However, the possibility of rendering a certain metal to a completely different color without coating can be very interesting in its own right. In this work, we demonstrate a femtosecond laser processing technique that allows us to create a variety of colors on a metal that ultimately leads us to control its optical properties from UV to terahertz

  11. Technique for detecting liquid metal leaks

    Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In a system employing flowing liquid metal as a heat transfer medium in contact with tubular members containing a working fluid, i.e., steam, liquid metal leaks through the wall of the tubular member are detected by dislodging the liquid metal compounds forming in the tubular member at the leak locations and subsequently transporting the dislodged compound in the form of an aerosol to a detector responsive to the liquid metal compound. In the application to a sodium cooled tubular member, the detector would consist of a sodium responsive device, such as a sodium ion detector

  12. Comparison of electron transmittances and tunneling currents in an anisotropic TiNx/HfO2/SiO2/p-Si(100) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor calculated using exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and a transfer matrix method

    Noor, Fatimah A.; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Sukirno; Khairurrijal

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions of electron transmittance and tunneling current in an anisotropic TiN x /HfO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor were derived by considering the coupling of transverse and longitudinal energies of an electron. Exponential and Airy wavefunctions were utilized to obtain the electron transmittance and the electron tunneling current. A transfer matrix method, as a numerical approach, was used as a benchmark to assess the analytical approaches. It was found that there is a similarity in the transmittances calculated among exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and the TMM at low electron energies. However, for high energies, only the transmittance calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach is the same as that evaluated by the TMM. It was also found that only the tunneling currents calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach are the same as those obtained under the TMM for all range of oxide voltages. Therefore, a better analytical description for the tunneling phenomenon in the MOS capacitor is given by the Airy-wavefunction approach. Moreover, the tunneling current density decreases as the titanium concentration of the TiN x metal gate increases because the electron effective mass of TiN x decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration. In addition, the mass anisotropy cannot be neglected because the tunneling currents obtained under the isotropic and anisotropic masses are very different. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Cryogenic heat transfer

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  14. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Hegde, Ganesh, E-mail: ghegde@purdue.edu; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard, E-mail: gekco@purdue.edu [Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Boykin, Timothy [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  15. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Boykin, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales

  16. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  17. Analysis of Heat Transfer

    2003-08-01

    This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.

  18. Method of melting decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the transfer efficiency of radioactive materials into slags. Method: Contaminated metals are melt with adding slagging agent in order to transfer the radioactive materials into the slag, where the slagging agent holds less free energy than that of metal oxides contaminated with radioactive materials in order to promote the transfer of the contaminated materials into the slag layer. This effect can also be attained on metals or alloys other than iron contaminated with radioactive materials. In the case of alloy, the slagging agent is to containing such metal oxide that free energy is less than that of the oxide of metal being the main ingredient element of the alloy. The decontamination effect can further be improved by containing halogenide such as calcium fluoride together with the metal oxide into the slagging agent. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Contamination-Free Graphene Transfer from Cu-Foil and Cu-Thin-Film/Sapphire

    Jaeyeong Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The separation of graphene grown on metallic catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD is essential for device applications. The transfer techniques of graphene from metallic catalyst to target substrate usually use the chemical etching method to dissolve the metallic catalyst. However, this causes not only high material cost but also environmental contamination in large-scale fabrication. We report a bubble transfer method to transfer graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive to both the graphene and the metallic catalyst. In addition, we report a type of metallic catalyst, which is 700 nm of Cu on sapphire substrate, which is hard enough to endure against any procedure in graphene growth and transfer. With the Cr adhesion layer between sapphire and Cu film, electrochemically delaminated graphene shows great quality during several growth cycles. The electrochemical bubble transfer method can offer high cost efficiency, little contamination and environmental advantages.

  20. Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs